G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
glutamate-ammonia ligase
G00000918 (Mus musculus)

Databases (8)

Curated Gene
OTTHUMG00000037407 (Vega human gene)
ENSG00000135821 (Ensembl human gene)
2752 (Entrez Gene)
130 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
GLUL (GeneCards)
138290 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:4341 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
P15104 (UniProt)

Diseases (1)

Disease Nervous effect Mutations Found Literature Mutations Type Genetic association?
D00000168: Schizophrenia (paranoid) Y Y (15642443) Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) N


  • An association study between polymorphisms in five genes in glutamate and GABA pathway and paranoid schizophrenia.

    Zhang B, Yuan Y, Jia Y, Yu X, Xu Q, Shen Y and Shen Y

    National Laboratory of Medical Molecular Biology, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, 5, Dong Dan San Tiao, Beijing 100005, China.

    Dysfunctions of glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission are two important hypotheses for the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Thus, genes in the pathway are candidates for schizophrenia susceptibility. Phosphate-activated glutaminase (GLS), glutamine synthetase (GLUL), glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), GABA transaminase (ABAT) and succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH5A1) are five primary enzymes in glutamate and GABA synthetic and degradative pathway. In order to investigate the possible involvement of these genes in the development of paranoid schizophrenia, we genotyped 80 paranoid schizophrenics from northern China and 108 matched controls by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) methods or directly sequencing of PCR product. Seven SNPs were found to be polymorphic in the population investigated. No significant differences in the genotype distributions or allele frequencies between patients and controls were found. Therefore, we conclude the polymorphisms studied in the five genes do not play major roles in pathogenesis of paranoid schizophrenia in the population investigated.

    European psychiatry : the journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists 2005;20;1;45-9

Literature (40)

Pubmed - human_disease

  • An association study between polymorphisms in five genes in glutamate and GABA pathway and paranoid schizophrenia.

    Zhang B, Yuan Y, Jia Y, Yu X, Xu Q, Shen Y and Shen Y

    National Laboratory of Medical Molecular Biology, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, 5, Dong Dan San Tiao, Beijing 100005, China.

    Dysfunctions of glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission are two important hypotheses for the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Thus, genes in the pathway are candidates for schizophrenia susceptibility. Phosphate-activated glutaminase (GLS), glutamine synthetase (GLUL), glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), GABA transaminase (ABAT) and succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH5A1) are five primary enzymes in glutamate and GABA synthetic and degradative pathway. In order to investigate the possible involvement of these genes in the development of paranoid schizophrenia, we genotyped 80 paranoid schizophrenics from northern China and 108 matched controls by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) methods or directly sequencing of PCR product. Seven SNPs were found to be polymorphic in the population investigated. No significant differences in the genotype distributions or allele frequencies between patients and controls were found. Therefore, we conclude the polymorphisms studied in the five genes do not play major roles in pathogenesis of paranoid schizophrenia in the population investigated.

    European psychiatry : the journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists 2005;20;1;45-9

Pubmed - other

  • Expression of enzymes regulating placental ammonia homeostasis in human fetal growth restricted pregnancies.

    Jozwik M, Pietrzycki B, Jozwik M and Anthony RV

    Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Biberach Teaching Hospital of Ulm University, 88400 Biberach, Germany.

    Functional placental insufficiency results in impaired feto-placental exchange, and subsequently in fetal growth restriction (FGR). We hypothesized that reductions in placental amino acid transporter activities in FGR pregnancies may be accompanied by abnormal expression of placental ammonia-handling enzymes. Term placentas were obtained from growth restricted (N=11) and normal (N=17) human pregnancies, and examined for glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), glutamine synthetase (GS) and glutaminase (GA) mRNA and protein expression. Northern and Western blots were normalized on human actin mRNA and protein expression. For GA, the presence of mRNA coding the kidney isoform, and the absence of mRNA coding the liver isoform of the enzyme were demonstrated in the human placenta. In FGR pregnancies, placental expression of GDH mRNA was reduced (P<0.05) compared to normal pregnancies (1.576+/-0.144 vs. 2.092+/-0.177, respectively; mean+/-SE), whereas GS and GA mRNA expression was not different between the two types of pregnancy. GDH protein expression were also reduced (P<0.05) in FGR placentas compared to normal placentas (1.055+/-0.079 vs. 1.322+/-0.053, respectively; mean+/-SE). The GS and GA protein expression was not different in FGR pregnancies. Our data indicate that in cases of FGR, glutamate-to-oxoglutarate transformation in the placenta is limited, yet glutamine synthesis from and decomposition to glutamate seems to be preserved. This may reflect down-regulation of GDH in response to decreased fetal liver output and reduced umbilical artery glutamate concentrations in human FGR pregnancies.

    Funded by: NICHD NIH HHS: HD43089, R01 HD043089, R01 HD043089-04

    Placenta 2009;30;7;607-12

  • Pharmacogenetics of antipsychotic response in the CATIE trial: a candidate gene analysis.

    Need AC, Keefe RS, Ge D, Grossman I, Dickson S, McEvoy JP and Goldstein DB

    Center for Human Genome Variation, Institute for Genome Sciences & Policy, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708, USA.

    The Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) Phase 1 Schizophrenia trial compared the effectiveness of one typical and four atypical antipsychotic medications. Although trials such as CATIE present important opportunities for pharmacogenetics research, the very richness of the clinical data presents challenges for statistical interpretation, and in particular the risk that data mining will lead to false-positive discoveries. For this reason, it is both misleading and unhelpful to perpetuate the current practice of reporting association results for these trials one gene at a time, ignoring the fact that multiple gene-by-phenotype tests are being carried out on the same data set. On the other hand, suggestive associations in such trials may lead to new hypotheses that can be tested through both replication efforts and biological experimentation. The appropriate handling of these forms of data therefore requires dissemination of association statistics without undue emphasis on select findings. Here we attempt to illustrate this approach by presenting association statistics for 2769 polymorphisms in 118 candidate genes evaluated for 21 pharmacogenetic phenotypes. On current evidence it is impossible to know which of these associations may be real, although in total they form a valuable resource that is immediately available to the scientific community.

    Funded by: NIMH NIH HHS: N01 MH90001

    European journal of human genetics : EJHG 2009;17;7;946-57

  • Shifted Transversal Design smart-pooling for high coverage interactome mapping.

    Xin X, Rual JF, Hirozane-Kishikawa T, Hill DE, Vidal M, Boone C and Thierry-Mieg N

    Banting and Best Department of Medical Research and Department of Molecular Genetics, Terrence Donnelly Centre for Cellular and Biomolecular Research, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E1, Canada.

    "Smart-pooling," in which test reagents are multiplexed in a highly redundant manner, is a promising strategy for achieving high efficiency, sensitivity, and specificity in systems-level projects. However, previous applications relied on low redundancy designs that do not leverage the full potential of smart-pooling, and more powerful theoretical constructions, such as the Shifted Transversal Design (STD), lack experimental validation. Here we evaluate STD smart-pooling in yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) interactome mapping. We employed two STD designs and two established methods to perform ORFeome-wide Y2H screens with 12 baits. We found that STD pooling achieves similar levels of sensitivity and specificity as one-on-one array-based Y2H, while the costs and workloads are divided by three. The screening-sequencing approach is the most cost- and labor-efficient, yet STD identifies about twofold more interactions. Screening-sequencing remains an appropriate method for quickly producing low-coverage interactomes, while STD pooling appears as the method of choice for obtaining maps with higher coverage.

    Funded by: NHGRI NIH HHS: R01 HG001715, R01-HG001715

    Genome research 2009;19;7;1262-9

  • Epilepsy in glioblastoma multiforme: correlation with glutamine synthetase levels.

    Rosati A, Marconi S, Pollo B, Tomassini A, Lovato L, Maderna E, Maier K, Schwartz A, Rizzuto N, Padovani A and Bonetti B

    Neurology Clinic, University of Brescia, Italy. anna.rosati@libero.it

    Purpose: The hypothesis addressed by this study is that a glutamine synthetase (GS) deficiency in neoplastic astrocytes is a possible molecular basis associated with seizure generation in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM).

    Methods: Quantitative Western blot analysis of GS was performed in 20 individuals operated for malignant glioma.

    Results: The levels of GS in patients with GBM and epilepsy were significantly lower (range 0.04-1.15; mean 0.35 +/- 0.36; median 0.25) than in non-epileptic GBM individuals (range 0.78-3.97; mean 1.64 +/- 0.99; median 1.25; P = 0.002). No relationship has been found between histological features (i.e. necrosis, gliosis, stroma, inflammatory cells, giant cells, and haemosiderine) and GS expression or epilepsy.

    Discussion: Even though the epileptogenesis in glioma is multifactorial, it is conceivable that a down-regulation of GS may have an important pro-epileptogenic role in GBM, through the slowing of glutamate-glutamine cycle. This study suggests that seizures in GBM are coupled with a highly localized enzyme deficiency. The manipulation of GS activity might constitute a novel principle for inhibiting seizures in patients with glioma epilepsy.

    Journal of neuro-oncology 2009;93;3;319-24

  • The application of markers (HSP70 GPC3 and GS) in liver biopsies is useful for detection of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Di Tommaso L, Destro A, Seok JY, Balladore E, Terracciano L, Sangiovanni A, Iavarone M, Colombo M, Jang JJ, Yu E, Jin SY, Morenghi E, Park YN and Roncalli M

    Department of Pathology, University of Milan School of Medicine & IRCCS Humanitas Clinical Institute, Via Manzoni 56, 20089 Rozzano, Milan, Italy.

    Liver biopsy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) detection is largely restricted to small hepatocellular lesions, which are often morphologically challenging, requiring careful distinction between dysplastic nodules (high-grade) and well-differentiated HCC.

    Methods: We investigated the diagnostic accuracy of a panel of markers (HSP70 GPC3 and GS), previously tested in resection specimens, in a series of liver biopsies of large regenerative nodules (n=13), low-grade dysplastic nodules (n=21), high-grade dysplastic nodules (n=50), very well-differentiated (VWD) (n=17), well-differentiated (WD-G1) (n=40) and G2-3 (n=35) HCC.

    Results: Almost all cases of large regenerative and low-grade dysplastic nodules did not stain while high-grade dysplastic nodules showed 1 marker (22%) but never 2 or 3. For HCC detection the overall accuracy of marker combination was 60.8% (3 markers) and 78.4% (2 markers) with 100% specificity. When restricted to VWD+WD-G1 HCC the accuracy was 57% (3 markers) and 72.9% (2 markers) with 100% specificity.

    Conclusions: This panel proved useful to detect well-differentiated HCC in biopsy. Two immunoreactive markers (out of 3) are recommended as the most valuable diagnostic combination for HCC detection. The diagnostic accuracy of the panel could be improved using additional markers, as suggested by studies of expression profiling in other human models.

    Journal of hepatology 2009;50;4;746-54

  • Association analysis of the glutamic acid decarboxylase 2 and the glutamine synthetase genes (GAD2, GLUL) with schizophrenia.

    Arai S, Shibata H, Sakai M, Ninomiya H, Iwata N, Ozaki N and Fukumaki Y

    Division of Human Molecular Genetics, Research Center for Genetic Information, Medical Institute of Bioregulation, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.

    Objective: As dysfunction of glutamatergic neurotransmission is one of the plausible hypotheses for the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, genes involved in the glutamate neurotransmitter system are candidates for schizophrenia susceptibility. The aim of this study is to clarify the contribution of two genes encoding glutamate metabolic enzymes: the glutamic acid decarboxylase 2 gene (GAD2) and the glutamine synthetase gene (GLUL), in schizophrenia.

    Methods: We genotyped 300 Japanese schizophrenia patients and 300 healthy controls for 14 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in GAD2 (approximately 91 kb in size) and six SNPs in GLUL (approximately 14 kb in size). We examined 'single-point' association as well as pairwise haplotype association for all SNPs with schizophrenia.

    Results: We observed no significant 'single-point' associations with the disease in any of the 20 SNPs after correction for multiple testing using False Discovery Rate. We also observed no significant haplotype associations with False Discovery Rate. Furthermore, we analyzed gene-gene interactions, including six glutamate receptor genes we have reported previously in the association studies of GRIA4, GRIN2D, GRIK3, GRIK4, GRIK5, and GRM3, using the multifactor dimensionality reduction method. The best interaction model, however, did not show the statistical significance.

    Conclusion: These results suggest that GAD2 and GLUL do not play a major role in schizophrenia pathogenesis and there is no gene-gene interaction between the eight genes in the Japanese population.

    Psychiatric genetics 2009;19;1;6-13

  • Keratinocytes as depository of ammonium-inducible glutamine synthetase: age- and anatomy-dependent distribution in human and rat skin.

    Danielyan L, Zellmer S, Sickinger S, Tolstonog GV, Salvetter J, Lourhmati A, Reissig DD, Gleiter CH, Gebhardt R and Buniatian GH

    Department of Clinical Pharmacology, University Hospital of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.

    In inner organs, glutamine contributes to proliferation, detoxification and establishment of a mechanical barrier, i.e., functions essential for skin, as well. However, the age-dependent and regional peculiarities of distribution of glutamine synthetase (GS), an enzyme responsible for generation of glutamine, and factors regulating its enzymatic activity in mammalian skin remain undisclosed. To explore this, GS localization was investigated using immunohistochemistry and double-labeling of young and adult human and rat skin sections as well as skin cells in culture. In human and rat skin GS was almost completely co-localized with astrocyte-specific proteins (e.g. GFAP). While GS staining was pronounced in all layers of the epidermis of young human skin, staining was reduced and more differentiated among different layers with age. In stratum basale and in stratum spinosum GS was co-localized with the adherens junction component beta-catenin. Inhibition of, glycogen synthase kinase 3beta in cultured keratinocytes and HaCaT cells, however, did not support a direct role of beta-catenin in regulation of GS. Enzymatic and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction studies revealed an unusual mode of regulation of this enzyme in keratinocytes, i.e., GS activity, but not expression, was enhanced about 8-10 fold when the cells were exposed to ammonium ions. Prominent posttranscriptional up-regulation of GS activity in keratinocytes by ammonium ions in conjunction with widespread distribution of GS immunoreactivity throughout the epidermis allows considering the skin as a large reservoir of latent GS. Such a depository of glutamine-generating enzyme seems essential for continuous renewal of epidermal permeability barrier and during pathological processes accompanied by hyperammonemia.

    PloS one 2009;4;2;e4416

  • Glutamine synthetase is essential for proliferation of fetal skin fibroblasts.

    Vermeulen T, Görg B, Vogl T, Wolf M, Varga G, Toutain A, Paul R, Schliess F, Häussinger D and Häberle J

    Universitätsklinikum Münster, Klinik und Poliklinik für Kinder- und Jugendmedizin, Albert-Schweitzer-Strasse 33, 48129 Münster, Germany.

    Background. Glutamine synthetase (GS) is ubiquitously expressed in the human and plays a major role for many metabolic pathways. However, little is known about its role during the fetal period. Methods. Cultured skin fibroblasts derived from an aborted fetus deficient in GS activity due to a R324C exchange as well as fetal and mature controls were used to determine the level of GS-expression, apoptosis, and proliferation in presence or absence of exogenous glutamine. Results. Glutamine synthetase can be found at early gestational stages. Loss of GS activity either inherited or induced through l-methionine sulfoximine leads to an upregulation of the GS protein but not of the GS mRNA and results in a significant drop in the proliferation rate but has no effect on apoptosis. Exogenous glutamine does not influence the rate of apoptosis but increases proliferation rates of the fetal but not the mature fibroblasts. Conclusion. GS can be found during early human fetal stages when it displays a significant effect on cell proliferation.

    Archives of biochemistry and biophysics 2008;478;1;96-102

  • Wnt and steroid pathways control glutamate signalling by regulating glutamine synthetase activity in osteoblastic cells.

    Olkku A and Mahonen A

    Institute of Biomedicine, Medical Biochemistry, University of Kuopio, Kuopio, Finland.

    Glutamate signalling has recently been found functional also outside the central nervous system, especially in bone. Glutamate is converted to glutamine by glutamine synthetase (GS), which is therefore able to regulate intracellular concentrations of glutamate. We previously characterized the induction of GS expression by glucocorticoids (GCs) in human osteoblast-like cells. Besides this observation, the mechanisms controlling GS in bone are unknown. Therefore, the aim of our present study was to investigate further the regulation of GS in osteoblastic cells. We observed that vitamin D inhibited basal and, even more efficiently, GC-stimulated GS activity by affecting both the mRNA and protein levels of the enzyme in human MG-63 osteoblast-like cells. In osteoblasts derived from rat bone marrow stem cells (rMSCs), GS activity was induced accordingly by the osteogenic culture conditions including GCs. Also in these primary cells, vitamin D clearly inhibited GS activity. In addition, the canonical Wnt signalling pathway was characterized as a negative regulator of GS activity. All these changes in GS activity were reflected on the intracellular glutamate concentration. Our results provide novel evidence that GS activity and expression are regulated by several different signalling pathways in osteoblastic cells. Therefore, GS is a strategic enzyme in controlling glutamate concentration in bone environment: GCs decreased the amount of this signalling molecule while vitamin D and Wnt signalling pathway increased it. Interestingly, GS activity and expression declined rapidly when the rMSC derived osteoblasts began to mineralize. Due to its downregulation during osteoblast mineralization, GS could be held as a marker for osteoblast development. Further supporting this, GS activity was stimulated and intracellular glutamate concentration maintained by the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) type glutamate receptor antagonist MK801, which inhibited osteogenic differentiation of the rMSCs. GS, a novel target for both steroidal and Wnt pathways in bone, might be a central player in the regulation of osteoblastogenesis and/or intercellular signal transmission. Therefore, the proper understanding of the interplay of these three signalling cascades, i.e., steroidal, Wnt, and glutamate signalling, gives vital information on how bone cells communicate together aiming to keep bone healthy.

    Bone 2008;43;3;483-93

  • Toward a confocal subcellular atlas of the human proteome.

    Barbe L, Lundberg E, Oksvold P, Stenius A, Lewin E, Björling E, Asplund A, Pontén F, Brismar H, Uhlén M and Andersson-Svahn H

    Department of Biotechnology, AlbaNova University Center, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.

    Information on protein localization on the subcellular level is important to map and characterize the proteome and to better understand cellular functions of proteins. Here we report on a pilot study of 466 proteins in three human cell lines aimed to allow large scale confocal microscopy analysis using protein-specific antibodies. Approximately 3000 high resolution images were generated, and more than 80% of the analyzed proteins could be classified in one or multiple subcellular compartment(s). The localizations of the proteins showed, in many cases, good agreement with the Gene Ontology localization prediction model. This is the first large scale antibody-based study to localize proteins into subcellular compartments using antibodies and confocal microscopy. The results suggest that this approach might be a valuable tool in conjunction with predictive models for protein localization.

    Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 2008;7;3;499-508

  • Crystal structures of mammalian glutamine synthetases illustrate substrate-induced conformational changes and provide opportunities for drug and herbicide design.

    Krajewski WW, Collins R, Holmberg-Schiavone L, Jones TA, Karlberg T and Mowbray SL

    Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Biomedical Center, Uppsala University, Box 596, SE-751 24 Uppsala, Sweden.

    Glutamine synthetase (GS) catalyzes the ligation of glutamate and ammonia to form glutamine, with concomitant hydrolysis of ATP. In mammals, the activity eliminates cytotoxic ammonia, at the same time converting neurotoxic glutamate to harmless glutamine; there are a number of links between changes in GS activity and neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease. In plants, because of its importance in the assimilation and re-assimilation of ammonia, the enzyme is a target of some herbicides. GS is also a central component of bacterial nitrogen metabolism and a potential drug target. Previous studies had investigated the structures of bacterial and plant GSs. In the present publication, we report the first structures of mammalian GSs. The apo form of the canine enzyme was solved by molecular replacement and refined at a resolution of 3 A. Two structures of human glutamine synthetase represent complexes with: a) phosphate, ADP, and manganese, and b) a phosphorylated form of the inhibitor methionine sulfoximine, ADP and manganese; these structures were refined to resolutions of 2.05 A and 2.6 A, respectively. Loop movements near the active site generate more closed forms of the eukaryotic enzymes when substrates are bound; the largest changes are associated with the binding of the nucleotide. Comparisons with earlier structures provide a basis for the design of drugs that are specifically directed at either human or bacterial enzymes. The site of binding the amino acid substrate is highly conserved in bacterial and eukaryotic GSs, whereas the nucleotide binding site varies to a much larger degree. Thus, the latter site offers the best target for specific drug design. Differences between mammalian and plant enzymes are much more subtle, suggesting that herbicides targeting GS must be designed with caution.

    Funded by: Wellcome Trust

    Journal of molecular biology 2008;375;1;217-28

  • Impaired E-cadherin expression and glutamine synthetase overexpression in solid pseudopapillary neoplasm of the pancreas.

    Audard V, Cavard C, Richa H, Infante M, Couvelard A, Sauvanet A, Terris B, Paye F and Flejou JF

    Institut Cochin, Université Paris Descartes, CNRS, Paris, France.

    Objectives: To analyze in solid pseudopapillary neoplasm of the pancreas (SPNP) the consequences of the deregulated Wnt pathway by studying the expression of Wnt target glutamine synthetase (GLUL), cyclin D1, and E-cadherin, which is one of the beta-catenin binding partner in cell adhesion.

    Methods: The expression of cyclin D1 and GLUL was studied at the protein and/or messenger RNA levels, and the immunolocalization for E-cadherin was analyzed in 28 SPNPs screened for beta-catenin mutations. Expression of cyclin D1, GLUL, and beta-catenin was also assessed in pancreatic endocrine tumors as controls.

    Results: Cytosolic and/or nuclear accumulation of beta-catenin was observed in all tumors; an activating beta-catenin mutation was identified in 21 (91%) of 23 tumors analyzed. E-cadherin expression is lost from the membrane and is observed in intracytosolic "dotlike" structures. Whereas cyclin D1 expression is observed widely in SPNP and endocrine tumors, GLUL expression is restricted to SPNP (100%) and rare endocrine tumors (10%) displaying Wnt activation.

    Conclusions: The activation of the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway in SPNP has 2 main consequences. First, E-cadherin expression moved from membranous to intracytoplasmic localization. Second, GLUL expression is highly correlated with Wnt/beta-catenin activation, demonstrating its faithfulness as a Wnt target gene.

    Pancreas 2008;36;1;80-3

  • Glutamine, insulin and glucocorticoids regulate glutamine synthetase expression in C2C12 myotubes, Hep G2 hepatoma cells and 3T3 L1 adipocytes.

    Wang Y and Watford M

    Department of Nutritional Sciences, Thompson Hall, Cook College, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ 08901, USA.

    The cell-specific regulation of glutamine synthetase expression was studied in three cell lines. In C2C12 myotubes, glucocorticoids increased the abundance of both glutamine synthetase protein and mRNA. Culture in the absence of glutamine also resulted in very high glutamine synthetase protein abundance but mRNA levels were unchanged. Glucocorticoids also increased the abundance of glutamine synthetase mRNA in Hep G2 hepatoma cells but this was not reflected in changes in protein abundance. Culture of Hep G2 cells without glutamine resulted in very high levels of protein, again with no change in mRNA abundance. Insulin was without effect in both C2C12 and Hep G2 cells. In 3T3 L1 adipocytes glucocorticoids increased the abundance of both glutamine synthetase mRNA and protein, insulin added alone had no effect but in the presence of glucocorticoids resulted in lower mRNA levels than seen with glucocorticoids alone, although protein levels remained high under such conditions. In contrast to the other cell lines glutamine synthetase protein levels were relatively unchanged by culture in the absence of glutamine. The results support the hypothesis that in myocytes, and hepatomas, but not in adipocytes, glutamine acts to moderate glutamine synthetase induction by glucocorticoids.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: R21 DK073515

    Biochimica et biophysica acta 2007;1770;4;594-600

  • Regulation of the mGluR5, EAAT1 and GS expression by glucocorticoids in MG-63 osteoblast-like osteosarcoma cells.

    Kalariti N, Lembessis P, Papageorgiou E, Pissimissis N and Koutsilieris M

    Department of Experimental Physiology, Medical School, University of Athens, Goudi-Athens, Greece.

    Introduction: Growth factors, cytokines, sex steroid hormones and glucocorticoids have differential and complex effects on skeletal metabolism. Recently, the presence of the glutamatergic (Glu) system in bone cells has provided new evidence for its possible role in bone physiology. Consequently, we have investigated the regulation of certain components of the Glu system by glucocorticoids in MG-63 osteoblast-like osteosarcoma cells, in vitro.

    We characterized the effects of dexamethasone on the expression of the mGluR5, EAAT1 and GS, at mRNA and protein level, using relative quantitative RTPCR and Western blot analysis, respectively.

    Results: We confirmed the induction of GS expression by dexamethasone published previously. In addition, we documented for the first time the expression of the mGluR5 and EAAT1 in MG-63 cells, as well as the ability of dexamethasone to upregulate the expression of the mGluR5 and EAAT1 in the MG-63 cells.

    Conclusions: Components of the glutamatergic system may play a role in bone pathophysiology.

    Journal of musculoskeletal & neuronal interactions 2007;7;2;113-8

  • The DNA sequence and biological annotation of human chromosome 1.

    Gregory SG, Barlow KF, McLay KE, Kaul R, Swarbreck D, Dunham A, Scott CE, Howe KL, Woodfine K, Spencer CC, Jones MC, Gillson C, Searle S, Zhou Y, Kokocinski F, McDonald L, Evans R, Phillips K, Atkinson A, Cooper R, Jones C, Hall RE, Andrews TD, Lloyd C, Ainscough R, Almeida JP, Ambrose KD, Anderson F, Andrew RW, Ashwell RI, Aubin K, Babbage AK, Bagguley CL, Bailey J, Beasley H, Bethel G, Bird CP, Bray-Allen S, Brown JY, Brown AJ, Buckley D, Burton J, Bye J, Carder C, Chapman JC, Clark SY, Clarke G, Clee C, Cobley V, Collier RE, Corby N, Coville GJ, Davies J, Deadman R, Dunn M, Earthrowl M, Ellington AG, Errington H, Frankish A, Frankland J, French L, Garner P, Garnett J, Gay L, Ghori MR, Gibson R, Gilby LM, Gillett W, Glithero RJ, Grafham DV, Griffiths C, Griffiths-Jones S, Grocock R, Hammond S, Harrison ES, Hart E, Haugen E, Heath PD, Holmes S, Holt K, Howden PJ, Hunt AR, Hunt SE, Hunter G, Isherwood J, James R, Johnson C, Johnson D, Joy A, Kay M, Kershaw JK, Kibukawa M, Kimberley AM, King A, Knights AJ, Lad H, Laird G, Lawlor S, Leongamornlert DA, Lloyd DM, Loveland J, Lovell J, Lush MJ, Lyne R, Martin S, Mashreghi-Mohammadi M, Matthews L, Matthews NS, McLaren S, Milne S, Mistry S, Moore MJ, Nickerson T, O'Dell CN, Oliver K, Palmeiri A, Palmer SA, Parker A, Patel D, Pearce AV, Peck AI, Pelan S, Phelps K, Phillimore BJ, Plumb R, Rajan J, Raymond C, Rouse G, Saenphimmachak C, Sehra HK, Sheridan E, Shownkeen R, Sims S, Skuce CD, Smith M, Steward C, Subramanian S, Sycamore N, Tracey A, Tromans A, Van Helmond Z, Wall M, Wallis JM, White S, Whitehead SL, Wilkinson JE, Willey DL, Williams H, Wilming L, Wray PW, Wu Z, Coulson A, Vaudin M, Sulston JE, Durbin R, Hubbard T, Wooster R, Dunham I, Carter NP, McVean G, Ross MT, Harrow J, Olson MV, Beck S, Rogers J, Bentley DR, Banerjee R, Bryant SP, Burford DC, Burrill WD, Clegg SM, Dhami P, Dovey O, Faulkner LM, Gribble SM, Langford CF, Pandian RD, Porter KM and Prigmore E

    The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, The Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridgeshire CB10 1SA, UK. sgregory@chg.duhs.duke.edu

    The reference sequence for each human chromosome provides the framework for understanding genome function, variation and evolution. Here we report the finished sequence and biological annotation of human chromosome 1. Chromosome 1 is gene-dense, with 3,141 genes and 991 pseudogenes, and many coding sequences overlap. Rearrangements and mutations of chromosome 1 are prevalent in cancer and many other diseases. Patterns of sequence variation reveal signals of recent selection in specific genes that may contribute to human fitness, and also in regions where no function is evident. Fine-scale recombination occurs in hotspots of varying intensity along the sequence, and is enriched near genes. These and other studies of human biology and disease encoded within chromosome 1 are made possible with the highly accurate annotated sequence, as part of the completed set of chromosome sequences that comprise the reference human genome.

    Funded by: Medical Research Council: G0000107; Wellcome Trust

    Nature 2006;441;7091;315-21

  • Increased expression and phosphorylation of liver glutamine synthetase in well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma tissues from patients infected with hepatitis C virus.

    Kuramitsu Y, Harada T, Takashima M, Yokoyama Y, Hidaka I, Iizuka N, Toda T, Fujimoto M, Zhang X, Sakaida I, Okita K, Oka M and Nakamura K

    Department of Biochemistry and Biomolecular Recognition, Yamaguchi University School of Medicine, Yamaguchi, Japan.

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common fatal cancers, and chronic infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is thought to be one of the main causes in Japan. To identify diagnostic or therapeutic biomarkers for HCC associated with HCV (HCV-HCC), we tried to elucidate the factors related to the products from cancerous tissues of HCV-infected patients. From proteomic differential display analysis of liver tissue samples from HCV-HCC cancerous tissues and corresponding non-cancerous tissues from patients, three protein spots of the same molecular mass (42 kDa), whose expression increased in well-differentiated cancerous tissues, were detected. Although their pI were different, they were identified as glutamine synthetase (GS) by PMF with MALDI-TOF MS and by Western blotting using anti-GS specific mAb. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that tumor tissue consists of two parts, GS-positive cell and GS-negative cell regions, suggesting that GS-producing cells grew in the tumor tissue as a nodule in nodules. The tryptic peptides of the most acidic GS isoform lost the signal of 899.5 Da, corresponding a peptide of SASIRIPR, and gained a signal of 1059.5 Da, which was submitted to PSD analysis. PSD analysis showed the neutral loss by elimination of two phosphate groups, supposed to be on serine residues of the 899.5-Da peptide, from serine 320 to arginine 327 in GS. PMF followed by PSD analysis is thought to be useful for the determination of phosphorylation sites of proteins showing molecular heterogeneity.

    Electrophoresis 2006;27;8;1651-8

  • p90 ribosomal S6 kinase 2 exerts a tonic brake on G protein-coupled receptor signaling.

    Sheffler DJ, Kroeze WK, Garcia BG, Deutch AY, Hufeisen SJ, Leahy P, Brüning JC and Roth BL

    Departments of Biochemistry, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA.

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are essential for normal central CNS function and represent the proximal site(s) of action for most neurotransmitters and many therapeutic drugs, including typical and atypical antipsychotic drugs. Similarly, protein kinases mediate many of the downstream actions for both ionotropic and metabotropic receptors. We report here that genetic deletion of p90 ribosomal S6 kinase 2 (RSK2) potentiates GPCR signaling. Initial studies of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)(2A) receptor signaling in fibroblasts obtained from RSK2 wild-type (+/+) and knockout (-/-) mice showed that 5-HT(2A) receptor-mediated phosphoinositide hydrolysis and both basal and 5-HT-stimulated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 phosphorylation are augmented in RSK2 knockout fibroblasts. Endogenous signaling by other GPCRs, including P2Y-purinergic, PAR-1-thrombinergic, beta1-adrenergic, and bradykinin-B receptors, was also potentiated in RSK2-deficient fibroblasts. Importantly, reintroduction of RSK2 into RSK2-/- fibroblasts normalized signaling, thus demonstrating that RSK2 apparently modulates GPCR signaling by exerting a "tonic brake" on GPCR signal transduction. Our results imply the existence of a novel pathway regulating GPCR signaling, modulated by downstream members of the extracellular signal-related kinase/mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade. The loss of RSK2 activity in humans leads to Coffin-Lowry syndrome, which is manifested by mental retardation, growth deficits, skeletal deformations, and psychosis. Because RSK2-inactivating mutations in humans lead to Coffin-Lowry syndrome, our results imply that alterations in GPCR signaling may account for some of its clinical manifestations.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: P30 CA 43703, P30 CA043703; NIMH NIH HHS: F31 MH 67435, F31 MH067435, K02 MH 01366, K02 MH001366, R01 MH 51635, R01 MH 61887, R01 MH061887

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2006;103;12;4717-22

  • Diversification of transcriptional modulation: large-scale identification and characterization of putative alternative promoters of human genes.

    Kimura K, Wakamatsu A, Suzuki Y, Ota T, Nishikawa T, Yamashita R, Yamamoto J, Sekine M, Tsuritani K, Wakaguri H, Ishii S, Sugiyama T, Saito K, Isono Y, Irie R, Kushida N, Yoneyama T, Otsuka R, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Kondo H, Wagatsuma M, Murakawa K, Ishida S, Ishibashi T, Takahashi-Fujii A, Tanase T, Nagai K, Kikuchi H, Nakai K, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Life Science Research Laboratory, Central Research Laboratory, Hitachi, Ltd., Kokubunji, Tokyo, 185-8601, Japan.

    By analyzing 1,780,295 5'-end sequences of human full-length cDNAs derived from 164 kinds of oligo-cap cDNA libraries, we identified 269,774 independent positions of transcriptional start sites (TSSs) for 14,628 human RefSeq genes. These TSSs were clustered into 30,964 clusters that were separated from each other by more than 500 bp and thus are very likely to constitute mutually distinct alternative promoters. To our surprise, at least 7674 (52%) human RefSeq genes were subject to regulation by putative alternative promoters (PAPs). On average, there were 3.1 PAPs per gene, with the composition of one CpG-island-containing promoter per 2.6 CpG-less promoters. In 17% of the PAP-containing loci, tissue-specific use of the PAPs was observed. The richest tissue sources of the tissue-specific PAPs were testis and brain. It was also intriguing that the PAP-containing promoters were enriched in the genes encoding signal transduction-related proteins and were rarer in the genes encoding extracellular proteins, possibly reflecting the varied functional requirement for and the restricted expression of those categories of genes, respectively. The patterns of the first exons were highly diverse as well. On average, there were 7.7 different splicing types of first exons per locus partly produced by the PAPs, suggesting that a wide variety of transcripts can be achieved by this mechanism. Our findings suggest that use of alternate promoters and consequent alternative use of first exons should play a pivotal role in generating the complexity required for the highly elaborated molecular systems in humans.

    Genome research 2006;16;1;55-65

  • Congenital glutamine deficiency with glutamine synthetase mutations.

    Häberle J, Görg B, Rutsch F, Schmidt E, Toutain A, Benoist JF, Gelot A, Suc AL, Höhne W, Schliess F, Häussinger D and Koch HG

    Universitätsklinikum Münster, Klinik und Poliklinik für Kinderheilkunde und Jugendmedizin, Münster, Germany.

    Glutamine synthetase plays a major role in ammonia detoxification, interorgan nitrogen flux, acid-base homeostasis, and cell signaling. We report on two unrelated newborns who had congenital human glutamine synthetase deficiency with severe brain malformations resulting in multiorgan failure and neonatal death. Glutamine was largely absent from their serum, urine, and cerebrospinal fluid. Each infant had a homozygous mutation in the glutamine synthetase gene (R324C and R341C). Studies that used immortalized lymphocytes expressing R324C glutamine synthetase (R324C-GS) and COS7 cells expressing R341C-GS suggest that these mutations are associated with reduced glutamine synthetase activity.

    The New England journal of medicine 2005;353;18;1926-33

  • Unchanged glutamine synthetase activity and increased NMDA receptor density in epileptic human neocortex: implications for the pathophysiology of epilepsy.

    Steffens M, Huppertz HJ, Zentner J, Chauzit E and Feuerstein TJ

    Sektion Klinische Neuropharmakologie, Neurozentrum, Breisacherstrasse 64, D-79106 Freiburg, Germany.

    We investigated whether alterations in glutamate metabolising glutamine synthetase activity occur in human epileptic neocortex, as shown previously for human epileptic hippocampus [Eid, T., Thomas, M.J., Spencer, D.D., Rundén-Pran, E., Lai, J.C.K., Malthankar, G.V., Kim, J.H., Danbolt, N.C., Ottersen, O.P., de Lanerolle, N.C., 2004. Loss of glutamine synthetase in the human epileptic hippocampus: possible mechanism for raised extracellular glutamate in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Lancet 363, 28-37]. Glutamine synthetase activity was equivalent in both non-epileptic and epileptic human neocortex. Epileptic tissue, however, was characterised by a 37% increase in the density of synaptosomal NMDA receptor sites compared to non-epileptic tissue, as revealed by a radioligand binding assay (B max(non-epileptic) 1.45 pmol/mg protein and B max(epileptic) 1.99 pmol/mg protein, P < 0.05). Our findings shed some doubts on a role of glutamine synthetase in the pathophysiology of epilepsy in the neocortex. However, the detection of a significantly reduced enzymatic activity in the epileptic amygdala supports the assumption that the enzyme defect is localized to the epileptic mesial temporal lobe of corresponding patients.

    Neurochemistry international 2005;47;6;379-84

  • Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network.

    Rual JF, Venkatesan K, Hao T, Hirozane-Kishikawa T, Dricot A, Li N, Berriz GF, Gibbons FD, Dreze M, Ayivi-Guedehoussou N, Klitgord N, Simon C, Boxem M, Milstein S, Rosenberg J, Goldberg DS, Zhang LV, Wong SL, Franklin G, Li S, Albala JS, Lim J, Fraughton C, Llamosas E, Cevik S, Bex C, Lamesch P, Sikorski RS, Vandenhaute J, Zoghbi HY, Smolyar A, Bosak S, Sequerra R, Doucette-Stamm L, Cusick ME, Hill DE, Roth FP and Vidal M

    Center for Cancer Systems Biology and Department of Cancer Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, 44 Binney Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    Systematic mapping of protein-protein interactions, or 'interactome' mapping, was initiated in model organisms, starting with defined biological processes and then expanding to the scale of the proteome. Although far from complete, such maps have revealed global topological and dynamic features of interactome networks that relate to known biological properties, suggesting that a human interactome map will provide insight into development and disease mechanisms at a systems level. Here we describe an initial version of a proteome-scale map of human binary protein-protein interactions. Using a stringent, high-throughput yeast two-hybrid system, we tested pairwise interactions among the products of approximately 8,100 currently available Gateway-cloned open reading frames and detected approximately 2,800 interactions. This data set, called CCSB-HI1, has a verification rate of approximately 78% as revealed by an independent co-affinity purification assay, and correlates significantly with other biological attributes. The CCSB-HI1 data set increases by approximately 70% the set of available binary interactions within the tested space and reveals more than 300 new connections to over 100 disease-associated proteins. This work represents an important step towards a systematic and comprehensive human interactome project.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R33 CA132073; NHGRI NIH HHS: P50 HG004233, R01 HG001715, RC4 HG006066, U01 HG001715; NHLBI NIH HHS: U01 HL098166

    Nature 2005;437;7062;1173-8

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • Functional proteomics mapping of a human signaling pathway.

    Colland F, Jacq X, Trouplin V, Mougin C, Groizeleau C, Hamburger A, Meil A, Wojcik J, Legrain P and Gauthier JM

    Hybrigenics SA, 75014 Paris, France. fcolland@hybrigenics.fr

    Access to the human genome facilitates extensive functional proteomics studies. Here, we present an integrated approach combining large-scale protein interaction mapping, exploration of the interaction network, and cellular functional assays performed on newly identified proteins involved in a human signaling pathway. As a proof of principle, we studied the Smad signaling system, which is regulated by members of the transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) superfamily. We used two-hybrid screening to map Smad signaling protein-protein interactions and to establish a network of 755 interactions, involving 591 proteins, 179 of which were poorly or not annotated. The exploration of such complex interaction databases is improved by the use of PIMRider, a dedicated navigation tool accessible through the Web. The biological meaning of this network is illustrated by the presence of 18 known Smad-associated proteins. Functional assays performed in mammalian cells including siRNA knock-down experiments identified eight novel proteins involved in Smad signaling, thus validating this integrated functional proteomics approach.

    Genome research 2004;14;7;1324-32

  • Proteomic identification of brain proteins that interact with dynein light chain LC8.

    Navarro-Lérida I, Martínez Moreno M, Roncal F, Gavilanes F, Albar JP and Rodríguez-Crespo I

    Departamento de Bioquímicay Biología Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain. nacho@bbml.ucm.es

    Cytoplasmic dynein is a large minus end-directed microtubule motor that translocates cargos towards the minus end of microtubules. Light chain 8 of the dynein machinery (LC8) has been reported to interact with a large variety of proteins that possess K/RSTQT or GIQVD motifs in their sequence, hence permitting their transport in a retrograde manner. Yeast two-hybrid analysis has revealed that in brain, LC8 associates directly with several proteins such as neuronal nitric oxide synthase, guanylate kinase domain-associated protein and gephyrin. In this work, we report the identification of over 40 polypeptides, by means of a proteomic approach, that interact with LC8 either directly or indirectly. Many of the neuronal proteins that we identified cluster at the post-synaptic terminal, and some of them such as phosphofructokinase, lactate dehydrogenase or aldolase are directly involved in glutamate metabolism. Other pool of proteins identified displayed the LC8 consensus binding motif. Finally, recombinant LC8 was produced and a library of overlapping dodecapeptides (pepscan) was employed to map the LC8 binding site of some of the proteins that were previously identified using the proteomic approach, hence confirming binding to the consensus binding sites.

    Proteomics 2004;4;2;339-46

  • Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.

    Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, Otsuki T, Sugiyama T, Irie R, Wakamatsu A, Hayashi K, Sato H, Nagai K, Kimura K, Makita H, Sekine M, Obayashi M, Nishi T, Shibahara T, Tanaka T, Ishii S, Yamamoto J, Saito K, Kawai Y, Isono Y, Nakamura Y, Nagahari K, Murakami K, Yasuda T, Iwayanagi T, Wagatsuma M, Shiratori A, Sudo H, Hosoiri T, Kaku Y, Kodaira H, Kondo H, Sugawara M, Takahashi M, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Furuya T, Kikkawa E, Omura Y, Abe K, Kamihara K, Katsuta N, Sato K, Tanikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ninomiya K, Ishibashi T, Yamashita H, Murakawa K, Fujimori K, Tanai H, Kimata M, Watanabe M, Hiraoka S, Chiba Y, Ishida S, Ono Y, Takiguchi S, Watanabe S, Yosida M, Hotuta T, Kusano J, Kanehori K, Takahashi-Fujii A, Hara H, Tanase TO, Nomura Y, Togiya S, Komai F, Hara R, Takeuchi K, Arita M, Imose N, Musashino K, Yuuki H, Oshima A, Sasaki N, Aotsuka S, Yoshikawa Y, Matsunawa H, Ichihara T, Shiohata N, Sano S, Moriya S, Momiyama H, Satoh N, Takami S, Terashima Y, Suzuki O, Nakagawa S, Senoh A, Mizoguchi H, Goto Y, Shimizu F, Wakebe H, Hishigaki H, Watanabe T, Sugiyama A, Takemoto M, Kawakami B, Yamazaki M, Watanabe K, Kumagai A, Itakura S, Fukuzumi Y, Fujimori Y, Komiyama M, Tashiro H, Tanigami A, Fujiwara T, Ono T, Yamada K, Fujii Y, Ozaki K, Hirao M, Ohmori Y, Kawabata A, Hikiji T, Kobatake N, Inagaki H, Ikema Y, Okamoto S, Okitani R, Kawakami T, Noguchi S, Itoh T, Shigeta K, Senba T, Matsumura K, Nakajima Y, Mizuno T, Morinaga M, Sasaki M, Togashi T, Oyama M, Hata H, Watanabe M, Komatsu T, Mizushima-Sugano J, Satoh T, Shirai Y, Takahashi Y, Nakagawa K, Okumura K, Nagase T, Nomura N, Kikuchi H, Masuho Y, Yamashita R, Nakai K, Yada T, Nakamura Y, Ohara O, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Helix Research Institute, 1532-3 Yana, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0812, Japan.

    As a base for human transcriptome and functional genomics, we created the "full-length long Japan" (FLJ) collection of sequenced human cDNAs. We determined the entire sequence of 21,243 selected clones and found that 14,490 cDNAs (10,897 clusters) were unique to the FLJ collection. About half of them (5,416) seemed to be protein-coding. Of those, 1,999 clusters had not been predicted by computational methods. The distribution of GC content of nonpredicted cDNAs had a peak at approximately 58% compared with a peak at approximately 42%for predicted cDNAs. Thus, there seems to be a slight bias against GC-rich transcripts in current gene prediction procedures. The rest of the cDNAs unique to the FLJ collection (5,481) contained no obvious open reading frames (ORFs) and thus are candidate noncoding RNAs. About one-fourth of them (1,378) showed a clear pattern of splicing. The distribution of GC content of noncoding cDNAs was narrow and had a peak at approximately 42%, relatively low compared with that of protein-coding cDNAs.

    Nature genetics 2004;36;1;40-5

  • Proteomic identification of oxidatively modified proteins in Alzheimer's disease brain. Part I: creatine kinase BB, glutamine synthase, and ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase L-1.

    Castegna A, Aksenov M, Aksenova M, Thongboonkerd V, Klein JB, Pierce WM, Booze R, Markesbery WR and Butterfield DA

    Department of Chemistry, Center of Membrane Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington 40506-0055, USA.

    Oxidative alterations of proteins by reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in the progression of aging and age-related neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Protein carbonyls, a marker of protein oxidation, are increased in AD brain, indicating that oxidative modification of proteins is relevant in AD. Oxidative damage can lead to several events such as loss in specific protein function, abnormal protein clearance, depletion of the cellular redox-balance and interference with the cell cycle, and, ultimately, to neuronal death. Identification of specific targets of protein oxidation represents a crucial step in establishing a relationship between oxidative modification and neuronal death in AD, and was partially achieved previously in our laboratory through immunochemical detection of creatine kinase BB and beta-actin as specifically oxidized proteins in AD brain versus control brain. However, this process is laborious, requires the availability of specific antibodies, and, most importantly, requires a reasonable guess as to the identity of the protein in the first place. In this study, we present the first proteomics approach to identify specifically oxidized proteins in AD, by coupling 2D fingerprinting with immunological detection of carbonyls and identification of proteins by mass spectrometry. The powerful techniques, emerging from application of proteomics to neurodegenerative disease, reveal the presence of specific targets of protein oxidation in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain: creatine kinase BB, glutamine synthase, and ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase L-1. These results are discussed with reference to potential involvement of these oxidatively modified proteins in neurodegeneration in AD brain. Proteomics offers a rapid means of identifying oxidatively modified proteins in aging and age-related neurodegenerative disorders without the limitations of the immunochemical detection method.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: R01 HL66358-01; NIA NIH HHS: 5 P30 AG-05144, AG-05119, AG-10836, AG-12423

    Free radical biology & medicine 2002;33;4;562-71

  • Expression of glutamine synthetase in macrophages.

    Bode JG, Peters-Regehr T, Kubitz R and Häussinger D

    Medizinische Universitätsklinik, Klinik für Gastroenterologie, Hepatologie und Infektiologie, Heinrich-Heine Universität, Düsseldorf, Germany.

    We studied the expression of glutamine synthetase in liver macrophages (Kupffer cells, KCs) in situ and in culture. Glutamine synthetase was detectable at the mRNA and protein level in freshly isolated and short-term-cultured rat liver macrophages. Enzyme activity and protein content were about 9% of that in liver parenchymal cells. In contrast, glutamine synthetase mRNA levels in liver macrophages apparently exceeded those in parenchymal liver cells (PCs). By use of confocal laser scanning microscopy and specific macrophage markers, immunoreactive glutamine synthetase was localized to macrophages in normal rat liver and normal human liver in situ. All liver macrophages stained positive for glutamine synthetase. In addition, macrophages in rat pancreas contained immunoreactive glutamine synthetase, whereas glutamine synthetase was not detectable at the mRNA and protein level in blood monocytes and RAW 264.7 mouse macrophages. No significant amounts of glutamine synthetase were found in isolated rat liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (SECs). The data suggest a constitutive expression of glutamine synthetase not only, as previously believed, in perivenous liver parenchymal cells but also in resident liver macrophages.

    The journal of histochemistry and cytochemistry : official journal of the Histochemistry Society 2000;48;3;415-22

  • Glutamine synthetase in cerebrospinal fluid, serum, and brain: a diagnostic marker for Alzheimer disease?

    Tumani H, Shen G, Peter JB and Brück W

    Department of Neurology, University of Göttingen, Germany. hayrettin.tumani@medizin.uni-ulm.de

    Objectives: To determine whether the glutamine synthetase (GS) level in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a useful biochemical marker in the diagnosis of Alzheimer disease (AD), and to assess the source of GS (brain vs. blood derived) in CSF.

    Methods: Sandwich enzyme immunoassay and immunoblotting were applied to detect GS in CSF and in serum from neurologically healthy control subjects and patients with neurodegenerative diseases, including AD. The origin of GS was estimated by the concentration gradients of CSF to serum and ventricular to lumbar CSF. In addition, postmortem brain tissue from controls and patients with AD was analyzed using immunohistochemistry for expression of GS.

    Results: Levels of GS were significantly increased in lumbar CSF from patients with AD (20+/-12 pg/mL; P = .01) and to a lesser extent in patients with vascular dementia and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. In CSF of controls, GS levels were 4+/-3 pg/mL. The GS concentration gradients were less than 1:10 for CSF to serum and 2:1 for ventricular to lumbar CSF. Immunoreactivity of GS was most prominent in astrocytes from temporal neocortex of patients with AD, suggesting a relationship between astrocyte reactions and increased GS levels in CSF.

    Conclusions: Level of GS in lumbar CSF of patients with AD is increased significantly but nonspecifically, probably related to the strong astrogliosis in brain. Glutamine synthetase in lumbar CSF is mainly brain derived.

    Archives of neurology 1999;56;10;1241-6

  • Establishment of human adult astrocyte cultures derived from postmortem multiple sclerosis and control brain and spinal cord regions: immunophenotypical and functional characterization.

    De Groot CJ, Langeveld CH, Jongenelen CA, Montagne L, Van Der Valk P and Dijkstra CD

    Graduate School Neurosciences Amsterdam, Department of Pathology, Free University Academic Hospital, The Netherlands. cja.degroot@azvu.nl

    We have successfully established highly enriched astrocyte cultures upon passaging of primary cultures derived from various regions of postmortem human adult brain and spinal cord. Tissues were collected at autopsies with relatively short postmortem times (3-9 hr) from multiple sclerosis (MS) and (normal) control cases. Immunocytochemical analysis showed that primary cultures were composed of colonies of oligoclonal cells that expressed the intermediate filament proteins glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), vimentin, as well as glutamine synthetase (GS). Passaging the astrocytes did not affect their proliferating capacity as monitored by bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation. Astrocyte-specific markers were stably expressed for at least 12 passages per individual tissue sample. Large numbers of GFAP-positive astrocytes were obtained from each sample and could be stored frozen and recultured. Very few macrophages/microglial cells (1-3%) were present in the human adult astrocyte cultures, using a panel of macrophage-specific markers. However, the monoclonal antibodies (mAbs KP1, EBM1, 25F9) and lysozyme antiserum directed against lysosomal antigens strongly immunostained cultured astrocytes derived from MS and control cases, implicating that expression of these lysosomal antigens is not restricted to macrophages/ microglial cells in human glial cell cultures. Interestingly, astrocytes derived from active demyelinated MS lesions showed an increased proliferating capacity compared to astrocytes derived from non-lesioned and normal brain and spinal cord regions, as shown with a microculture tetrazolium assay (MTT assay).

    Journal of neuroscience research 1997;49;3;342-54

  • The use of glutamine in the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders in man.

    Elia M and Lunn PG

    Dunn Clinical Nutrition Centre, Cambridge, UK.

    The human gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is a major site of glutamine utilisation accounting for more than half of the net splanchnic utilisation (approximately 15 g/day) of glutamine obtained from the systemic circulation. Dietary glutamine (approximately 5 g/day) is less important than circulating glutamine, especially in disease conditions associated with substantial reduction in food intake. Glutamine has multiple effects on the structure and function of the GIT, and effects in improving morbidity and mortality in animal models of GIT damage has led to a series of studies in man, which have produced variable results. Glutamine administration to treat mucositis of the upper GIT (mouth, oesophagus) due to cytotoxic drug therapy, has produced no evidence of benefit. Early studies suggested improved healing, as do recent studies of small intestinal mucositis resulting from chemotherapy. Investigations in colitis are lacking although in experimental rat models of colitis no benefit has been reported. Multiple explanations can be put forward to explain the overall results, including the GIT distribution of enzymes involved in glutamine metabolism. Apart from the lower stomach in man (upper stomach in the rat) there is very little weak activity of glutamine synthetase, suggesting that the gut derives glutamine formed in other tissues and from the diet. The activity of glutaminase, which is key flux generating enzyme involved in glutaminolysis is very weak in mucosa with stratified squamous epithelium (oesophagus), where intermediate in the same intestine, and highest in the small intestinal mucosa which accounts for about 80% of the total glutaminase in the entire human GIT mucosa.

    Nutrition (Burbank, Los Angeles County, Calif.) 1997;13;7-8;743-7

  • FISH mapping of three ammonia metabolism genes (Glul, Cps1, Glud1) in rat, and the chromosomal localization of GLUL in human and Cps1 in mouse.

    Helou K, Das AT, Lamers WH, Hoovers JM, Szpirer C, Szpirer J, Klinga-Levan K and Levan G

    Department of Genetics, Göteborg University Medicinareg. 9C, S-413 90 Göteborg, Sweden.

    Mammalian genome : official journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society 1997;8;5;362-4

  • Localization of the L-glutamine synthetase gene to chromosome 1q23.

    Clancy KP, Berger R, Cox M, Bleskan J, Walton KA, Hart I and Patterson D

    The Eleanor Roosevelt Institute for Cancer Research, Denver, Colorado 80206, USA. clancy@eri.uchsc.edu

    Glutamine synthetase (E.C. is expressed throughout the body and plays an important role in controlling body pH and in removing ammonia from the circulation. The enzyme clears L-glutamate, the major neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, from neuronal synapses. The enzyme is a very sensitive marker of many disease and aging processes, especially those involving reactive oxygen species. This report describes the localization of the enzyme to chromosome 1 by PCR analysis of a human/rodent somatic cell hybrid panel. We also describe the localization of a recently described pseudogene to chromosome 9. Further localization of the glutamine synthetase gene locus to 1q23 was accomplished by fluorescence in situ hybridization. The glutamine synthetase gene was mapped to five CEPH megaYACs between the polymorphic PCR markers D1S117 and D1S466 by analysis of the Whitehead Institute's recently described chromosome 1 contig map.

    Funded by: NIA NIH HHS: AG00029; PHS HHS: 1 F32 A605666-01

    Genomics 1996;38;3;418-20

  • Chromosomal mapping of a family of human glutamine synthetase genes: functional gene (GLUL) on 1q25, pseudogene (GLULP) on 9p13, and three related genes (GLULL1, GLULL2, GLULL3) on 5q33, 11p15, and 11q24.

    Wang Y, Kudoh J, Kubota R, Asakawa S, Minoshima S and Shimizu N

    Department of Molecular Biology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

    Glutamine synthetase (GS) is a ubiquitous enzyme that catalyzes the ATP-dependent conversion of glutamate to glutamine using ammonia as the nitrogen source. Using human GS cDNA as a probe, a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library consisting of two-fold coverage of the human genome was screened, and 18 clones were obtained. The restriction analysis of the human insert DNAs provided a basis to divide these 18 BAC clones into five groups, suggesting the existence of a GS gene family in the human genome. PCR analysis using three sets of primers designed from the reported sequences for GS cDNA and a processed pseudogene identified the corresponding BAC clones. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis revealed the chromosomal localization of these five genes: the GS gene to 1q25 (GLUL), the processed pseudogene to 9p13 (GLULP), and three related gene to 5q33 (GLULL1), 11p15 (GLULL2), and 11q24 (GLULL3), respectively.

    Genomics 1996;37;2;195-9

  • Identification of genes differentially expressed in normal lung and non-small cell lung carcinoma tissue.

    Schraml P, Shipman R, Colombi M and Ludwig CU

    Kantonsspital Basel, Zentrum für Lehre und Forschung, Switzerland.

    Using a magnet-assisted subtraction technique, 17 complementary DNA (cDNA) clones were isolated that were expressed in the normal lung but were decreased or lost in the corresponding tumor tissue of a nonsmall cell lung carcinoma patient. The lack of expression of six magnet-assisted subtraction technique cDNA clones in three additional non-small cell lung carcinoma cases indicates their possible relevance for non-small cell lung carcinoma. Two cDNA clones revealed homology to genes specifically expressed in lung, i.e., pulmonary surfactant-associated protein B and the receptor for advanced glycosylation end products of proteins. Three cDNA clones showed identity to cDNA sequences encoding calmodulin-like protein, glutamine synthetase, and cytoskeletal beta-actin. One cDNA clone is identical to a recently described human expressed sequence tag whose gene is still unknown.

    Cancer research 1994;54;19;5236-40

  • Overexpression of glutamine synthetase in human primary liver cancer.

    Christa L, Simon MT, Flinois JP, Gebhardt R, Brechot C and Lasserre C

    Institut de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale U370, CHU Necker, Paris, France.

    We have identified several clones specifically expressed during malignant cell proliferation by screening a complementary DNA library constructed from a human primary liver cancer with subtractive probes. One clone was identified as the glutamine synthetase (GS) transcript. Its expression is tightly regulated during development, especially in the hepatic lobule. Because this enzyme is involved in nitrogen homeostasis, it might contribute to tumor development/progression in primary liver cancer.

    Methods: We compared the expression of GS messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein in tumorous and nontumorous liver from 34 patients with primary liver cancers, using a combination of Northern blot, dot blot, western blot, and determination of GS enzyme activity.

    Results: GS mRNA was higher in tumors versus nontumors in 23 of 34 primary liver cancer samples. GS activity was higher in 6 of 8 selected primary liver cancer samples with high RNA levels. GS protein levels were proportional to enzyme activity. A major GS transcript of 2.8 kilobase was detected by Northern blotting and sequencing. This comprised the minor 1.8-kb transcript and a long 3' untranslated region; the latter contained an AT-rich zone, fully conserved in the chicken, mouse, and rat, which might be important for stability.

    Conclusions: Our results show an overexpression of GS in human primary liver cancers and, thus, point to its potential involvement in hepatocyte transformation.

    Gastroenterology 1994;106;5;1312-20

  • cDNA sequence of the long mRNA for human glutamine synthase.

    Van den Hoff MJ, Geerts WJ, Das AT, Moorman AF and Lamers WH

    Department of Anatomy and Embryology, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

    Screening a human liver cDNA library in lambda ZAP revealed several clones for the mRNA of glutamine synthase. The longest clone was completely sequenced and consists of a 109 bp 5' untranslated region, a 1119 bp protein coding region, a 1498 bp 3' untranslated region and a poly(A) tract of 12 bp.

    Biochimica et biophysica acta 1991;1090;2;249-51

  • Sequence of a human glutamine synthetase cDNA.

    Gibbs CS, Campbell KE and Wilson RH

    Nucleic acids research 1987;15;15;6293

  • Preferential degradation of the oxidatively modified form of glutamine synthetase by intracellular mammalian proteases.

    Rivett AJ

    Four intracellular proteases partially purified from liver preferentially degraded the oxidatively modified (catalytically inactive) form of glutamine synthetase. One of the proteases was cathepsin D which is of lysosomal origin; the other three proteases were present in the cytosol. Two of these were calcium-dependent proteases with different calcium requirements. The low-calcium-requiring type (calpain I) accounted for most of the calcium-dependent activity of both mouse and rat liver. The calcium-independent cytosolic protease, referred to as the alkaline protease, has a molecular weight of 300,000 determined by gel filtration. Native glutamine synthetase was not significantly degraded by the cytosolic proteases at physiological pH, but oxidative modification of the enzyme caused a dramatic increase in its susceptibility to attack by these proteases. In contrast, trypsin and papain did degrade the native enzyme and the degradation of modified glutamine synthetase was only 2- to 4-fold more rapid. Adenylylation of glutamine synthetase had little effect on its susceptibility to proteolysis. Although major structural modifications such as dissociation, relaxation, and denaturation also increased the rate of degradation, the oxidative modification is a specific type of covalent modification which could occur in vivo. Oxidative modification can be catalyzed by a variety of mixed function oxidase systems present within cells and causes inactivation of a number of enzymes. Moreover, the presence of cytosolic proteases which recognize the oxidized form of glutamine synthetase suggests that oxidative modification may be involved in intracellular protein turnover.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1985;260;1;300-5

Gene lists (10)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000011 G2C Homo sapiens Human clathrin Human orthologues of mouse clathrin coated vesicle genes adapted from Collins et al (2006) 150
L00000012 G2C Homo sapiens Human Synaptosome Human orthologues of mouse synaptosome adapted from Collins et al (2006) 152
L00000015 G2C Homo sapiens Human NRC Human orthologues of mouse NRC adapted from Collins et al (2006) 186
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000049 G2C Homo sapiens TAP-PSD-95-CORE TAP-PSD-95 pull-down core list (ortho) 120
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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