G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
G00002166
Gene symbol
ALDOA (HGNC)
Species
Homo sapiens
Description
aldolase A, fructose-bisphosphate
Orthologue
G00000917 (Mus musculus)

Databases (8)

Curated Gene
OTTHUMG00000132107 (Vega human gene)
Gene
ENSG00000149925 (Ensembl human gene)
226 (Entrez Gene)
719 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
ALDOA (GeneCards)
Literature
103850 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:414 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
P04075 (UniProt)

Literature (57)

Pubmed - other

  • The Kruppel-like zinc finger protein ZNF224 recruits the arginine methyltransferase PRMT5 on the transcriptional repressor complex of the aldolase A gene.

    Cesaro E, De Cegli R, Medugno L, Florio F, Grosso M, Lupo A, Izzo P and Costanzo P

    Dipartimento di Biochimica e Biotecnologie Mediche, Università di Napoli Federico II, Via S. Pansini 5, Napoli 80131, Italy.

    Gene transcription in eukaryotes is modulated by the coordinated recruitment of specific transcription factors and chromatin-modulating proteins. Indeed, gene activation and/or repression is/are regulated by histone methylation status at specific arginine or lysine residues. In this work, by co-immunoprecipitation experiments, we demonstrate that PRMT5, a type II protein arginine methyltransferase that monomethylates and symmetrically dimethylates arginine residues, is physically associated with the Kruppel-like associated box-zinc finger protein ZNF224, the aldolase A gene repressor. Moreover, chromatin immunoprecipitation assays show that PRMT5 is recruited to the L-type aldolase A promoter and that methylation of the nucleosomes that surround the L-type promoter region occurs in vivo on the arginine 3 of histone H4. Consistent with its association to the ZNF224 repressor complex, the decrease of PRMT5 expression produced by RNA interference positively affects L-type aldolase A promoter transcription. Finally, the alternating occupancy of the L-type aldolase A promoter by the ZNF224-PRMT5 repression complex in proliferating and growth-arrested cells suggests that these regulatory proteins play a significant role during the cell cycle modulation of human aldolase A gene expression. Our data represent the first experimental evidence that protein arginine methylation plays a role in ZNF224-mediated transcriptional repression and provide novel insight into the chromatin modifications required for repression of gene transcription by Kruppel-like associated box-zinc finger proteins.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2009;284;47;32321-30

  • Defining the human deubiquitinating enzyme interaction landscape.

    Sowa ME, Bennett EJ, Gygi SP and Harper JW

    Department of Pathology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

    Deubiquitinating enzymes (Dubs) function to remove covalently attached ubiquitin from proteins, thereby controlling substrate activity and/or abundance. For most Dubs, their functions, targets, and regulation are poorly understood. To systematically investigate Dub function, we initiated a global proteomic analysis of Dubs and their associated protein complexes. This was accomplished through the development of a software platform called CompPASS, which uses unbiased metrics to assign confidence measurements to interactions from parallel nonreciprocal proteomic data sets. We identified 774 candidate interacting proteins associated with 75 Dubs. Using Gene Ontology, interactome topology classification, subcellular localization, and functional studies, we link Dubs to diverse processes, including protein turnover, transcription, RNA processing, DNA damage, and endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation. This work provides the first glimpse into the Dub interaction landscape, places previously unstudied Dubs within putative biological pathways, and identifies previously unknown interactions and protein complexes involved in this increasingly important arm of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway.

    Funded by: NIA NIH HHS: AG085011, R01 AG011085, R01 AG011085-16; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM054137, GM67945, R01 GM054137, R01 GM054137-14, R01 GM067945

    Cell 2009;138;2;389-403

  • Association and mutation analyses of 16p11.2 autism candidate genes.

    Kumar RA, Marshall CR, Badner JA, Babatz TD, Mukamel Z, Aldinger KA, Sudi J, Brune CW, Goh G, Karamohamed S, Sutcliffe JS, Cook EH, Geschwind DH, Dobyns WB, Scherer SW and Christian SL

    Department of Human Genetics, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

    Background: Autism is a complex childhood neurodevelopmental disorder with a strong genetic basis. Microdeletion or duplication of a approximately 500-700-kb genomic rearrangement on 16p11.2 that contains 24 genes represents the second most frequent chromosomal disorder associated with autism. The role of common and rare 16p11.2 sequence variants in autism etiology is unknown.

    To identify common 16p11.2 variants with a potential role in autism, we performed association studies using existing data generated from three microarray platforms: Affymetrix 5.0 (777 families), Illumina 550 K (943 families), and Affymetrix 500 K (60 families). No common variants were identified that were significantly associated with autism. To look for rare variants, we performed resequencing of coding and promoter regions for eight candidate genes selected based on their known expression patterns and functions. In total, we identified 26 novel variants in autism: 13 exonic (nine non-synonymous, three synonymous, and one untranslated region) and 13 promoter variants. We found a significant association between autism and a coding variant in the seizure-related gene SEZ6L2 (12/1106 autism vs. 3/1161 controls; p = 0.018). Sez6l2 expression in mouse embryos was restricted to the spinal cord and brain. SEZ6L2 expression in human fetal brain was highest in post-mitotic cortical layers, hippocampus, amygdala, and thalamus. Association analysis of SEZ6L2 in an independent sample set failed to replicate our initial findings.

    We have identified sequence variation in at least one candidate gene in 16p11.2 that may represent a novel genetic risk factor for autism. However, further studies are required to substantiate these preliminary findings.

    Funded by: Autism Speaks: AS1583; NIMH NIH HHS: MH081754, MH60233, MH64547, R01 MH060233, R01 MH064547, R01 MH081754, R37 MH060233, R56 MH060233; NINDS NIH HHS: 1R01 NS51812, R01 NS051812

    PloS one 2009;4;2;e4582

  • Evolutionary conserved N-terminal region of human muscle fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase regulates its activity and the interaction with aldolase.

    Gizak A, Maciaszczyk E, Dzugaj A, Eschrich K and Rakus D

    Department of Animal Physiology, Institute of Zoology, Wroclaw University, Wroclaw, Poland.

    N-terminal residues of muscle fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase) are highly conserved among vertebrates. In this article, we present evidence that the conservation is responsible for the unique properties of the muscle FBPase isozyme: high sensitivity to AMP and Ca(2+) inhibition and the high affinity to muscle aldolase, which is a factor desensitizing muscle FBPase toward AMP and Ca(2+). The first N-terminal residue affecting the affinity of muscle FBPase to aldolase is arginine 3. On the other hand, the first residue significantly influencing the kinetics of muscle FBPase is proline 5. Truncation from 5-7 N-terminal residues of the enzyme not only decreases its affinity to aldolase but also reduces its k-(cat) and activation by Mg(2+), and desensitizes FBPase to inhibition by AMP and calcium ions. Deletion of the first 10 amino acids of muscle FBPase abolishes cooperativity of Mg(2+) activation and results in biphasic inhibition of the enzyme by AMP. Moreover, this truncation lowers affinity of muscle FBPase to aldolase about 14 times, making it resemble the liver isozyme. We suggest that the existence of highly AMP-sensitive muscle-like FBPase, activity of which is regulated by metabolite-dependent interaction with aldolase enables the precise regulation of muscle energy expenditures and might contributed to the evolutionary success of vertebrates.

    Proteins 2008;72;1;209-16

  • Involvement of aldolase A in X-ray resistance of human HeLa and UV(r)-1 cells.

    Lu J, Suzuki T, Satoh M, Chen S, Tomonaga T, Nomura F and Suzuki N

    Department of Environmental Biochemistry, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Inohana 1-8-1, Chuo-ku, Chiba 260-8670, Japan.

    To find novel proteins involved in radio-resistance of human cells, we searched for nuclear proteins, whose expression levels alter after X-ray irradiation in HeLa cells, using agarose fluorescent two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis following mass spectrometry. We identified 6 proteins, whose levels were increased in nuclei 24h after irradiation at 5Gy, including aldolase A. Nuclear aldolase A levels increased twofold after the irradiation, however, total aldolase A levels did not change. When the expression of aldolase A was suppressed by its specific siRNA, sensitization of the suppressed cells to X-ray-induced cell death was observed. In addition, UV(r)-1 cells with higher aldolase A expression exhibited lower sensitivity to X-ray-induced cell death than the parental RSa cells with lower aldolase A expression. These results suggest that aldolase A may play a role in the radio-response of human cells, probably in nuclei, in addition to its glycolytic role in the cytosol.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2008;369;3;948-52

  • VDAC2 and aldolase A identified as membrane proteins of K562 cells with increased expression under iron deprivation.

    Valis K, Neubauerova J, Man P, Pompach P, Vohradsky J and Kovar J

    Department of Cell Signalling and Apoptosis, Institute of Molecular Genetics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Videnska 1083, 14220 Prague 4, Czech Republic.

    We have shown previously that iron deprivation significantly stimulates the uptake of non-transferrin ferric iron from ferric citrate by erythroleukemia K562 cells and that this stimulation depends on protein synthesis. However, we have not detected increased expression of any known iron transport protein (Kovar J. et al. (2006) Blood Cells Mol Dis 37:95-99). Therefore, in order to identify membrane proteins of K562 cells with increased expression under iron deprivation, we employed the isolation of membrane proteins by two-phase partitioning system, protein separation by high-resolution 2D electrophoresis, computer differential analysis, and tandem mass spectrometry. Employing these techniques we identified two proteins with statistically significant upregulation, i.e., aldolase A (ALDA) and voltage-dependent anion channel 2 (VDAC2). The upregulation of aldolase A and VDAC2 in K562 cells under iron deprivation was also confirmed by western blot analysis. This is the first time when the control of aldolase A and VDAC2 levels by iron status of the cell is demonstrated.

    Molecular and cellular biochemistry 2008;311;1-2;225-31

  • Toward a confocal subcellular atlas of the human proteome.

    Barbe L, Lundberg E, Oksvold P, Stenius A, Lewin E, Björling E, Asplund A, Pontén F, Brismar H, Uhlén M and Andersson-Svahn H

    Department of Biotechnology, AlbaNova University Center, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.

    Information on protein localization on the subcellular level is important to map and characterize the proteome and to better understand cellular functions of proteins. Here we report on a pilot study of 466 proteins in three human cell lines aimed to allow large scale confocal microscopy analysis using protein-specific antibodies. Approximately 3000 high resolution images were generated, and more than 80% of the analyzed proteins could be classified in one or multiple subcellular compartment(s). The localizations of the proteins showed, in many cases, good agreement with the Gene Ontology localization prediction model. This is the first large scale antibody-based study to localize proteins into subcellular compartments using antibodies and confocal microscopy. The results suggest that this approach might be a valuable tool in conjunction with predictive models for protein localization.

    Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 2008;7;3;499-508

  • Exosomes with immune modulatory features are present in human breast milk.

    Admyre C, Johansson SM, Qazi KR, Filén JJ, Lahesmaa R, Norman M, Neve EP, Scheynius A and Gabrielsson S

    Department of Medicine, Clinical Allergy Research Unit, Karolinska Institutet and University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden. Charlotte.Admyre@ki.se

    Breast milk is a complex liquid with immune-competent cells and soluble proteins that provide immunity to the infant and affect the maturation of the infant's immune system. Exosomes are nanovesicles (30-100 nm) with an endosome-derived limiting membrane secreted by a diverse range of cell types. Because exosomes carry immunorelevant structures, they are suggested to participate in directing the immune response. We hypothesized that human breast milk contain exosomes, which may be important for the development of the infant's immune system. We isolated vesicles from the human colostrum and mature breast milk by ultracentrifugations and/or immuno-isolation on paramagnetic beads. We found that the vesicles displayed a typical exosome-like size and morphology as analyzed by electron microscopy. Furthermore, they floated at a density between 1.10 and 1.18 g/ml in a sucrose gradient, corresponding to the known density of exosomes. In addition, MHC classes I and II, CD63, CD81, and CD86 were detected on the vesicles by flow cytometry. Western blot and mass spectrometry further confirmed the presence of several exosome-associated molecules. Functional analysis revealed that the vesicle preparation inhibited anti-CD3-induced IL-2 and IFN-gamma production from allogeneic and autologous PBMC. In addition, an increased number of Foxp3(+)CD4(+)CD25(+) T regulatory cells were observed in PBMC incubated with milk vesicle preparations. We conclude that human breast milk contains exosomes with the capacity to influence immune responses.

    Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 2007;179;3;1969-78

  • A hydrophobic pocket in the active site of glycolytic aldolase mediates interactions with Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein.

    St-Jean M, Izard T and Sygusch J

    Department of Biochemistry, University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

    Aldolase plays essential catalytic roles in glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. However, aldolase is a highly abundant protein that is remarkably promiscuous in its interactions with other cellular proteins. In particular, aldolase binds to highly acidic amino acid sequences, including the C terminus of the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein, an actin nucleation-promoting factor. Here we report the crystal structure of tetrameric rabbit muscle aldolase in complex with a C-terminal peptide of Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein. Aldolase recognizes a short, four-residue DEWD motif (residues 498-501), which adopts a loose hairpin turn that folds around the central aromatic residue, enabling its tryptophan side chain to fit into a hydrophobic pocket in the active site of aldolase. The flanking acidic residues in this binding motif provide further interactions with conserved aldolase active site residues Arg-42 and Arg-303, aligning their side chains and forming the sides of the hydrophobic pocket. The binding of Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein to aldolase precludes intramolecular interactions of its C terminus with its active site and is competitive with substrate as well as with binding by actin and cortactin. Finally, based on this structure, a novel naphthol phosphate-based inhibitor of aldolase was identified, and its structure in complex with aldolase demonstrated mimicry of the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein-aldolase interaction. The data support a model whereby aldolase exists in distinct forms that regulate glycolysis or actin dynamics.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM071596

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2007;282;19;14309-15

  • Global, in vivo, and site-specific phosphorylation dynamics in signaling networks.

    Olsen JV, Blagoev B, Gnad F, Macek B, Kumar C, Mortensen P and Mann M

    Center for Experimental BioInformatics, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5230 Odense, Denmark.

    Cell signaling mechanisms often transmit information via posttranslational protein modifications, most importantly reversible protein phosphorylation. Here we develop and apply a general mass spectrometric technology for identification and quantitation of phosphorylation sites as a function of stimulus, time, and subcellular location. We have detected 6,600 phosphorylation sites on 2,244 proteins and have determined their temporal dynamics after stimulating HeLa cells with epidermal growth factor (EGF) and recorded them in the Phosida database. Fourteen percent of phosphorylation sites are modulated at least 2-fold by EGF, and these were classified by their temporal profiles. Surprisingly, a majority of proteins contain multiple phosphorylation sites showing different kinetics, suggesting that they serve as platforms for integrating signals. In addition to protein kinase cascades, the targets of reversible phosphorylation include ubiquitin ligases, guanine nucleotide exchange factors, and at least 46 different transcriptional regulators. The dynamic phosphoproteome provides a missing link in a global, integrative view of cellular regulation.

    Cell 2006;127;3;635-48

  • Substrate and functional diversity of lysine acetylation revealed by a proteomics survey.

    Kim SC, Sprung R, Chen Y, Xu Y, Ball H, Pei J, Cheng T, Kho Y, Xiao H, Xiao L, Grishin NV, White M, Yang XJ and Zhao Y

    Department of Biochemistry, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390, USA.

    Acetylation of proteins on lysine residues is a dynamic posttranslational modification that is known to play a key role in regulating transcription and other DNA-dependent nuclear processes. However, the extent of this modification in diverse cellular proteins remains largely unknown, presenting a major bottleneck for lysine-acetylation biology. Here we report the first proteomic survey of this modification, identifying 388 acetylation sites in 195 proteins among proteins derived from HeLa cells and mouse liver mitochondria. In addition to regulators of chromatin-based cellular processes, nonnuclear localized proteins with diverse functions were identified. Most strikingly, acetyllysine was found in more than 20% of mitochondrial proteins, including many longevity regulators and metabolism enzymes. Our study reveals previously unappreciated roles for lysine acetylation in the regulation of diverse cellular pathways outside of the nucleus. The combined data sets offer a rich source for further characterization of the contribution of this modification to cellular physiology and human diseases.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA107943

    Molecular cell 2006;23;4;607-18

  • The identification of myocilin-associated proteins in the human trabecular meshwork.

    Fautsch MP, Vrabel AM and Johnson DH

    Department of Ophthalmology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN 55905, USA. fautsch.michael@mayo.edu

    Myocilin forms high molecular weight complexes in vivo presumably due to interaction with itself and other myocilin binding proteins. To identify myocilin interacting proteins, yeast 2-hybrid analysis was performed on >1x10(6) human trabecular meshwork cDNA clones. Coimmunoprecipitation and Far Western analysis were also performed on cell lysates obtained from fresh human trabecular meshworks or cultured human monolayer trabecular cell lines. Among the different methods, 46 candidate myocilin-associated proteins were identified, including molecules associated with the extracellular matrix, cytoskeleton, signaling, and metabolism. The most consistent interaction was myocilin-myocilin binding. Yeast-2 hybrid and Far Western analysis also found an association between myocilin and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). None of the other candidate myocilin interacting proteins were identified in more than one method. Characterization of these potential interacting proteins may help to better understand the function of myocilin in the trabecular meshwork and aqueous outflow pathway.

    Funded by: NEI NIH HHS: EY 07065

    Experimental eye research 2006;82;6;1046-52

  • Diversification of transcriptional modulation: large-scale identification and characterization of putative alternative promoters of human genes.

    Kimura K, Wakamatsu A, Suzuki Y, Ota T, Nishikawa T, Yamashita R, Yamamoto J, Sekine M, Tsuritani K, Wakaguri H, Ishii S, Sugiyama T, Saito K, Isono Y, Irie R, Kushida N, Yoneyama T, Otsuka R, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Kondo H, Wagatsuma M, Murakawa K, Ishida S, Ishibashi T, Takahashi-Fujii A, Tanase T, Nagai K, Kikuchi H, Nakai K, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Life Science Research Laboratory, Central Research Laboratory, Hitachi, Ltd., Kokubunji, Tokyo, 185-8601, Japan.

    By analyzing 1,780,295 5'-end sequences of human full-length cDNAs derived from 164 kinds of oligo-cap cDNA libraries, we identified 269,774 independent positions of transcriptional start sites (TSSs) for 14,628 human RefSeq genes. These TSSs were clustered into 30,964 clusters that were separated from each other by more than 500 bp and thus are very likely to constitute mutually distinct alternative promoters. To our surprise, at least 7674 (52%) human RefSeq genes were subject to regulation by putative alternative promoters (PAPs). On average, there were 3.1 PAPs per gene, with the composition of one CpG-island-containing promoter per 2.6 CpG-less promoters. In 17% of the PAP-containing loci, tissue-specific use of the PAPs was observed. The richest tissue sources of the tissue-specific PAPs were testis and brain. It was also intriguing that the PAP-containing promoters were enriched in the genes encoding signal transduction-related proteins and were rarer in the genes encoding extracellular proteins, possibly reflecting the varied functional requirement for and the restricted expression of those categories of genes, respectively. The patterns of the first exons were highly diverse as well. On average, there were 7.7 different splicing types of first exons per locus partly produced by the PAPs, suggesting that a wide variety of transcripts can be achieved by this mechanism. Our findings suggest that use of alternate promoters and consequent alternative use of first exons should play a pivotal role in generating the complexity required for the highly elaborated molecular systems in humans.

    Genome research 2006;16;1;55-65

  • Proteomic analysis of SUMO4 substrates in HEK293 cells under serum starvation-induced stress.

    Guo D, Han J, Adam BL, Colburn NH, Wang MH, Dong Z, Eizirik DL, She JX and Wang CY

    Center for Biotechnology and Genomic Medicine, Medical College of Georgia, 1120 15th Street, CA4098, Augusta, GA 30912, USA.

    The substrates of SUMO4, a novel member for the SUMO gene family, were characterized in HEK293 cells cultured under serum starvation by proteomic analysis. We identified 90 SUMO4 substrates including anti-stress proteins such as antioxidant enzymes and molecular chaperones or co-chaperones. The substrates also include proteins involved in the regulation of DNA repair and synthesis, RNA processing, protein degradation, and glucose metabolism. Several SUMO4-associated transcription factors were characterized by Western blot analyses. AP-1 was selected for in vitro conjugation assays to confirm SUMO4 sumoylation of these transcription factors. Further functional analyses of the transcription factors suggested that SUMO4 sumoylation represses AP-1 and AP-2alpha transcriptional activity, but enhances GR DNA binding capacity. These results demonstrate that SUMO4 sumoylation may play an important role in the regulation of intracellular stress.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2005;337;4;1308-18

  • Global phosphoproteome analysis on human HepG2 hepatocytes using reversed-phase diagonal LC.

    Gevaert K, Staes A, Van Damme J, De Groot S, Hugelier K, Demol H, Martens L, Goethals M and Vandekerckhove J

    Department of Medical Protein Research, Flanders Interuniversity Institute for Biotechnology, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.

    We present a phosphoproteomics approach using diagonal RP chromatography as the basic isolation principle. Phosphopeptides present in a tryptic digest of total cellular lysates were first enriched by Fe3+-immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography. Further sorting of the phosphopeptides took place in three steps. First, the resulting peptide mixture was fractionated over reversed-phase chromatography. Second, peptides present in each fraction were treated with phosphatases. Third, the dephosphorylated peptides were then more hydrophobic and shifted towards a later elution interval from the contaminating non-phosphopeptides eluting at the same position as during the primary run. Since the phosphopeptides are isolated as their dephosphorylated form, additional proof for their original phosphorylation state was obtained by split-differential 16O-18O labeling. The method was validated with alpha-casein phosphopeptides and consecutively applied on HepG2 cells. We identified 190 phosphorylated peptides from 152 different proteins. This dataset includes 38 novel protein phosphorylation sites.

    Proteomics 2005;5;14;3589-99

  • Protein profiling of human pancreatic islets by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry.

    Ahmed M, Forsberg J and Bergsten P

    Department of Medical Cell Biology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden. meftun.khandker@drl.ox.ac.uk

    Completion of the human genome sequence has provided scientists with powerful resources with which to explore the molecular events associated with disease states such as diabetes. Understanding the relative levels of expression of gene products, especially of proteins, and their post-translational modifications will be critical. However, though the pancreatic islets play a key role in glucose homeostasis, global protein expression data in human are decidedly lacking. We here report the two-dimensional protein map and database of human pancreatic islets. A high level of reproducibility was obtained among the gels and a total of 744 protein spots were detected. We have successfully identified 130 spots corresponding to 66 different protein entries and generated a reference map of human islets. The functionally characterized proteins include enzymes, chaperones, cellular structural proteins, cellular defense proteins, signaling molecules, and transport proteins. A number of proteins identified in this study (e.g., annexin A2, elongation factor 1-alpha 2, histone H2B.a/g/k, heat shock protein 90 beta, heat shock 27 kDa protein, cyclophilin B, peroxiredoxin 4, cytokeratins 7, 18, and 19) have not been previously described in the database of mouse pancreatic islets. In addition, altered expression of several proteins, like GRP78, GRP94, PDI, calreticulin, annexin, cytokeratins, profilin, heat shock proteins, and ORP150 have been associated with the development of diabetes. The data presented in this study provides a first-draft reference map of the human islet proteome, that will pave the way for further proteome analysis of pancreatic islets in both healthy and diabetic individuals, generating insights into the pathophysiology of this condition.

    Journal of proteome research 2005;4;3;931-40

  • Immunoaffinity profiling of tyrosine phosphorylation in cancer cells.

    Rush J, Moritz A, Lee KA, Guo A, Goss VL, Spek EJ, Zhang H, Zha XM, Polakiewicz RD and Comb MJ

    Cell Signaling Technology Inc., 166B Cummings Center, Beverly, Massachusetts 01915, USA.

    Tyrosine kinases play a prominent role in human cancer, yet the oncogenic signaling pathways driving cell proliferation and survival have been difficult to identify, in part because of the complexity of the pathways and in part because of low cellular levels of tyrosine phosphorylation. In general, global phosphoproteomic approaches reveal small numbers of peptides containing phosphotyrosine. We have developed a strategy that emphasizes the phosphotyrosine component of the phosphoproteome and identifies large numbers of tyrosine phosphorylation sites. Peptides containing phosphotyrosine are isolated directly from protease-digested cellular protein extracts with a phosphotyrosine-specific antibody and are identified by tandem mass spectrometry. Applying this approach to several cell systems, including cancer cell lines, shows it can be used to identify activated protein kinases and their phosphorylated substrates without prior knowledge of the signaling networks that are activated, a first step in profiling normal and oncogenic signaling networks.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: 1R43CA101106

    Nature biotechnology 2005;23;1;94-101

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • A protein interaction framework for human mRNA degradation.

    Lehner B and Sanderson CM

    MRC Rosalind Franklin Centre for Genomics Research, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SB, United Kingdom.

    The degradation of mRNA is an important regulatory step in the control of gene expression. However, mammalian RNA decay pathways remain poorly characterized. To provide a framework for studying mammalian RNA decay, a two-hybrid protein interaction map was generated using 54 constructs from 38 human proteins predicted to function in mRNA decay. The results provide evidence for interactions between many different proteins required for mRNA decay. Of particular interest are interactions between the poly(A) ribonuclease and the exosome and between the Lsm complex, decapping factors, and 5'-->3' exonucleases. Moreover, multiple interactions connect 5'-->3' and 3'-->5' decay proteins to each other and to nonsense-mediated decay factors, providing the opportunity for coordination between decay pathways. The interaction network also predicts the internal organization of the exosome and Lsm complexes. Additional interactions connect mRNA decay factors to many novel proteins and to proteins required for other steps in gene expression. These results provide an experimental insight into the organization of proteins required for mRNA decay and their coupling to other cellular processes, and the physiological relevance of many of these interactions are supported by their evolutionary conservation. The interactions also provide a wealth of hypotheses to guide future research on mRNA degradation and demonstrate the power of exhaustive protein interaction mapping in aiding understanding of uncharacterized protein complexes and pathways.

    Genome research 2004;14;7;1315-23

  • Human aldolase A natural mutants: relationship between flexibility of the C-terminal region and enzyme function.

    Esposito G, Vitagliano L, Costanzo P, Borrelli L, Barone R, Pavone L, Izzo P, Zagari A and Salvatore F

    Dipartimento di Biochimica e Biotecnologie Mediche, Università di Napoli Federico II, Via S. Pansini 5, I-80131 Napoli, Italy.

    We have identified a new mutation in the FBP (fructose 1,6-bisphosphate) aldolase A gene in a child with suspected haemolytic anaemia associated with myopathic symptoms at birth and with a subsequent diagnosis of arthrogryposis multiplex congenita and pituitary ectopia. Sequence analysis of the whole gene, also performed on the patient's full-length cDNA, revealed only a Gly346-->Ser substitution in the heterozygous state. We expressed in a bacterial system the new aldolase A Gly346-->Ser mutant, and the Glu206-->Lys mutant identified by others, in a patient with an aldolase A deficit. Analysis of their functional profiles showed that the Gly346Ser mutant had the same Km as the wild-type enzyme, but a 4-fold lower kcat. The Glu206-->Lys mutant had a Km approx. 2-fold higher than that of both the Gly346-->Ser mutant and the wild-type enzyme, and a kcat value 40% less than the wild-type. The Gly346-->Ser and wild-type enzymes had the same Tm (melting temperature), which was approx. 6-7 degrees C higher than that of the Glu206-->Lys enzyme. An extensive molecular graphic analysis of the mutated enzymes, using human and rabbit aldolase A crystallographic structures, suggests that the Glu206-->Lys mutation destabilizes the aldolase A tetramer at the subunit interface, and highlights the fact that the glycine-to-serine substitution at position 346 limits the flexibility of the C-terminal region. These results also provide the first evidence that Gly346 is crucial for the correct conformation and function of aldolase A, because it governs the entry/release of the substrates into/from the enzyme cleft, and/or allows important C-terminal residues to approach the active site.

    The Biochemical journal 2004;380;Pt 1;51-6

  • Hemolytic anemia and severe rhabdomyolysis caused by compound heterozygous mutations of the gene for erythrocyte/muscle isozyme of aldolase, ALDOA(Arg303X/Cys338Tyr).

    Yao DC, Tolan DR, Murray MF, Harris DJ, Darras BT, Geva A and Neufeld EJ

    Division of Genetics, Department of Neurology, Children's Hospital Boston, Dana Farber Cancer Institute and Harvard Medical School, MA 02115, USA.

    Aldolase (E.C. 4.1.2.13), a homotetrameric protein encoded by the ALDOA gene, converts fructose-1,6-bisphosphate to dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate. Three isozymes are encoded by distinct genes. The sole aldolase present in red blood cells and skeletal muscle is the A isozyme. We report here the case of a girl of Sicilian descent with aldolase A deficiency. Clinical manifestations included transfusion-dependent anemia until splenectomy at age 3 and increasing muscle weakness, with death at age 4 associated with rhabdomyolysis and hyperkalemia. Sequence analysis of the ALDOA coding regions revealed 2 novel heterozygous ALDOA mutations in conserved regions of the protein. The paternal allele encoded a nonsense mutation, Arg303X, in the enzyme-active site. The maternal allele encoded a missense mutation, Cys338Tyr, predicted to cause enzyme instability. This is the most severely affected patient reported to date and only the second with both rhabdomyolysis and hemolysis.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL04184; NIDDK NIH HHS: DK43521

    Blood 2004;103;6;2401-3

  • Proteomic identification of brain proteins that interact with dynein light chain LC8.

    Navarro-Lérida I, Martínez Moreno M, Roncal F, Gavilanes F, Albar JP and Rodríguez-Crespo I

    Departamento de Bioquímicay Biología Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain. nacho@bbml.ucm.es

    Cytoplasmic dynein is a large minus end-directed microtubule motor that translocates cargos towards the minus end of microtubules. Light chain 8 of the dynein machinery (LC8) has been reported to interact with a large variety of proteins that possess K/RSTQT or GIQVD motifs in their sequence, hence permitting their transport in a retrograde manner. Yeast two-hybrid analysis has revealed that in brain, LC8 associates directly with several proteins such as neuronal nitric oxide synthase, guanylate kinase domain-associated protein and gephyrin. In this work, we report the identification of over 40 polypeptides, by means of a proteomic approach, that interact with LC8 either directly or indirectly. Many of the neuronal proteins that we identified cluster at the post-synaptic terminal, and some of them such as phosphofructokinase, lactate dehydrogenase or aldolase are directly involved in glutamate metabolism. Other pool of proteins identified displayed the LC8 consensus binding motif. Finally, recombinant LC8 was produced and a library of overlapping dodecapeptides (pepscan) was employed to map the LC8 binding site of some of the proteins that were previously identified using the proteomic approach, hence confirming binding to the consensus binding sites.

    Proteomics 2004;4;2;339-46

  • Yeast two-hybrid screens imply involvement of Fanconi anemia proteins in transcription regulation, cell signaling, oxidative metabolism, and cellular transport.

    Reuter TY, Medhurst AL, Waisfisz Q, Zhi Y, Herterich S, Hoehn H, Gross HJ, Joenje H, Hoatlin ME, Mathew CG and Huber PA

    Department of Biochemistry, University of Wuerzburg, D-97074 Wuerzburg, Germany.

    Mutations in one of at least eight different genes cause bone marrow failure, chromosome instability, and predisposition to cancer associated with the rare genetic syndrome Fanconi anemia (FA). The cloning of seven genes has provided the tools to study the molecular pathway disrupted in Fanconi anemia patients. The structure of the genes and their gene products provided few clues to their functional role. We report here the use of 3 FA proteins, FANCA, FANCC, and FANCG, as "baits" in the hunt for interactors to obtain clues for FA protein functions. Using five different human cDNA libraries we screened 36.5x10(6) clones with the technique of the yeast two-hybrid system. We identified 69 proteins which have not previously been linked to the FA pathway as direct interactors of FANCA, FANCC, or FANCG. Most of these proteins are associated with four functional classes including transcription regulation (21 proteins), signaling (13 proteins), oxidative metabolism (10 proteins), and intracellular transport (11 proteins). Interaction with 6 proteins, DAXX, Ran, IkappaBgamma, USP14, and the previously reported SNX5 and FAZF, was additionally confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation and/or colocalization studies. Taken together, our data strongly support the hypothesis that FA proteins are functionally involved in several complex cellular pathways including transcription regulation, cell signaling, oxidative metabolism, and cellular transport.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL56045

    Experimental cell research 2003;289;2;211-21

  • Thermodynamic analysis of the dissociation of the aldolase tetramer substituted at one or both of the subunit interfaces.

    Tolan DR, Schuler B, Beernink PT and Jaenicke R

    Biology Department, Boston University, 5 Cummington St., Boston, MA 02215, USA.

    The fructose-1,6-bis(phosphate) aldolase isologous tetramer tightly associates through two different subunit interfaces defined by its 222 symmetry. Both single- and double-interfacial mutant aldolases have a destabilized quaternary structure, but there is little effect on the catalytic activity. These enzymes are however thermolabile. This study demonstrates the temperature-dependent dissociation of the mutant enzymes and determines the dissociation free energies of both mutant and native aldolase. Subunit dissociation is measured by sedimentation equilibrium in the analytical ultracentrifuge. At 25 degrees C the tetramer-dimer dissociation constants for each single-mutant enzyme are similar, about 10(-6) M. For the double-mutant enzyme, sedimentation velocity experiments on sucrose density gradients support a tetramer-monomer equilibrium. Furthermore, sedimentation equilibrium experiments determined a dissociation constant of 10(-15) M3 for the double-mutant enzyme. By the same methods the upper limit for the dissociation constant of wild-type aldolase A is approximately 10(-28) M3, which indicates an extremely stable tetramer. The thermodynamic values describing monomer-tetramer and dimer-tetramer equilibria are analyzed with regard to possible cooperative interaction between the two subunit interfaces.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK43521; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM60616

    Biological chemistry 2003;384;10-11;1463-71

  • Exploring proteomes and analyzing protein processing by mass spectrometric identification of sorted N-terminal peptides.

    Gevaert K, Goethals M, Martens L, Van Damme J, Staes A, Thomas GR and Vandekerckhove J

    Department of Medical Protein Research, Flanders Interuniversity Institute for Biotechnology, Ghent University, A. Baertsoenkaai 3, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium. kris.gevaert@rug.ac.be

    Current non-gel techniques for analyzing proteomes rely heavily on mass spectrometric analysis of enzymatically digested protein mixtures. Prior to analysis, a highly complex peptide mixture is either separated on a multidimensional chromatographic system or it is first reduced in complexity by isolating sets of representative peptides. Recently, we developed a peptide isolation procedure based on diagonal electrophoresis and diagonal chromatography. We call it combined fractional diagonal chromatography (COFRADIC). In previous experiments, we used COFRADIC to identify more than 800 Escherichia coli proteins by tandem mass spectrometric (MS/MS) analysis of isolated methionine-containing peptides. Here, we describe a diagonal method to isolate N-terminal peptides. This reduces the complexity of the peptide sample, because each protein has one N terminus and is thus represented by only one peptide. In this new procedure, free amino groups in proteins are first blocked by acetylation and then digested with trypsin. After reverse-phase (RP) chromatographic fractionation of the generated peptide mixture, internal peptides are blocked using 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS); they display a strong hydrophobic shift and therefore segregate from the unaltered N-terminal peptides during a second identical separation step. N-terminal peptides can thereby be specifically collected for further liquid chromatography (LC)-MS/MS analysis. Omitting the acetylation step results in the isolation of non-lysine-containing N-terminal peptides from in vivo blocked proteins.

    Nature biotechnology 2003;21;5;566-9

  • Phospholipase D2 directly interacts with aldolase via Its PH domain.

    Kim JH, Lee S, Kim JH, Lee TG, Hirata M, Suh PG and Ryu SH

    Division of Molecular and Life Sciences, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang, 790-784, Republic of Korea.

    Mammalian phospholipase D (PLD) has been implicated in the cellular signal transduction pathways leading to diverse physiological events and known to be regulated by many cellular factors. To identify the proteins that interact with PLD, we performed a protein overlay assay with fractions obtained from the sequential colum 5a8 n chromatographic separation of rat brain cytosol using purified PLD2 as a probe. A protein of molecular mass 40 kDa, which was detected by anti-PLD antibody with overlaying of the purified PLD2, is shown to be aldolase C by peptide-mass fingerprinting with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Aldolase A also showed similar binding properties as aldolase C and was co-immunoprecipitated with PLD2 in COS-7 cells overexpressing PLD2 and aldolase A. The PH domain corresponding to amino acids 201-310 of PLD2 was necessary for the interaction observed in vitro, and aldolase A was found to interact with the PH domain of PLD2 specifically, but not with other PH domains. PLD2 activity was inhibited by the presence of purified aldolase A in a dose-dependent manner, and the inhibition by 50% was observed by the addition of less than micromolar aldolase A. Moreover, the inclusion of the aldolase metabolites fructose 1,6-bisphosphate (F-1,6-P) or glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G-3-P) resulted in an enhanced interaction between PLD2 and aldolase A with a concomitant increase in the potential ability of aldolase A to inhibit PLD2, which suggests the existence of a possible regulation of the interaction by the change of intracellular concentrations of glycolytic metabolites.

    Biochemistry 2002;41;10;3414-21

  • Interaction between aldolase and vacuolar H+-ATPase: evidence for direct coupling of glycolysis to the ATP-hydrolyzing proton pump.

    Lu M, Holliday LS, Zhang L, Dunn WA and Gluck SL

    Departments of Medicine and Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, Florida 32610, USA. luming@medicine.ufl.edu

    Vacuolar H(+)-ATPases (V-ATPases) are essential for acidification of intracellular compartments and for proton secretion from the plasma membrane in kidney epithelial cells and osteoclasts. The cellular proteins that regulate V-ATPases remain largely unknown. A screen for proteins that bind the V-ATPase E subunit using the yeast two-hybrid assay identified the cDNA clone coded for aldolase, an enzyme of the glycolytic pathway. The interaction between E subunit and aldolase was confirmed in vitro by precipitation assays using E subunit-glutathione S-transferase chimeric fusion proteins and metabolically labeled aldolase. Aldolase was isolated associated with intact V-ATPase from bovine kidney microsomes and osteoclast-containing mouse marrow cultures in co-immunoprecipitation studies performed using an anti-E subunit monoclonal antibody. The interaction was not affected by incubation with aldolase substrates or products. In immunocytochemical assays, aldolase was found to colocalize with V-ATPase in the renal proximal tubule. In osteoclasts, the aldolase-V-ATPase complex appeared to undergo a subcellular redistribution from perinuclear compartments to the ruffled membranes following activation of resorption. In yeast cells deficient in aldolase, the peripheral V(1) domain of V-ATPase was found to dissociate from the integral membrane V(0) domain, indicating direct coupling of glycolysis to the proton pump. The direct binding interaction between V-ATPase and aldolase may be a new mechanism for the regulation of the V-ATPase and may underlie the proximal tubule acidification defect in hereditary fructose intolerance.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK38848, R01 DK54362

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2001;276;32;30407-13

  • Quantitative expression studies of aldolase A, B and C genes in developing embryos and adult tissues of Xenopus laevis.

    Kajita E, Moriwaki J, Yatsuki H, Hori K, Miura K, Hirai M and Shiokawa K

    Laboratory of Molecular Embryology, Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo ku, 113-0033, Tokyo, Japan.

    We previously cloned cDNAs for all the members (A, B and C) of Xenopus aldolase gene family, and using in vitro transcribed RNAs as references, performed quantitative studies of the expression of three aldolase mRNAs in embryos and adult tissues. A Xenopus egg contains ca. 60 pg aldolase A mRNA and ca. 45 pg aldolase C mRNA, but contains only ca. 1.5 pg aldolase B mRNA. The percent composition of three aldolase mRNAs (A:B:C) changes from 56:1.5:42.5 (fertilized egg) to 54:10:36 (gastrula), to 71:14.5:14.5 (neurula) and to 73:20:7 (tadpole) during development. These results are compatible with the previous results of zymogram analysis that aldolases A and C are the major aldolases in early embryos, whose development proceeds depending on yolk as the only energy source. Aldolase B mRNA is expressed only late in development in tissues such as pronephros, liver rudiment and proctodeum which are necessary for the future dietary fructose metabolism, and the expression pattern is consistent to that in adult tissues. We also show that three aldolase genes are localized on different chromosomes as single copy genes.

    Mechanisms of development 2001;102;1-2;283-7

  • Developmental regulation of the aldolase A muscle-specific promoter during in vivo muscle maturation is controlled by a nuclear receptor binding element.

    Spitz F, Demignon J, Kahn A, Daegelen D and Maire P

    INSERM U129, ICGM, 24 rue du Faubourg Saint Jacques, Université René Descartes Paris V, 75014, France.

    During the post-natal period, skeletal muscles undergo important modifications leading to the appearance of different types of myofibers which exhibit distinct contractile and metabolic properties. This maturation process results from the activation of the expression of different sets of contractile proteins and metabolic enzymes, which are specific to the different types of myofibers. The muscle-specific promoter of the aldolase A gene (pM) is expressed mainly in fast-twitch glycolytic fibers in adult body muscles. We investigate here how pM is regulated during the post-natal development of different types of skeletal muscles (slow or fast-twitch muscles, head or body muscles). We show that pM is expressed preferentially in prospective fast-twitch muscles soon after birth; pM is up-regulated specifically in body muscles only later in development. This activation pattern is mimicked by a transgene which comprises only the 355 most proximal sequences of pM. Within this region, we identify a DNA element which is required for the up-regulation of the transgene during post-natal development in body muscles. Comparison of nuclear M1-binding proteins from young or adult body muscles show no qualitative differences. Distinct M1-binding proteins are present in both young and adult tongue nuclear extracts, compared to that present in gastrocnemius extracts.

    Journal of molecular biology 1999;289;4;893-903

  • Crystal structure of human muscle aldolase complexed with fructose 1,6-bisphosphate: mechanistic implications.

    Dalby A, Dauter Z and Littlechild JA

    Department of Chemistry and Biological Sciences, Exeter University, United Kingdom.

    Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase catalyzes the reversible cleavage of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate and fructose 1-phosphate to dihydroxyacetone phosphate and either glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate or glyceraldehyde, respectively. Catalysis involves the formation of a Schiff's base intermediate formed at the epsilon-amino group of Lys229. The existing apo-enzyme structure was refined using the crystallographic free-R-factor and maximum likelihood methods that have been shown to give improved structural results that are less subject to model bias. Crystals were also soaked with the natural substrate (fructose 1,6-bisphosphate), and the crystal structure of this complex has been determined to 2.8 A. The apo structure differs from the previous Brookhaven-deposited structure (1ald) in the flexible C-terminal region. This is also the region where the native and complex structures exhibit differences. The conformational changes between native and complex structure are not large, but the observed complex does not involve the full formation of the Schiff's base intermediate, and suggests a preliminary hydrogen-bonded Michaelis complex before the formation of the covalent complex.

    Funded by: Wellcome Trust

    Protein science : a publication of the Protein Society 1999;8;2;291-7

  • Mode of interactions of human aldolase isozymes with cytoskeletons.

    Kusakabe T, Motoki K and Hori K

    Department of Biochemistry, Saga Medical School, Nabeshima, Saga, Japan. kusakabe@bcmp.med.harvard.edu

    Three isoforms of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase were found to bind specifically to the actin-containing filament of the cytoskeleton and to show tissue-specific binding patterns. Aldolase A (muscle type) bound more tightly to the skeletal muscle cytoskeleton among the three isozymes, while aldolase B (liver type) preferred the liver cytoskeleton to those of other tissues. The specific binding of aldolase A to the skeletal muscle cytoskeleton was inhibited strongly by the substrates fructose 1,6-bisphosphate and fructose 1-phosphate. Several mutant aldolases A were examined to identify the amino acid residues or regions that play a role in specific binding. Among the mutant aldolases tested, A-E34D, A-K41N, and A-Y363S exhibited remarkably reduced binding activities. Experiments using FITC-labeled enzymes and Rh-labeled phalloidin disclosed that aldolase A associated with the cytoskeleton. Specifically, when aldolase A was incubated with human fibroblast MRC-5 permeabilized with Triton X-100, aldolase A bound to the actin filaments in the stress fibers within the cell. Aldolase A reversibly inhibited the contraction of MRC-5 cells which usually occurred in the presence of Mg2(+)-ATP and Ca2+. These results provide direct evidence that aldolase binds specifically to the actin-containing stress fibers and suggest that aldolase may regulate cell contraction through its reversible binding to the filaments in the permeabilized MRC-5 fibroblast.

    Archives of biochemistry and biophysics 1997;344;1;184-93

  • Brief report: inherited metabolic myopathy and hemolysis due to a mutation in aldolase A.

    Kreuder J, Borkhardt A, Repp R, Pekrun A, Göttsche B, Gottschalk U, Reichmann H, Schachenmayr W, Schlegel K and Lampert F

    Department of Pediatrics, Justus-Liebig University, Giessen, Germany.

    The New England journal of medicine 1996;334;17;1100-4

  • Construction of a human full-length cDNA bank.

    Kato S, Sekine S, Oh SW, Kim NS, Umezawa Y, Abe N, Yokoyama-Kobayashi M and Aoki T

    Kanagawa Academy of Science and Technology (KAST), Japan.

    We aimed to construct a full-length cDNA bank from an entire set of human genes and to analyze the function of a protein encoded by each cDNA. To achieve this purpose, a multifunctional phagemid shuttle vector, pKA1, was constructed for preparing a high-quality cDNA library composed of full-length cDNA clones which can be sequenced and expressed in vitro and in mammalian cells without subcloning the cDNA fragment into other vectors. Using this as a vector primer, we have prepared a prototype of the bank composed of full-length cDNAs encoding 236 human proteins whose amino acid sequences are identical or similar to known proteins. Most cDNAs contain a putative cap site sequence, some of which show a pyrimidine-rich conserved sequence exhibiting polymorphism. It was confirmed that the vector permits efficient in vitro translation, expression in mammalian cells and the preparation of nested deletion mutants.

    Gene 1994;150;2;243-50

  • Aldolase-tubulin interactions: removal of tubulin C-terminals impairs interactions.

    Carr D and Knull H

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks 58202.

    Aldolase copelleted with taxol stabilized microtubules with a Bmax = 0.74 moles of aldolase per mole of tubulin dimer. Removal of the carboxy terminals from microtubules with limited subtilisin digestion, decreased binding to 0.16 moles of aldolase per mole of tubulin dimer. Aldolase inhibited subtilisin cleavage of the C-terminals while triose phosphate isomerase, an enzyme that does not interact with microtubules, did not affect subtilisin activity. These data indicate that the carboxy terminals are involved in tubulin-aldolase interactions.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: NS17711

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 1993;195;1;289-93

  • Identification of transglutaminase substrates in HT29 colon cancer cells: use of 5-(biotinamido)pentylamine as a transglutaminase-specific probe.

    Lee KN, Maxwell MD, Patterson MK, Birckbichler PJ and Conway E

    Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation, Biomedical Division, Ardmore, OK 73402.

    A biotinamine probe, 5-(biotinamido)pentylamine, was used for biotin-labeling of proteins in HT29 colon cancer cell extracts by endogenous transglutaminase activity. The biotin-labeled protein substrates were isolated and recovered by avidin-affinity chromatography. The proteins were separated using SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, electroblotted onto a polyvinylidene difluoride membrane, visualized using Coomassie blue, cut out, and sequenced. Amino acid sequence data identified human fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase A, an intracellular protein, as a substrate for cellular transglutaminase.

    Biochimica et biophysica acta 1992;1136;1;12-6

  • Treatment of Haemophilus aphrophilus endocarditis with ciprofloxacin.

    Dawson SJ and White LA

    Department of Microbiology, Southampton General Hospital, U.K.

    A patient with Haemophilus aphrophilus endocarditis was successfully treated with ciprofloxacin. The response to treatment with cefotaxime and netilmicin for 12 days was poor but was satisfactory to a 6 weeks' course of ciprofloxacin.

    The Journal of infection 1992;24;3;317-20

  • Modulation of the interaction between aldolase and glycerol-phosphate dehydrogenase by fructose phosphates.

    Vértessy BG, Orosz F and Ovádi J

    Institute of Enzymology, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest.

    Kinetics of fructose-1,6-disphosphate aldolase (EC 4.1.2.13) catalyzed conversion of fructose phosphates was analyzed by coupling the aldolase reactions to the metabolically sequential enzyme, glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.8), which interacts with aldolase. At low enzyme concentration poly(ethylene glycol) was added to promote complex formation of aldolase and glycerol-phosphate dehydrogenase resulting in a 3-fold increase in KM of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate and no change in Vmax. Kinetic parameters for fructose-1-phosphate conversion changed inversely upon complex formation: Vmax increased while KM remained unchanged. Gel penetration and ion-exchange chromatographic experiments showed positive modulation of the interaction of aldolase and dehydrogenase by fructose-1,6-bisphosphate. The dissociation constant of the heterologous enzyme complex decreased 10-fold in the presence of this substrate. Fructose-1-phosphate or dihydroxyacetone phosphate had no effect on the dissociation constant of the aldolase-dehydrogenase complex. In addition, titration of fluorescein-labelled glycerol-phosphate dehydrogenase with aldolase indicated that both fructose-1,6-bisphosphate and fructose-2,6-biphosphate enhanced the affinity of aldolase to glycerol-phosphate dehydrogenase. The results of the kinetic and binding experiments suggest that binding of the C-6 phosphate group of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate to aldolase complexed with dehydrogenase is sterically impeded while saturation of the C-6 phosphate group site increases the affinity of aldolase for dehydrogenase. The possible molecular mechanism of the fructose-1,6-bisphosphate modulated interaction is discussed.

    Biochimica et biophysica acta 1991;1078;2;236-42

  • Activity and specificity of human aldolases.

    Gamblin SJ, Davies GJ, Grimes JM, Jackson RM, Littlechild JA and Watson HC

    Department of Biochemistry, School of Medical Sciences, University of Bristol, U.K.

    The structure of the type I fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase from human muscle has been extended from 3 A to 2 A resolution. The improvement in the resulting electron density map is such that the 20 or so C-terminal residues, known to be associated with activity and isozyme specificity, have been located. The side-chain of the Schiff's base-forming lysine 229 is located towards the centre of an eight-stranded beta-barrel type structure. The C-terminal "tail" extends from the rim of the beta-barrel towards lysine 229, thus forming part of the active site of the enzyme. This structural arrangement appears to explain the difference in activity and specificity of the three tissue-specific human aldolases and helps with our understanding of the type I aldolase reaction mechanism.

    Journal of molecular biology 1991;219;4;573-6

  • An additional promoter functions in the human aldolase A gene, but not in rat.

    Mukai T, Arai Y, Yatsuki H, Joh K and Hori K

    Department of Bioscience, National Cardiovascular Center Research Institute, Osaka, Japan.

    The aldolase A gene was isolated from a human DNA library, mapped and sequenced. This gene comprises 12 exons and spans 6.5 kb. From the genomic DNA sequence and from the previous sequence analysis of the cDNA, it was revealed that the first exon L1 and the second exon encode the 5' non-coding sequence of mRNA L1, while the third and forth exons (corresponding to exons M and L2) encode different mRNA, mRNA M and L2, respectively; the following eight exons (exons 5-12) are shared commonly by all the mRNA species. These results indicate that the mRNA species are generated from a single aldolase A gene from one of exons L1, M or L2, in addition to exons 5-12, and also that the usage of a leader exon is similar but clearly distinct from that of rat aldolase A gene which we analyzed [Joh, K., Arai, Y., Mukai, T. & Hori, K. (1986) J. Mol. Biol. 190, 401-410]. By comparing the promoter regions in the human and rat aldolase A genes, we found similar sequences in the rat genome corresponding to those of the human L1, M and L2 promoter. We could not, however, detect any transcripts starting from sequences corresponding to the human L1 promoter in the rat genome, although the products corresponding to human M and L2 were detected. Thus, we conclude that the L1 promoter was either acquired by the human genome or deleted from the rat genome after human and rat diverged during evolution.

    European journal of biochemistry 1991;195;3;781-7

  • Human aldolase A of a hemolytic anemia patient with Asp-128----Gly substitution: characteristics of an enzyme generated in E. coli transfected with the expression plasmid pHAAD128G.

    Takasaki Y, Takahashi I, Mukai T and Hori K

    Department of Biochemistry, Saga Medical School.

    Aldolase A derived from a hemolytic anemia patient with aldolase A deficiency was shown to have an amino acid substitution of glycine for aspartic acid at the 128th position (Asp-128) in the enzyme [Kishi et al. (1987) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 84, 8623-8627]. We constructed an Escherichia coli expression plasmid, pHAAD128G, which carries the mutant aldolase A [aldolase A(D-G)] cDNA, and the enzyme generated in E. coli transfected with the expression plasmid was purified and characterized. Conversion of Asp to Gly at the 128th position in the enzyme rendered the enzyme thermolabile and susceptible to tryptic digestion. CD spectra analysis also revealed that the mutant enzyme had a remarkable conformation change with a decrease of regular form in the molecule. Addition of glycerol or some other polyalcohols during thermal treatment protected this altered enzyme (but not the normal enzyme) against denaturation and activity decrease. In order to determine the function of the amino acid residue at the 128th position, two artificial mutant enzymes with the substitutions of Glu for Asp [aldolase A(D-E)] and Ser for Asp [aldolase A(D-S)], respectively, at the position were constructed by site-directed mutagenesis and characterized. These analyses demonstrated the necessity for Asp to be present at the 128th residue in order for this enzyme to be thermally stable.

    Journal of biochemistry 1990;108;2;153-7

  • The crystal structure of human muscle aldolase at 3.0 A resolution.

    Gamblin SJ, Cooper B, Millar JR, Davies GJ, Littlechild JA and Watson HC

    Department of Biochemistry, School of Medical Sciences, University of Bristol, UK.

    The three-dimensional structure of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase from human muscle has been determined at 3.0 A resolution by X-ray crystallography. The active protein is a tetramer of 4 identical subunits each of which is composed of an eight-stranded alpha/beta-barrel structure. The lysine residue responsible for Schiff base formation with the substrate is located near the centre of the barrel in the middle of the sixth beta-strand. While the overall topology of the alpha/beta-barrel is very similar to those found in several other enzymes, the distribution of charged residues inside the core of the barrel seems distinct. The quaternary fold of human muscle aldolase uses interfacial regions also involved in the subunit association of other alpha/beta-barrel proteins found in glycolysis, but exploits these regions in a manner not seen previously.

    FEBS letters 1990;262;2;282-6

  • Aldolase C is localized in neuroendocrine cells.

    Inagaki H, Haimoto H, Hosoda S and Kato K

    Department of Gastroenterological Surgery, Aichi Cancer Center Hospital, Nagoya, Japan.

    To elucidate the localization of the subunit C of aldolase (aldolase C) in peripheral neuroendocrine cells, we made an immunohistochemical study with monospecific antibodies against human aldolase C. Aldolase C was found to be localized in various types of neuroendocrine cells; in the pituitary gland, thyroid, pancreas, adrenal gland, bronchus, and gastrointestinal tract.

    Experientia 1988;44;9;749-51

  • Human aldolase A gene. Structural organization and tissue-specific expression by multiple promoters and alternate mRNA processing.

    Izzo P, Costanzo P, Lupo A, Rippa E, Paolella G and Salvatore F

    Istituto di Scienze Biochimiche, II Facoltà di Medicina e Chirurgia, Università degli Studi di Napoli.

    The complete nucleotide sequence of the human aldolase A isoenzyme gene is reported. The cloned gene sequence, spanning 7530 bp, includes twelve exons and occurs as a single copy per haploid human genome. The structural organization of the gene is quite complex: eight exons containing the coding sequence are common to all mRNAs extracted from human and other mammalian sources; four additional exons are present in the 5' untranslated region, of these one is contained in the ubiquitous type of mRNA, the second is in the muscle-specific type of mRNA and the third and fourth are in a minor species of mRNA found in human liver tissue. Furthermore, the determined sequence includes 1000 nucleotides upstream from the first exon (exon I) in the 5' flanking region, and 400 nucleotides, which include the polyadenylation signal, downstream from the termination codon. S1-nuclease-protection analysis of the 5' end of mRNA extracted from human cultured fibroblasts, muscle and hepatoma cell lines indicates the existence of four different transcription-initiation sites. The latter are also supported by the presence of conventional sequences for eukaryotic promoters. Therefore, the four promoters on the same gene generate different tissue-specific transcripts, which share the translated sequence, but each has a unique 5' untranslated region as a result of differential mRNA processing. The nucleotide homology at the coding region and the intron-exon organization of the three human and mammalian aldolase A, B and C genes confirm that they arose from a common ancestral gene, and that aldolase B diverged first.

    European journal of biochemistry 1988;174;4;569-78

  • The complete amino acid sequence of human skeletal-muscle fructose-bisphosphate aldolase.

    Freemont PS, Dunbar B and Fothergill-Gilmore LA

    Department of Biochemistry, University of Aberdeen, Marischal College, U.K.

    The complete amino acid sequence of human skeletal-muscle fructose-bisphosphate aldolase, comprising 363 residues, was determined. The sequence was deduced by automated sequencing of CNBr-cleavage, o-iodosobenzoic acid-cleavage, trypsin-digest and staphylococcal-proteinase-digest fragments. Comparison of the sequence with other class I aldolase sequences shows that the mammalian muscle isoenzyme is one of the most highly conserved enzymes known, with only about 2% of the residues changing per 100 million years. Non-mammalian aldolases appear to be evolving at the same rate as other glycolytic enzymes, with about 4% of the residues changing per 100 million years. Secondary-structure predictions are analysed in an accompanying paper [Sawyer, Fothergill-Gilmore & Freemont (1988) Biochem. J. 249, 789-793].

    Funded by: Wellcome Trust

    The Biochemical journal 1988;249;3;779-88

  • Human aldolase A deficiency associated with a hemolytic anemia: thermolabile aldolase due to a single base mutation.

    Kishi H, Mukai T, Hirono A, Fujii H, Miwa S and Hori K

    Department of Biochemistry, Saga Medical School, Japan.

    Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase A (fructose-bisphosphate aldolase; EC 4.1.2.13) deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder associated with hereditary hemolytic anemia. To clarify the molecular mechanism of the deficiency at the nucleotide level, we have cloned aldolase A cDNA from a patient's poly(A)+ RNA that was expressed in cultured lymphoblastoid cells. Nucleotide analysis of the patient's aldolase A cDNA showed a substitution of a single nucleotide (adenine to guanine) at position 386 in a coding region. As a result, the 128th amino acid, aspartic acid, was replaced with glycine (GAT to GGT). Furthermore, change of the second letter of the aspartic acid codon extinguished a F ok I restriction site (GGATG to GGGTG). Southern blot analysis of the genomic DNA showed the patient carried a homozygous mutation inherited from his parents. When compared with normal human aldolase A, the patient's enzyme from erythrocytes and from cultured lymphoblastoid cells was found to be highly thermolabile, suggesting that this mutation causes a functional defect of the enzyme. To further examine this possibility, the thermal stability of aldolase A of the patient and of a normal control, expressed in Escherichia coli using expression plasmids, was determined. The results of E. coli expression of the mutated aldolase A enzyme confirmed the thermolabile nature of the abnormal enzyme. The Asp-128 is conserved in aldolase A, B, and C of eukaryotes, including an insect, Drosophila, suggesting that the Asp-128 of the aldolase A protein is likely to be an amino acid residue with a crucial role in maintaining the correct spatial structure or in performing the catalytic function of the enzyme.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1987;84;23;8623-7

  • Evolutionary implications of the human aldolase-A, -B, -C, and -pseudogene chromosome locations.

    Tolan DR, Niclas J, Bruce BD and Lebo RV

    Biological Sciences Center, Boston University, MA 02215.

    The aldolase genes represent an ancient gene family with tissue-specific isozymic forms expressed only in vertebrates. The chromosomal locations of the aldolase genes provide insight into their tissue-specific and developmentally regulated expression and evolution. DNA probes for the human aldolase-A and -C genes and for an aldolase pseudogene were used to quantify and map the aldolase loci in the haploid human genome. Genomic hybridization of restriction fragments determined that all the aldolase genes exist in single copy in the haploid human genome. Spot-blot analysis of sorted chromosomes mapped human aldolase A to chromosome 16, aldolase C to chromosome 17, the pseudogene to chromosome 10; it previously had mapped the aldolase-B gene to chromosome 9. All loci are unlinked and located on to two pairs of morphologically similar chromosomes, a situation consistent with tetraploidization during isozymic and vertebrate evolution. Sequence comparisons of expressed and flanking regions support this conclusion. These locations on similar chromosome pairs correctly predicted that the aldolase pseudogene arose when sequences from the aldolase-A gene were inserted into the homologous aldolase location on chromosome 10.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM32344

    American journal of human genetics 1987;41;5;907-24

  • Characterization of three optional promoters in the 5' region of the human aldolase A gene.

    Maire P, Gautron S, Hakim V, Gregori C, Mennecier F and Kahn A

    Laboratoire de Recherche en Génétique et Pathologie Moléculaires, Inserm U. 129, Paris, France.

    We undertook cloning and sequencing of the 5' portion of the human aldolase A gene to elucidate the mechanisms that govern synthesis of its different mRNAs. The sequenced gene is the only active gene in human-rodent fibroblastic somatic hybrids, while the other aldolase A-related sequences are inactive. S1 mapping and primer extension analysis enabled us to demonstrate that three promoter regions were implicated in the initiation of different aldolase A mRNAs, differing only in their 5' non-coding extremities. A distal promoter, N (non-specific), governs the synthesis of a 5' non-coding region of 142 bases composed of two exons, N1 and N2, which are found in a variety of tissues. A median promoter, M (muscle), is only active in skeletal muscle, and initiates the transcription by a 5' non-coding exon of 45 bases. Finally, a proximal promoter, H (housekeeping), contained in a "G + C-rich island", permits transcription of three colinear mRNAs containing 172, 126 or 112 bases of 5' non-coding sequence; their expression seems ubiquitous. These three promoters are arranged in 1.5 X 10(3) base-pairs of DNA. Homologies between rat and human genomic sequences and the absence of homology between promoters or 5' non-coding exons of the same species exclude a recent duplication of the promoter regions.

    Journal of molecular biology 1987;197;3;425-38

  • Molecular gene mapping of human aldolase A (ALDOA) gene to chromosome 16.

    Kukita A, Yoshida MC, Fukushige S, Sakakibara M, Joh K, Mukai T and Hori K

    Mapping of human aldolase A (ALDOA) gene was performed by molecular hybridization techniques using a panel of human-mouse cell hybrids and sorted fractions of human metaphase chromosomes besides in situ hybridization. For the purpose, three kinds of DNA probes derived from the coding region (probe-1), the 3' noncoding region (probe-2), and the coding and 3' noncoding regions (probe-3) of human aldolase A cDNA clone, pHAAL116-3, were selectively employed. The results of RNA and DNA blot analyses indicated that the human ALDOA gene is located on chromosome 16. The in situ hybridization experiment also indicated that the ALDOA gene was localized to 16q22-q24.

    Human genetics 1987;76;1;20-6

  • A new human species of aldolase A mRNA from fibroblasts.

    Izzo P, Costanzo P, Lupo A, Rippa E, Borghese AM, Paolella G and Salvatore F

    A full-length cDNA aldolase A clone was isolated from a human fibroblast cDNA library and completely sequenced. Excluding the poly(A) tail, the clone covers 1095 base pairs (bp) of the coding region, plus 199 bp downstream for the termination codon and 146 bp upstream for the initiation codon, within a total of 1440 bp. Primer extension experiments performed with human cultured fibroblast mRNA indicate an elongated product of a further 40 bp. These results evaluated together with those obtained in a concurrent study concerning aldolase A mRNA isolated from human liver are direct evidence of aldolase A mRNA multiplicity in man. The data also suggest the existence in mammals of three different classes of aldolase A mRNA, which would account for tissue specificity and resurgence of foetal expression in tumors.

    European journal of biochemistry 1987;164;1;9-13

  • Nucleotide sequence of a cDNA clone for human aldolase: a messenger RNA in the liver.

    Sakakibara M, Mukai T and Hori K

    Nearly complete cDNA clones for human aldolase A mRNA were isolated from human liver cDNA library and the nucleotide sequence determined. Using the cDNA clone as a probe the length of human aldolase A mRNAs, isolated from the skeletal muscle, liver and placenta tissues, was measured by RNA blotting and estimated to be 1,600 nucleotides for skeletal muscle mRNA and 1,700 nucleotides for both the liver and placenta mRNAs, indicating that different species of mRNA coding for human aldolase A were expressed in the different tissues.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 1985;131;1;413-20

  • Human skeletal-muscle aldolase: N-terminal sequence analysis of CNBr- and o-iodosobenzoic acid-cleavage fragments.

    Freemont PS, Dunbar B and Fothergill LA

    Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase was purified from human skeletal-muscle by affinity elution chromatography. Four CNBr-cleavage fragments were purified by gel filtration, and their N-terminal amino acid sequences were determined. Cleavage with o-iodosobenzoic acid at the three tryptophan residues also yielded fragments suitable for N-terminal sequence analysis. Thus, the sequence of 272 of the 363 residues was established. These sequence results allow many of the discrepancies between the two published rabbit skeletal-muscle aldolase sequences to be resolved. The human aldolase sequence reported here is 96% identical to a "consensus" rabbit aldolase sequence. A comparison with a partial sequence of Drosophila aldolase (103 residues) shows 80% identity. The determination of the amino acid sequence of human aldolase is important for the interpretation of the crystal structure of this enzyme.

    Archives of biochemistry and biophysics 1984;228;1;342-52

  • Interaction of the dissociable glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase. Quantitative analysis by an extrinsic fluorescence probe.

    Ovádi J, Mohamed Osman IR and Batke J

    Cytoplasmic sn-glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, labelled covalently with fluorescein isothiocyanate, shows an enzyme-concentration-dependent fluorescence anisotropy. The anisotropy versus enzyme concentration curve is shifted towards higher concentrations when substrates are present. The comparison of the dissociation constants estimated from anisotropy measurements and derived from kinetic experiments suggests that the substrate-induced dissociation of the dimeric dehydrogenase is slow with respect to the enzymatic reaction catalyzed by either its monomeric or dimeric form. The fluorescence anisotropy of the fluorescent dye-labelled dehydrogenase increase with time upon addition of unlabelled fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase approaching a limiting value. This fact indicates the binding of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase aldose aldolase to glycerolphosphate dehydrogenase. A model is proposed assuming simultaneous binding of tetrameric fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase to monomeric and dimeric glycerolphosphate dehydrogenase with 1:1 stoichiometry. The dissociation constants, as parameters fitted to the experimental curves, were estimated as 0.2 microM and 1 microM for aldolase-dimeric-glycerolphosphate-dehydrogenase and aldolase-monomeric-glycerolphosphate-dehydrogenase complexes respectively.

    European journal of biochemistry 1983;133;2;433-7

  • The changes in aldolase isoenzyme pattern during development of the human kidney and small intestine--demonstrated in organ extracts and tissue sections.

    Rehbein-Thöner M and Pfleiderer G

    Aldolases A, B and C were determined by immunotitration analysis in extracts of human kidney and small intestine and demonstrated immunohistochemically in tissue sections of the same organs at various stages of development. By both techniques a change of isoenzyme pattern during development of the kidney and the small intestine was observed, leading from the predominance of A-type towards the predominance of B-type aldolase. In the extracts of kidney and small intestine the specific activity of aldolase B--but not that of aldolase A--rises with age by about one order of magnitude. The histochemical investigation showed that the developmental change in aldolase pattern in the organ extracts is caused by the differentiation of proximal tubulus cells in the kidney and the differentiation of epithelial cells in the small intestine. Within these cells an increase in the concentration of aldolase B and a decrease in that of aldolase A takes place during development. The possible physiological role of this cellular change in aldolase isoenzyme pattern is discussed. Aldolase C was found only in low concentrations in fetal organs. Only in the kidney, a specific localization within the proximal tubules could be demonstrated.

    Hoppe-Seyler's Zeitschrift fur physiologische Chemie 1977;358;2;169-80

  • Aldolase binding to actin-containing filaments. Formation of paracrystals.

    Clarke FM and Morton DJ

    Electron-microscopy observation show that when aldolase binds to F-actin or F-actin-tropomyosin, highly ordered paracrystalline structures are formed consisting of tightly packed filament bundles cross-banded at 36 nm intervals. Morphologically different paracrystalline arrays are formed between aldolase and F-actin-tropomyosin-troponin. The filament bundles are far more extensive and are characterized by a prominent cross-striation at 38nm intervals. It is suggested that this reflects an interaction between troponin and aldolase.

    The Biochemical journal 1976;159;3;797-8

  • Differentiation of epithelial cells in human jejunum: localization and quantification of aminopeptidase, alkaline phosphatase and aldolase isozymes in tissue sections.

    Wachsmuth ED

    Sections from human jejunum were stained histochemically for aminopeptidase and alkaline phosphatase and the aldolase isozymes were detected with the mixed aggregation immuno-cytochemical technique. All enzyme concentrations increased from the bottom to the upper part of the crypt. The concentration of aldolase-A per cell was the same in the upper part of the crypt and the villus, whereas the concentration of the other three enzymes was still higher. Therefore, high amounts of aldolase-B, aminopeptidase and alkaline phosphatase are present in cells highly active in absorption in a fashion similar to that found in the proximal tubule cells of kidney. The relatively undifferentiated cells of the crypts contained both aldolase-A and aldolase-B. Alkaline phosphatase gains its full activity later than aminopeptidase. The synthesis of microvillar membrane enzymes comes to an end earlier than that of the cytosol enzymes.

    Histochemistry 1976;48;2;101-9

  • Histological examination of the aldolase monomer composition of cells from human kidney and hypernephroid carcinoma.

    Pfleiderer G, Thöner M and Wachsmuth ED

    Aldolase was specifically fixed in tissue sections by the use of antibody prepared either against aldolase A or against aldolase B. The localization of the antigen was demonstrated with the immuno-histochemical method. Aldolase A was found to be the predominant constituent in the cytoplasm of the distal tubules, the large vessels and the glomerula of normal kidney, and aldolase B in the proximal tubules. The collecting tubules and the capillaries contained a mixture of the two types. In the hypernephroid carcinoma cells only aldolase A could be found, but the capillaries within the tumor tissue did contain some aldolase B. Confirmation of these results was obtained by analysis of homogenate prepared with carefully selected tissue parts.

    Beitrage zur Pathologie 1975;156;3;266-79

Gene lists (9)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000011 G2C Homo sapiens Human clathrin Human orthologues of mouse clathrin coated vesicle genes adapted from Collins et al (2006) 150
L00000012 G2C Homo sapiens Human Synaptosome Human orthologues of mouse synaptosome adapted from Collins et al (2006) 152
L00000013 G2C Homo sapiens Human mGluR5 Human orthologues of mouse mGluR5 complex adapted from Collins et al (2006) 52
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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