G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp) box polypeptide 3, X-linked
G00000919 (Mus musculus)

Databases (7)

Curated Gene
OTTHUMG00000021369 (Vega human gene)
1654 (Entrez Gene)
735 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
DDX3X (GeneCards)
300160 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:2745 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
O00571 (UniProt)

Synonyms (3)

  • DBX
  • DDX14
  • HLP2

Literature (38)

Pubmed - other

  • Human DEAD-box protein 3 has multiple functions in gene regulation and cell cycle control and is a prime target for viral manipulation.

    Schröder M

    Host-Pathogen Interaction Laboratory, National University of Ireland Maynooth, Maynooth, Co.Kildare, Ireland. martina.schroeder@nuim.ie

    The human DEAD-box RNA helicase DDX3 has been implicated to play a role in the whole repertoire of processes regulating gene expression, including transcription, splicing, mRNA export and translation. It has also been suggested to be involved in cell cycle control and the regulation of apoptosis. In addition, DDX3 was recently shown to be part of innate immune signalling pathways and to contribute to the induction of anti-viral mediators, such as type I interferon. Interestingly, DDX3 appears to be a prime target for viral manipulation: at least four different viruses, namely Hepatitis C virus (HCV), Hepatitis B virus (HBV), Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and poxviruses, encode proteins that interact with DDX3 and modulate its function. HIV and HCV seem to co-opt DDX3 and require it for their replication. It has therefore been suggested that DDX3 could be a novel target for the development of drugs against these two viruses, both of which still pose major global health threats. However, in the light of the apparent multifunctionality of DDX3 in the cell, drug development strategies targeting DDX3 will have to be carefully evaluated. This review summarises the available data on the cellular functions of DDX3 and discusses their manipulation by the different viruses known to target DDX3. Understanding the viral strategies for manipulating or co-opting DDX3 in functional and molecular detail can provide valuable insights for the development of strategies to therapeutically target DDX3.

    Biochemical pharmacology 2010;79;3;297-306

  • Requirement of cellular DDX3 for hepatitis C virus replication is unrelated to its interaction with the viral core protein.

    Angus AG, Dalrymple D, Boulant S, McGivern DR, Clayton RF, Scott MJ, Adair R, Graham S, Owsianka AM, Targett-Adams P, Li K, Wakita T, McLauchlan J, Lemon SM and Patel AH

    MRC Virology Unit, Institute of Virology, University of Glasgow, Church Street, Glasgow G11 5JR, UK.

    The cellular DEAD-box protein DDX3 was recently shown to be essential for hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication. Prior to that, we had reported that HCV core binds to DDX3 in yeast-two hybrid and transient transfection assays. Here, we confirm by co-immunoprecipitation that this interaction occurs in cells replicating the JFH1 virus. Consistent with this result, immunofluorescence staining of infected cells revealed a dramatic redistribution of cytoplasmic DDX3 by core protein to the virus assembly sites around lipid droplets. Given this close association of DDX3 with core and lipid droplets, and its involvement in virus replication, we investigated the importance of this host factor in the virus life cycle. Mutagenesis studies located a single amino acid in the N-terminal domain of JFH1 core that when changed to alanine significantly abrogated this interaction. Surprisingly, this mutation did not alter infectious virus production and RNA replication, indicating that the core-DDX3 interaction is dispensable in the HCV life cycle. Consistent with previous studies, siRNA-led knockdown of DDX3 lowered virus production and RNA replication levels of both WT JFH1 and the mutant virus unable to bind DDX3. Thus, our study shows for the first time that the requirement of DDX3 for HCV replication is unrelated to its interaction with the viral core protein.

    Funded by: Medical Research Council: MC_U130184143, MC_U130184144, MC_UU_12014/1; NIAID NIH HHS: AI069285, R01 AI069285, R56 AI069285, U19 AI040035, U19-AI40035

    The Journal of general virology 2010;91;Pt 1;122-32

  • Poxvirus K7 protein adopts a Bcl-2 fold: biochemical mapping of its interactions with human DEAD box RNA helicase DDX3.

    Kalverda AP, Thompson GS, Vogel A, Schröder M, Bowie AG, Khan AR and Homans SW

    Astbury Centre for Structural Molecular Biology, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK.

    Poxviruses have evolved numerous strategies to evade host innate immunity. Vaccinia virus K7 is a 149-residue protein with previously unknown structure that is highly conserved in the orthopoxvirus family. K7 bears sequence and functional similarities to A52, which interacts with interleukin receptor-associated kinase 2 and tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 to suppress nuclear factor kappaB activation and to stimulate the secretion of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10. In contrast to A52, K7 forms a complex with DEAD box RNA helicase DDX3, thereby suppressing DDX3-mediated ifnb promoter induction. We determined the NMR solution structure of K7 to provide insight into the structural basis for poxvirus antagonism of innate immune signaling. The structure reveals an alpha-helical fold belonging to the Bcl-2 family despite an unrelated primary sequence. NMR chemical-shift mapping studies have localized the binding surface for DDX3 on a negatively charged face of K7. Furthermore, thermodynamic studies have mapped the K7-binding region to a 30-residue N-terminal fragment of DDX3, ahead of the core RNA helicase domains.

    Journal of molecular biology 2009;385;3;843-53

  • The DEAD-box RNA helicase DDX3 associates with export messenger ribonucleoproteins as well as tip-associated protein and participates in translational control.

    Lai MC, Lee YH and Tarn WY

    Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan.

    Nuclear export of mRNA is tightly linked to transcription, nuclear mRNA processing, and subsequent maturation in the cytoplasm. Tip-associated protein (TAP) is the major nuclear mRNA export receptor, and it acts coordinately with various factors involved in mRNA expression. We screened for protein factors that associate with TAP and identified several candidates, including RNA helicase DDX3. We demonstrate that DDX3 directly interacts with TAP and that its association with TAP as well as mRNA ribonucleoprotein complexes may occur in the nucleus. Depletion of TAP resulted in nuclear accumulation of DDX3, suggesting that DDX3 is, at least in part, exported along with messenger ribonucleoproteins to the cytoplasm via the TAP-mediated pathway. Moreover, the observation that DDX3 localizes transiently in cytoplasmic stress granules under cell stress conditions suggests a role for DDX3 in translational control. Indeed, DDX3 associates with translation initiation complexes. However, DDX3 is probably not critical for general mRNA translation but may instead promote efficient translation of mRNAs containing a long or structured 5' untranslated region. Given that the DDX3 RNA helicase activity is essential for its involvement in translation, we suggest that DDX3 facilitates translation by resolving secondary structures of the 5'-untranslated region in mRNAs during ribosome scanning.

    Molecular biology of the cell 2008;19;9;3847-58

  • The DEAD-box helicase DDX3X is a critical component of the TANK-binding kinase 1-dependent innate immune response.

    Soulat D, Bürckstümmer T, Westermayer S, Goncalves A, Bauch A, Stefanovic A, Hantschel O, Bennett KL, Decker T and Superti-Furga G

    Department of Infection Biology, Max F Perutz Laboratories, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

    TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) is of central importance for the induction of type-I interferon (IFN) in response to pathogens. We identified the DEAD-box helicase DDX3X as an interaction partner of TBK1. TBK1 and DDX3X acted synergistically in their ability to stimulate the IFN promoter, whereas RNAi-mediated reduction of DDX3X expression led to an impairment of IFN production. Chromatin immunoprecipitation indicated that DDX3X is recruited to the IFN promoter upon infection with Listeria monocytogenes, suggesting a transcriptional mechanism of action. DDX3X was found to be a TBK1 substrate in vitro and in vivo. Phosphorylation-deficient mutants of DDX3X failed to synergize with TBK1 in their ability to stimulate the IFN promoter. Overall, our data imply that DDX3X is a critical effector of TBK1 that is necessary for type I IFN induction.

    Funded by: Austrian Science Fund FWF: F 2803, P 17859, P 20522

    The EMBO journal 2008;27;15;2135-46

  • Viral targeting of DEAD box protein 3 reveals its role in TBK1/IKKepsilon-mediated IRF activation.

    Schröder M, Baran M and Bowie AG

    Viral Immune Evasion Group, School of Biochemistry and Immunology, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.

    Viruses are detected by different classes of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), such as Toll-like receptors and RIG-like helicases. Engagement of PRRs leads to activation of interferon (IFN)-regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) and IRF7 through IKKepsilon and TBK1 and consequently IFN-beta induction. Vaccinia virus (VACV) encodes proteins that manipulate host signalling, sometimes by targeting uncharacterised proteins. Here, we describe a novel VACV protein, K7, which can inhibit PRR-induced IFN-beta induction by preventing TBK1/IKKepsilon-mediated IRF activation. We identified DEAD box protein 3 (DDX3) as a host target of K7. Expression of DDX3 enhanced Ifnb promoter induction by TBK1/IKKepsilon, whereas knockdown of DDX3 inhibited this, and virus- or dsRNA-induced IRF3 activation. Further, dominant-negative DDX3 inhibited virus-, dsRNA- and cytosolic DNA-stimulated Ccl5 promoter induction, which is also TBK1/IKKepsilon dependent. Both K7 binding and enhancement of Ifnb induction mapped to the N-terminus of DDX3. Furthermore, virus infection induced an association between DDX3 and IKKepsilon. Therefore, this study shows for the first time the involvement of a DEAD box helicase in TBK1/IKKepsilon-mediated IRF activation and Ifnb promoter induction.

    The EMBO journal 2008;27;15;2147-57

  • Human DDX3 functions in translation and interacts with the translation initiation factor eIF3.

    Lee CS, Dias AP, Jedrychowski M, Patel AH, Hsu JL and Reed R

    Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, 240 Longwood Ave., Boston, MA 02115, USA.

    The conserved RNA helicase DDX3 is of major medical importance due to its involvement in numerous cancers, human hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HIV. Although DDX3 has been reported to have a wide variety of cellular functions, its precise role remains obscure. Here, we raised a new antibody to DDX3 and used it to show that DDX3 is evenly distributed throughout the cytoplasm at steady state. Consistent with this observation, HA-tagged DDX3 also localizes to the cytoplasm. RNAi of DDX3 in both human and Drosophila cells shows that DDX3 is required for cell viability. Moreover, using RNAi, we show that DDX3 is required for expression of protein from reporter constructs. In contrast, we did not detect a role for DDX3 in nuclear steps in gene expression. Further insight into the function of DDX3 came from the observation that its major interaction partner is the multi-component translation initiation factor eIF3. We conclude that a primary function for DDX3 is in protein translation, via an interaction with eIF3.

    Funded by: Medical Research Council: MC_U130184144

    Nucleic acids research 2008;36;14;4708-18

  • Oncogenic role of DDX3 in breast cancer biogenesis.

    Botlagunta M, Vesuna F, Mironchik Y, Raman A, Lisok A, Winnard P, Mukadam S, Van Diest P, Chen JH, Farabaugh P, Patel AH and Raman V

    Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA.

    Benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide (BPDE), the active metabolite of benzo[a]pyrene present in tobacco smoke, is a major cancer-causing compound. To evaluate the effects of BPDE on human breast epithelial cells, we exposed an immortalized human breast cell line, MCF 10A, to BPDE and characterized the gene expression pattern. Of the differential genes expressed, we found consistent activation of DDX3, a member of the DEAD box RNA helicase family. Overexpression of DDX3 in MCF 10A cells induced an epithelial-mesenchymal-like transformation, exhibited increased motility and invasive properties, and formed colonies in soft-agar assays. Besides the altered phenotype, MCF 10A-DDX3 cells repressed E-cadherin expression as demonstrated by both immunoblots and by E-cadherin promoter-reporter assays. In addition, an in vivo association of DDX3 and the E-cadherin promoter was demonstrated by chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Collectively, these results demonstrate that the activation of DDX3 by BPDE, can promote growth, proliferation and neoplastic transformation of breast epithelial cells.

    Funded by: Medical Research Council: MC_U130184144; NCI NIH HHS: R01 CA097226

    Oncogene 2008;27;28;3912-22

  • Interaction of antiproliferative protein Tob with the CCR4-NOT deadenylase complex.

    Miyasaka T, Morita M, Ito K, Suzuki T, Fukuda H, Takeda S, Inoue J, Semba K and Yamamoto T

    Division of Oncology, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Shirokanedai Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639, Japan.

    Tob protein, when overexpressed, suppresses growth of NIH3T3 cells, presumably by regulating expression of various growth-related genes. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying Tob-mediated regulation of gene expression have been obscure. To address this issue we established stable Tob-expressing cell lines and used a proteomics approach to identify Tob-interacting proteins. We found that Tob associates with the CCR4-NOT complex. The carboxyl-terminal half of Tob interacted with Cnot1, a core protein of the CCR4-NOT complex. We further showed that the deadenylase activity associated with the complex was suppressed in vitro by Tob. These results suggest that the antiproliferative activity of Tob is shown post-transcriptionally by controlling the stability of the target mRNAs in addition to its involvement in transcriptional regulation, reported previously.

    Cancer science 2008;99;4;755-61

  • Toward a confocal subcellular atlas of the human proteome.

    Barbe L, Lundberg E, Oksvold P, Stenius A, Lewin E, Björling E, Asplund A, Pontén F, Brismar H, Uhlén M and Andersson-Svahn H

    Department of Biotechnology, AlbaNova University Center, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.

    Information on protein localization on the subcellular level is important to map and characterize the proteome and to better understand cellular functions of proteins. Here we report on a pilot study of 466 proteins in three human cell lines aimed to allow large scale confocal microscopy analysis using protein-specific antibodies. Approximately 3000 high resolution images were generated, and more than 80% of the analyzed proteins could be classified in one or multiple subcellular compartment(s). The localizations of the proteins showed, in many cases, good agreement with the Gene Ontology localization prediction model. This is the first large scale antibody-based study to localize proteins into subcellular compartments using antibodies and confocal microscopy. The results suggest that this approach might be a valuable tool in conjunction with predictive models for protein localization.

    Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 2008;7;3;499-508

  • Candidate tumor suppressor DDX3 RNA helicase specifically represses cap-dependent translation by acting as an eIF4E inhibitory protein.

    Shih JW, Tsai TY, Chao CH and Wu Lee YH

    Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Life Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China.

    DDX3 is a human RNA helicase with plethoric functions. Our previous studies have indicated that DDX3 is a transcriptional regulator and functions as a tumor suppressor. In this study, we use a bicistronic reporter to demonstrate that DDX3 specifically represses cap-dependent translation but enhances hepatitis C virus internal ribosome entry site-mediated translation in vivo in a helicase activity-independent manner. To elucidate how DDX3 modulates translation, we identified translation initiation factor eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) as a DDX3-binding partner. Interestingly, DDX3 utilizes a consensus eIF4E-binding sequence YIPPHLR to interact with the functionally important dorsal surface of eIF4E in a similar manner to other eIF4E-binding proteins. Furthermore, cap affinity chromatography analysis suggests that DDX3 traps eIF4E in a translationally inactive complex by blocking interaction with eIF4G. Point mutations within the consensus eIF4E-binding motif in DDX3 impair its ability to bind eIF4E and result in a loss of DDX3's regulatory effects on translation. All these features together indicate that DDX3 is a new member of the eIF4E inhibitory proteins involved in translation initiation regulation. Most importantly, this DDX3-mediated translation regulation also confers the tumor suppressor function on DDX3. Altogether, this study demonstrates regulatory roles and action mechanisms for DDX3 in translation, cell growth and likely viral replication.

    Oncogene 2008;27;5;700-14

  • DDX3 DEAD-box RNA helicase is required for hepatitis C virus RNA replication.

    Ariumi Y, Kuroki M, Abe K, Dansako H, Ikeda M, Wakita T and Kato N

    Department of Molecular Biology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1, Shikata-cho, Okayama 700-8558, Japan.

    DDX3, a DEAD-box RNA helicase, binds to the hepatitis C virus (HCV) core protein. However, the role(s) of DDX3 in HCV replication is still not understood. Here we demonstrate that the accumulation of both genome-length HCV RNA (HCV-O, genotype 1b) and its replicon RNA were significantly suppressed in HuH-7-derived cells expressing short hairpin RNA targeted to DDX3 by lentivirus vector transduction. As well, RNA replication of JFH1 (genotype 2a) and release of the core into the culture supernatants were suppressed in DDX3 knockdown cells after inoculation of the cell culture-generated HCVcc. Thus, DDX3 is required for HCV RNA replication.

    Journal of virology 2007;81;24;13922-6

  • Crystal structure of conserved domains 1 and 2 of the human DEAD-box helicase DDX3X in complex with the mononucleotide AMP.

    Högbom M, Collins R, van den Berg S, Jenvert RM, Karlberg T, Kotenyova T, Flores A, Karlsson Hedestam GB and Schiavone LH

    Structural Genomics Consortium, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institute, SE-171 77 Stockholm, Sweden.

    DExD-box helicases are involved in all aspects of cellular RNA metabolism. Conserved domains 1 and 2 contain nine signature motifs that are responsible for nucleotide binding, RNA binding and ATP hydrolysis. The human DEAD-box helicase DDX3X has been associated with several different cellular processes, such as cell-growth control, mRNA transport and translation, and is suggested to be essential for the export of unspliced/partially spliced HIV mRNAs from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Here, the crystal structure of conserved domains 1 and 2 of DDX3X, including a DDX3-specific insertion that is not generally found in human DExD-box helicases, is presented. The N-terminal domain 1 and the C-terminal domain 2 both display RecA-like folds comprising a central beta-sheet flanked by alpha-helices. Interestingly, the DDX3X-specific insertion forms a helical element that extends a highly positively charged sequence in a loop, thus increasing the RNA-binding surface of the protein. Surprisingly, although DDX3X was crystallized in the presence of a large excess of ADP or the slowly hydrolyzable ATP analogue ATPgammaS the contaminant AMP was seen in the structure. A fluorescent-based stability assay showed that the thermal stability of DDX3X was increased by the mononucleotide AMP but not by ADP or ATPgammaS, suggesting that DDX3X is stabilized by AMP and elucidating why AMP was found in the nucleotide-binding pocket.

    Journal of molecular biology 2007;372;1;150-9

  • Human DEAD-box ATPase DDX3 shows a relaxed nucleoside substrate specificity.

    Franca R, Belfiore A, Spadari S and Maga G

    DNA Enzymology and Molecular Virology Unit, Istituto di Genetica Molecolare IGM-CNR, via Abbiategrasso 207, 27100 Pavia, Italy.

    Human DDX3 (hDDX3) is a DEAD-box protein shown to possess RNA-unwinding and adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activities. The hDDX3 protein has been implicated in nuclear mRNA export, cell growth control, and cancer progression. In addition, a role of this protein in the replication of human immunodeficiency virus Type 1 and in the pathogenesis of hepatitis C virus has been recently proposed. Its enzymological properties, however, are largely unknown. In this work, we characterized its ATPase activity. We show that hDDX3 ATPase activity is stimulated by various ribo- and deoxynucleic acids. Comparative analysis with different nucleoside triphosphate analogs showed that the hDDX3 ATPase couples high catalytic efficiency to a rather relaxed substrate specificity, both in terms of base selection and sugar selection. In addition, its ability to recognize the L-stereoisomers of both 3' deoxy- and 2',3' dideoxy-ribose, points to a relaxed stereoselectivity. On the basis of these results, we hypothesize the presence of structural determinants on both the base and the sugar moieties, critical for nucleoside binding to the enzyme. Our results expand the knowledge about the DEAD-box RNA helicases in general and can be used for rational design of selective inhibitors of hDDX3, to be tested as potential antitumor and antiviral agents.

    Proteins 2007;67;4;1128-37

  • Large-scale mapping of human protein-protein interactions by mass spectrometry.

    Ewing RM, Chu P, Elisma F, Li H, Taylor P, Climie S, McBroom-Cerajewski L, Robinson MD, O'Connor L, Li M, Taylor R, Dharsee M, Ho Y, Heilbut A, Moore L, Zhang S, Ornatsky O, Bukhman YV, Ethier M, Sheng Y, Vasilescu J, Abu-Farha M, Lambert JP, Duewel HS, Stewart II, Kuehl B, Hogue K, Colwill K, Gladwish K, Muskat B, Kinach R, Adams SL, Moran MF, Morin GB, Topaloglou T and Figeys D

    Protana, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

    Mapping protein-protein interactions is an invaluable tool for understanding protein function. Here, we report the first large-scale study of protein-protein interactions in human cells using a mass spectrometry-based approach. The study maps protein interactions for 338 bait proteins that were selected based on known or suspected disease and functional associations. Large-scale immunoprecipitation of Flag-tagged versions of these proteins followed by LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis resulted in the identification of 24,540 potential protein interactions. False positives and redundant hits were filtered out using empirical criteria and a calculated interaction confidence score, producing a data set of 6463 interactions between 2235 distinct proteins. This data set was further cross-validated using previously published and predicted human protein interactions. In-depth mining of the data set shows that it represents a valuable source of novel protein-protein interactions with relevance to human diseases. In addition, via our preliminary analysis, we report many novel protein interactions and pathway associations.

    Molecular systems biology 2007;3;89

  • DDX3, a DEAD box RNA helicase with tumor growth-suppressive property and transcriptional regulation activity of the p21waf1/cip1 promoter, is a candidate tumor suppressor.

    Chao CH, Chen CM, Cheng PL, Shih JW, Tsou AP and Lee YH

    Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Life Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan 112, Republic of China.

    DDX3 is a DEAD box RNA helicase with diverse biological functions. Using colony formation assay, our results revealed that DDX3 inhibited the colony formation ability of various tumor cells, and this inhibition might be due to a reduced growth rate caused by DDX3. Additionally, we identified p21(waf1/cip1), a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, as a target gene of DDX3, and the up-regulation of p21(waf1/cip1) expression accounted for the colony-suppressing activity of DDX3. Moreover, DDX3 exerted its transactivation function on p21(waf1/cip1) promoter through an ATPase-dependent but helicase-independent mechanism, and the four Sp1 sites located within the -123 to -63 region, relative to the transcription start site of p21(waf1/cip1) promoter, were essential for the response to DDX3. Furthermore, DDX3 interacted and cooperated with Sp1 to up-regulate the promoter activity of p21(waf1/cip1). To determine the relevance of DDX3 in clinical cancers, the expression profile of DDX3 in various tumors was also examined. A declined expression of DDX3 mRNA and protein was found in approximately 58% to 73% of hepatoma specimens, which led to the reduction of p21(waf1/cip1) expression in a manner independent of p53 status. Additionally, an alteration of subcellular localization from nuclei to cytoplasm was also observed in >70% of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma samples. Because DDX3 exhibits tumor suppressor functions, such as a growth-suppressive property and transcriptional activation of the p21(waf1/cip1) promoter, and is inactivated through down-regulation of gene expression or alteration of subcellular localization in tumor cells, all these features together suggest that DDX3 might be a candidate tumor suppressor.

    Cancer research 2006;66;13;6579-88

  • DDX3, a DEAD box RNA helicase, is deregulated in hepatitis virus-associated hepatocellular carcinoma and is involved in cell growth control.

    Chang PC, Chi CW, Chau GY, Li FY, Tsai YH, Wu JC and Wu Lee YH

    Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China.

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the leading causes of cancer deaths worldwide and is highly correlated with hepatitis virus infection. Our previous report shows that a DEAD box RNA helicase, DDX3, is targeted and regulated by hepatitis C virus (HCV) core protein, which implicates the involvement of DDX3 in HCV-related HCC development. In this study, the potential role of DDX3 in hepatocarcinogenesis is investigated by examining its expression in surgically excised human HCC specimens. Here we report the differential deregulation of DDX3 expression in hepatitis virus-associated HCC. A significant downregulation of DDX3 expression is found in HCCs from hepatitis B virus (HBV)-positive patients, but not from HCV-positive ones, compared to the corresponding nontumor tissues. The expression of DDX3 is differentially regulated by the gender and, moreover, there is a tendency that the downregulation of DDX3 expression in HCCs is more frequent in males than in females. Genetic knockdown of DDX3 with small interfering RNAs (siRNA) in a nontransformed mouse fibroblast cell line, NIH-3T3, results in a premature entry to S phase and an enhancement of cell growth. This enhanced cell cycle progression is linked to the upregulation of cyclin D1 and the downregulation of p21(WAF1) in the DDX3 knockdown cells. In addition, constitutive reduction of DDX3 expression increases the resistance of NIH-3T3 cells to serum depletion-induced apoptosis and enhances the ras-induced anchorage-independent growth, indicating the involvement of DDX3 in cell growth control. These findings together with the previous study suggest that the deregulation of DDX3, a DEAD box RNA helicase with cell growth-regulatory functions, is involved in HBV- and HCV-associated pathogenesis.

    Oncogene 2006;25;14;1991-2003

  • Transcriptome analysis of human gastric cancer.

    Oh JH, Yang JO, Hahn Y, Kim MR, Byun SS, Jeon YJ, Kim JM, Song KS, Noh SM, Kim S, Yoo HS, Kim YS and Kim NS

    Laboratory of Human Genomics, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology (KRIBB), Daejeon , 305-333, Korea.

    To elucidate the genetic events associated with gastric cancer, 124,704 cDNA clones were collected from 37 human gastric cDNA libraries, including 20 full-length enriched cDNA libraries of gastric cancer cell lines and tissues from Korean patients. An analysis of the collected ESTs revealed that 97,930 high-quality ESTs coalesced into 13,001 clusters, of which 11,135 clusters (85.6%) were annotated to known ESTs. The analysis of the full-length cDNAs also revealed that 4862 clusters (51.7%) contained at least one putative full-length cDNA clone with an initiation codon, with the average length of the 5' UTR of 140 bp. A large number appear to have a diverse transcription start site (TSS). An examination of the TSS of some genes, such as TEGT and GAPD, using 5' RACE revealed that the predicted TSSs are actually found in human gastric cancer cells and that several TSSs differ depending on the specific gastric cell line. Furthermore, of the human gastric ESTs, 766 genes (9.5%) were present as putative alternatively spliced variants. Confirmation of the predicted spliced isoforms using RT-PCR showed that the predicted isoforms exist in gastric cancer cells and some isoforms coexist in gastric cell lines. These results provide potentially useful information for elucidating the molecular mechanisms associated with gastric oncogenesis.

    Mammalian genome : official journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society 2005;16;12;942-54

  • Roles of HIV-1 auxiliary proteins in viral pathogenesis and host-pathogen interactions.

    Li L, Li HS, Pauza CD, Bukrinsky M and Zhao RY

    Department of Pathology, Institute of Human Virology,University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA.

    Active host-pathogen interactions take place during infection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Outcomes of these interactions determine the efficiency of viral infection and subsequent disease progression. HIV-infected cells respond to viral invasion with various defensive strategies such as innate, cellular and humoral immune antiviral mechanisms. On the other hand, the virus has also developed various offensive tactics to suppress these host cellular responses. Among many of the viral offensive strategies, HIV-1 viral auxiliary proteins (Tat, Rev, Nef, Vif, Vpr and Vpu) play important roles in the host-pathogen interaction and thus have significant impacts on the outcome of HIV infection. One of the best examples is the interaction of Vif with a host cytidine deaminase APOBEC3G. Although specific roles of other auxiliary proteins are not as well described as Vif-APOBEC3G interaction, it is the goal of this brief review to summarize some of the preliminary findings with the hope to stimulate further discussion and investigation in this exhilarating area of research.

    Funded by: NIAID NIH HHS: AI33776, AI63080; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM89630

    Cell research 2005;15;11-12;923-34

  • Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network.

    Rual JF, Venkatesan K, Hao T, Hirozane-Kishikawa T, Dricot A, Li N, Berriz GF, Gibbons FD, Dreze M, Ayivi-Guedehoussou N, Klitgord N, Simon C, Boxem M, Milstein S, Rosenberg J, Goldberg DS, Zhang LV, Wong SL, Franklin G, Li S, Albala JS, Lim J, Fraughton C, Llamosas E, Cevik S, Bex C, Lamesch P, Sikorski RS, Vandenhaute J, Zoghbi HY, Smolyar A, Bosak S, Sequerra R, Doucette-Stamm L, Cusick ME, Hill DE, Roth FP and Vidal M

    Center for Cancer Systems Biology and Department of Cancer Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, 44 Binney Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    Systematic mapping of protein-protein interactions, or 'interactome' mapping, was initiated in model organisms, starting with defined biological processes and then expanding to the scale of the proteome. Although far from complete, such maps have revealed global topological and dynamic features of interactome networks that relate to known biological properties, suggesting that a human interactome map will provide insight into development and disease mechanisms at a systems level. Here we describe an initial version of a proteome-scale map of human binary protein-protein interactions. Using a stringent, high-throughput yeast two-hybrid system, we tested pairwise interactions among the products of approximately 8,100 currently available Gateway-cloned open reading frames and detected approximately 2,800 interactions. This data set, called CCSB-HI1, has a verification rate of approximately 78% as revealed by an independent co-affinity purification assay, and correlates significantly with other biological attributes. The CCSB-HI1 data set increases by approximately 70% the set of available binary interactions within the tested space and reveals more than 300 new connections to over 100 disease-associated proteins. This work represents an important step towards a systematic and comprehensive human interactome project.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R33 CA132073; NHGRI NIH HHS: P50 HG004233, R01 HG001715, RC4 HG006066, U01 HG001715; NHLBI NIH HHS: U01 HL098166

    Nature 2005;437;7062;1173-8

  • Global phosphoproteome analysis on human HepG2 hepatocytes using reversed-phase diagonal LC.

    Gevaert K, Staes A, Van Damme J, De Groot S, Hugelier K, Demol H, Martens L, Goethals M and Vandekerckhove J

    Department of Medical Protein Research, Flanders Interuniversity Institute for Biotechnology, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.

    We present a phosphoproteomics approach using diagonal RP chromatography as the basic isolation principle. Phosphopeptides present in a tryptic digest of total cellular lysates were first enriched by Fe3+-immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography. Further sorting of the phosphopeptides took place in three steps. First, the resulting peptide mixture was fractionated over reversed-phase chromatography. Second, peptides present in each fraction were treated with phosphatases. Third, the dephosphorylated peptides were then more hydrophobic and shifted towards a later elution interval from the contaminating non-phosphopeptides eluting at the same position as during the primary run. Since the phosphopeptides are isolated as their dephosphorylated form, additional proof for their original phosphorylation state was obtained by split-differential 16O-18O labeling. The method was validated with alpha-casein phosphopeptides and consecutively applied on HepG2 cells. We identified 190 phosphorylated peptides from 152 different proteins. This dataset includes 38 novel protein phosphorylation sites.

    Proteomics 2005;5;14;3589-99

  • Quantitative phosphoproteome analysis using a dendrimer conjugation chemistry and tandem mass spectrometry.

    Tao WA, Wollscheid B, O'Brien R, Eng JK, Li XJ, Bodenmiller B, Watts JD, Hood L and Aebersold R

    The Bindley Bioscience Center and Department of Biochemistry, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907, USA.

    We present a robust and general method for the identification and relative quantification of phosphorylation sites in complex protein mixtures. It is based on a new chemical derivatization strategy using a dendrimer as a soluble polymer support and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). In a single step, phosphorylated peptides are covalently conjugated to a dendrimer in a reaction catalyzed by carbodiimide and imidazole. Modified phosphopeptides are released from the dendrimer via acid hydrolysis and analyzed by MS/MS. When coupled with an initial antiphosphotyrosine protein immunoprecipitation step and stable-isotope labeling, in a single experiment, we identified all known tyrosine phosphorylation sites within the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs (ITAM) of the T-cell receptor (TCR) CD3 chains, and previously unknown phosphorylation sites on total 97 tyrosine phosphoproteins and their interacting partners in human T cells. The dynamic changes in phosphorylation were quantified in these proteins.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: N01-HV-28179

    Nature methods 2005;2;8;591-8

  • Immunoaffinity profiling of tyrosine phosphorylation in cancer cells.

    Rush J, Moritz A, Lee KA, Guo A, Goss VL, Spek EJ, Zhang H, Zha XM, Polakiewicz RD and Comb MJ

    Cell Signaling Technology Inc., 166B Cummings Center, Beverly, Massachusetts 01915, USA.

    Tyrosine kinases play a prominent role in human cancer, yet the oncogenic signaling pathways driving cell proliferation and survival have been difficult to identify, in part because of the complexity of the pathways and in part because of low cellular levels of tyrosine phosphorylation. In general, global phosphoproteomic approaches reveal small numbers of peptides containing phosphotyrosine. We have developed a strategy that emphasizes the phosphotyrosine component of the phosphoproteome and identifies large numbers of tyrosine phosphorylation sites. Peptides containing phosphotyrosine are isolated directly from protease-digested cellular protein extracts with a phosphotyrosine-specific antibody and are identified by tandem mass spectrometry. Applying this approach to several cell systems, including cancer cell lines, shows it can be used to identify activated protein kinases and their phosphorylated substrates without prior knowledge of the signaling networks that are activated, a first step in profiling normal and oncogenic signaling networks.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: 1R43CA101106

    Nature biotechnology 2005;23;1;94-101

  • Alterations in the expression of DEAD-box and other RNA binding proteins during HIV-1 replication.

    Krishnan V and Zeichner SL

    HIV and AIDS Malignancy Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Building 10, Room 10S255 MSC1868, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA. vkrishna@mail.nih.gov

    Recent results showed that certain DEAD box protein RNA helicases, DDX3 and DDX1, play an important role in the HIV infection cycle by facilitating the export of long, singly spliced or unspliced HIV RNAs from the nucleus via the CRM1-Rev pathway. Close examination of an extensive microarray expression profiling dataset obtained from cells latently infected with HIV induced to undergo lytic viral replication indicated that additional DEAD box proteins, beyond DDX3 and DDX1, exhibit differential expression during lytic HIV replication, and in latently infected cells prior to induction into active replication. This finding provides additional evidence that the involvement of DEAD box proteins and other RNA-binding proteins may play roles in active HIV replication and in the control of viral latency. Agents targeting these functions may offer new approaches to antiretroviral therapy and the therapeutic manipulation of HIV latency.

    Retrovirology 2004;1;42

  • Requirement of DDX3 DEAD box RNA helicase for HIV-1 Rev-RRE export function.

    Yedavalli VS, Neuveut C, Chi YH, Kleiman L and Jeang KT

    Molecular Virology Section, Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology, National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

    A single transcript in its unspliced and spliced forms directs the synthesis of all HIV-1 proteins. Although nuclear export of intron-containing cellular transcripts is restricted in mammalian cells, HIV-1 has evolved the viral Rev protein to overcome this restriction for viral transcripts. Previously, CRM1 was identified as a cellular cofactor for Rev-dependent export of intron-containing HIV-1 RNA. Here, we present evidence that Rev/CRM1 activity utilizes the ATP-dependent DEAD box RNA helicase, DDX3. We show that DDX3 is a nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling protein, which binds CRM1 and localizes to nuclear membrane pores. Knockdown of DDX3 using either antisense vector or dominant-negative mutants suppressed Rev-RRE-function in the export of incompletely spliced HIV-1 RNAs. Plausibly, DDX3 is the human RNA helicase which functions in the CRM1 RNA export pathway analogously to the postulated role for Dbp5p in yeast mRNA export.

    Cell 2004;119;3;381-92

  • Within you, without you: HIV-1 Rev and RNA export.

    Dayton AI

    Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, USA. dayton@cber.fda.gov

    Nucleo-cytoplasmic transport of RNA is one of many cellular pathways whose illumination has progressed hand in hand with understanding of retroviral mechanisms. A recent paper in Cell reports the involvement of an RNA helicase in the pathway by which HIV exports partially spliced and unspliced RNA out of the nucleus. This suggests the ubiquity of RNA helicases in RNA export from the nucleus, and has novel mechanistic implications.

    Retrovirology 2004;1;35

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • Identification of phosphoproteins and their phosphorylation sites in the WEHI-231 B lymphoma cell line.

    Shu H, Chen S, Bi Q, Mumby M and Brekken DL

    Protein Chemistry Laboratory, Alliance for Cellular Signaling, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390-9196, USA.

    A major goal of the Alliance for Cellular Signaling is to elaborate the components of signal transduction networks in model cell systems, including murine B lymphocytes. Due to the importance of protein phosphorylation in many aspects of cell signaling, the initial efforts have focused on the identification of phosphorylated proteins. In order to identify serine- and threonine-phosphorylated proteins on a proteome-wide basis, WEHI-231 cells were treated with calyculin A, a serine/threonine phosphatase inhibitor, to induce high levels of protein phosphorylation. Proteins were extracted from whole-cell lysates and digested with trypsin. Phosphorylated peptides were then enriched using immobilized metal affinity chromatography and identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. A total of 107 proteins and 193 phosphorylation sites were identified using these methods. Forty-two of these proteins have been reported to be phosphorylated, but only some of them have been detected in B cells. Fifty-four of the identified proteins were not previously known to be phosphorylated. The remaining 11 phosphoproteins have previously only been characterized as novel cDNA or genomic sequences. Many of the identified proteins were phosphorylated at multiple sites. The proteins identified in this study significantly expand the repertoire of proteins known to be phosphorylated in B cells. The number of newly identified phosphoproteins indicates that B cell signaling pathways utilizing protein phosphorylation are likely to be more complex than previously appreciated.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: U54 GM062114

    Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 2004;3;3;279-86

  • A physical and functional map of the human TNF-alpha/NF-kappa B signal transduction pathway.

    Bouwmeester T, Bauch A, Ruffner H, Angrand PO, Bergamini G, Croughton K, Cruciat C, Eberhard D, Gagneur J, Ghidelli S, Hopf C, Huhse B, Mangano R, Michon AM, Schirle M, Schlegl J, Schwab M, Stein MA, Bauer A, Casari G, Drewes G, Gavin AC, Jackson DB, Joberty G, Neubauer G, Rick J, Kuster B and Superti-Furga G

    Cellzome AG, Meyerhofstrasse 1, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany. tewis.bouwmeester@cellzome.com

    Signal transduction pathways are modular composites of functionally interdependent sets of proteins that act in a coordinated fashion to transform environmental information into a phenotypic response. The pro-inflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha triggers a signalling cascade, converging on the activation of the transcription factor NF-kappa B, which forms the basis for numerous physiological and pathological processes. Here we report the mapping of a protein interaction network around 32 known and candidate TNF-alpha/NF-kappa B pathway components by using an integrated approach comprising tandem affinity purification, liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, network analysis and directed functional perturbation studies using RNA interference. We identified 221 molecular associations and 80 previously unknown interactors, including 10 new functional modulators of the pathway. This systems approach provides significant insight into the logic of the TNF-alpha/NF-kappa B pathway and is generally applicable to other pathways relevant to human disease.

    Nature cell biology 2004;6;2;97-105

  • Regulation of alternative splicing by SRrp86 and its interacting proteins.

    Li J, Hawkins IC, Harvey CD, Jennings JL, Link AJ and Patton JG

    Department of Biological Sciences, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235, USA.

    SRrp86 is a unique member of the SR protein superfamily containing one RNA recognition motif and two serine-arginine (SR)-rich domains separated by an unusual glutamic acid-lysine (EK)-rich region. Previously, we showed that SRrp86 could regulate alternative splicing by both positively and negatively modulating the activity of other SR proteins and that the unique EK domain could inhibit both constitutive and alternative splicing. These functions were most consistent with the model in which SRrp86 functions by interacting with and thereby modulating the activity of target proteins. To identify the specific proteins that interact with SRrp86, we used a yeast two-hybrid library screen and immunoprecipitation coupled to mass spectrometry. We show that SRrp86 interacts with all of the core SR proteins, as well as a subset of other splicing regulatory proteins, including SAF-B, hnRNP G, YB-1, and p72. In contrast to previous results that showed activation of SRp20 by SRrp86, we now show that SAF-B, hnRNP G, and 9G8 all antagonize the activity of SRrp86. Overall, we conclude that not only does SRrp86 regulate SR protein activity but that it is, in turn, regulated by other splicing factors to control alternative splice site selection.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM62487, R01 GM062487

    Molecular and cellular biology 2003;23;21;7437-47

  • Gene structure of the human DDX3 and chromosome mapping of its related sequences.

    Kim YS, Lee SG, Park SH and Song K

    Department of Biochemistry, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

    The human DDX3 gene (GenBank accession No. U50553) is the human homologue of the mouse Ddx3 gene and is a member of the gene family that contains DEAD motifs. Previously, we mapped the gene to the Xp11.3-11.23. In this report, we describe the structural organization of the human DDX3 gene. It consisted of 17 exons that span approximately 16 kb. An Alu element was present in the intron 13. Its organization was the same as that of the human DBY gene, a closely related sequence present on the Y chromosome. We also identified two processed pseudogenes (DDX3) with a sequence that is highly homologous to those of DDX3 cDNAs, but contain a translation termination codon within its open-reading frame. Pseudogenes are mapped on human chromosomes 4 and X, respectively. In this paper, we discuss the relationships between DDX3 and its related sequences that have been isolated.

    Molecules and cells 2001;12;2;209-14

  • Systematic subcellular localization of novel proteins identified by large-scale cDNA sequencing.

    Simpson JC, Wellenreuther R, Poustka A, Pepperkok R and Wiemann S

    Department of Cell Biology and Biophysics, EMBL Heidelberg, Germany.

    As a first step towards a more comprehensive functional characterization of cDNAs than bioinformatic analysis, which can only make functional predictions for about half of the cDNAs sequenced, we have developed and tested a strategy that allows their systematic and fast subcellular localization. We have used a novel cloning technology to rapidly generate N- and C-terminal green fluorescent protein fusions of cDNAs to examine the intracellular localizations of > 100 expressed fusion proteins in living cells. The entire analysis is suitable for automation, which will be important for scaling up throughput. For > 80% of these new proteins a clear intracellular localization to known structures or organelles could be determined. For the cDNAs where bioinformatic analyses were able to predict possible identities, the localization was able to support these predictions in 75% of cases. For those cDNAs where no homologies could be predicted, the localization data represent the first information.

    EMBO reports 2000;1;3;287-92

  • An N-acetylated natural ligand of human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B39. Classical major histocompatibility complex class I proteins bind peptides with a blocked NH(2) terminus in vivo.

    Yagüe J, Alvarez I, Rognan D, Ramos M, Vázquez J and de Castro JA

    Centro de Biología Molecular Severo Ochoa, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Facultad de Ciencias, 28049 Madrid, Spain.

    Sequence-independent interactions involving the free peptidic NH(2) terminus are thought to be an essential feature of peptide binding to classical major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I proteins. Challenging this paradigm, a natural Nalpha-acetylated ligand of human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B39 was identified in this study. It matched the NH(2)-terminal sequence of two human helicases, was resistant to aminopeptidase M, and was produced with high yield from a synthetic 30 mer with the sequence of the putative parental protein by the 20S proteasome. This is the first reported natural ligand of classical MHC class I antigens that has a blocked NH(2) terminus.

    The Journal of experimental medicine 2000;191;12;2083-92

  • Hepatitis C virus core protein binds to a DEAD box RNA helicase.

    Mamiya N and Worman HJ

    Departments of Medicine and of Anatomy and Cell Biology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032, USA.

    Approximately 4 million Americans are infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV), making it a major cause of chronic liver disease. Because of the lack of an efficient cell culture system, little is known about the interaction between HCV and host cells. We performed a yeast two-hybrid screen of a human liver cell cDNA library with HCV core protein as bait and isolated the DEAD box protein DBX. DBX has significant amino acid sequence identity to mouse PL10, an ATP-dependent RNA helicase. The binding of DBX to HCV core protein occurred in an in vitro binding assay in the presence of 1 M NaCl or detergent. When expressed in mammalian cells, HCV core protein and DBX were co-localized at the endoplasmic reticulum. In a mutant strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, DBX complemented the function of Ded1p, an essential DEAD box RNA helicase. HCV core protein inhibited the growth of DBX-complemented mutant yeast but not Ded1p-expressing yeast. HCV core protein also inhibited the in vitro translation of capped but not uncapped RNA. These findings demonstrate an interaction between HCV core protein and a host cell protein involved in RNA translation and suggest a mechanism by which HCV may inhibit host cell mRNA translation.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: 5 P30 CA13696; NCRR NIH HHS: 1S10 RR10506

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1999;274;22;15751-6

  • Hepatitis C virus core protein interacts with a human DEAD box protein DDX3.

    Owsianka AM and Patel AH

    Medical Research Council Virology Unit, Church Street, Glasgow, G11 5JR, United Kingdom.

    Several studies have implicated hepatitis C virus (HCV) core in influencing the expression of host genes. To identify cellular factors with a possible role in HCV replication and pathogenesis, we looked for cellular proteins that interact with the viral core protein. A human liver cDNA library was screened in a yeast two-hybrid assay to identify cellular proteins that bind to core. Several positive clones were isolated, one of which encoded the C-terminal 253 amino acids of a putative RNA helicase, a DEAD box protein designated DDX3. Bacterially expressed glutathione-S-transferase-DDX3 fusion protein specifically pulled down in vitro translated and radiolabeled HCV core, confirming a direct interaction. Immunofluorescent staining of HeLa cells with a polyclonal antiserum showed that DDX3 is located predominantly in nuclear speckles and at low levels throughout the cytoplasm. In cells infected with a recombinant vaccinia virus expressing HCV structural proteins (core, E1, and E2), DDX3 and core colocalized in distinct spots in the perinuclear region of the cytoplasm. The regions of the proteins involved in binding were found by deletion analysis to be the N-terminal 59 amino acid residues of core and a C-terminal RS-like domain of DDX3. The human DDX3 is a putative RNA helicase and a member of a highly conserved DEAD box subclass that includes murine PL10, Xenopus An3, and yeast Ded1 proteins. Their role in RNA metabolism or gene expression is unknown. The significance of core-helicase interaction in HCV replication and pathogenesis is discussed.

    Virology 1999;257;2;330-40

  • Assignment of a human putative RNA helicase gene, DDX3, to human X chromosome bands p11.3-->p11.23.

    Park SH, Lee SG, Kim Y and Song K

    Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul Korea.

    Cytogenetics and cell genetics 1998;81;3-4;178-9

  • Functional coherence of the human Y chromosome.

    Lahn BT and Page DC

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Whitehead Institute, and Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 9 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA.

    A systematic search of the nonrecombining region of the human Y chromosome (NRY) identified 12 novel genes or families, 10 with full-length complementary DNA sequences. All 12 genes, and six of eight NRY genes or families previously isolated by less systematic means, fell into two classes. Genes in the first group were expressed in many organs; these housekeeping genes have X homologs that escape X inactivation. The second group, consisting of Y-chromosomal gene families expressed specifically in testes, may account for infertility among men with Y deletions. The coherence of the NRY's gene content contrasts with the apparently haphazard content of most eukaryotic chromosomes.

    Science (New York, N.Y.) 1997;278;5338;675-80

Gene lists (6)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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