G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
G00002150
Gene symbol
CNP (HGNC)
Species
Homo sapiens
Description
2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3' phosphodiesterase
Orthologue
G00000901 (Mus musculus)

Databases (8)

Gene
ENSG00000173786 (Ensembl human gene)
1267 (Entrez Gene)
622 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
CNP (GeneCards)
Literature
123830 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:2158 (HGNC)
Protein Expression
2672 (human protein atlas)
Protein Sequence
P09543 (UniProt)

Literature (42)

Pubmed - other

  • No relationship between 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase and schizophrenia in the Chinese Han population: an expression study and meta-analysis.

    Che R, Tang W, Zhang J, Wei Z, Zhang Z, Huang K, Zhao X, Gao J, Zhou G, Huang P, He L and Shi Y

    Bio-X Center, Key Laboratory for the Genetics of Developmental and Neuropsychiatric Disorders, Ministry of Education, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030, PR China. jiajiache@hotmail.com

    Background: 2',3'-Cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNP), one of the promising candidate genes for schizophrenia, plays a key part in the oligodendrocyte function and in myelination. The present study aims to investigate the relationship between CNP and schizophrenia in the Chinese population and the effect of different factors on the expression level of CNP in schizophrenia.

    Methods: Five CNP single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were investigated in a Chinese Han schizophrenia case-control sample set (n = 180) using direct sequencing. The results were included in the following meta-analysis. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was conducted to examine CNP expression levels in peripheral blood lymphocytes.

    Results: Factors including gender, genotype, sub-diagnosis and antipsychotics-treatment were found not to contribute to the expression regulation of the CNP gene in schizophrenia. Our meta-analysis produced similar negative results.

    Conclusion: The results suggest that the CNP gene may not be involved in the etiology and pathology of schizophrenia in the Chinese population.

    BMC medical genetics 2009;10;31

  • Prefrontal cortex shotgun proteome analysis reveals altered calcium homeostasis and immune system imbalance in schizophrenia.

    Martins-de-Souza D, Gattaz WF, Schmitt A, Rewerts C, Maccarrone G, Dias-Neto E and Turck CW

    Laboratório de Neurociências, Instituto de Psiquiatria, Universidade de São Paulo, Rua. Dr. Ovidio Pires de Campos, no 785, Consolação, São Paulo, SP 05403-010, Brazil.

    Schizophrenia is a complex disease, likely to be caused by a combination of serial alterations in a number of genes and environmental factors. The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (Brodmann's Area 46) is involved in schizophrenia and executes high-level functions such as working memory, differentiation of conflicting thoughts, determination of right and wrong concepts and attitudes, correct social behavior and personality expression. Global proteomic analysis of post-mortem dorsolateral prefrontal cortex samples from schizophrenia patients and non-schizophrenic individuals was performed using stable isotope labeling and shotgun proteomics. The analysis resulted in the identification of 1,261 proteins, 84 of which showed statistically significant differential expression, reinforcing previous data supporting the involvement of the immune system, calcium homeostasis, cytoskeleton assembly, and energy metabolism in schizophrenia. In addition a number of new potential markers were found that may contribute to the understanding of the pathogenesis of this complex disease.

    European archives of psychiatry and clinical neuroscience 2009;259;3;151-63

  • Alterations in oligodendrocyte proteins, calcium homeostasis and new potential markers in schizophrenia anterior temporal lobe are revealed by shotgun proteome analysis.

    Martins-de-Souza D, Gattaz WF, Schmitt A, Rewerts C, Marangoni S, Novello JC, Maccarrone G, Turck CW and Dias-Neto E

    Laboratório de Neurociências, Faculdade de Medicina da USP, Instituto de Psiquiatria, Universidade de São Paulo, Rua Dr. Ovídio Pires de Campos, No 785, s/n Consolação, São Paulo, SP, CEP 05403-010, Brazil. danms90@gmail.com

    Global proteomic analysis of post-mortem anterior temporal lobe samples from schizophrenia patients and non-schizophrenia individuals was performed using stable isotope labeling and shotgun proteomics. Our analysis resulted in the identification of 479 proteins, 37 of which showed statistically significant differential expression. Pathways affected by differential protein expression include transport, signal transduction, energy pathways, cell growth and maintenance and protein metabolism. The collection of protein alterations identified here reinforces the importance of myelin/oligodendrocyte and calcium homeostasis in schizophrenia, and reveals a number of new potential markers that may contribute to the understanding of the pathogenesis of this complex disease.

    Journal of neural transmission (Vienna, Austria : 1996) 2009;116;3;275-89

  • Transketolase and 2',3'-cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase type I isoforms are specifically recognized by IgG autoantibodies in multiple sclerosis patients.

    Lovato L, Cianti R, Gini B, Marconi S, Bianchi L, Armini A, Anghileri E, Locatelli F, Paoletti F, Franciotta D, Bini L and Bonetti B

    Department of Neurological Sciences and Vision, University of Verona, 37134 Verona, Italy.

    The presence of autoantibodies in multiple sclerosis (MuS) is well known, but their target antigens have not been clearly identified. In the present study, IgG autoreactivity to neural antigens of normal human white matter separated by bidimensional electrophoresis was assessed in serum and cerebrospinal fluid of 18 MuS and 20 control patients. Broad IgG autoreactivity was detected by two-dimensional immunoblotting in all cases to neural antigens, most of which were identified by mass spectrometry. The comparative analysis of MuS and non-MuS reactive spots showed that a restricted number of neural protein isoforms were specifically recognized by MuS IgG. Almost all MuS patients had cerebrospinal fluid IgG directed to isoforms of one of the oligodendroglial molecules, transketolase, 2',3'-cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase type I, collapsin response mediator protein 2, and tubulin beta 4. Interestingly 50% of MuS IgG recognized transketolase, which was mostly localized on oligodendrocytes in human white matter from normal and MuS samples. IgG autoreactivity to cytoskeletal proteins (radixin, sirtuin 2, and actin-interacting protein 1) was prevalent in secondary progressive MuS patients. Among the proteins recognized by serum IgG, almost all MuS patients specifically recognized a restricted number of neuronal/cytoskeletal proteins, whereas 2',3'-cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase type I was the oligodendroglial antigen most frequently recognized (44%) by MuS seric IgG. Our immunomics approach shed new light on the autoimmune repertoire present in MuS patients revealing novel oligodendroglial and/or neuronal putative autoantigens with potential important pathogenic and diagnostic implications.

    Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 2008;7;12;2337-49

  • A family-based association study of the myelin-associated glycoprotein and 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase genes with schizophrenia.

    Voineskos AN, de Luca V, Bulgin NL, van Adrichem Q, Shaikh S, Lang DJ, Honer WG and Kennedy JL

    Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.

    A recent surge of evidence implicating myelin abnormalities in the etiology of schizophrenia has been found. This study is a family-based genetic association analysis examining the myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) and 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNP) genes in schizophrenia. About 246 families of primarily European-Caucasian origin were genotyped for MAG rs2301600, rs720308, rs720309, rs756796, and CNP rs2070106 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The FBAT program (v1.7.2) and Transmit were used to analyze individual SNPs and haplotypes, respectively. The CNP SNP (rs2070106) was potentially associated with schizophrenia (P=0.027). MAG variants were not associated with disease transmission based on single marker or haplotype analysis. A significant maternal parent-of-origin effect for the CNP risk allele for schizophrenia was found (P=0.003). No CNP-MAG gene-gene interaction conferred increased risk for schizophrenia. Our finding provides support for potential association of the CNP gene but not the MAG gene in schizophrenia in a Caucasian population.

    Psychiatric genetics 2008;18;3;143-6

  • Effect of a functional single nucleotide polymorphism in the 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase gene on the expression of oligodendrocyte-related genes in schizophrenia.

    Iwamoto K, Ueda J, Bundo M, Nakano Y and Kato T

    Laboratory for Molecular Dynamics of Mental Disorders, RIKEN Brain Science Institute, Wako, Saitama, Japan. kaziwamoto@brain.riken.jp

    Aims: Although the expression of oligodendrocyte-related genes in post-mortem brains of patients with schizophrenia is consistently reported to be downregulated, the cause of the change remains unclear. The A-allele of rs2070106 within the 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNP), an oligodendrocyte-related gene, was reported to show reduced expression compared with the G-allele, and proposed to be associated with schizophrenia.

    Methods: The effect of the rs2070106 genotype on the expression of CNP and other oligodendrocyte-related genes was examined using data previously obtained from DNA microarray studies of post-mortem brains.

    Results: It was found that the effect of rs2070106 genotype on the CNP expression was transcript specific, and that the genotype was not associated with the expression of other oligodendrocyte-related genes.

    Conclusions: The rs207016 genotype is not likely to contribute to the reported coordinated down-regulation of oligodendrococyte-related genes in schizophrenia.

    Psychiatry and clinical neurosciences 2008;62;1;103-8

  • Expression of oligodendrocyte-associated genes in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of patients with schizophrenia.

    Mitkus SN, Hyde TM, Vakkalanka R, Kolachana B, Weinberger DR, Kleinman JE and Lipska BK

    Clinical Brain Disorders Branch, Section on Neuropathology, DIRP/NIMH/NIH, Bethesda, MD, 20892-1385, USA.

    Prior studies have found decreased mRNA expression of oligodendrocyte-associated genes in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) of patients with schizophrenia. However, it is unclear which specific genes are affected and whether the changes occur in the cortical white or grey matter. We assessed the mRNA expression levels of four oligodendrocyte-related genes: myelin-associated basic protein (MOBP), myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG), 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNP) and oligodendrocyte-lineage transcription factor 2 (OLIG2) in DLPFC white and grey matter using quantitative-PCR (approximately 70 controls and approximately 30 patients with schizophrenia). We also examined the effects of high-risk polymorphisms in CNP and OLIG2 on mRNA levels of these genes. We found that genetic polymorphisms in CNP (rs2070106) and OLIG2 (rs1059004 and rs9653711), previously associated with schizophrenia, predicted low expression of these genes. Expression of MAG, CNP and OLIG2 did not differ between patients with schizophrenia and controls in the grey or white matter but MOBP mRNA levels were increased in the DLPFC white matter in patients with a history of substance abuse. MOBP and CNP protein in the white matter was not altered. Although previously reported reductions in the expression of myelin-related genes in the DLPFC were not detected, we show that individuals carrying risk-associated alleles in oligodendrocyte-related genes had relatively lower transcript levels. These data illustrate the importance of genetic background in gene expression studies in schizophrenia.

    Funded by: Intramural NIH HHS: Z01 MH002399-18, Z99 MH999999

    Schizophrenia research 2008;98;1-3;129-38

  • Purification and identification of G protein-coupled receptor protein complexes under native conditions.

    Daulat AM, Maurice P, Froment C, Guillaume JL, Broussard C, Monsarrat B, Delagrange P and Jockers R

    Department of Cell Biology, Institut Cochin, INSERM U567, CNRS UMR 8104, Université Paris Descartes, France.

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) constitute the largest family of membrane receptors and are of major therapeutic importance. The identification of GPCR-associated proteins is an important step toward a better understanding of these receptors. However, current methods are not satisfying as only isolated receptor domains (intracellular loops or carboxyl-terminal tails) can be used as "bait." We report here a method based on tandem affinity purification coupled to mass spectrometry that overcomes these limitations as the entire receptor is used to identify protein complexes formed in living mammalian cells. The human MT(1) and MT(2) melatonin receptors were chosen as model GPCRs. Both receptors were tagged with the tandem affinity purification tag at their carboxyl-terminal tails and expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 cells. Receptor solubilization and purification conditions were optimized. The method was validated by the co-purification of G(i) proteins, which are well known GPCR interaction partners but which are difficult to identify with current protein-protein interaction assays. Several new and functionally relevant MT(1)- and MT(2)-associated proteins were identified; some of them were common to both receptors, and others were specific for each subtype. Taken together, our protocol allowed for the first time the purification of GPCR-associated proteins under native conditions in quantities suitable for mass spectrometry analysis.

    Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 2007;6;5;835-44

  • Case-control association study of the 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNP) gene and schizophrenia in the Han Chinese population.

    Tang F, Qu M, Wang L, Ruan Y, Lu T, Zhang H, Liu Z, Yue W and Zhang D

    Institute of Mental Health, Peking University, Beijing 100083, PR China.

    Converging evidence from imaging, microarray, genetic, and other studies suggests that abnormalities in myelin may play a role in schizophrenia. The expression of 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNP), which is used as a myelin marker, has been reported to be reduced in the schizophrenic brain. A synonymous genetic variation in the CNP gene, rs2070106, has recently been shown to be associated with schizophrenia in Caucasians. The present study investigates whether this finding can be replicated in the Han Chinese population. We performed an association analysis of four ht-SNPs in the CNP gene in a Chinese sample consisting of 426 schizophrenic patients and 439 healthy controls. We did not find any significant differences in any genotypic, allelic or haplotypic distributions between patients and controls. Therefore, this study did not find an association between genetic variations in the CNP gene and schizophrenia in the Han Chinese population.

    Neuroscience letters 2007;416;2;113-6

  • The 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase and oligodendrocyte lineage transcription factor 2 genes do not appear to be associated with schizophrenia in the Japanese population.

    Usui H, Takahashi N, Saito S, Ishihara R, Aoyama N, Ikeda M, Suzuki T, Kitajima T, Yamanouchi Y, Kinoshita Y, Yoshida K, Iwata N, Inada T and Ozaki N

    Department of Psychiatry, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, and Ichihara Hospital, Chiba, Japan.

    Several lines of evidence suggest that disturbance of myelin-related genes is associated with the etiology of schizophrenia. Recently, the 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNP) gene and the oligodendrocyte lineage transcription factor 2 (OLIG2) gene were reported to be related to the development of schizophrenia, based on the results of genetic association and microarray studies. In the present study, no significant association with schizophrenia was observed by single-marker or haplotype analysis for 6 tag SNPs of these genes (759 cases, 757 controls). These findings suggest that CNP and OLIG2 are unlikely to be related to the development of schizophrenia in the Japanese population.

    Schizophrenia research 2006;88;1-3;245-50

  • Proteomic and bioinformatic characterization of the biogenesis and function of melanosomes.

    Chi A, Valencia JC, Hu ZZ, Watabe H, Yamaguchi H, Mangini NJ, Huang H, Canfield VA, Cheng KC, Yang F, Abe R, Yamagishi S, Shabanowitz J, Hearing VJ, Wu C, Appella E and Hunt DF

    Department of Chemistry, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904, USA.

    Melanin, which is responsible for virtually all visible skin, hair, and eye pigmentation in humans, is synthesized, deposited, and distributed in subcellular organelles termed melanosomes. A comprehensive determination of the protein composition of this organelle has been obstructed by the melanin present. Here, we report a novel method of removing melanin that includes in-solution digestion and immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC). Together with in-gel digestion, this method has allowed us to characterize melanosome proteomes at various developmental stages by tandem mass spectrometry. Comparative profiling and functional characterization of the melanosome proteomes identified approximately 1500 proteins in melanosomes of all stages, with approximately 600 in any given stage. These proteins include 16 homologous to mouse coat color genes and many associated with human pigmentary diseases. Approximately 100 proteins shared by melanosomes from pigmented and nonpigmented melanocytes define the essential melanosome proteome. Proteins validated by confirming their intracellular localization include PEDF (pigment-epithelium derived factor) and SLC24A5 (sodium/potassium/calcium exchanger 5, NCKX5). The sharing of proteins between melanosomes and other lysosome-related organelles suggests a common evolutionary origin. This work represents a model for the study of the biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: RR01744; NHGRI NIH HHS: U01-HG02712; NICHD NIH HHS: HD40179; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM 37537

    Journal of proteome research 2006;5;11;3135-44

  • Convergent evidence that oligodendrocyte lineage transcription factor 2 (OLIG2) and interacting genes influence susceptibility to schizophrenia.

    Georgieva L, Moskvina V, Peirce T, Norton N, Bray NJ, Jones L, Holmans P, Macgregor S, Zammit S, Wilkinson J, Williams H, Nikolov I, Williams N, Ivanov D, Davis KL, Haroutunian V, Buxbaum JD, Craddock N, Kirov G, Owen MJ and O'Donovan MC

    Department of Psychological Medicine, Cardiff University School of Medicine, Heath Park, Cardiff CF14 4XN, United Kingdom.

    Abnormal oligodendrocyte function has been postulated as a primary etiological event in schizophrenia. Oligodendrocyte lineage transcription factor 2 (OLIG2) encodes a transcription factor central to oligodendrocyte development. Analysis of OLIG2 in a case-control sample (n = approximately 1,400) in the U.K. revealed several SNPs to be associated with schizophrenia (minimum P = 0.0001, gene-wide P = 0.0009). To obtain independent support for this association, we sought evidence for genetic interaction between OLIG2 and three genes of relevance to oligodendrocyte function for which we have reported evidence for association with schizophrenia: CNP, NRG1, and ERBB4. We found interaction effects on disease risk between OLIG2 and CNP (minimum P = 0.0001, corrected P = 0.008) for interaction with ERBB4 (minimum P = 0.002, corrected P = 0.04) but no evidence for interaction with NRG1. To investigate the biological plausibility of the interactions, we sought correlations between the expression of the genes. The results were similar to those of the genetic interaction analysis. OLIG2 expression significantly correlated in cerebral cortex with CNP (P < 10(-7)) and ERBB4 (P = 0.002, corrected P = 0.038) but not NRG1. In mouse striatum, Olig2 and Cnp expression also was correlated, and linkage analysis for trans-effects on gene expression suggests that each locus regulates the other's expression. Our data provide strong convergent evidence that variation in OLIG2 confers susceptibility to schizophrenia alone and as part of a network of genes implicated in oligodendrocyte function.

    Funded by: Medical Research Council: G9309834, G9810900

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2006;103;33;12469-74

  • Mitochondrial localization of CNP2 is regulated by phosphorylation of the N-terminal targeting signal by PKC: implications of a mitochondrial function for CNP2 in glial and non-glial cells.

    Lee J, O'Neill RC, Park MW, Gravel M and Braun PE

    Department of Biochemistry, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1Y6. johnlee@gene.com

    Both 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide-3'-phosphodiesterase (CNP) isoforms are abundantly expressed in myelinating cells. CNP2 differs from CNP1 by a 20 amino acid N-terminal extension and is also expressed at much lower levels in non-myelinating tissues. The functional role of CNP2, apart from CNP1, and the significance for CNP2 expression in non-myelinating tissues are unknown. Here, we demonstrate that CNP2 is translocated to mitochondria by virtue of a mitochondrial targeting signal at the N-terminus. PKC-mediated phosphorylation of the targeting signal inhibits CNP2 translocation to mitochondria, thus retaining it in the cytoplasm. CNP2 is imported into mitochondria and the targeting signal cleaved, yielding a mature, truncated form similar in size to CNP1. CNP2 is entirely processed in adult liver and embryonic brain, indicating that it is localized specifically to mitochondria in non-myelinating cells. Our results point to a broader biological role for CNP2 in mitochondria that is likely to be different from its specific role in the cytoplasm, along with CNP1, during myelination.

    Molecular and cellular neurosciences 2006;31;3;446-62

  • Convergent evidence for 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase as a possible susceptibility gene for schizophrenia.

    Peirce TR, Bray NJ, Williams NM, Norton N, Moskvina V, Preece A, Haroutunian V, Buxbaum JD, Owen MJ and O'Donovan MC

    Department of Psychological Medicine, School of Medicine, Cardiff University, Cardiff, Wales.

    Context: Convergent data make 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNP) a candidate gene for schizophrenia. Reduced expression has been reported in the schizophrenic brain. The CNP gene maps to a region to which we have reported linkage to schizophrenia. Mice in which the CNP gene has been knocked out display central nervous system pathological characteristics reminiscent of some features observed in schizophrenia. 2',3'-Cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase is used as a marker of myelin-forming cells and is detectable in cells of oligodendrocyte lineage throughout life. Because CNP is thought to be important for oligodendrocyte function, altered expression has been interpreted as supportive of the hypothesis that altered oligodendrocyte function may be an etiological factor in schizophrenia. However, it is unclear whether the observed changes in the schizophrenic brain are primary or secondary.

    Objectives: To determine if CNP expression is influenced by DNA polymorphisms and to verify if these polymorphisms are associated with schizophrenia.

    Design: Allele-specific messenger RNA expression assay and genetic association studies.

    Setting: Unrelated subjects were ascertained from secondary psychiatric inpatient and outpatient services.

    Participants: We used brain tissue from 60 anonymous individuals with no known psychiatric disorder; a case-control sample of 708 white individuals from the United Kingdom meeting DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia matched for age, sex, and ethnicity to 711 blood donor controls; and a pedigree with DNA from 6 affected siblings and 1 parent, showing evidence for linkage to CNP.

    Association between allele and gene expression. Association between allele and schizophrenia.

    Results: The exonic single nucleotide polymorphism rs2070106 was associated with CNP expression (P<.001). Compatible with underexpression of CNP messenger RNA in schizophrenia, the lower-expressing A allele was significantly associated with schizophrenia (P = .04) in the case-control sample. All affected individuals in the linked pedigree were homozygous for the lower-expression allele, providing independent support for the association (P = .03).

    Conclusions: Our data support the hypothesis that reduced CNP expression in the schizophrenic brain is relevant to disease etiology and therefore provide support for the general hypothesis that altered oligodendrocyte function is an etiological factor in schizophrenia.

    Funded by: Medical Research Council: G9810900

    Archives of general psychiatry 2006;63;1;18-24

  • Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network.

    Rual JF, Venkatesan K, Hao T, Hirozane-Kishikawa T, Dricot A, Li N, Berriz GF, Gibbons FD, Dreze M, Ayivi-Guedehoussou N, Klitgord N, Simon C, Boxem M, Milstein S, Rosenberg J, Goldberg DS, Zhang LV, Wong SL, Franklin G, Li S, Albala JS, Lim J, Fraughton C, Llamosas E, Cevik S, Bex C, Lamesch P, Sikorski RS, Vandenhaute J, Zoghbi HY, Smolyar A, Bosak S, Sequerra R, Doucette-Stamm L, Cusick ME, Hill DE, Roth FP and Vidal M

    Center for Cancer Systems Biology and Department of Cancer Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, 44 Binney Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    Systematic mapping of protein-protein interactions, or 'interactome' mapping, was initiated in model organisms, starting with defined biological processes and then expanding to the scale of the proteome. Although far from complete, such maps have revealed global topological and dynamic features of interactome networks that relate to known biological properties, suggesting that a human interactome map will provide insight into development and disease mechanisms at a systems level. Here we describe an initial version of a proteome-scale map of human binary protein-protein interactions. Using a stringent, high-throughput yeast two-hybrid system, we tested pairwise interactions among the products of approximately 8,100 currently available Gateway-cloned open reading frames and detected approximately 2,800 interactions. This data set, called CCSB-HI1, has a verification rate of approximately 78% as revealed by an independent co-affinity purification assay, and correlates significantly with other biological attributes. The CCSB-HI1 data set increases by approximately 70% the set of available binary interactions within the tested space and reveals more than 300 new connections to over 100 disease-associated proteins. This work represents an important step towards a systematic and comprehensive human interactome project.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R33 CA132073; NHGRI NIH HHS: P50 HG004233, R01 HG001715, RC4 HG006066, U01 HG001715; NHLBI NIH HHS: U01 HL098166

    Nature 2005;437;7062;1173-8

  • Process outgrowth in oligodendrocytes is mediated by CNP, a novel microtubule assembly myelin protein.

    Lee J, Gravel M, Zhang R, Thibault P and Braun PE

    Department of Biochemistry, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. johnlee@gene.com

    Oligodendrocytes (OLs) extend arborized processes that are supported by microtubules (MTs) and microfilaments. Little is known about proteins that modulate and interact with the cytoskeleton during myelination. Several lines of evidence suggest a role for 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNP) in mediating process formation in OLs. In this study, we report that tubulin is a major CNP-interacting protein. In vitro, CNP binds preferentially to tubulin heterodimers compared with MTs and induces MT assembly by copolymerizing with tubulin. CNP overexpression induces dramatic morphology changes in both glial and nonglial cells, resulting in MT and F-actin reorganization and formation of branched processes. These morphological effects are attributed to CNP MT assembly activity; branched process formation is either substantially reduced or abolished with the expression of loss-of-function mutants. Accordingly, cultured OLs from CNP-deficient mice extend smaller outgrowths with less arborized processes. We propose that CNP is an important component of the cytoskeletal machinery that directs process outgrowth in OLs.

    The Journal of cell biology 2005;170;4;661-73

  • Crystal structure of the catalytic fragment of human brain 2',3'-cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase.

    Sakamoto Y, Tanaka N, Ichimiya T, Kurihara T and Nakamura KT

    School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Showa University, 1-5-8 Hatanodai, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 142-8555, Japan.

    2',3'-Cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNP), a member of the 2H phosphoesterase superfamily, is firmly bound to brain white matter and found mainly in the central nervous system of vertebrates, and it catalyzes the hydrolysis of 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide to produce 2'-nucleotide. Recent studies on CNP-knockout mice have revealed that the absence of CNP causes axonal swelling and neuronal degeneration. Here, the crystal structure of the catalytic fragment (CF) of human CNP (hCNP-CF) is solved at 1.8A resolution. It is an alpha+beta type structure consisting of three alpha-helices and nine beta-strands. The structural core of the molecule is comprised of two topologically equivalent three-stranded antiparallel beta-sheets that are related by a pseudo 2-fold symmetry. Each beta-sheet contains an H-X-T-X motif, which is strictly conserved among members of the 2H phosphoesterase superfamily. The phosphate ion is bound to the side-chains of His and Thr from each of the two motifs. Structural comparison of hCNP-CF with plant 1'',2''-cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (CPDase) and bacterial 2'-5' RNA ligase reveals that the H-X-T-X motifs are structurally conserved among these enzymes, but the surface properties of the active site are quite different among the enzymes, reflecting the differences in their substrates. On the basis of the present crystal structure of the hCNP-CF/phosphate complex, the available structure of the CPDase/cyclic-nucleotide analogue complex, and the recent functional studies of rat CNP-CF, we propose a possible substrate-binding mode and catalytic mechanism of CNP, which employs the nucleophilic water molecule activated by His310. The proposed mechanism is basically equivalent to the second step of the well-accepted reaction mechanism of RNase A. Since the overall structure of hCNP-CF differs considerably from that of RNase A, it is likely that the similar active sites with two catalytic histidine residues in these enzymes arose through convergent evolution.

    Journal of molecular biology 2005;346;3;789-800

  • Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies of human 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase.

    Sakamoto Y, Tanaka N, Ichimiya T, Kurihara T and Nakamura KT

    School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Showa University, Tokyo 142-8555, Japan.

    The catalytic fragment of human 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (hCNP-CF) has been crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using polyethylene glycol 300 as the precipitating agent. The crystals belong to the orthorhombic space group P2(1)2(1)2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 44.39, b = 55.35, c = 78.76 A. There is one molecule per asymmetric unit. The crystals diffract to at least 1.8 A resolution using synchrotron radiation and are suitable for X-ray structure analysis at high resolution.

    Acta crystallographica. Section D, Biological crystallography 2004;60;Pt 11;2095-7

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.

    Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, Otsuki T, Sugiyama T, Irie R, Wakamatsu A, Hayashi K, Sato H, Nagai K, Kimura K, Makita H, Sekine M, Obayashi M, Nishi T, Shibahara T, Tanaka T, Ishii S, Yamamoto J, Saito K, Kawai Y, Isono Y, Nakamura Y, Nagahari K, Murakami K, Yasuda T, Iwayanagi T, Wagatsuma M, Shiratori A, Sudo H, Hosoiri T, Kaku Y, Kodaira H, Kondo H, Sugawara M, Takahashi M, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Furuya T, Kikkawa E, Omura Y, Abe K, Kamihara K, Katsuta N, Sato K, Tanikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ninomiya K, Ishibashi T, Yamashita H, Murakawa K, Fujimori K, Tanai H, Kimata M, Watanabe M, Hiraoka S, Chiba Y, Ishida S, Ono Y, Takiguchi S, Watanabe S, Yosida M, Hotuta T, Kusano J, Kanehori K, Takahashi-Fujii A, Hara H, Tanase TO, Nomura Y, Togiya S, Komai F, Hara R, Takeuchi K, Arita M, Imose N, Musashino K, Yuuki H, Oshima A, Sasaki N, Aotsuka S, Yoshikawa Y, Matsunawa H, Ichihara T, Shiohata N, Sano S, Moriya S, Momiyama H, Satoh N, Takami S, Terashima Y, Suzuki O, Nakagawa S, Senoh A, Mizoguchi H, Goto Y, Shimizu F, Wakebe H, Hishigaki H, Watanabe T, Sugiyama A, Takemoto M, Kawakami B, Yamazaki M, Watanabe K, Kumagai A, Itakura S, Fukuzumi Y, Fujimori Y, Komiyama M, Tashiro H, Tanigami A, Fujiwara T, Ono T, Yamada K, Fujii Y, Ozaki K, Hirao M, Ohmori Y, Kawabata A, Hikiji T, Kobatake N, Inagaki H, Ikema Y, Okamoto S, Okitani R, Kawakami T, Noguchi S, Itoh T, Shigeta K, Senba T, Matsumura K, Nakajima Y, Mizuno T, Morinaga M, Sasaki M, Togashi T, Oyama M, Hata H, Watanabe M, Komatsu T, Mizushima-Sugano J, Satoh T, Shirai Y, Takahashi Y, Nakagawa K, Okumura K, Nagase T, Nomura N, Kikuchi H, Masuho Y, Yamashita R, Nakai K, Yada T, Nakamura Y, Ohara O, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Helix Research Institute, 1532-3 Yana, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0812, Japan.

    As a base for human transcriptome and functional genomics, we created the "full-length long Japan" (FLJ) collection of sequenced human cDNAs. We determined the entire sequence of 21,243 selected clones and found that 14,490 cDNAs (10,897 clusters) were unique to the FLJ collection. About half of them (5,416) seemed to be protein-coding. Of those, 1,999 clusters had not been predicted by computational methods. The distribution of GC content of nonpredicted cDNAs had a peak at approximately 58% compared with a peak at approximately 42%for predicted cDNAs. Thus, there seems to be a slight bias against GC-rich transcripts in current gene prediction procedures. The rest of the cDNAs unique to the FLJ collection (5,481) contained no obvious open reading frames (ORFs) and thus are candidate noncoding RNAs. About one-fourth of them (1,378) showed a clear pattern of splicing. The distribution of GC content of noncoding cDNAs was narrow and had a peak at approximately 42%, relatively low compared with that of protein-coding cDNAs.

    Nature genetics 2004;36;1;40-5

  • Three-dimensional structure of a cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterase from human brain.

    Sakamoto Y, Tanaka N, Ichimiya T, Kurihara T and Nakamura KT

    School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Showa University, Tokyo 142-8555, Japan.

    2',3'-Cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNP) is found mainly in the central nervous system of vertebrates and catalyzes the hydrolysis of 2',3'-cyclic nucleotides to produce 2'-nucleotides in vitro. Recently, CNP has been identified as a member of the 2H phosphoesterase superfamily. Here we have determined the crystal structure of the catalytic fragment of human CNP (hCNP-CF) at 1.3 A resolution.

    Nucleic acids symposium series (2004) 2004;48;157-8

  • Structural evidence that brain cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase is a member of the 2H phosphodiesterase superfamily.

    Kozlov G, Lee J, Elias D, Gravel M, Gutierrez P, Ekiel I, Braun PE and Gehring K

    Department of Biochemistry, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1Y6, Canada.

    2',3'-Cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNP) is an enzyme abundantly present in the central nervous system of mammals and some vertebrates. In vitro, CNP specifically catalyzes the hydrolysis of 2',3'-cyclic nucleotides to produce 2'-nucleotides, but the physiologically relevant in vivo substrate remains obscure. Here, we report the medium resolution NMR structure of the catalytic domain of rat CNP with phosphate bound and describe its binding to CNP inhibitors. The structure has a bilobal arrangement of two modules, each consisting of a four-stranded beta-sheet and two alpha-helices. The beta-sheets form a large cavity containing a number of positively charged and aromatic residues. The structure is similar to those of the cyclic phosphodiesterase from Arabidopsis thaliana and the 2'-5' RNA ligase from Thermus thermophilus, placing CNP in the superfamily of 2H phosphodiesterases that contain two tetrapeptide HX(T/S)X motifs. NMR titrations of the CNP catalytic domain with inhibitors and kinetic studies of site-directed mutants reveal a protein conformational change that occurs upon binding.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;46;46021-8

  • Proteomic analysis of early melanosomes: identification of novel melanosomal proteins.

    Basrur V, Yang F, Kushimoto T, Higashimoto Y, Yasumoto K, Valencia J, Muller J, Vieira WD, Watabe H, Shabanowitz J, Hearing VJ, Hunt DF and Appella E

    Laboratory of Cell Biology, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.

    Melanin is a heterogeneous biopolymer produced only by specific cells termed melanocytes, which synthesize and deposit the pigment in specialized membrane-bound organelles known as melanosomes. Although melanosomes have been suspected of being closely related to lysosomes and platelets, the total number of melanosomal proteins is still unknown. Thus far, six melanosome-specific proteins have been identified, and the challenge is to characterize the complete proteome of the melanosome to further understand its mechanism of biogenesis. In this report, we used mass spectrometry and subcellular fractionation to identify protein components of early melanosomes. Using this approach, we have identified all 6 of the known melanosome-specific proteins, 56 proteins that are shared with other organelles, and confirmed the presence of 6 novel melanosomal proteins using western blotting and by immunohistochemistry.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM 37537

    Journal of proteome research 2003;2;1;69-79

  • Effects of endothelin-1 on release of adrenomedullin and C-type natriuretic peptide from individual human vascular endothelial cells.

    Evans JJ, Youssef AH, Yandle TG, Lewis LK and Nicholls MG

    University Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Christchurch School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Christchurch Women's Hospital, Private Bag 4711, Christchurch, New Zealand. john.evans@chmeds.ac.nz

    Regulation of cardiovascular system activity involves complex interactions amongst numerous factors. Three of these vasoactive factors are adrenomedullin, C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) and endothelin-1 (ET-1), each of which is claimed to have important local effects. To investigate paracrine/autocrine regulation of the secretion of these peptides we used a cell immunoblot method. We postulated that basal release of adrenomedullin and CNP by endothelial cells is modulated by ET-1. Dispersed human aortic endothelial cells were attached to a protein binding membrane and incubated for 1 or 4 h with control medium or with ET-1, endothelin receptor antagonists or antibody to ET-1, and then submitted to immunohistochemical staining. Peptides (adrenomedullin, CNP and ET-1) within individual cells were stained, as was peptide secreted and adjacent to the cell. It was demonstrated that adrenomedullin, CNP and ET-1 can be contained within the same cell. In addition, we observed that individual endothelial cells can secrete all three peptides. The endothelin ET-A/ET-B receptor antagonist, bosentan, the ET-B receptor antagonist, BQ-788, and anti-ET-1 serum decreased the percentage of endothelial cells that secreted adrenomedullin and CNP relative to control. Conversely, the addition of ET-1 induced an increase in the number of endothelial cells that secreted adrenomedullin and CNP. These results provide strong evidence that endogenous ET-1, from human vascular endothelial cells, acts in a paracrine/autocrine manner to modulate the basal release of adrenomedullin and CNP. Our observations of this modulation suggest that vascular endothelial cells of humans constitute an important component of a self-responsive vasoregulatory system.

    The Journal of endocrinology 2002;175;1;225-32

  • A single-nucleotide polymorphism in C-type natriuretic peptide gene may be associated with hypertension.

    Ono K, Mannami T, Baba S, Tomoike H, Suga S and Iwai N

    Research Institute, National Cardiovascular Center, Suita, Japan.

    We conducted an association study between genetic variants of C-type natriuretic peptide gene (CNP) and hypertension in a Japanese population. We found four genetic variants, two in the promoter region, one missense mutation, and one in the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR), and genotyped all four variants in 2,006 subjects recruited from the Suita study. One of the variants, G2628A in 3'-UTR, was found to be associated with blood pressure. Multiple logistic analyses indicated that the genotype of the G2628A polymorphism (GG=1, GA+AA=2) (p=0.0034), sex (p=0.0288), alcohol consumption (p=0.0002), age (p<0.0001), and body mass index (p<0.0001) were predictors of hypertension. The odds ratio of the GA+AA genotype over the GG genotype for hypertension was 1.40 (p=0.0034, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.12-1.75). Multiple logistic analyses in a younger subpopulation aged below 65 years indicated that the odds ratio of the GA+AA genotype over the GG genotype for hypertension was 1.58 (p=0.0024, 95%CI 1.18-2.12). Thus, the CNP G2628A polymorphism made an even greater contribution to hypertension in the younger subpopulation.

    Hypertension research : official journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension 2002;25;5;727-30

  • 2',3'-Cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase: a membrane-bound, microtubule-associated protein and membrane anchor for tubulin.

    Bifulco M, Laezza C, Stingo S and Wolff J

    Dipartimento di Scienze Farmaceutiche, Università di Salerno, 84084 Fisciano, Salerno, Italy. maubiful@unina.it

    2',3'-Cyclic nucleotide-3'-phosphodiesterase (CNP) is firmly associated with tubulin from brain tissue and FRTL-5 thyroid cells as demonstrated by copolymerization with microtubules through several warm/cold cycles, the presence of CNP activity in purified tubulin preparations, and identical behavior during various extraction procedures. CNP acts as a microtubule-associated protein in promoting microtubule assembly at low mole ratios. This activity resides in the C terminus of the enzyme, which, by itself, promotes microtubule assembly at higher mole ratios. Phosphorylation of CNP interferes with its assembly-promoting activity, as does deletion of the C terminus, which leads to abnormal microtubule distribution in the cell. Submembranous colocalization of the proteins and CNP-dependent microtubule organization suggest that CNP is a membrane-bound microtubule-associated protein that can link tubulin to membranes and may regulate cytoplasmic microtubule distribution.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2002;99;4;1807-12

  • Leydig cells of the human testis possess astrocyte and oligodendrocyte marker molecules.

    Davidoff MS, Middendorff R, Köfüncü E, Müller D, Jezek D and Holstein AF

    Institute of Anatomy, University of Hamburg, Germany. davidoff@uke.uni-hamburg.de

    It has been established, that Leydig cells of the human testis possess neuroendocrine properties and are therefore a member of the diffuse neuroendocrine (paraneuron) system. In the present study, we examined whether Leydig cells of adult (51-86 year of age) and developing (between the 15th and 36th week of gestation) human testes are immunopositive for glial cell-specific antigens such as glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), galactocerebroside (GalC), cyclic 2',3'-nucleotide-3'-phosphodiesterase (CNPase), A2B5-antigen (A2B5) and O4-antigen (O4). With the use of Western blots and dot blot analyses, respectively, GFAP, CNPase, GalC, A2B5 and O4 were found in whole testes and Leydig cell protein extracts of adult men. Corresponding immunohistochemical studies revealed presence of these antigens in the cytoplasm of Leydig cells both of adult testes and testes during prenatal development. Some differences in staining intensity of single antigens were observed probably depending on the functional and/or developmental stage of the single cells. In addition, GFAP-, GalC- and CNPase-immunopositivity was found in numerous Sertoli cells of the seminiferous tubules. Moreover, some connective tissue cells (compartmentalizing cells or Co-cells) of the intertubular space showed immunopositivity for CNPase, A2B5 and GalC. The results obtained show that Leydig cells of the human testis, in addition to their endocrine, neuronal and neuroendocrine features, possess qualities of both astrocytes and oligodendrocytes and thus show qualities of multipotential cells. Leydig cells probably differentiate to a phenotype that is characteristic for cells in the developing nervous system. Furthermore, the established immunohistochemical similarities are consistent with the assumption that foetal and postnatal Leydig cells are of common origin.

    Acta histochemica 2002;104;1;39-49

  • HIV-1 Tat protein down-regulates CREB transcription factor expression in PC12 neuronal cells through a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT/cyclic nucleoside phosphodiesterase pathway.

    Zauli G, Milani D, Mirandola P, Mazzoni M, Secchiero P, Miscia S and Capitani S

    Institute of Normal Morphology, G. d'Annunzio University of Chieti; 66100 Chieti, Italy. g.zauli@morpho.unich.it

    The addition of low concentrations (0.1-1 nM) of extracellular HIV-1 Tat protein to PC12 neuronal cells stimulated a rapid (peak at 5 min) elevation of the cAMP intracellular levels, which in turn induced the phosphorylation of CREB transcription factor (peak at 15 min) on serine-133 (Ser-133). On the contrary, at later time points (60-120 min) Tat induced a significant decline of intracellular cAMP with respect to the basal levels observed in control cells treated with bovine serum albumin. In blocking experiments performed with pharmacological inhibitors, Tat decreased the intracellular levels of cAMP and CREB Ser-133 phosphorylation through a signal transduction pathway involving the sequential activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, AKT, and cyclic nucleoside phosphodiesterases. Moreover, in transient transfection experiments, Tat inhibited transcription of CREB promoter in a manner strictly dependent on the presence of the cAMP-responsive elements (CRE) in the CREB promoter. Consistently, the expression of endogenous CREB protein was significantly reduced in PC12 cells by prolonged (24-48 h) treatment with Tat. This decline in the expression of CREB, which plays an essential role in the survival and function of neuronal cells, anticipated a progressive increase of apoptosis in Tat-treated cells. Although obtained in a neuronal cell line, our findings might help to explain some aspects of the pathogenesis of HIV-1-associated dementia.

    FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology 2001;15;2;483-91

  • Selective synthesis of 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase isoform 2 and identification of specifically phosphorylated serine residues.

    O'Neill RC and Braun PE

    Department of Biochemistry, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

    2',3'-Cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNP) is a protein found abundantly in the cytoplasmic compartments of CNS myelin. Two isoforms of this protein, CNP1 and CNP2, are detectable. They differ by a 20-amino acid extension exclusive to CNP2. Additionally, CNP2 is essentially the only isoform to be phosphorylated in vivo. In this study, we examine the phosphorylation of CNP2 in transfected cells. CNP2 was selectively expressed ectopically in 293T cells and labeled with 32P. Immunoprecipitation of labeled CNP2 and tryptic phosphopeptide mapping analyses identified serines 9 and 22 as the major sites of phosphorylation. Only serine 22 was phosphorylated initially in oligodendrocyte-enriched cultures of neonatal rat brain glial cells. However, 4beta-phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDB) induced the phosphorylation of serine 9, thereby producing the same pattern seen in 293T cells. These results suggest that serine 9 is phosphorylated by a PDB-sensitive kinase, likely protein kinase C, and that serine 22 appears to be constitutively phosphorylated.

    Journal of neurochemistry 2000;74;2;540-6

  • The epitope recognized by a monoclonal antibody in the myelin-associated protein CNP.

    Stricker R, Kalbacher H and Reiser G

    Medizinische Fakultät, Otto-von-Guericke-Universität, Leipziger Strasse 44, Magdeburg, D-39120, Germany.

    The epitope recognized by a monoclonal antibody (MAb-46-1) directed against the myelin-associated protein CNP (2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase; EC 3.1.4.37) from several species was characterized. MAb-46-1 can be employed for immunoprecipitation, immunostaining in Western blots and in immunohistochemistry. Short peptides derived from the human CNP1 peptide sequence were synthesized and used in enzyme linked immunosorbent assays to test the reactivity of MAb-46-1. Coarse screening experiments enabled us to localize the epitope recognized by MAb-46-1 to the amino acid residues 9 to 19 close to the N-terminus. Further investigations using shorter peptides comprising this part of the protein allowed us to identify a 9 amino acid residue long peptide (amino acids 11 to 19: ELQFPFLQD) which represents the minimal epitope recognized by MAb-46-1, probably through a 3-dimensional structure and less likely a straight linear peptide. The epitope seems to be stabilized also by the attached amino acids 7 to 10 (KDKP). The peptide sequence 9-19 is conserved in all CNP sequences described so far. Thus, MAb-46-1 might be of general usefulness for further studies of the not yet identified function of the myelin-associated protein CNP.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 1997;237;2;266-70

  • Molecular cloning and chromosomal assignment of the human homologue of the rat cGMP-inhibited phosphodiesterase 1 (PDE3A)--a gene involved in fat metabolism located at 11p 15.1.

    Löbbert RW, Winterpacht A, Seipel B and Zabel BU

    Children's Hospital University of Mainz, Germany.

    We have cloned the coding region of a human gene, whose predicted amino acid sequence shows 88% homology and higher correspondence in functional domains to the rat cGMP inhibited phosphodiesterase gene (PDE3A). In concordance with the expression data of the rat PDE3A gene, a 5.3-kb transcript of the human cGMP-inhibited phosphodiesterase gene is shown in Northern blot analysis to be highly expressed in adipose tissue. In addition, weaker expression is seen in pancreas, skeletal muscle, liver, placenta, and heart. cDNA clones from the homologue mouse gene were isolated and sequenced spanning a highly conserved region coding for a C-terminal located catalytic core region of this enzyme family. Using a genomic cosmid clone of human PDE3A for fluorescence in situ hybridization, the gene was mapped to chromosomal region 11p15 and regionally sublocalized by PCR on a human-hamster somatic hybrid-cell mapping panel to 11p15.1-p2. Based on comparative linkage data in mouse and rat this chromosomal location is suggested to contain genes involved in complex diseases like obesity and diabetes mellitus type II. Therefore, a possible involvement of the human PDE3A gene in these polygenic traits is discussed, taking into account the prominent role of the rat PDE3A gene product in the antilipolytic action of insulin in adipocytes.

    Genomics 1996;37;2;211-8

  • Structure, expression and chromosomal localization of the gene encoding human 2',3'-cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase.

    Monoh K, Kurihara T, Takahashi Y, Ichikawa T, Kumanishi T, Hayashi S, Minoshima S and Shimizu N

    Brain Research Institute, Niigata University, Japan.

    Four human genomic DNA clones for 2',3'-cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNP) were isolated by screening a human genomic library with human CNP cDNA clones as probes. Restriction mapping and sequence analysis revealed that the human CNP gene is about 8.5 kb long and composed of four exons interrupted by three introns. There are two transcription start points and in human brain, two forms of CNP mRNA are produced from a single gene by alternative splicing, similar to mouse. A homology search of the 5'-flanking regions of exon 0 and exon 1 in the human CNP gene indicated the presence of oligodendroglia-specific elements and myelin basic protein transcription element (MBTE) motif, in addition to TATA-box-like sequences. Spot blot hybridization of flow-sorted human chromosomes with the 3'-noncoding region of the human CNP cDNA showed the localization of CNP to chromosome 17.

    Gene 1993;129;2;297-301

  • 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide-3'-phosphohydrolase and signal transduction in central nervous system myelin.

    Thompson RJ

    University Clinical Biochemistry, Southampton General Hospital, U.K.

    Biochemical Society transactions 1992;20;3;621-6

  • Assignment of the human 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphohydrolase gene to chromosome 17.

    Sprinkle TJ, Lanclos KD and Lapp DF

    Department of Biochemistry, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta 30912.

    2',3'-Cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphohydrolase (CNP) has been used as a general oligodendrocyte and Schwann cell marker enzyme within the nervous system and has been the intense target of a number of recent studies. In this report, we determined the chromosomal localization of the human CNP gene using PCR on two somatic cell DNA panels. PCR amplification, using four primer pairs across an intron, confirms that the CNP gene is localized to chromosome 17. We also present the complete intron sequence of the human gene usd to make the assignment. This intron contains a c----t polymorphism located at nucleotide 1215, which may be of use in mapping the CNPase gene more precisely within chromosome 17.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: NS-18279

    Genomics 1992;13;3;877-80

  • Structure and chromosomal localization of the human 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase gene.

    Douglas AJ, Fox MF, Abbott CM, Hinks LJ, Sharpe G, Povey S and Thompson RJ

    University Clinical Biochemistry, Southampton General Hospital, U.K.

    Human brain cDNA clones for the myelin associated enzyme 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNPase) have been isolated and sequenced. The only 5' untranslated region (UTR) sequence found was that of a human CNPII mRNA, with no direct evidence for a CNPI mRNA. Human CNPase cDNAs were used to isolate genomic clones containing the human CNPase gene which is 9 kb long. Four exons were identified, separated by three introns, and the sequence of each exon and intron/exon boundary has been established. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect the presence of the human CNPase gene in DNA from a panel of rodent/human somatic cell hybrids. By this means the human CNPase gene was mapped to chromosome 17. In situ hybridization of a human CNPase genomic clone to metaphase chromosomes further localized this gene to chromosomal band 17q21.

    Funded by: Wellcome Trust

    Annals of human genetics 1992;56;Pt 3;243-54

  • A new peptide (1150Da) selectively activates the calcium-calmodulin sensitive isoform of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase from human myometrium.

    Leroy MJ, Dumler I, Lugnier C, Shushakova ND and Ferré F

    INSERM U.361, Maternité Baudelocque, Paris, France.

    The cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase enzymatic system is examined in extracts of human myometrium and four individual phosphodiesterase isoforms have been isolated and characterized. A new thermostable peptide, recently purified in rat and calf myometrium, is able to stimulate up to 55-fold, the calcium-calmodulin dependent phosphodiesterase isoform. Activation of cAMP hydrolysis is by far the most marked with a 55-fold maximal stimulation at a concentration of 0.1 microM peptide and a IC50 value estimated at 30nM. For cGMP hydrolysis, the maximal effect (x25) obtained at 40nM peptide is lesser and the IC50 value is in the 10nM range. Furthermore, we verified that classical calmodulin antagonists such as calmidazolium or trifluoroperazine did not change stimulation of the calcium-calmodulin phosphodiesterase by the peptide, indicating that the myometrial peptide is different from calmodulin. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence for such a strong and selective stimulation of one isoform of the phosphodiesterase enzymatic system by a natural peptide.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 1992;184;2;700-5

  • 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide-3'-phosphodiesterase in the central nervous system is fatty-acylated by thioester linkage.

    Agrawal HC, Sprinkle TJ and Agrawal D

    Department of Pediatrics, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63110.

    2',3'-Cyclic nucleotide-3'-phosphodiesterase (CNP1 and CNP2 with Mr of 46,000 and 48,000, respectively) is the major enzyme of central nervous system myelin. It is associated with oligodendroglial plasma membrane and uncompacted myelin (myelin-like fraction), which are in contact with glial cytoplasm. Proteins of the myelin-like fraction were labeled with [3H]palmitic acid in brain slices from 17-day-old rats and immunoprecipitated with anti-CNP antiserum. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and fluorography of immunoprecipitated material revealed intense acylation of CNP1 and CNP2, and radioactivity was released by hydroxylamine. Palmitic acid was covalently bound to CNP because radioactivity was not removed by extraction of immunoprecipitated CNP with organic solvent or by boiling in sodium dodecyl sulfate and dithiothreitol. However, treatment of immunoprecipitated CNP with (a) hydroxylamine-released palmitohydroxamate and palmitic acid, (b) sodium borohydride-released hexadecanol, and (c) methanolic-KOH-released methyl palmitate. Synthesis, acylation, or transport of CNP was not affected by monensin or colchicine. However, acylation of CNP was inhibited 24-32% by cycloheximide. These results provide conclusive evidence that CNP1 and CNP2 are fatty acid acylated with palmitate through a thioester linkage and is posttranslationally modified sometime after synthesis.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: NS-13464, NS-18279

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1990;265;20;11849-53

  • Expression of the oligodendrocyte marker 2'3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase in non-glial cells.

    Staugaitis SM, Bernier L, Smith PR and Colman DR

    Department of Cell Biology, New York University School of Medicine, New York.

    The 46 kD isoform of the 2'3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNPI) was expressed in HeLa cells by transfection of its cDNA clone. The distribution of this polypeptide as mapped by indirect immunofluorescence and conventional epifluorescence microscopy appeared diffuse and generally uniform throughout the cytoplasm. Confocal microscopic imaging and analysis of pseudocolored images confirmed this distribution but also revealed that there was a high concentration of CNPI near the plasma membrane of the cell. This pattern is very similar to that observed by immunoelectronmicroscopy of myelinating oligodendrocytes (Trapp et al.: J Neurochem 51:859-868, 1988; Braun et al.: J Neurosci 8: 3057-3066, 1988). These results suggest that CNP may interact with a membrane-associated molecule that is not unique to oligodendrocytes.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: 5T32GM07308; NINDS NIH HHS: NS20147

    Journal of neuroscience research 1990;25;4;556-60

  • cDNA cloning and amino acid sequence of human brain 2',3'-cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase.

    Kurihara T, Takahashi Y, Nishiyama A and Kumanishi T

    Department of Neuropharmacology, Niigata University, Japan.

    A cDNA of 1762 base pairs was obtained from a cDNA library of human brain by immunoscreening, and the nucleotide sequence of the cDNA was determined. The complete amino acid sequence of human 2',3'-cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase was deduced from the nucleotide sequence of the cDNA. Human enzyme was found to contain 401 amino acids including initiation methionine and have a molecular weight of 45,098. RNA blot hybridization revealed a single mRNA band at the position of about 3000 bases. DNA blot hybridization suggested that a single-copy 2',3'-cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase gene exists per haploid genome.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 1988;152;2;837-42

  • Differential expression of 2':3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase in cultured central, peripheral, and extraneural cells.

    Sprinkle TJ, McMorris FA, Yoshino J and DeVries GH

    The relative levels of the central nervous system myelin marker enzyme 2':3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (EC 3.1.4.37, CNPase) were determined in neuroblastoma, astrocyte, oligodendrocyte and Schwann cell cultures and in freshly isolated human lymphocytes and platelets. The highest specific activities were associated with the cells that elaborate myelin membrane in the central and peripheral nervous system, oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells, respectively. Antiserum to bovine CNPase recognized both CNP1 and CNP2 in CNS myelin and human oligodendroglioma. In addition, a 53,000 dalton protein was evident on autoradiographs of immunoblotted PNS myelin and human oligodendroglioma proteins. Cultured rat oligodendrocyte, C6 and mouse NA neuroblastoma CNPase appear to share common determinants with the corresponding normal rat CNS enzyme.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: NS-18279

    Neurochemical research 1985;10;7;919-31

  • An investigation of 2':3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (EC 3.1.4.37, CNP) in peripheral blood elements and CNS myelin.

    Sheedlo HJ, Doran JE and Sprinkle TJ

    Activity of 2':3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNP) of human erythrocyte membranes was determined in the presence of various brain CNP inhibitory compounds. Also, the hydrolysis of 2':3'-cAMP and 2':3'-cCMP by CNP of human platelets and lymphocytes was confirmed by thin layer chromatography and CNP activity was measured in lymphocytes, platelets, erythrocytes and CNS myelin. Human erythrocyte CNP activity was reduced 75 percent by the organomercurial p-chloromercuriphenyl sulfonate (1 X 10(-4) M), 46 percent by thimerosal (1 X 10(-4) M) and 35 percent by cupric chloride (1 X 10(-3) M). The 2'-AMP or 2'-CMP isomer was produced, exclusively, by the hydrolysis of 2':3'-cAMP or 2':3'-cCMP, respectively, by CNP of human lymphocytes and platelets and indicates a CNP-like activity is not only present in erythrocytes and the central and peripheral nervous systems, but also platelets and lymphocytes. CNP activities of human erythrocytes, human human and rat lymphocytes and human platelets were less than 4 percent of the activity of human and bovine CNS myelin.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: NS-18279

    Life sciences 1984;34;18;1731-7

Gene lists (9)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000011 G2C Homo sapiens Human clathrin Human orthologues of mouse clathrin coated vesicle genes adapted from Collins et al (2006) 150
L00000012 G2C Homo sapiens Human Synaptosome Human orthologues of mouse synaptosome adapted from Collins et al (2006) 152
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000049 G2C Homo sapiens TAP-PSD-95-CORE TAP-PSD-95 pull-down core list (ortho) 120
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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