G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
heat shock 70kDa protein 1B
G00000896 (Mus musculus)

Databases (8)

Curated Gene
OTTHUMG00000031202 (Vega human gene)
ENSG00000204388 (Ensembl human gene)
3304 (Entrez Gene)
166 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
HSPA1B (GeneCards)
603012 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:5233 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
P08107 (UniProt)

Synonyms (1)

  • HSP70-2

Literature (111)

Pubmed - human_disease

  • Is preeclampsia associated with higher frequency of HSP70 gene polymorphisms?

    Fekete A, Vér A, Bögi K, Treszl A and Rigó J

    Research Laboratory for Pediatrics and Nephrology, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary.

    Aim: To evaluate the possible association of three different HSP70 gene polymorphisms with preeclampsia.

    HSPA1A G(190)C, HSPA1B A(1267)G and HSPA1L T(2437)C polymorphisms were analyzed from blood samples of 72 women with preeclampsia and of 70 healthy pregnant women as controls by PCR-RFLP method.

    Results: HSPA1B (1267)GG and HSPA1L (2437)CC genotypes occurred more frequently in preeclamptic patients compared to healthy controls (p<0.002 [RR: 4.38, 95% CI: 1.56-12.28]) and (p<0.03 [RR: 1.31, 95% CI: 1.03-1.67]), respectively. Significant difference was found in the distribution of HSPA1B A(1267)G genotype between the preeclamptic and control group (p<0.004 [RR: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.51-0.88]). Distribution of HSPA1A G(190)C was similar in the preeclamptic and control group. In controls, genotype distribution of HSPA1A G(190)C and HSPA1L T(2437)C was in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, while this criterion was not fulfilled for HSPA1B A(1267)G.

    Conclusion: We concluded that HSPA1B (1267)GG and HSPA1L (2437)CC genotypes were more frequent among preeclamptic than control patients, suggesting that these genotypes may play a role in the susceptibility for preeclampsia.

    European journal of obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive biology 2006;126;2;197-200

Pubmed - other

  • HLA complex-linked heat shock protein genes and childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia susceptibility.

    Ucisik-Akkaya E, Davis CF, Gorodezky C, Alaez C and Dorak MT

    Genomic Immunoepidemiology Laboratory, HUMIGEN LLC, The Institute for Genetic Immunology, 2439 Kuser Road, Hamilton, NJ 08690-3303, USA.

    Three heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) genes, HSPA1L, HSPA1A, and HSPA1B, are located within the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class III region. HSPs act as stress signals and regulate natural killer cell response to cancer. HSP70 gene polymorphisms show disease associations partly due to their linkage disequilibrium with HLA alleles. To systematically evaluate their associations with childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), we examined the three functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs2227956 (T493M) in HSPA1L, rs1043618 in HSPA1A 5'UTR, and rs1061581 (Q351Q) in HSPA1B by TaqMan assays or polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism in 114 ALL cases and 414 controls from Wales (UK), in 100 Mexican Mestizo ALL cases and 253 controls belonging to the same ethnic group, and in a panel of 82 HLA-typed reference cell line samples. Homozygosity for HSPA1B rs1061581 minor allele G was associated with protection (odds ratio (OR) = 0.37, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.16-0.78; P = 0.007) with gene-dosage effect (additive model) reaching significance (P = 0.0001) in the Welsh case-control group. This association was replicated in the second case-control group from Mexico (OR (recessive model) = 0.49, 95% CI = 0.24-0.96; P = 0.03), and the pooled analysis yielded a strong association (Mantel-Haenszel OR = 0.43, 95% CI = 0.27-0.69, P = 0.0004). The association was stronger in males in each group and in the pooled analysis. A three-SNP haplotype including the major allele A of rs1061581 showed a highly significant increase in Welsh cases compared with respective controls (6.7% vs 1.8%; P = 0.0003) due to the difference between male cases and controls. The protective allele of rs1061581 occurred more frequently on the HLA-DRB3 haplotypes (especially DRB1*03) in the cell line panel, but the HSPA1B association was independent from the HLA-DRB4 association previously detected in the same case-control group from Wales (adjusted P = 0.001). Given the cancer promoting roles played by HSPs intracellularly as well as roles in immune surveillance when expressed on the cell surface and the known correlations between expression levels and the HSP polymorphisms, these results are likely to indicate a primary association and warrant detailed assessment in childhood ALL development.

    Cell stress & chaperones 2010;15;5;475-85

  • Polymorphisms in TNF and HSP-70 show a significant association with gastric cancer and duodenal ulcer.

    Partida-Rodríguez O, Torres J, Flores-Luna L, Camorlinga M, Nieves-Ramírez M, Lazcano E and Perez-Rodríguez M

    Immunology Research Unity, Pediatric Hospital, CMN S-XXI, IMSS, Mexico City CP 06720, Mexico.

    Tumour Necrosis Factor (TNF) and Heat Shock Protein 70 (HSP70) are important molecules in inflammatory, infectious and tumoral processes. The genes codifying these molecules are polymorphic and certain alleles have been associated with susceptibility to disease. Gastric cancer is associated with an Helicobacter pylori-induced chronic inflammatory response. The aim of this work was to analyze whether polymorphisms in inflammation-related genes are associated with the development of gastric cancer. We studied 447 Mexican adult patients including 228 with non-atrophic gastritis, 98 with intestinal metaplasia, 63 with gastric cancer and 58 with duodenal ulcer, and 132 asymptomatic individuals as well. DNA from peripheral white blood cells was typed for the Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) -308 of TNF-alpha, +252 of TNF-beta, +190 of HSP70-1, +1267 of HSP70-2 and +2437 of HSP70-HOM. Compared with the asymptomatic group, we found a significant association of TNF-beta*A and HSP70-1*C alleles with gastric cancer (OR 5.69 and 3.76, respectively) and HSP70-1*C with duodenal ulcer (OR 3.08). Genotype TNF-beta G/G showed a significant gene-dose effect with gastric cancer (OR 0.09); whereas HSP70-1 C/G showed significant association with both, gastric cancer (OR 13.31) and duodenal ulcer (OR 16.19). Polymorphisms in TNF and HSP70 showed a significant severity-dose-response as risk markers from preneoplastic lesions to gastric cancer in Mexican population, probably because of their association with an intense and sustained inflammatory response.

    International journal of cancer 2010;126;8;1861-1868

  • Regulation of heat shock protein 70-1 expression by androgen receptor and its signaling in human prostate cancer cells.

    Lu S, Tan Z, Wortman M, Lu S and Dong Z

    Department of Internal Medicine, The University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45267, USA.

    Heat shock protein (hsp) 70-1 (hsp70-1) is overexpressed in human prostate cancer cells and may play important roles in prostate cancer resistance to conventional therapies. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether androgen receptor (AR) and its signaling regulate hsp70-1 expression. Several lines of AR-positive (LNCaP, LAPC-4, and 22Rv1) and -negative (PC-3, DU145, WPE1-NB14 and WPE1-NB-26) human prostatic cells were used in the study. Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) enhanced hsp70-1 expression in LNCaP cells. Expression of hsp70-1 in LNCaP cells was downregulated by the anti-androgens bicalutamide (Bic), and flutamide (Flut), and a newly identified AR signaling antagonist DL3. The downregulation of hsp70-1 by DL3 was also observed in LAPC-4 and 22Rv1 cells, but not in the four lines of AR-negative cells examined. Expression of hsp70-1 was also reduced by DL3 in PC-3 cells engineered with AR. On the other hand, knocking down AR in LNCaP cells by siRNA moderately reduced hsp70-1 level and abolished effects of DL3 on hsp70-1 expression. DL3 reduced hsp70-1 mRNA synthesis in cells and its in vitro gene transcription but did not significantly alter the stabilities of hsp70-1 mRNA and protein. Chromatin-immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay showed that AR bound to the promoter region of HSPA1B gene, which was reduced in cells treated with DL3 or Bic. These data suggest that AR and its signaling regulate hsp70-1 expression in prostate cancer cells and that HSPA1B could be an AR target gene.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R01 CA131137, R01 CA131137-03, R01 CA131137A1

    International journal of oncology 2010;36;2;459-67

  • Common genetic variation and the control of HIV-1 in humans.

    Fellay J, Ge D, Shianna KV, Colombo S, Ledergerber B, Cirulli ET, Urban TJ, Zhang K, Gumbs CE, Smith JP, Castagna A, Cozzi-Lepri A, De Luca A, Easterbrook P, Günthard HF, Mallal S, Mussini C, Dalmau J, Martinez-Picado J, Miro JM, Obel N, Wolinsky SM, Martinson JJ, Detels R, Margolick JB, Jacobson LP, Descombes P, Antonarakis SE, Beckmann JS, O'Brien SJ, Letvin NL, McMichael AJ, Haynes BF, Carrington M, Feng S, Telenti A, Goldstein DB and NIAID Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology (CHAVI)

    Center for Human Genome Variation, Duke Institute for Genome Sciences and Policy, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, USA.

    To extend the understanding of host genetic determinants of HIV-1 control, we performed a genome-wide association study in a cohort of 2,554 infected Caucasian subjects. The study was powered to detect common genetic variants explaining down to 1.3% of the variability in viral load at set point. We provide overwhelming confirmation of three associations previously reported in a genome-wide study and show further independent effects of both common and rare variants in the Major Histocompatibility Complex region (MHC). We also examined the polymorphisms reported in previous candidate gene studies and fail to support a role for any variant outside of the MHC or the chemokine receptor cluster on chromosome 3. In addition, we evaluated functional variants, copy-number polymorphisms, epistatic interactions, and biological pathways. This study thus represents a comprehensive assessment of common human genetic variation in HIV-1 control in Caucasians.

    Funded by: CCR NIH HHS: HHSN261200800001C; Intramural NIH HHS; Medical Research Council: G0200585; NCI NIH HHS: HHSN261200800001E; NIAID NIH HHS: AI067854, U01 AI067854, U19 AI067854; PHS HHS: HHSN261200800001E

    PLoS genetics 2009;5;12;e1000791

  • Interactive association of heat shock protein 70 genes variants with natural longevity in Xinjiang Hetian Uygur ethnicity.

    Li J, Niu W, Qi Y, Mayila W, Zhu P, Muhuyati, Cheng Z and Qiu C

    Cardiology Department, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University, Urumqi, Xinjiang, China.

    Mounting evidence suggests that all organisms at the cellular level respond to stress by synthesizing heat shock proteins at the expense of other proteins, and the ability of human cells to respond to heat stress decreases with aging. We thus investigate the association of 3 variants (A1267G in HSPA1B, G190C in HSPA1A, and T2437C in HSPA1L) in the heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) family with natural longevity in a Xinjiang Hetian Uygur population. A case-control study was conducted in 191 healthy individuals greater than 90 years of age, and 53 naturally died persons 65-70 years of age. Promoter activity was evaluated by luciferase reporter assays. The data were analyzed using an EH/EH+ program for haplotype prediction and MDR software for gene-gene interaction. All studied variants satisfied the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in each group. In single-locus analysis, no significant differences were found between long-lived people and short-lived people in the genotype/allele distributions of all variants. In contrast, haplotype analysis indicated that haplotypes A-G-C and A-C-T were more prevalent in long-lived people than short-lived people (P=0.026 and 0.017), and the analysis conferred a 3.46- and 4.51-fold increased tendency for longevity, respectively (P=0.025 and 0.016). The haplotype results were strengthened by interaction analysis, which suggests an optimal model in which G190C and T2437C exert an interacting effect on longevity. No functional significance was observed between 190G and 190C alleles in both control and heat-inducible A549 cells (P>0.05). Taken together, our findings suggested that common genetic variants in Hsp70 family might contribute interactively to longevity the Xinjiang Hetian Uygur population.

    Translational research : the journal of laboratory and clinical medicine 2009;154;5;257-64

  • Heat-shock protein 70 gene polymorphism is associated with the severity of diabetic foot ulcer and the outcome of surgical treatment.

    Mir KA, Pugazhendhi S, Paul MJ, Nair A and Ramakrishna BS

    Department of Surgical Endocrinology, Christian Medical College, Vellore, India.

    Background: Foot ulcer is a significant cause of morbidity in diabetics. Genetic make-up can determine inflammatory and healing responses. This study examined the hypothesis that specific polymorphisms of the heat-shock protein 70 gene could predispose to the severity of diabetic foot ulceration.

    Methods: Some 106 consecutive diabetic patients (101 evaluable) with foot ulceration admitted to a tertiary care hospital were managed according to a standard protocol. DNA was extracted from venous blood and examined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length analysis for two specific polymorphisms: G1538A in the HSPA1B and C2437T in the HSPA1L gene.

    Results: HSPA1B genotyping showed that 70 patients were AG and 30 GG (one not amplified). The AG genotype was significantly associated with the severity of foot ulceration (Wagner grade) (P = 0.008, chi(2) test), need for amputation (relative risk 2.02, 95 per cent confidence interval 1.02 to 4.01; P = 0.025) and median length of hospital stay (8 versus 5 days for GG; P = 0.043). HSPA1L genotypes (78 TT, 22 CT, one CC) did not show any significant association with these parameters.

    Conclusion: The HSPA1B genotype, was associated with the severity of diabetic foot ulceration, need for amputation and duration of hospitalization in these patients.

    The British journal of surgery 2009;96;10;1205-9

  • High-density SNP screening of the major histocompatibility complex in systemic lupus erythematosus demonstrates strong evidence for independent susceptibility regions.

    Barcellos LF, May SL, Ramsay PP, Quach HL, Lane JA, Nititham J, Noble JA, Taylor KE, Quach DL, Chung SA, Kelly JA, Moser KL, Behrens TW, Seldin MF, Thomson G, Harley JB, Gaffney PM and Criswell LA

    Division of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, California, USA.

    A substantial genetic contribution to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) risk is conferred by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) gene(s) on chromosome 6p21. Previous studies in SLE have lacked statistical power and genetic resolution to fully define MHC influences. We characterized 1,610 Caucasian SLE cases and 1,470 parents for 1,974 MHC SNPs, the highly polymorphic HLA-DRB1 locus, and a panel of ancestry informative markers. Single-marker analyses revealed strong signals for SNPs within several MHC regions, as well as with HLA-DRB1 (global p = 9.99 x 10(-16)). The most strongly associated DRB1 alleles were: *0301 (odds ratio, OR = 2.21, p = 2.53 x 10(-12)), *1401 (OR = 0.50, p = 0.0002), and *1501 (OR = 1.39, p = 0.0032). The MHC region SNP demonstrating the strongest evidence of association with SLE was rs3117103, with OR = 2.44 and p = 2.80 x 10(-13). Conditional haplotype and stepwise logistic regression analyses identified strong evidence for association between SLE and the extended class I, class I, class III, class II, and the extended class II MHC regions. Sequential removal of SLE-associated DRB1 haplotypes revealed independent effects due to variation within OR2H2 (extended class I, rs362521, p = 0.006), CREBL1 (class III, rs8283, p = 0.01), and DQB2 (class II, rs7769979, p = 0.003, and rs10947345, p = 0.0004). Further, conditional haplotype analyses demonstrated that variation within MICB (class I, rs3828903, p = 0.006) also contributes to SLE risk independent of HLA-DRB1*0301. Our results for the first time delineate with high resolution several MHC regions with independent contributions to SLE risk. We provide a list of candidate variants based on biologic and functional considerations that may be causally related to SLE risk and warrant further investigation.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: M01 RR000079, P20 RR020143, RR20143; NIAID NIH HHS: AI063274, AI24717, AI31584, AI53747, AI62629, N01AI40076, R01 AI024717, R01 AI031584, R01 AI063274, R21 AI053747, R37 AI024717, R56 AI063274, U19 AI062629; NIAMS NIH HHS: AR02175, AR043274, AR052125, AR052300, AR19084, AR22804, AR42460, AR48940, K24 AR002175, N01AR62277, P30 AR053483, P50 AR048940, R01 AR042460, R01 AR043274, R01 AR052125, R01 AR052300; NIDCR NIH HHS: DE15223, R01 DE015223

    PLoS genetics 2009;5;10;e1000696

  • The BB genotype of heat-shock protein (HSP) 70-2 gene is associated with gastric pre-malignant condition in H. pylori-infected older patients.

    Tahara T, Shibata T, Arisawa T, Nakamura M, Yoshioka D, Okubo M, Maruyama N, Kamano T, Kamiya Y, Fujita H, Nagasaka M, Iwata M, Yamashita H, Nakano H and Hirata I

    Department of Gastroenterology, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, 1-98 Dengakugakubo, Kutsukake-cho, Toyoake, Aichi 470-1192, Japan. tomomiccyu@yahoo.co.jp

    Background: Heat-shock protein (HSP) 70 plays essential roles in cellular response to a variety of environmental stresses or unfavorable conditions. A to G transition at the 1267 position of the HSP70-2 gene confers different levels of HSP70 mRNA expression. We aimed to clarify the effect of HSP70-2 polymorphism on the risk of premalignant condition, on the degree of acute or chronic inflammation in the stomach.

    A total of 378 individuals participated in this study. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis was performed for polymorphisms at 1267 of HSP70-2 gene. Prevalence of intestinal metaplasia was investigated histologically and the degree of histological gastritis in the antrum was classified according to the updated Sydney System.

    Results: Although a direct association was not observed between HSP70-2 polymorphism and prevalence of intestinal metaplasia, a significant association was found between the BB genotype and lower metaplasia score in individuals who were Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) positive and aged 60 years or older (BB vs. A carriers; 0.84+/-0.95 vs. 1.23+/-1.01, p=0.0197). When individuals were divided into 3 groups according to the severity of gastric mucosal atrophy: non-atrophic gastritis (NA) group (atrophy score=0 and metaplasia score=0), severe atrophic gastritis (SA) group (atrophy score > or =2 or metaplasia score > or =2), and mild atrophic gastritis (MA) group (all others), the BB genotype was associated with a lower risk of severe atrophy in the SA sub-group (adjusted odds ratio=0.37, 95% confidence interval =0.16-0.84, p=0.0172).

    Conclusion: The BB genotype of HSP70-2 gene is associated with a reduced risk of gastric pre-malignant condition in H. pylori-infected older individuals.

    Anticancer research 2009;29;8;3453-8

  • Genetic interaction of Hsp70 family genes polymorphisms with high-altitude pulmonary edema among Chinese railway constructors at altitudes exceeding 4000 meters.

    Qi Y, Niu WQ, Zhu TC, Liu JL, Dong WY, Xu Y, Ding SQ, Cui CB, Pan YJ, Yu GS, Zhou WY and Qiu CC

    National Laboratory of Medical Molecular Biology, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, No. 5 Dong Dan San Tiao, 100005 Beijing, China.

    Background: High-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) is thought of as an independent clinical disorder with a constitutional or genetic component in its etiology. We focused on 5 common polymorphisms within HSPA1A (rs1043618 and rs1008438), HSPA1B (rs1061581 and rs539689) and HSPA1L (rs2227956) of Hsp70 family to explore their potential interaction upon susceptibility to HAPE in Chinese.

    Methods: A total of 148 HAPE patients and 483 matched controls were recruited during the construction of Qinghai-Tibet railway from 2001 to 2006. Genotyping was performed using PCR-RFLP, PCR-SSCP and PCR-direct-sequencing techniques. Promoter activity was evaluated by luciferase reporter assays. Gene-gene interaction was conducted by MDR v.2.0, and haplotype-diplotype analysis by Haplo.stats v.1.4.0.

    Results: Significant differences were observed in the genotype (P=0.0136) and allele (P=0.0299) distributions of rs1008438, and in rs1061581 allele distribution (P=0.0421) between HAPE patients and controls. Interaction analysis indicated that 3 polymorphisms (rs1061581, rs1043618 and rs1008438) shared strong synergism with a testing accuracy of 0.792 and cross-validation consistency 10 out of 10 (P=0.001). Haplotypes Hap4 (G-C-A, in order of rs1061581, rs1043618 and rs1008438) and Hap5 (G-G-A) had an 86% reduced risk (P=0.0009) against and Hap7 (A-C-C) had a 2.43-fold increased risk for HAPE. When considered as diplotypes, significance was noted for Dip5 (Hap1-Hap7) (OR=3.39; 95% CI: 1.28-9.17; P=0.0140). Functional assessment supported the involvement of rs1008438 in the pathogenesis of HAPE.

    Conclusion: We demonstrated strong interaction of rs1061581, rs1043618 and rs1008438 polymorphisms within Hsp70 family upon susceptibility to HAPE in Chinese. Moreover, polymorphism rs1008438 might cause the development of HAPE via a change in HSPA1A promoter activity.

    Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry 2009;405;1-2;17-22

  • Interacting contribution of the five polymorphisms in three genes of Hsp70 family to essential hypertension in Uygur ethnicity.

    Li JX, Tang BP, Sun HP, Feng M, Cheng ZH and Niu WQ

    Cardiology Department, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University, Xinjiang, China.

    Experimental evidence suggesting that heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) gene or associated genes are responsible for the pathophysiology of hypertension is accumulating. In this study, we focused on five polymorphisms in three genes (HSPA1A, HSPA1B, and HSPA1L) of Hsp70 family to explore the genetic contribution, alone and in combination, of these polymorphisms to essential hypertension risk in a Uygur population. Genotyping was performed using PCR-RFLP and direct sequencing techniques. Data were analyzed using haplotype and multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) methods. Genotype distributions of all the polymorphisms satisfied the Hardy-Weinberg proportions in cases and controls. Statistical significance was only observed in the genotype (P = 0.0028) and (P = 0.0146) allele distributions of -110A/C polymorphism, with the -110C allele conferring a 1.45- and 2.83-fold of relative risk, assuming the additive and recessive models, respectively, and in 1267A/G genotype distribution (P = 0.0106) with the 1267G allele conferring a 44% reduced risk. The interaction information analysis indicated that polymorphisms -110A/C and 1267A/G had a strong synergistic effect, while polymorphisms 2074G/C and 2437T/C had a moderate synergistic effect. Haplotype analyses further strengthened the interaction information. Using the haplotype H(1) as a reference, haplotype H(4) had a 40% reduced risk, while haplotypes H(5) and H(8) had a significantly 5.00- and 3.75-fold increased risk for essential hypertension, respectively. Taken together, our results supported strong genetic interaction of the studied polymorphisms with the risk of having essential hypertension in Uygur ethnicity. Functional studies are warranted to confirm or refute these findings. This is the first study to evaluate the genetic interaction information of the Hsp70 in Uygur ethnicity, which represents one of the major nationalities in China with high homogeneity and unique lifestyles. Moreover, we employed the haplotype and MDR methods to explore the potential interaction of Hsp70 genetic polymorphisms in the pathogenesis of essential hypertension in Uygur.

    Cell stress & chaperones 2009;14;4;355-62

  • Biochemical and genetic evidence for a role of IGHMBP2 in the translational machinery.

    de Planell-Saguer M, Schroeder DG, Rodicio MC, Cox GA and Mourelatos Z

    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Division of Neuropathology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6100, USA.

    The human motor neuron degenerative disease spinal muscular atrophy with respiratory distress type 1 (SMARD1) is caused by loss of function mutations of immunoglobulin mu-binding protein 2 (IGHMBP2), a protein of unknown function that contains DNA/RNA helicase and nucleic acid-binding domains. Reduced IGHMBP2 protein levels in neuromuscular degeneration (nmd) mice, the mouse model of SMARD1, lead to motor neuron degeneration. We report the biochemical characterization of IGHMBP2 and the isolation of a modifier locus that rescues the phenotype and motor neuron degeneration of nmd mice. We find that a 166 kb BAC transgene derived from CAST/EiJ mice and containing tRNA genes and activator of basal transcription 1 (Abt1), a protein-coding gene that is required for ribosome biogenesis, contains the genetic modifier responsible for motor neuron rescue. Our biochemical investigations show that IGHMBP2 associates physically with tRNAs and in particular with tRNA(Tyr), which are present in the modifier and with the ABT1 protein. We find that transcription factor IIIC-220 kDa (TFIIIC220), an essential factor required for tRNA transcription, and the helicases Reptin and Pontin, which function in transcription and in ribosome biogenesis, are also part of IGHMBP2-containing complexes. Our findings strongly suggest that IGHMBP2 is a component of the translational machinery and that these components can be manipulated genetically to suppress motor neuron degeneration.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: NS056070

    Human molecular genetics 2009;18;12;2115-26

  • Racial disparity in pathophysiologic pathways of preterm birth based on genetic variants.

    Menon R, Pearce B, Velez DR, Merialdi M, Williams SM, Fortunato SJ and Thorsen P

    The Perinatal Research Center, Nashville, Tennessee, USA. fortunat@edge.net

    Objective: To study pathophysiologic pathways in spontaneous preterm birth and possibly the racial disparity associating with maternal and fetal genetic variations, using bioinformatics tools.

    Methods: A large scale candidate gene association study was performed on 1442 SNPs in 130 genes in a case (preterm birth < 36 weeks) control study (term birth > 37 weeks). Both maternal and fetal DNA from Caucasians (172 cases and 198 controls) and 279 African-Americans (82 cases and 197 controls) were used. A single locus association (genotypic) analysis followed by hierarchical clustering was performed, where clustering was based on p values for significant associations within each race. Using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) software, known pathophysiologic pathways in both races were determined.

    Results: From all SNPs entered into the analysis, the IPA mapped genes to specific disease functions. Gene variants in Caucasians were implicated in disease functions shared with other known disorders; specifically, dermatopathy, inflammation, and hematological disorders. This may reflect abnormal cervical ripening and decidual hemorrhage. In African-Americans inflammatory pathways were the most prevalent. In Caucasians, maternal gene variants showed the most prominent role in disease functions, whereas in African Americans it was fetal variants. The IPA software was used to generate molecular interaction maps that differed between races and also between maternal and fetal genetic variants.

    Conclusion: Differences at the genetic level revealed distinct disease functions and operational pathways in African Americans and Caucasians in spontaneous preterm birth. Differences in maternal and fetal contributions in pregnancy outcome are also different between African Americans and Caucasians. These results present a set of explicit testable hypotheses regarding genetic associations with preterm birth in African Americans and Caucasians.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: T32 GM080178; NIMH NIH HHS: 5R21MH68513, R21 MH068513

    Reproductive biology and endocrinology : RB&E 2009;7;62

  • HSPA1B polymorphism in familial forms of inflammatory dilated cardiomyopathy.

    Portig I, Kliebe F, Kliebe C, Ruppert V and Maisch B

    Mutations in genes encoding cytoskeletal proteins participate in the pathogenesis of familial dilated cardiomyopathy (fDCM). Additional factors including inflammatory reactions are believed to play a role in deterioration of left-ventricular function. An association of inflammatory fDCM with the HSPA1B 1267 A-->G polymorphism was identified. Since the HSPA1B 1267 A-->G polymorphism has been associated with autoimmune disorders, this finding might point to a pathogenetic role of (auto-) immune phenomena in distinct forms of familial DCM. HSPA1B 1267 A-->G is part of an extended DR3 haplotype explaining the strong association between both alleles. Recombinant haplotype mapping including neighboring genes might aid in identification and classification of susceptibility genes which in turn can point to the not yet identified causative agent.

    International journal of cardiology 2009;133;1;126-8

  • Genetic variants of the HLA-A, HLA-B and AIF1 loci show independent associations with type 1 diabetes in Norwegian families.

    Eike MC, Olsson M, Undlien DE, Dahl-Jørgensen K, Joner G, Rønningen KS, Thorsby E and Lie BA

    Institute of Immunology, Rikshospitalet University Hospital, Oslo, Norway. Morten.Eike@rr-research.no

    The main genetic predisposition to type 1 diabetes (T1D) is known to be conferred by the HLA-DRB1, -DQA1 and -DQB1 genes in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). Other genetic factors within this complex are known to contribute, but their identity has often been controversial. This picture is shared with several other autoimmune diseases (AIDs). Moreover, as common genetic factors are known to exist between AIDs, associations reported with other AIDs may also be involved in T1D. In this study, we have used these observations in a candidate gene approach to look for additional MHC risk factors in T1D. Using complementary conditional methods (involving conditional logistic regression and family-based haplotype tests) and analyses of linkage disequilibrium (LD) patterns, we confirmed association for alleles of the HLA-A and HLA-B genes and found preliminary evidence for a novel association of a single-nucleotide polymorphism (rs2259571) in the AIF1 gene, independent of the DRB1-DQA1-DQB1 genes and of each other. However, no evidence of independent associations for a number of previously suggested candidate polymorphisms was detected. Our results illustrate the importance of a comprehensive adjustment for LD effects when performing association studies in this complex.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: U01 DK062418

    Genes and immunity 2009;10;2;141-50

  • Variations in HSP70 genes associated with noise-induced hearing loss in two independent populations.

    Konings A, Van Laer L, Michel S, Pawelczyk M, Carlsson PI, Bondeson ML, Rajkowska E, Dudarewicz A, Vandevelde A, Fransen E, Huyghe J, Borg E, Sliwinska-Kowalska M and Van Camp G

    Department of Medical Genetics, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium.

    Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is one of the most important occupational health hazards. Millions of people worldwide are exposed daily to harmful levels of noise. NIHL is a complex disease resulting from an interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Although the environmental risk factors have been studied extensively, little is known about the genetic factors. Heat-shock proteins (HSPs) are induced after exposure to severe noise. When first induced by exposure to moderate sound levels, they can protect the ear from damage from excessive noise exposure. This protection is highly variable between individuals. An association of HSP70 genes with NIHL has been described by Yang et al (2006) in a Chinese sample set of noise-exposed workers. In this study, three polymorphisms (rs1043618, rs1061581 and rs2227956) in HSP70-1, HSP70-2 and HSP70-hom, respectively, were genotyped in 206 Swedish and 238 Polish DNA samples of noise-exposed subjects and analyzed. One SNP, rs2227956 in HSP70-hom, resulted in a significant association with NIHL in both sample sets. In addition, rs1043618 and rs1061581 were significant in the Swedish sample set. Analysis of the haplotypes composed of the three SNPs revealed significant associations between NIHL and haplotype GAC in both sample sets and with haplotype CGT in the Swedish sample set. In conclusion, this study replicated the association of HSP70 genes with NIHL in a second and third independent noise-exposed sample set, hereby adding to the evidence that HSP70 genes may be NIHL susceptibility genes.

    Funded by: Action on Hearing Loss: G26

    European journal of human genetics : EJHG 2009;17;3;329-35

  • Spontaneous preterm birth in African Americans is associated with infection and inflammatory response gene variants.

    Velez DR, Fortunato S, Thorsen P, Lombardi SJ, Williams SM and Menon R

    Dr John T. Macdonald Foundation Department of Human Genetics and Miami Institute of Human Genomics, University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA.

    Objective: The objective of the study was to study the genetic risk factors of spontaneous preterm birth (PTB) in African Americans.

    Case-control analyses were performed using maternal and fetal deoxyribonucleic acid from 279 African American birth events (82 PTB and 197 term) and 1432 single-nucleotide polymorphisms from 130 candidate genes. Single-locus association and haplotype analyses were performed.

    Results: The most significant associations were in the maternal interleukin (IL)-15 (rs10833, allele P = 2.91 x 10(-4), genotype P = 2.00 x 10(-3)) gene and the fetal IL-2 receptor B (IL-2RB) (rs84460, allele P = 1.37 x 10(-4), genotype P = 6.29 x 10(-4)) gene. The best models for these markers were additive (rs10833, odds ratio [OR], 0.30; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.14-0.62; P = 1.0 x 10(-3); rs84460, OR, 2.32; 95% CI, 1.47-3.67; P < 1.0 x 10(-3)). The largest number of significant associations was found in genes related to infection and inflammation. There were overall a larger number of significant associations in infants than in mothers.

    Conclusion: These results support a strong role for genes involved in infection and inflammation in the pathogenesis of PTB, particularly IL-12 and IL-12RB, and indicate that in African Americans there may be complementarity of maternal and fetal genetic risks for PTB.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: T32 GM080178, T32-GM-080178

    American journal of obstetrics and gynecology 2009;200;2;209.e1-27

  • Transcriptional upregulation of HSP70-2 by HIF-1 in cancer cells in response to hypoxia.

    Huang WJ, Xia LM, Zhu F, Huang B, Zhou C, Zhu HF, Wang B, Chen B, Lei P, Shen GX and De-AnTian

    Department of Immunology, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, and Division of Gastroenterology, Tongji Hospital, Wuhan, Hubei Province, People's Republic of China.

    Heat shock protein 70-2 (HSP70-2) can be expressed by cancer cells and act as an important regulator of cancer cell growth and survival. Here, we show the molecular mechanisms by which hypoxia regulate HSP70-2 expression in cancer cells. When cells were subjected to hypoxia (1% O2), the expression of HSP70-2 had a significant increase in cancer cells. Such increase was due to the direct binding of hypoxia-inducible factor to hypoxia-responsive elements (HREs) in the HSP70-2 promoter. By luciferase assays, we demonstrated that the HRE1 at position -446 was essential for transcriptional activation of HSP70-2 promoter under hypoxic conditions. We also demonstrated that HIF-1alpha binds to the HSP70-2 promoter and the binding is specific, as revealed by HIF binding/competition and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Consequently, the upregulation of HSP70-2 enhanced the resistance of tumor cells to hypoxia-induced apoptosis. These findings provide a new insight into how tumor cells overcome hypoxic stress and survive, and also disclose a new regulatory mechanism of HSP70-2 expression in tumor cells.

    International journal of cancer. Journal international du cancer 2009;124;2;298-305

  • Heat-shock protein gene polymorphisms and the risk of nephropathy in patients with Type 2 diabetes.

    Buraczynska M, Swatowski A, Buraczynska K, Dragan M and Ksiazek A

    Laboratory for DNA Analysis and Molecular Diagnostics, Department of Nephrology, Medical University of Lublin, Jaczewskiego 8, 20-954 Lublin, Poland. monika.buraczynska@am.lublin.pl

    HSPs (heat-shock proteins) are molecular chaperones synthesized under stress conditions, and are involved in renal cell survival and matrix remodelling in acute and chronic renal diseases. In the present study, we investigated whether the HSP70 gene polymorphisms affect susceptibility to DN (diabetic nephropathy) in patients with T2DM (Type 2 diabetes mellitus). The study group consisted of 452 patients with nephropathy. Two control subgroups involved 340 healthy individuals and 132 patients with T2DM lasting > or =10 years who were free of nephropathy. Subjects were genotyped for the HSP70-1 +190 G/C and -110 A/C, HSP70-2 +1267 A/G and HSP70-hom +2437 T/C polymorphisms by PCR, followed by digestion with restriction endonucleases. There were no statistically significant differences in genotype distribution between patients with T2DM with DN and controls for the HSP70-hom polymorphism. Significant differences were observed for HSP70-1 and HSP70-2 polymorphisms. CC homozygotes of the -110 and +190 HSP70-1 polymorphisms were more frequent in patients with T2DM with DN compared with healthy controls (22 compared with 6% and 15 compared with 6.5% respectively; P<0.01). The OR (odds ratio) for the risk allele was 2.17 [95% CI (confidence interval), 1.73-2.72] for the -110 A/C and 1.74 (95% CI, 1.40-2.15) for +190 G/C polymorphisms. A strong association with DN was found for the +1267 HSP70-2 polymorphism. The GG genotype and the G allele were associated with DN, with the OR for the G allele being 4.77 (95% CI, 3.81-5.96). All GG homozygotes in the patient group had higher LDL (low-density lipoprotein)-cholesterol levels than AA homozygotes (P<0.01), suggesting that the observed effect might be associated with this cardiovascular risk factor. These patients progressed faster to end-stage renal failure than those with other genotypes. In conclusion, our results indicate that the HSP70-1 and HSP70-2 polymorphisms are associated with renal complications in T2DM and may be useful in identifying patients with increased risk of DN.

    Clinical science (London, England : 1979) 2009;116;1;81-6

  • Protective role of genetic polymorphism of heat shock protein 70-2 for gastric cancer risk.

    Shibata T, Arisawa T, Tahara T, Yoshioka D, Maruyama N, Fujita H, Kamiya Y, Nakamura M, Nagasaka M, Iwata M, Takahama K, Watanabe M, Hirata I and Nakano H

    Department of Gastroenterology, School of Medicine, Fujita Health University, 1-98 Dengakugakubo, Kutsukake-cho, Toyoake, Aichi, 470-1192, Japan. shibat03@fujita-hu.ac.jp

    Background: Heat shock protein 70-2 (HSP70-2) has a cytoprotective role in various conditions and also protects the gastric mucosa. Recently, polymorphism of HSP70-2 at position 1267 was suggested to be associated with carcinogenesis. We investigated the association of this polymorphism with the risk of gastric cancer in the present study.

    Methods: We examined 223 patients (159 men and 64 women, mean age 64.8 years) with gastric cancer who underwent gastrointestinal endoscopy at our department. The controls were 200 age-matched patients (140 men and 60 women) without gastric cancer diagnosed by gastrointestinal endoscopy. Genotyping was done by PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, and the PCR products were digested with PstI. The two allelic forms, corresponding to the presence or absence of the PstI site, were designated as the P1 allele and P2 allele, respectively. Logistic regression analysis was performed to calculate an odds ratios (ORs) for differences of HSP70-2 polymorphism between the two groups.

    Results: Among the 223 patients with gastric cancer, 46 (20.6%) had P1/P1, 177 (79.4%) were P1 carriers, and 6 (2.7%) were P2/P2. In the control group, 33 (16.5%) patients had P1/P1 polymorphism, 167 (83.5%) were P1 carriers, and 12 (6.0%) were P2/P2. The OR for gastric cancer of subjects with P2/P2 polymorphism relative to P1 carriers was 0.43 (95% CI = 0.16-1.17) (P = 0.097). Among females, the OR for gastric cancer of subjects with P2/P2 polymorphism relative to P1 carriers was 0.10 (95% CI = 0.012-0.838) (P = 0.014). This polymorphism was also associated with a lower risk of middle third cancer (OR = 0.13; 95% CI = 0.02-1.00).

    Conclusions: P2/P2 polymorphism of HSP70-2 at position 1267 was associated with a lower risk of gastric cancer in females.

    Digestive diseases and sciences 2009;54;1;70-4

  • The impact of heat shock protein 70 gene variations on clinical presentation and outcome in schizophrenic inpatients.

    Pae CU, Drago A, Kim JJ, Mandelli L, De Ronchi D and Serretti A

    Department of Psychiatry, Holy Family Hospital, Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Wonmi-Gu, Bucheon, Republic of Korea. pae@catholic.ac.kr

    We previously investigated a group of single-nucleotide polymorphisms of a set of genes coding for heat shock proteins (HSPA1A, HSPA1B and HSPA1L) and found a significant association between one HSPA1B variation and schizophrenia (SZ). We now report an association between a set of variations (rs2227956, rs2075799, rs1043618, rs562047 and rs539689) within the same genes and a larger sample of schizophrenic inpatients. A single variation, rs539689 (HSPA1B), was found to be marginally associated with Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) positive scores at discharge, and haplotype analysis revealed a significant association between improvement in PANSS scores with both A-C-G-G and A-C-G-G haplotypes. These findings further support a role of heat shock proteins in the pathophysiology of SZ.

    Neuropsychobiology 2009;59;3;135-41

  • Genetic variation in heat shock protein 70 is associated with septic shock: narrowing the association to a specific haplotype.

    Kee C, Cheong KY, Pham K, Waterer GW and Temple SE

    School of Medicine and Pharmacology, University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.

    Heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) plays a major role in immune responses. Polymorphisms within the gene have been associated with development of septic shock. This study refines the region of the HSP70 gene associated with development of septic shock and confirms its functionality. Subjects (n = 31) were grouped into one of three haplotypes based on their HSPA1B-179C>T and HSPA1B1267A>G genotypes. Mononuclear cells from these subjects were stimulated with heat-killed bacteria (10(7 )colony-forming units/mL Escherichia coli or Streptococcus pneumoniae) for 8 and 21 h. HSP70 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF) mRNA and protein levels were measured by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and ELISA, respectively. The HSPA1B-179*C:1267*A haplotype was associated with significantly lower levels of HSPA1B mRNA and protein and higher production of TNF mRNA and protein compared to the other haplotypes. Induction of HSP70 was TNF independent. These results suggest that the HSPA1B-179C>T:1267A>G haplotype is functional and may explain the association of the HSP70 gene with development of septic shock.

    International journal of immunogenetics 2008;35;6;465-73

  • Interactions between Hsp70 and the hydrophobic core of alpha-synuclein inhibit fibril assembly.

    Luk KC, Mills IP, Trojanowski JQ and Lee VM

    Center for Neurodegenerative Disease Research, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104-4283, USA.

    Molecular chaperones of the heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) family counteract protein misfolding in a variety of neurodegenerative disease models. To determine whether human Hsp70 exerts similar effects on the aggregation of alpha-synuclein (alpha-Syn), the key component of insoluble fibrils present in Parkinson's disease, we investigated alpha-Syn fibril assembly in the presence of Hsp70. We found in vitro assembly was efficiently inhibited by substoichiometric concentrations of purified Hsp70 in the absence of cofactors. Experiments using alpha-Syn deletion mutants indicated that interactions between the Hsp70 substrate binding domain and the alpha-Syn core hydrophobic region underlie assembly inhibition. This assembly process was inhibited prior to the elongation stage as we failed to detect any fibrils by electron microscopy. In addition, fluorescence polarization and binding assays suggest that Hsp70 recognizes soluble alpha-Syn species in a highly dynamic and reversible manner. Together, these results provide novel insights into how Hsp70 suppresses alpha-Syn aggregation. Furthermore, our findings suggest that this critical step in Parkinson's disease pathogenesis may be subject to modulation by a common molecular chaperone.

    Funded by: NIA NIH HHS: AG09215, P01 AG009215, P01 AG009215-080006; NINDS NIH HHS: NS044233, NS053488, P01 NS044233, P50 NS053488, P50 NS053488-020003

    Biochemistry 2008;47;47;12614-25

  • Preterm birth in Caucasians is associated with coagulation and inflammation pathway gene variants.

    Velez DR, Fortunato SJ, Thorsen P, Lombardi SJ, Williams SM and Menon R

    Center for Human Genetics Research, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA.

    Spontaneous preterm birth (<37 weeks gestation-PTB) occurs in approximately 12% of pregnancies in the United States, and is the largest contributor to neonatal morbidity and mortality. PTB is a complex disease, potentially induced by several etiologic factors from multiple pathophysiologic pathways. To dissect the genetic risk factors of PTB a large-scale high-throughput candidate gene association study was performed examining 1536 SNP in 130 candidate genes from hypothesized PTB pathways. Maternal and fetal DNA from 370 US Caucasian birth-events (172 cases and 198 controls) was examined. Single locus, haplotype, and multi-locus association analyses were performed separately on maternal and fetal data. For maternal data the strongest associations were found in genes in the complement-coagulation pathway related to decidual hemorrhage in PTB. In this pathway 3 of 6 genes examined had SNPs significantly associated with PTB. These include factor V (FV) that was previously associated with PTB, factor VII (FVII), and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). The single strongest effect was observed in tPA marker rs879293 with a significant allelic (p = 2.30x10(-3)) and genotypic association (p = 2.0x10(-6)) with PTB. The odds ratio (OR) for this SNP was 2.80 [CI 1.77-4.44] for a recessive model. Given that 6 of 8 markers in tPA were statistically significant, sliding window haplotype analyses were performed and revealed an associating 4 marker haplotype in tPA (p = 6.00x10(-3)). The single strongest effect in fetal DNA was observed in the inflammatory pathway at rs17121510 in the interleukin-10 receptor antagonist (IL-10RA) gene for allele (p = 0.01) and genotype (p = 3.34x10(-4)). The OR for the IL-10RA genotypic additive model was 1.92 [CI 1.15-3.19] (p = 2.00x10(-3)). Finally, exploratory multi-locus analyses in the complement and coagulation pathway were performed and revealed a potentially significant interaction between a marker in FV (rs2187952) and FVII (rs3211719) (p<0.001). These results support a role for genes in both the coagulation and inflammation pathways, and potentially different maternal and fetal genetic risks for PTB.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: T32 GM080178

    PloS one 2008;3;9;e3283

  • FKBP36 forms complexes with clathrin and Hsp72 in spermatocytes.

    Jarczowski F, Fischer G and Edlich F

    Max Planck Research Unit for Enzymology of Protein Folding, Weinbergweg 22, D-06120 Halle, Saale, Germany.

    The testes-specific peptidyl-prolyl cis/ trans isomerase FKBP36 plays a crucial role in male meiosis. Here we show that the catalytic domain of FKBP36 binds to clathrin heavy chain (CHC) of clathrin. Despite wild-type FKBP36 not displaying PPIase activity, the introduction of the R81L substitution resulted in catalysis of prolyl isomerization, which is comparable to the regulated activity of FKBP38. Furthermore, the TPR domain of FKBP36 interacts with Hsp72. In fact, FKBP36 preferentially binds to Hsp72 among the members of the Hsp70 family and is thus the first TPR-containing protein which discriminates between Hsp70 proteins. The clathrin-FKBP36-Hsp72 complexes resulting from both identified interactions are bound to the matrices of clathrin-coated vesicles in spermatocytes, which indicates a possible role of FKBP36 and Hsp72 in the disassembly of clathrin coats.

    Biochemistry 2008;47;26;6946-52

  • Polymorphisms of the TNF, CD14, and HSPA1B genes in patients with acute alcohol-induced pancreatitis.

    Tukiainen E, Kylänpää ML, Puolakkainen P, Kemppainen E, Halonen K, Orpana A, Methuen T, Salaspuro M, Haapiainen R and Repo H

    Second Department of Surgery, Helsinki University Central Hospital and University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland. eija.tukiainen@hus.fi

    Objectives: Genotype assessment has been suggested to be a tool for predicting disease severity in acute pancreatitis (AP). To study this hypothesis, we performed genotype analysis of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) -308 A/G, CD14 -159C/T, and HSPA1B +1267 A/G polymorphisms.

    Methods: This is a case-control association study of 397 patients with AP (214 of whom had an alcohol-induced AP) and 300 controls. The control group comprised 218 subjects with detailed data of alcohol consumption, 70 of whom were heavy drinkers (daily alcohol intake >40 g), and 92 blood donors. The severity of AP was determined according to the Atlanta classification. Genotyping was performed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry-assisted genotyping method.

    Results: Major allele frequency in TNF gene was 0.87 for patients with AP and 0.86 for controls. For CD14, the gene major allele frequency was 0.60 for patients and 0.63 for controls. For HSPA1B, the major allele frequencies were 0.52 for patients and 0.49 for controls, respectively. The allele frequencies did not differ significantly between AP patients with organ failure and those with mild disease, patients with alcohol-induced AP, or those with biliary AP. The patients with septic infectious complications (n = 47) had genotype distribution no different from those with mild, uncomplicated disease (n = 245).

    Conclusions: The TNF, CD14, and HSPA1B polymorphisms studied seem not to play a role in determining the severity of AP or the risk of alcohol-induced AP and thus do not serve as a tool for predicting disease severity.

    Pancreas 2008;37;1;56-61

  • Polymorphisms of the MCP-1 and HSP70-2 genes in Korean patients with alcoholic chronic pancreatitis.

    Lee SH, Ryu JK, Jeong JB, Lee KY, Woo SM, Park JK, Yoo JW, Kim YT and Yoon YB

    Department of Internal Medicine and Liver Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Yeongeon-dong 28, Jongno-gu, Seoul 110-744, Korea.

    Alcoholic chronic pancreatitis (ACP) develops in only a small number of alcoholics. Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and heat-shock protein 70-2 (HSP70-2) polymorphisms have been reported to be associated with the severity of acute pancreatitis. However, their role in pathogenesis of ACP has not been investigated. A genetic association study for susceptibility and severity was performed on 79 male Korean ACP patients and 82 male controls. MCP-1 and HSP70-2 genotypes were determined using a fluorescence polarization detection method. The genotypes and G allele frequencies were no different in patients and controls. However, MCP-1 G allele had an effect on the development of severe ACP, when its frequency was compared in mild to moderate and severe ACP (29.6 vs. 56.0%, P = 0.02). The MCP-1 and HSP70-2 polymorphisms do not play a major role in the development of ACP in Koreans. However, MCP-1 polymorphism may be associated with the severity of ACP.

    Digestive diseases and sciences 2008;53;6;1721-7

  • Association analysis of heat shock protein 70 gene polymorphisms in schizophrenia.

    Kim JJ, Mandelli L, Lim S, Lim HK, Kwon OJ, Pae CU, Serretti A, Nimgaonkar VL, Paik IH and Jun TY

    Department of Psychiatry, The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Kangnam St Mary's Hospital, 505 Banpo-dong, Seocho-gu, Seoul 137-701, Republic of Korea.

    Objectives: Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are a promising candidate gene in schizophrenia as they are believed to play a protective role in the central nervous system. An alteration in the titers of antibodies to the HSPs in schizophrenia patients has been suggested. Association between the three polymorphisms of HSP70-1 (HSPA1A), HSP70-hom (HSPA1L) and HSP70-2 (HSPA1B) and schizophrenia has been reported. Therefore, this study investigated the association between an enlarged set of SNPs at HSP70 gene and schizophrenia.

    Methods: Two hundred and ninety-four patients with schizophrenia and 287 controls were enrolled in the study. Genotypings of 5 SNPs of HSP70 were performed using pyrosequencing method. Haploview 3.2 was used to generate a linkage disequilibrium map and to test for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Single locus and haplotype-based associations were tested. Tests for associations using and multi-marker haplotypes were performed by using a COCAPHASE v2.403. Association of SNP markers and clinical variables were analyzed by analysis of variance.

    Results: Significant association was detected at rs2075799 (allele A, X2 = 8.03, df = 1, P = 0.0046), but not at rs2227956 (P = 0.28), rs1043618 (P = 0.88), rs562047 (P = 0.47) or rs539689 (P = 0.32). In fact, the rs2075799*G/A genotype was more represented in patients with schizophrenia than in controls (X2 = 8.23, df= 1, P = 0.0041). Haplotype based associations were also detected (global P value 0.000003); the T-A-C-C-G haplotype was more prevalent among the patients (odds ratio, OR 5.95). Sliding windows analysis revealed a major contribution from rs2227956 and rs2075799 (global-P value 0.0075), with T-A haplotype significantly associated with schizophrenia. There was no evidence of an association between the clinical variables and schizophrenia across the genotypes.

    Conclusion: Our results raise the possibility that HSP70 gene (i.e., haplotypes of rs2075799) might be implicated in the development of schizophrenia, although limited by rare haplotypic association with the disease. Hence further studies from different ethnics should be performed to confirm these results.

    European archives of psychiatry and clinical neuroscience 2008;258;4;239-44

  • Heat shock protein A1B 1267 polymorphism is highly associated with risk and prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma: a case-control study.

    Jeng JE, Tsai JF, Chuang LY, Ho MS, Lin ZY, Hsieh MY, Chen SC, Chuang WL, Wang LY, Yu ML, Dai CY and Chang JG

    Department of Clinical Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

    We conducted a case-control study to elucidate the role of heat shock protein A1B (HSPA1B) 1267 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) on the risk and prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Subjects enrolled included 150 pairs of sex- and age-matched HCC patients and unrelated controls. Genomic DNA was typed for HSPA1B1267 SNP using polymerase chain reaction with restriction fragment length polymorphism. The frequencies of the HSPA1B P2/P2 genotype and the HSPA1B P2 allele in HCC patients were higher than in unrelated controls (each p = 0.0001). Multivariate analysis identified the following independent risk factors for HCC: HSPA1B P1/P2 genotype (odds ratio [OR], 2.34; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07-5.11), HSPA1B P2/P2 genotype (OR, 12.06; 95% CI, 4.43-32.79), hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) (OR, 25.95; 95% CI, 11.88-56.68), and antibodies to hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV) (OR, 70.43; 95% CI, 21.89-226.64). There was an additive interaction between HSPA1B P2 allele carriers and the presence of either HBsAg (synergy index = 2.48) or anti-HCV (synergy index = 1.52). However, as HSPA1B1267 SNP is a silent mutation, it is a surrogate genetic marker for increasing risk of HCC. Our findings indicate that patients with chronic hepatitis B/hepatitis C virus infection who harbor this SNP represent a high-risk group for HCC. They should receive more intensive surveillance for early detection of HCC. Moreover, patients with the HSPA1B P2 allele had significantly longer survival (p = 0.002).The limitations of this study include the unknown functional significance of the HSPA1B1267 polymorphism, the relatively small sample size, the fact that this was not a prospective study of cases and controls, and the questionable generalizability of the findings given the specific ethnic composition of the population studied.

    Medicine 2008;87;2;87-98

  • SNP combinations in chromosome-wide genes are associated with bone mineral density in Taiwanese women.

    Lin GT, Tseng HF, Chang CK, Chuang LY, Liu CS, Yang CH, Tu CJ, Wang EC, Tan HF, Chang CC, Wen CH, Chen HC and Chang HW

    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Chung-Ho Memorial Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, Republic of China.

    Osteoporosis is a major public health problem, mainly quantified by low BMD. Eleven polymorphisms were investigated in this study; TNFalpha-857 (rs1799724), TGFbeta1-509 (rs1800469), osteocalcin (rs1800247), TNFalpha-308 (rs1800629), PTH BstB I (rs6254), PTH Dra II (rs6256), IL-1ra (VNTR), HSP70 hom (rs2227956), HSP 70-2 (rs1061581), CTR (rs1801197), and BMP-4 (rs17563). The relationship between the combined polymorphisms in different genomic regions and BMD variation was investigated. Among the female subjects, the proportion of subjects with low BMD in low BMI group (< or = 18.50) was significantly higher than that of the middle (18.51-22.99) and high (> or = 23.00) BMI groups (P < 0.05). In post-menopausal women, there was a significant association between low BMD and genotypes ranging from 2 to approximately 7 SNPs. For two combined SNPs, the portion of subjects with low BMD was significantly higher in those with CC-AA genotypes in rs1799724-rs1800629, compared to those with non-CC-AA genotypes in post-menopausal women and the combination of all women. Similarly, part of the combined SNPs with rs1799724-rs1800629-rs6254-rs6256-IL-1ra-rs2227956-rs1801197 was significantly associated with reduced BMD. After controlling for age and BMI, post-menopausal women with certain specific SNP combination had a 3.54- to 4.68-fold increased risk for low BMD, comparing to other SNP combinations. In conclusion, our data suggest that several gene polymorphisms may be cooperatively involved in the development of osteoporosis.

    The Chinese journal of physiology 2008;51;1;32-41

  • Interaction of serum 70-kDa heat shock protein levels and HspA1B (+1267) gene polymorphism with disease severity in patients with chronic heart failure.

    Gombos T, Förhécz Z, Pozsonyi Z, Jánoskuti L and Prohászka Z

    IIIrd Department of Internal Medicine and Szentágothai Knowledge Center, Semmelweis University, Kútvölgyi út 4, Budapest, Hungary.

    Background: Circulating heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) is present in the circulation of healthy individuals and in patients with various disorders, including chronic heart failure (CHF). However, the source and routes of release of Hsp70 is only partially characterised in clinical samples.

    Aims: The purpose of this study was to study the clinical and biological correlates of Hsp70 in a CHF population and, for the first time, to investigate the association of HspA1B (also known as Hsp70-2) +1267 alleles with serum Hsp70 levels.

    Methods: A total of 167 patients (123 men, 44 women) with <45% left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) were enrolled; serum Hsp70 level was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and HspA1B +1267 polymorphism by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism.

    Results: Increased Hsp70 levels were present in patients with severe CHF (NYHA III-IV) as compared to the group of NYHA I-II (p = 0.003). Hsp70 levels correlated with LVEF, NT-proBNP, serum bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, gammaGT (p < 0.05) concentrations in patients with severe CHF, although no correlation was observed between Hsp70 and CRP, TNF-alpha, or IL-6. HspA1B allele G was associated with higher Hsp70 levels (p = 0.001) in patients in NYHA IV class as compared to carriers of allele A.

    Conclusions: Serum Hsp70 levels were associated with disease severity in heart failure patients. An interaction with the presence of HspA1B +1267 allele G was observed for Hsp70 concentrations. Hsp70 correlates with markers of heart function and hepatic injury, but not with signs of inflammation.

    Cell stress & chaperones 2008;13;2;199-206

  • Effects of polymorphisms of heat shock protein 70 gene on ischemic stroke, and interaction with smoking in China.

    Liu J, Cheng J, Peng J, Han S, Yu L and Nie S

    Department of Epidemiology and Statistics, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

    Background: Heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) plays a key role in up-regulating stress responses, and it may be involved in the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke (IS). However, whether HSP70 polymorphisms are a risk factor for IS is still controversial.

    Methods: Three polymorphisms of HSP70 gene (+190G/C, +1267A/G, and +2437T/C) were analyzed by PCR-RFLP in Chinese patients with IS (n=116) and elderly subjects without IS (n=116).

    Results: The genotype distribution of HSP70-2 and HSP70-hom was not different significantly, but the genotype distribution of HSP70-1 at +190 was different significantly between the patients and controls. The allele frequency of HSP70-1 b2 was significantly higher in the patients (36.64%) than the controls (21.99%, P<0.001). The frequency of HSP70-1 b1b2 genotype was higher in the patients (64.66%) than the controls (37.07%; OR, 3.62). Conditional logistic regression revealed that +190 b2b2+b1b2 genotypes was an independent risk factor for IS (OR, 5.41). After adjustment for other risk factors, the interaction between the HSP70-1 genotype and smoking was confirmed (I(AB),2.78).

    Conclusions: HSP70-1+190G/C may affect susceptibility to IS and smoking along with HSP70-1+190G/C may increase the risk of IS.

    Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry 2007;384;1-2;64-8

  • Heat shock protein gene 70-2 polymorphism is differentially associated with the clinical phenotypes of ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease.

    Nam SY, Kim N, Kim JS, Lim SH, Jung HC and Song IS

    Department of Internal Medicine and Liver Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Chongno-Gu, South Korea.

    A single nucleotide polymorphism in heat shock protein 70-2 (HSP70-2) has been shown to be associated with a severe clinical course in Crohn's disease (CD), but it is not known if such a relationship exists in ulcerative colitis (UC). The aim of the present study was to identify associations between the HSP70-2 polymorphism and the clinical courses of CD and UC in Koreans.

    Methods: Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis was performed for HSP70-2 polymorphisms using the PstI-cleavage site present in the B allele but not in the A allele of the DNA obtained from 101 patients with CD, 144 patients with UC, and 245 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Study subjects were classified by disease behavior, severity and extent of disease.

    Results: In CD, multivariate analysis showed that the AA genotype of HSP70-2 polymorphisms was associated with non-perforating disease (OR 10.10, 95% CI 1.66-15.38) and male sex (OR 3.56, 95% CI 1.04-12.23), and that the BB genotype was associated with severe CD (OR 12.03, 95% CI 1.60-101.56). In contrast, multivariate analysis for UC showed that the AA genotype was associated with severe UC (OR 2.02, 95% CI 1.34-3.03).

    Conclusions: CD patients with BB genotype of HSP70-2 polymorphism tend to experience a more severe clinical course and allele A is associated with more severe UC. HSP70-2 polymorphism may be used to predict CD and UC phenotypes, which can illuminate immunological differences in CD and UC.

    Journal of gastroenterology and hepatology 2007;22;7;1032-8

  • Heat-shock protein-70 genes and response to antidepressants in major depression.

    Pae CU, Mandelli L, Serretti A, Patkar AA, Kim JJ, Lee CU, Lee SJ, Lee C, De Ronchi D and Paik IH

    Department of Psychiatry, Kangnam St Mary's Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.

    In the search of predictors of antidepressant efficacy, much interest has recently focused on pro-inflammatory proteins, as they were found to be elevated during major depressives states and decreased by antidepressant drugs. In the present paper we investigated the role of the genes coding for heat-shock-70 family proteins, recently hypothesized to be activated by antidepressants and thus mediate the reduction of pro-inflammatory cytosines. One hundred and forty two hospitalised patients, affected by major depression and treated with antidepressants drugs for a major depressive episode were evaluated for depressive severity at the baseline and at the discharge and genotyped for five SNPs within the genes HSPA1L, HSPA1A and HSPA1B. Markers were not individually associated with symptom severity after treatment. Instead, we found a three markers haplotype, including SNPs within HSPA1L and HSPA1A, associated with a poorer response to antidepressant treatment (p=0.005). Single markers as well as haplotypes were not associated with other clinical features. In conclusion, genetic variants within the genes coding for HSP-70 family proteins may affect the action of antidepressants and thus their therapeutic efficacy.

    Progress in neuro-psychopharmacology & biological psychiatry 2007;31;5;1006-11

  • hELP3 subunit of the Elongator complex regulates the transcription of HSP70 gene in human cells.

    Han Q, Hou X, Su D, Pan L, Duan J, Cui L, Huang B and Lu J

    Institute of Genetics and Cytology, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024, China.

    The human Elongator complex is remarkably similar to its yeast counterpart in several aspects. In a previous study, we analyzed the functions of the human elongation protein 3 (hELP3) subunit of the human Elongator by using an in vivo yeast complementation system. However, direct evidence for hELP3 functions in regulating gene expression in human cells was not obtained. In this study, we used hELP3 antisense oligonucleotide inhibitors to knock down hELP3 gene expression to investigate its function in human 293T cells. The results showed that specific reduction of hELP3 mRNA and protein caused a significant suppression of HSP70-2 gene expression, and this was accompanied by histone H3 hypoacetylation and decreased RNA polymerase II density at the HSP70-2 gene. Moreover, the data also showed that hELP3 exerted the transcriptional regulatory function directly through its presence on the HSP70-2 gene. Data presented in this report provide further insight and direct evidence of the functions of hELP3 in HSP70-2 gene transcriptional elongation in human cells.

    Acta biochimica et biophysica Sinica 2007;39;6;453-61

  • HSP27 and HSP70 interact with CD10 in C4-2 prostate cancer cells.

    Dall'Era MA, Oudes A, Martin DB and Liu AY

    Department of Urology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA. mdallera@urology.ucsf.edu

    Background: CD10 is an approximately 100 kDa transmembrane metallo-endopeptidase. CD10 is strongly expressed by normal prostate epithelium. While only 30% of primary prostate tumors express CD10, it is strongly expressed by most lymph node metastases. The function of CD10 and the interaction between CD10 and other cellular proteins in prostate cancer (CaP) is not well defined. Cellular context may ultimately determine its biologic function in CaP. In this study, we compared CD10 mRNA and protein expression between benign and malignant prostate cells and employed proteomic analysis to identify proteins that interact with CD10 in C4-2 prostate cancer cells.

    Methods: CD10 mRNA and protein expression was compared using RT-PCR and Western blotting. CD10-protein complexes were isolated by immunoprecipitation using anti-CD10 monoclonal antibodies. Eluted fractions were combined, trypsinized, and the resulting peptides analyzed by microLC-ESI-MS/MS. The parent proteins were identified by searching MS/MS spectra against a human protein database using SEQUEST.

    Results: There were no differences in CD10 mRNA length or CD10 protein molecular weight between normal tissue and CaP. We identified 75 proteins unique to or heavily enriched in the CD10 immunoprecipitates by proteomic analysis. The 27 kDa heat shock protein (HSP27) and HSP70 were identified in three separate precipitations. Protein identification by proteomics was confirmed by Western blotting. Protein complexes immunopurified from C4-2 protein extracts using anti-HSP27 and anti-HSP70 antibodies were found to contain CD10.

    Conclusions: The function of CD10 in prostate cancer is largely unknown. In the C4-2 CaP cell line, CD10 was found to interact with both HSP27 and HSP70.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA111244, CA85859, CA98699; NIDDK NIH HHS: DK63630

    The Prostate 2007;67;7;714-21

  • Molecular composition of IMP1 ribonucleoprotein granules.

    Jønson L, Vikesaa J, Krogh A, Nielsen LK, Hansen Tv, Borup R, Johnsen AH, Christiansen J and Nielsen FC

    Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.

    Localized mRNAs are transported to sites of local protein synthesis in large ribonucleoprotein (RNP) granules, but their molecular composition is incompletely understood. Insulin-like growth factor II mRNA-binding protein (IMP) zip code-binding proteins participate in mRNA localization, and in motile cells IMP-containing granules are dispersed around the nucleus and in cellular protrusions. We isolated the IMP1-containing RNP granules and found that they represent a unique RNP entity distinct from neuronal hStaufen and/or fragile X mental retardation protein granules, processing bodies, and stress granules. Granules were 100-300 nm in diameter and consisted of IMPs, 40 S ribosomal subunits, shuttling heterologous nuclear RNPs, poly(A)-binding proteins, and mRNAs. Moreover granules contained CBP80 and factors belonging to the exon junction complex and lacked eIF4E, eIF4G, and 60 S ribosomal subunits, indicating that embodied mRNAs are not translated. Granules embodied mRNAs corresponding to about 3% of the human embryonic kidney 293 mRNA transcriptome. Messenger RNAs encoding proteins participating in the secretory pathway and endoplasmic reticulum-associated quality control, as well as ubiquitin-dependent metabolism, were enriched in the granules, reinforcing the concept of RNP granules as post-transcriptional operons.

    Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 2007;6;5;798-811

  • Crohn's disease and polymorphism of heat shock protein gene HSP70-2 in the Tunisian population.

    Zouiten-Mekki L, Karoui S, Kharrat M, Fekih M, Matri S, Boubaker J, Filali A and Chaabouni H

    Department of Gastroenterology, La Rabta Hospital, Tunis, Tunisia. w.mekki@laposte.net

    Crohn's disease is a multifactorial disorder with a pivotal role of the genetic component. HSP70-2 gene, located in IBD3 region, has a PstI polymorphic site associated recently with Crohn's disease especially with a perforating form. In this study, we sought to determine whether this polymorphism was associated with Crohn's disease in the Tunisian population and its correlation with clinical manifestation of the disease.

    Methods: In all, 148 patients with Crohn's disease and 81 healthy individuals were genotyped for the HSP70-2 PstI polymorphism by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis.

    Results: The allele and genotype frequency of the PstI polymorphism did not differ between patients and controls. Furthermore, this polymorphism was not associated with specific disease behavior.

    Conclusion: This study reported the absence of association between Crohn's disease and HSP70-2 gene in the Tunisian population. The allele A of PstI polymorphism was not associated with phenotype of the disease.

    European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology 2007;19;3;225-8

  • Heat shock protein 72 (HSPA1B) gene polymorphism and Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 mutation are associated with increased risk of urinary tract infection in children.

    Karoly E, Fekete A, Banki NF, Szebeni B, Vannay A, Szabo AJ, Tulassay T and Reusz GS

    Hetényi Géza Hospital, Szolnok, H-5004 Hungary.

    Innate immunity and urinary tract response play a central role in the development of urinary tract infection (UTI). Heat shock protein (HSP) 72 and Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 are among the key elements of innate defence mechanisms. This study assesses the role of HSPA1B A(1267)G and TLR4 A(896)G polymorphisms using allele-specific polymerase chain reaction in 103 patients treated with recurrent UTI. Allelic prevalence was compared with reference values of 235 healthy controls. Clinical data were also statistically evaluated. TLR4 (896)AG genotype and TLR4 (896)G allele had also higher prevalence in UTI patients versus controls (p = 0.031 and 0.041, respectively). Our data indicates a relationship between the carrier status of HSPA1B (1267)G and TLR4 (896)G alleles and the development of recurrent UTI in childhood independently of other renal abnormalities, while raising further questions about the clinical and therapeutic relevance of these polymorphisms in everyday pediatric nephrology.

    Pediatric research 2007;61;3;371-4

  • Sequence analysis of HSPA1A and HSPA1B in a multi-ethnic study population.

    Smith RS, Meyers DA, Peters SP, Moore WC, Wenzel SA, Bleecker ER and Hawkins GA

    Center for Human Genomics, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC 27157, USA.

    Two copies of the Hsp70 gene, HSPA1A and HSPA1B, are located on chromosome 6p21. The coding regions of HSPA1A and HSPAIB are intronless and nearly identical, however, promoter and 3' UTR sequences are different. The coding regions and putative promoter regions of HSPAIA and HSPAIB were re-sequenced in an affected and unaffected asthma screening panel of US Caucasians, African Americans, and US Hispanics (n = 72) to identify polymorphisms. HSPAIA and HSPAIB were each amplified in two separate whole-gene fragments. The polymorphisms identified were compared to those reported in dbSNP. Nine polymorphisms (one novel) were identified in HSPAIA, five of which are coding. Fourteen polymorphisms (five novel) were identified in HSPAIB, five of which are coding. One polymorphism (Asp110Glu GAG > GAC) was found in both genes. Two-thirds of the polymorphisms reported in dbSNP were not identified in our screening panel. Although similar in sequence, HSPAIA and HSPAIB do not share common patterns of polymorphisms.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: 1R01HL/69197, 1R21HL077916

    DNA sequence : the journal of DNA sequencing and mapping 2007;18;1;47-53

  • The GC-box is critical for high level expression of the testis-specific Hsp70.2/Hst70 gene.

    Widłak W, Vydra N, Dudaladava V, Scieglińska D, Winiarski B and Krawczyk Z

    Department of Tumor Biology, Maria Skłodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Gliwice Branch, Gliwice, Poland. wwidlak@io.gliwice.pl

    The Hsp70.2/Hst70 gene, which belongs to the 70 kDa heat-shock protein (HSP) family, is expressed specifically in primary spermatocytes and spermatids. The regulatory elements required for a high level of testis-specific expression of the gene are placed between the two major transcription start sites T1 and T2 (approximately 350 and 115 bp upstream of the starting ATG codon). Here we have shown that sequences proximal to the exon1/intron splicing site in the 5' untranslated region of the Hsp70.2/Hst70 gene, which include a highly conserved element called box B, are required for efficient expression of the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter gene in testes of transgenic mice. However, in spite of the drastically reduced overall activity, the stage-specific expression pattern of the transgene was preserved after removal of these sequences. We have also shown that GC-box located downstream of the box B (approximately 210 bp upstream of the starting ATG codon) is indispensable for efficient expression of the Hsp70.2/Hst70 gene promoter in spermatogenic cells. The GC-box specifically binds proteins present in nuclear extracts from testes (putatively Sp1-like factors). A change in the pattern of such GC-box-interacting factors corresponds to activation of the Hsp70.2/Hst70 gene, confirming the importance of this regulatory element.

    Acta biochimica Polonica 2007;54;1;107-12

  • The histone variant mH2A1.1 interferes with transcription by down-regulating PARP-1 enzymatic activity.

    Ouararhni K, Hadj-Slimane R, Ait-Si-Ali S, Robin P, Mietton F, Harel-Bellan A, Dimitrov S and Hamiche A

    Laboratoire Epigénétique et Cancer, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique FRE 2944, 94801 Villejuif, France.

    The histone variant mH2A is believed to be involved in transcriptional repression, but how it exerts its function remains elusive. By using chromatin immunoprecipitation and tandem affinity immunopurification of the mH2A1.1 nucleosome complex, we identified numerous genes with promoters containing mH2A1.1 nucleosomes. In particular, the promoters of the inducible Hsp70.1 and Hsp70.2 genes, but not that of the constitutively expressed Hsp70.8, were highly enriched in mH2A1.1. PARP-1 was identified as a part of the mH2A1.1 nucleosome complex and was found to be associated with the Hsp70.1 promoter. A specific interaction between mH2A1.1 and PARP-1 was demonstrated and found to be associated with inactivation of PARP-1 enzymatic activity. Heat shock released both mH2A1.1 and PARP-1 from the Hsp70.1 promoter and activated PARP-1 automodification activity. The data we present point to a novel mechanism for control of Hsp70.1 gene transcription. mH2A1.1 recruits PARP-1 to the promoter, thereby inactivating it. Upon heat shock, the Hsp70.1 promoter-bound PARP-1 is released to activate transcription through ADP-ribosylation of other Hsp70.1 promoter-bound proteins.

    Genes & development 2006;20;23;3324-36

  • Global, in vivo, and site-specific phosphorylation dynamics in signaling networks.

    Olsen JV, Blagoev B, Gnad F, Macek B, Kumar C, Mortensen P and Mann M

    Center for Experimental BioInformatics, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5230 Odense, Denmark.

    Cell signaling mechanisms often transmit information via posttranslational protein modifications, most importantly reversible protein phosphorylation. Here we develop and apply a general mass spectrometric technology for identification and quantitation of phosphorylation sites as a function of stimulus, time, and subcellular location. We have detected 6,600 phosphorylation sites on 2,244 proteins and have determined their temporal dynamics after stimulating HeLa cells with epidermal growth factor (EGF) and recorded them in the Phosida database. Fourteen percent of phosphorylation sites are modulated at least 2-fold by EGF, and these were classified by their temporal profiles. Surprisingly, a majority of proteins contain multiple phosphorylation sites showing different kinetics, suggesting that they serve as platforms for integrating signals. In addition to protein kinase cascades, the targets of reversible phosphorylation include ubiquitin ligases, guanine nucleotide exchange factors, and at least 46 different transcriptional regulators. The dynamic phosphoproteome provides a missing link in a global, integrative view of cellular regulation.

    Cell 2006;127;3;635-48

  • A probability-based approach for high-throughput protein phosphorylation analysis and site localization.

    Beausoleil SA, Villén J, Gerber SA, Rush J and Gygi SP

    Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, 240 Longwood Ave., Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    Data analysis and interpretation remain major logistical challenges when attempting to identify large numbers of protein phosphorylation sites by nanoscale reverse-phase liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) (Supplementary Figure 1 online). In this report we address challenges that are often only addressable by laborious manual validation, including data set error, data set sensitivity and phosphorylation site localization. We provide a large-scale phosphorylation data set with a measured error rate as determined by the target-decoy approach, we demonstrate an approach to maximize data set sensitivity by efficiently distracting incorrect peptide spectral matches (PSMs), and we present a probability-based score, the Ascore, that measures the probability of correct phosphorylation site localization based on the presence and intensity of site-determining ions in MS/MS spectra. We applied our methods in a fully automated fashion to nocodazole-arrested HeLa cell lysate where we identified 1,761 nonredundant phosphorylation sites from 491 proteins with a peptide false-positive rate of 1.3%.

    Funded by: NHGRI NIH HHS: HG03456; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM67945

    Nature biotechnology 2006;24;10;1285-92

  • Involvement of -308 TNF-alpha and 1267 Hsp70-2 polymorphisms and zinc status in the susceptibility of coronary artery disease (CAD) in old patients.

    Giacconi R, Cipriano C, Muti E, Costarelli L, Malavolta M, Caruso C, Lio D and Mocchegiani E

    Immunolgy Ctr. (Section Nutrition, Immunity and Ageing), Res. Dept. INRCA, Via Birarelli 8, 60121, Ancona, Italy.

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is characterized by an inflammatory status and it represents the major cause of death in elderly. Zinc deficiency and inflammatory genes within major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region are implicated in ischaemic heart diseases. TNF-alpha is present in coronary artery plaques and may provoke plaque instability. Hsp70 plays instead a pro-atherogenic role, via proinflammatory cytokine production, in atherosclerotic lesions contributing to plaque rupture. Contradictory data report the association between -308 TNF-alpha polymorphism and CAD, while no investigations exist on Hsp70-2 gene in CAD. In the current study, we analysed -308 TNF-alpha and 1267 Hsp70-2 polymorphisms and zinc status in 190 healthy old controls and 216 old patients with carotid stenosis subdivided in two groups: the first one 105 patients with CAD (C group), and the second one 111 patients without cardiovascular events (D group). We found a lack of association between -308 TNF-alpha polymorphism and CAD. Conversely, 1267 Hsp70-2 polymorphism was associated with CAD. In particular, significant higher frequency of AB + BB genotypes (B + genotype) was observed in C patients than controls (71.4 vs.56.9%, P = 0.017, odds ratio = 1.898). However, when C patients were subdivided into four subgroups on the basis of presence/absence of 1267B Hsp70-2 and -308A TNF-alpha alleles, B + A + patients showed higher prothrombin activity as well as Hsp70-2, TNF-alpha, IL-6 gene expressions in carotid atheroma when compared to B - A - genotypes. The zinc status (plasma and Zn/Fe ratio in erythrocytes) is not affected by these polymorphisms. However, zinc deficiency is present in CAD condition. In conclusion, 1267 HSP70-2 polymorphism and zinc deficiency, rather than -308 TNF-alpha, are independently associated with CAD. B + A+ and B + A- carriers seem more predisposed to ischaemic events; conversely, B - A- genotype may be considered a protective marker against CAD.

    Biogerontology 2006;7;5-6;347-56

  • A protein-protein interaction network for human inherited ataxias and disorders of Purkinje cell degeneration.

    Lim J, Hao T, Shaw C, Patel AJ, Szabó G, Rual JF, Fisk CJ, Li N, Smolyar A, Hill DE, Barabási AL, Vidal M and Zoghbi HY

    Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

    Many human inherited neurodegenerative disorders are characterized by loss of balance due to cerebellar Purkinje cell (PC) degeneration. Although the disease-causing mutations have been identified for a number of these disorders, the normal functions of the proteins involved remain, in many cases, unknown. To gain insight into the function of proteins involved in PC degeneration, we developed an interaction network for 54 proteins involved in 23 inherited ataxias and expanded the network by incorporating literature-curated and evolutionarily conserved interactions. We identified 770 mostly novel protein-protein interactions using a stringent yeast two-hybrid screen; of 75 pairs tested, 83% of the interactions were verified in mammalian cells. Many ataxia-causing proteins share interacting partners, a subset of which have been found to modify neurodegeneration in animal models. This interactome thus provides a tool for understanding pathogenic mechanisms common for this class of neurodegenerative disorders and for identifying candidate genes for inherited ataxias.

    Funded by: NICHD NIH HHS: HD24064; NINDS NIH HHS: NS27699

    Cell 2006;125;4;801-14

  • Heat-shock protein 70 genes and human longevity: a view from Denmark.

    Singh R, Kølvraa S, Bross P, Christensen K, Gregersen N, Tan Q, Jensen UB, Eiberg H and Rattan SI

    Department of Human Genetics, Bartholin Building, University of Aarhus, Denmark. singh@humgen.au.dk

    We have studied the association of three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) present in the three HSP70 (heat-shock protein) genes on 6p21 with human longevity. The availability of biological samples from various population cohorts in Denmark has given us the opportunity to try novel methods of gene association with human longevity. A significant association of one haplotype with male longevity was observed. Furthermore, a significant difference in the survival of the carriers of the different genotypes in females was observed. We also found an age-dependant decline in the ability of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to respond to heat stress in terms of Hsp70 induction.

    Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 2006;1067;301-8

  • Association between heat shock protein 70s and toll-like receptor polymorphisms with long-term renal allograft survival.

    Fekete A, Viklický O, Hubácek JA, Rusai K, Erdei G, Treszl A, Vítko S, Tulassay T, Heemann U, Reusz G and Szabó AJ

    Research Laboratory of Paediatrics and Nephrology, Hungarian Academy of Sciences and Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary.

    Long-term renal allograft survival has not improved significantly in recent years and only a minority of grafts survives for more than 15 years. To evaluate the association between HSPA1A G(190)C, HSPA1B A(1267)G and TLR4 A(299)G polymorphisms and allograft survival we analyzed DNA of patients with long-term renal graft function over 15 years (Tx15), consecutively transplanted recipients (Tx), patients with acute rejection and healthy controls. HSPA1B (1267)AA was less prevalent in Tx versus Tx15 (P = 0.02) and versus controls (P = 0.004). HSPA1B (1267)GG was more frequent in Tx versus Tx15 (P = 0.005) and versus controls (P = 0.002). HSPA1B (1267)G allele occurred more often in Tx versus Tx15 (P = 0.03), and versus controls (P = 0.02). TLR4 (299)AG genotype prevalence was increased in Tx15 versus Tx (P = 0.02), while TLR4 (299)G allele was more frequent in Tx15 versus Tx (P = 0.02). The increased frequency of HSPA1B (1267)AA and TLR4 (299)AG genotypes in Tx15 group indicates that better cytoprotective functions in HSPA1B (1267)AA and reduced proinflammatory response in TLR4 (299)AG carriers might have improved renal allograft survival.

    Transplant international : official journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation 2006;19;3;190-6

  • Identification of VCP/p97, carboxyl terminus of Hsp70-interacting protein (CHIP), and amphiphysin II interaction partners using membrane-based human proteome arrays.

    Grelle G, Kostka S, Otto A, Kersten B, Genser KF, Müller EC, Wälter S, Böddrich A, Stelzl U, Hänig C, Volkmer-Engert R, Landgraf C, Alberti S, Höhfeld J, Strödicke M and Wanker EE

    Max-Delbrück-Centrum für Molekulare Medizin, Robert-Rössle-Strasse 10, D-13125 Berlin-Buch, Germany.

    Proteins mediate their biological function through interactions with other proteins. Therefore, the systematic identification and characterization of protein-protein interactions have become a powerful proteomic strategy to understand protein function and comprehensive cellular regulatory networks. For the screening of valosin-containing protein, carboxyl terminus of Hsp70-interacting protein (CHIP), and amphiphysin II interaction partners, we utilized a membrane-based array technology that allows the identification of human protein-protein interactions with crude bacterial cell extracts. Many novel interaction pairs such as valosin-containing protein/autocrine motility factor receptor, CHIP/caytaxin, or amphiphysin II/DLP4 were identified and subsequently confirmed by pull-down, two-hybrid and co-immunoprecipitation experiments. In addition, assays were performed to validate the interactions functionally. CHIP e.g. was found to efficiently polyubiquitinate caytaxin in vitro, suggesting that it might influence caytaxin degradation in vivo. Using peptide arrays, we also identified the binding motifs in the proteins DLP4, XRCC4, and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, which are crucial for the association with the Src homology 3 domain of amphiphysin II. Together these studies indicate that our human proteome array technology permits the identification of protein-protein interactions that are functionally involved in neurodegenerative disease processes, the degradation of protein substrates, and the transport of membrane vesicles.

    Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 2006;5;2;234-44

  • Polymorphisms of heat shock protein-70 (HSPA1B and HSPA1L loci) do not influence infection or outcome risk in critically ill surgical patients.

    Bowers DJ, Calvano JE, Alvarez SM, Coyle SM, Macor MA, Kumar A, Calvano SE and Lowry SF

    Division of Surgical Sciences, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, 125 Paterson Street, New Brunswick, NJ 08903, USA. bowersda@umdnj.edu

    Heat shock proteins (HSP) are induced in various stress conditions and have many cytoprotective effects, including formation of protein complexes for antigen presentation, stabilizing intracellular proteins, and facilitating protein folding. The HSP-70 gene exhibits polymorphisms at the HSPA1B and HSPA1L loci that reportedly influence cytokine levels and clinical outcomes in critically ill patients. These HSP variations also have been linked to TNF-beta polymorphisms associated with poor outcomes. This study further evaluated outcomes and risk of infection of HSP polymorphisms in critically ill patients. Seventy-six consecutive surgical intensive care unit uninfected patients with established systemic inflammatory response features were prospectively enrolled. Genomic DNA was isolated from whole blood samples and specific fragments, including the relevant polymorphic sites, were amplified by PCR, and restriction digestions were performed. Genotypes were determined by electrophoresis and all were confirmed by direct sequencing. Plasma cytokine levels for TNF-alpha were assayed in a subset of patients by enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay. None of the HSP alleles bore a significant relationship to nosocomial infection rates, organ specific dysfunctions, or mortality. No linkage of HSP genotype to common TNF-alpha or TNF-beta genotypes could be demonstrated, although the HSPA1L CT polymorphism was associated with higher levels of TNF-alpha compared with the TT genotype. These data suggest that polymorphisms of the HSPA1L or HSPA1B loci do not influence infection or other highly morbid outcomes in surgical intensive care unit patients.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: R37 GM 34695

    Shock (Augusta, Ga.) 2006;25;2;117-22

  • Diversification of transcriptional modulation: large-scale identification and characterization of putative alternative promoters of human genes.

    Kimura K, Wakamatsu A, Suzuki Y, Ota T, Nishikawa T, Yamashita R, Yamamoto J, Sekine M, Tsuritani K, Wakaguri H, Ishii S, Sugiyama T, Saito K, Isono Y, Irie R, Kushida N, Yoneyama T, Otsuka R, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Kondo H, Wagatsuma M, Murakawa K, Ishida S, Ishibashi T, Takahashi-Fujii A, Tanase T, Nagai K, Kikuchi H, Nakai K, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Life Science Research Laboratory, Central Research Laboratory, Hitachi, Ltd., Kokubunji, Tokyo, 185-8601, Japan.

    By analyzing 1,780,295 5'-end sequences of human full-length cDNAs derived from 164 kinds of oligo-cap cDNA libraries, we identified 269,774 independent positions of transcriptional start sites (TSSs) for 14,628 human RefSeq genes. These TSSs were clustered into 30,964 clusters that were separated from each other by more than 500 bp and thus are very likely to constitute mutually distinct alternative promoters. To our surprise, at least 7674 (52%) human RefSeq genes were subject to regulation by putative alternative promoters (PAPs). On average, there were 3.1 PAPs per gene, with the composition of one CpG-island-containing promoter per 2.6 CpG-less promoters. In 17% of the PAP-containing loci, tissue-specific use of the PAPs was observed. The richest tissue sources of the tissue-specific PAPs were testis and brain. It was also intriguing that the PAP-containing promoters were enriched in the genes encoding signal transduction-related proteins and were rarer in the genes encoding extracellular proteins, possibly reflecting the varied functional requirement for and the restricted expression of those categories of genes, respectively. The patterns of the first exons were highly diverse as well. On average, there were 7.7 different splicing types of first exons per locus partly produced by the PAPs, suggesting that a wide variety of transcripts can be achieved by this mechanism. Our findings suggest that use of alternate promoters and consequent alternative use of first exons should play a pivotal role in generating the complexity required for the highly elaborated molecular systems in humans.

    Genome research 2006;16;1;55-65

  • Proteomic analysis of SUMO4 substrates in HEK293 cells under serum starvation-induced stress.

    Guo D, Han J, Adam BL, Colburn NH, Wang MH, Dong Z, Eizirik DL, She JX and Wang CY

    Center for Biotechnology and Genomic Medicine, Medical College of Georgia, 1120 15th Street, CA4098, Augusta, GA 30912, USA.

    The substrates of SUMO4, a novel member for the SUMO gene family, were characterized in HEK293 cells cultured under serum starvation by proteomic analysis. We identified 90 SUMO4 substrates including anti-stress proteins such as antioxidant enzymes and molecular chaperones or co-chaperones. The substrates also include proteins involved in the regulation of DNA repair and synthesis, RNA processing, protein degradation, and glucose metabolism. Several SUMO4-associated transcription factors were characterized by Western blot analyses. AP-1 was selected for in vitro conjugation assays to confirm SUMO4 sumoylation of these transcription factors. Further functional analyses of the transcription factors suggested that SUMO4 sumoylation represses AP-1 and AP-2alpha transcriptional activity, but enhances GR DNA binding capacity. These results demonstrate that SUMO4 sumoylation may play an important role in the regulation of intracellular stress.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2005;337;4;1308-18

  • Polymorphism of the heat-shock protein gene Hsp70-2, but not polymorphisms of the IL-10 and CD14 genes, is associated with the outcome of Crohn's disease.

    Klausz G, Molnár T, Nagy F, Gyulai Z, Boda K, Lonovics J and Mándi Y

    Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunobiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Szeged, Szeged, Hungary.

    Objective: In Crohn's disease (CD) a Th-1 dominant immune reaction is induced, which could be associated with genetic predisposition. Several previous studies have investigated the roles of CD14, heat-shock protein (Hsp)70 and IL-10 gene polymorphisms in the development of the disease. The results are contradictory and inter-racial differences are implicated. Therefore, this phenomenon was evaluated in well-documented Caucasian patients with CD in order to verify the clinical importance of these polymorphisms.

    The genomic DNA of 133 patients with CD and that of 75 healthy controls were examined. CD was divided into subgroups according to the Vienna classification. An arbitrary classification system based on disease severity was also applied, which was determined according to the therapeutic intervention. The CD14 (-159 C-->T) promoter gene polymorphism was investigated by melting-point analysis. The IL-10 (-1082 G-->A) and Hsp70-2 (1267 A-->G) gene polymorphisms were detected by RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism).

    Results: None of the allele frequencies of the examined polymorphisms differed significantly between the patient and control populations. Neither the CD14 nor the IL-10 polymorphisms exhibited any correlation with the development or with the progression of the disease. With regard to Hsp70-2 gene polymorphism, those patients who carry at least one A allele have a significantly lower probability of the need for surgical intervention.

    Conclusions: Allele A of the Hsp70-2 gene may be associated with a less severe form of CD, suggesting the clinical value of the genotype assessment. The genetic determination of the defense mechanisms in CD appears to be associated with the polymorphism of the Hsp70-2 gene rather than that of the CD14 or IL-10 genes.

    Scandinavian journal of gastroenterology 2005;40;10;1197-204

  • Proteomics of human umbilical vein endothelial cells applied to etoposide-induced apoptosis.

    Bruneel A, Labas V, Mailloux A, Sharma S, Royer N, Vinh J, Pernet P, Vaubourdolle M and Baudin B

    Service de Biochimie A, Hôpital Saint-Antoine, AP-HP, Paris, France. arnaud.bruneel@sat.ap-hop-paris.fr

    We have undertaken to continue the proteomic study of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) using the combination of 2-DE, automated trypsin digestion, and PMF analysis after MALDI-TOF MS and peptide sequencing using nano LC-ESI-MS/MS. The overall functional characterization of the 162 identified proteins from primary cultures of HUVECs confirms the metabolic capabilities of endothelium and illustrates various cellular functions more related to cell motility and angiogenesis, protein folding, anti-oxidant defenses, signal transduction, proteasome pathway and resistance to apoptosis. In comparison with controls cells, the differential proteomic analysis of HUVECs treated by the pro-apoptotic topoisomerase inhibitor etoposide further revealed the variation of eight proteins, namely, GRP78, GRP94, valosin-containing protein, proteinase inhibitor 9, cofilin, 37-kDa laminin receptor protein, bovine apolipoprotein, and tropomyosin. These data suggest that etoposide-induced apoptosis of human vascular endothelial cells results from the intricate involvement of multiple apoptosis processes including at least the mitochondrial and the ER stress pathways. The presented 2-D pattern and protein database, as well as the data related to apoptosis of HUVECs, are available at http://www.huvec.com.

    Proteomics 2005;5;15;3876-84

  • A human protein-protein interaction network: a resource for annotating the proteome.

    Stelzl U, Worm U, Lalowski M, Haenig C, Brembeck FH, Goehler H, Stroedicke M, Zenkner M, Schoenherr A, Koeppen S, Timm J, Mintzlaff S, Abraham C, Bock N, Kietzmann S, Goedde A, Toksöz E, Droege A, Krobitsch S, Korn B, Birchmeier W, Lehrach H and Wanker EE

    Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine, 13092 Berlin-Buch, Germany.

    Protein-protein interaction maps provide a valuable framework for a better understanding of the functional organization of the proteome. To detect interacting pairs of human proteins systematically, a protein matrix of 4456 baits and 5632 preys was screened by automated yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) interaction mating. We identified 3186 mostly novel interactions among 1705 proteins, resulting in a large, highly connected network. Independent pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation assays validated the overall quality of the Y2H interactions. Using topological and GO criteria, a scoring system was developed to define 911 high-confidence interactions among 401 proteins. Furthermore, the network was searched for interactions linking uncharacterized gene products and human disease proteins to regulatory cellular pathways. Two novel Axin-1 interactions were validated experimentally, characterizing ANP32A and CRMP1 as modulators of Wnt signaling. Systematic human protein interaction screens can lead to a more comprehensive understanding of protein function and cellular processes.

    Cell 2005;122;6;957-68

  • Polymorphisms of heat shock protein 70 gene (HSPA1A, HSPA1B and HSPA1L) and schizophrenia.

    Pae CU, Kim TS, Kwon OJ, Artioli P, Serretti A, Lee CU, Lee SJ, Lee C, Paik IH and Kim JJ

    Department of Psychiatry, The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Kangnam St. Mary's Hospital, 505 Banpo-dong, Seocho-gu, Seoul 137-701, Republic of Korea.

    The heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) is believed to be involved in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia with regards to neurodevelopment. An aberration in the HSP70 has been proposed in schizophrenia patients, suggesting that it is a candidate gene for schizophrenia. This study aimed to investigate the association between the three polymorphisms of HSP70-1 (HSPA1A), HSP70-hom (HSPA1L) and HSP70-2 (HSPA1B) and schizophrenia. One hundred and sixty-one patients with schizophrenia and 165 controls were enrolled in the study. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with a restriction fragment length enzyme (RFLP) was used to genotype the HSPA1A, HSPA1L and HSPA1B polymorphisms. There were no significant differences in the allelic or genotype frequencies of the HSPA1A and HSPA1L polymorphisms between the schizophrenia patients and the controls, while there was a marginal difference in the genotype frequency of the HSPA1B polymorphisms, and a significant difference in the allelic frequency of the HSPA1B polymorphisms between the schizophrenia patients and the controls. There was no evidence of an association between the clinical variables and schizophrenia across the genotypes among the three HSP70 gene polymorphisms. These results suggest that a HSPA1B polymorphism might be related to the pathogenesis of schizophrenia at least in the Korean population. Therefore, larger studies from different ethnic groups should be performed to confirm these results.

    Neuroscience research 2005;53;1;8-13

  • Phosphorylation and binding partner analysis of the TSC1-TSC2 complex.

    Nellist M, Burgers PC, van den Ouweland AM, Halley DJ and Luider TM

    Department of Clinical Genetics, Erasmus Medisch Centrum, Dr. Molewaterplein 50, 3015 GE Rotterdam, The Netherlands. m.nellist@erasmusmc.nl

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant benign tumour syndrome caused by mutations to either the TSC1 or TSC2 tumour suppressor gene. The TSC1 and TSC2 gene products, TSC1 and TSC2, form a protein complex that integrates inputs from multiple signalling cascades to inactivate the small GTPase rheb, and thereby inhibit mTOR-dependent cell growth. We have used matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight and Fourier transform mass spectrometry to identify TSC1 and TSC2 phosphorylation sites and candidate TSC1 and TSC2 interacting proteins. We identified three sites of TSC2 phosphorylation and a novel site of TSC1 phosphorylation, and investigated the roles of these sites in regulating the activity of the TSC1-TSC2 complex. In addition, we identified three TSC1-TSC2 interacting proteins, including DOCK7 a putative rhebGEF.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2005;333;3;818-26

  • 1267 HSP70-2 polymorphism as a risk factor for carotid plaque rupture and cerebral ischaemia in old type 2 diabetes-atherosclerotic patients.

    Giacconi R, Caruso C, Lio D, Muti E, Cipriano C, Saba V, Boccoli G, Gasparini N, Malavolta M and Mocchegiani E

    Immunolgy Ctr. (Sect. Nutrition, Immunity and Ageing) Res. Department INRCA, Via Birarelli 8, 60121 Ancona, Italy.

    Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) are at risk for macrovascular disease complications, such as myocardial infarction (MI) or stroke from plaque rupture. Cytokines play a key role in plaque vulnerability. IFN-gamma inhibits collagen synthesis thereby affecting plaque stability. High IL-6, TNF-alpha, and dyslipidemia are risk factors for thrombosis. Abnormal increments of HSP70 in atherosclerotic plaques might lead to plaque instability and rupture caused by chronic inflammation, which up-regulates the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-alpha) in human monocytes. Studies of a polymorphic PstI site lying in the coding region at position 1267 of the HSP70-2 gene have shown that the BB genotype is associated with NIDDM. We screened 60 old NIDDM patients with carotid stenosis and 107 old healthy controls for 1267 HSP70-2 polymorphism in order to establish if an association with plaque frailty exists. Different genotypic distributions were observed between patients and healthy controls. An increased relative risk was associated with the B allele (p = 0.0107; odds ratio = 1.861). HSP70-2, IL-6, IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha gene expressions within the plaques and serum levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol were tested from patients stratified according to their B+ (AB and BB) and B- (AA) genotypes. Plaque morphology (soft or fibrous-calcified) and the incidence of cerebral ischaemia were also assessed. B+ patients showed increased HSP70-2, IL-6, IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha and dyslipidemia as compared to B- carriers. The frequency of soft plaques increased in B+ in comparison to B- patients (67% versus 13%; odds ratio 13.0, p = 0.0006). A higher frequency of cerebral ischaemia (ictus or transient ischaemic attack (TIA)) was present in B+ than in B- genotype (53% versus 20%; odds ratio 4.57, p < 0.05) Hence, 1267 HSP70-2 polymorphism may be of use in identifying B+ NIDDM patients at risk for carotid plaque rupture and cerebral ischaemia.

    Mechanisms of ageing and development 2005;126;8;866-73

  • Heat shock protein 70 inhibits alpha-synuclein fibril formation via preferential binding to prefibrillar species.

    Dedmon MM, Christodoulou J, Wilson MR and Dobson CM

    Department of Chemistry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB2 1EW, United Kingdom.

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder affecting an estimated 4 million people worldwide. Intracellular proteinaceous inclusions called Lewy bodies are the histological hallmarks of PD and are primarily composed of aggregated alpha-synuclein (alphaSyn). Although the detailed mechanisms remain unclear, mounting evidence suggests that the misfolding of alphaSyn into prefibrillar and fibrillar species is the driving force responsible for cellular toxicity. We show here that the molecular chaperone heat shock protein (Hsp) 70 strongly inhibits alphaSyn fibril formation via preferential binding to prefibrillar species. Moreover, our studies reveal that Hsp70 alters the characteristics of toxic alphaSyn aggregates and indicate that cellular toxicity arises from the prefibrillar forms of alphaSyn. This work therefore elucidates a specific role of Hsp70 in the pathogenesis of PD and supports the general concept that chaperone action is a crucial aspect in protecting against the otherwise damaging consequences of protein misfolding.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2005;280;15;14733-40

  • Polymorphism of the TNF-alpha, HSP70-2, and CD14 genes increases susceptibility to severe acute pancreatitis.

    Balog A, Gyulai Z, Boros LG, Farkas G, Takács T, Lonovics J and Mándi Y

    Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Szeged, Szeged, Hungary.

    Objectives: Proinflammatory cytokines and heat shock proteins play fundamental roles in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis. We studied whether polymorphisms of the tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), heat shock protein 70-2 (HSP70-2), and CD14 genes correlate with the severity of acute pancreatitis.

    Methods: Patients with acute pancreatitis (n = 77) of mixed etiology were grouped according to the severity of the disease on the basis of the Ranson scores. Healthy blood donors (n = 71) served as controls. TNF-alpha-308 polymorphism was determined by NcoI RFLP, HSP70-2 polymorphism by PstI RFLP, and CD14-159 polymorphism by melting point analysis.

    Results: There was a moderate increase in the frequency of the TNF1/2 genotype (P = 0.046) among patients with severe acute pancreatitis as compared with those with mild disease. A more significant increase was observed in the frequency of the HSP70-2 G allele between groups of patients with mild or severe pancreatitis (18.9% vs. 53%; P < 0.001). Conversely, the A/A genotype was markedly more frequent among the patients with mild pancreatitis (P < 0.0001). There was no significant correlation between CD14-159 promoter polymorphism and the severity of pancreatitis.

    Conclusion: High frequencies of the HSP70-2 G and the TNF-alpha -308 A alleles were associated with risk of severe acute pancreatitis. Genotype assessments may be important prognostic tools to predict disease severity and the course of acute pancreatitis. Therefore, genotype assessments may also be used to guide treatment or to identify risk populations for severe acute pancreatitis.

    Pancreas 2005;30;2;e46-50

  • Association of hsp70-2 and hsp-hom gene polymorphisms with risk of acute high-altitude illness in a Chinese population.

    Zhou F, Wang F, Li F, Yuan J, Zeng H, Wei Q, Tanguay RM and Wu T

    Institute of Occupational Medicine, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, China.

    High-altitude illness (HAI) is a potentially fatal condition involving genetic and environmental components. Accumulated experimental evidence suggests that heat shock proteins (Hsps), especially HSP70, can protect cells and organs against different types of damage. We investigated whether genetic variation in constitutive and inducible hsp70 genes could be associated with risk of HAI. The association between polymorphisms of the HSP70 family genes and risk of HAI was determined in 56 patients with HAI and in 100 matched controls by genotyping for the polymorphisms +190 G/C, +1267 A/G, 2437 G/C in the hsp70-1, hsp70-2, and hsp70-hom genes by using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. The data showed that there was no statistically significant difference in the genotype and allele distributions of hsp70-1, in hsp70-2 allele and hsp70-2 A/A and A/B genotypes, and in allele distribution of hsp70-hom among patients with HAI and controls (chi2 test, P > 0.05). However, there was a significantly higher frequency of hsp70-2 B/B and hsp70-hom A/A and B/B genotypes and a significantly lower frequency of the hsp70-hom A/B genotype in the HAI patients compared with the controls (P < 0.05 for all). The risk associated with the hsp70-2 B/B and hsp70-hom A/A, A/B, and B/B genotypes were 4.017 (95% CI = 1.496-10.781; P = 0.004), 2.434 (95% CI = 1.184-5.003; P = 0.012), 0.299 (95% CI = 0.148-0.602, P = 0.001), and 5.880 (95% CI =1.145-30.196, P = 0.026), respectively. Our results suggest that individuals with hsp70-2 B/B and hsp70-hom A/B and B/B genotypes may be more susceptible to HAI, whereas those with hsp70-hom A/B genotype may be tolerant to HAI. Further studies in individuals of different age and sex are warranted to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of this association and the possible functions of different genotypes of hsp70-2 and hsp70-hom under hypoxic stress.

    Cell stress & chaperones 2005;10;4;349-56

  • BAG5 inhibits parkin and enhances dopaminergic neuron degeneration.

    Kalia SK, Lee S, Smith PD, Liu L, Crocker SJ, Thorarinsdottir TE, Glover JR, Fon EA, Park DS and Lozano AM

    Applied and Interventional Research, Toronto Western Hospital Research Institute, University Health Network, University of Toronto, 399 Bathurst Street, Toronto, Ontario M5T 2S8, Canada.

    Loss-of-function mutations in the parkin gene, which encodes an E3 ubiquitin ligase, are the major cause of early-onset Parkinson's disease (PD). Decreases in parkin activity may also contribute to neurodegeneration in sporadic forms of PD. Here, we show that bcl-2-associated athanogene 5 (BAG5), a BAG family member, directly interacts with parkin and the chaperone Hsp70. Within this complex, BAG5 inhibits both parkin E3 ubiquitin ligase activity and Hsp70-mediated refolding of misfolded proteins. BAG5 enhances parkin sequestration within protein aggregates and mitigates parkin-dependent preservation of proteasome function. Finally, BAG5 enhances dopamine neuron death in an in vivo model of PD, whereas a mutant that inhibits BAG5 activity attenuates dopaminergic neurodegeneration. This contrasts with the antideath functions ascribed to BAG family members and suggests a potential role for BAG5 in promoting neurodegeneration in sporadic PD through its functional interactions with parkin and Hsp70.

    Neuron 2004;44;6;931-45

  • [Relationship between heat stress protein 70 gene polymorphisms and the risk of acute mountain sickness].

    Li FZ, Zhou F, Jiang CZ, Sun SY, He MA, Zhang SY, Liao R, Zeng HS, Wu YM and Wu TC

    Clinical Laboratory of the Hospital of the General Armed Police Force of Sichuan, Chengdu 610041, China.

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between heat stress proteins 70 (HSPs70) gene polymorphism and the risk of acute mountain sickness.

    Methods: Fifty-six soldiers with acute mountain sickness and 173 soldiers without that were chosen as cases and controls. HSP70-1, HSP70-2 genotypes were analyzed by using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique.

    Results: The HSP70-1 polymorphism was similar in two groups. The genotype frequency of HSP70-2 B/B in acute mountain sickness group (23.2%) was significantly higher than that in the control (6.9%, P < 0.05, OR = 4.02).

    Conclusion: There is a significantly increased association of HSP70-2 B/B genotype with the risk of acute mountain sickness. Individuals with HSP70-2 B/B genotype may have weaker adaptive ability than those without this genotype under altitude stress. The results contribute to provide scientific bases for finding these individuals in specified occupational people, ensuring their health and enhancing work efficiency.

    Zhonghua lao dong wei sheng zhi ye bing za zhi = Zhonghua laodong weisheng zhiyebing zazhi = Chinese journal of industrial hygiene and occupational diseases 2004;22;6;413-5

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • The septic shock associated HSPA1B1267 polymorphism influences production of HSPA1A and HSPA1B.

    Temple SE, Cheong KY, Ardlie KG, Sayer D and Waterer GW

    School of Medicine and Pharmacology, University of Western Australia, GPO Box X2213, 6847 Perth, Western Australia, Australia. setemple@cyllene.uwa.edu.au

    Objective: To identify a functional polymorphic site(s) within HSPA1A and/or HSPA1B which is in linkage disequilibrium with the silent mutation HSPA1B1267A>G and explains its association with septic shock.

    Subjects: The promoter region of HSPA1A and HSPA1B was sequenced in 100 healthy whites. Stimulation experiments were performed on 36 healthy subjects.

    Sequencing the HSPA1A and HSPA1B promoter regions (approx. 500 bp upstream of the translation start site) identified ten novel and three known polymorphisms. Mononuclear cells were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (10 microg/ml) for 4 and 8 h, and mRNA levels measured by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Two polymorphisms, HSPA1A-27G>C and HSPA1A-327A>C, were found to be in strong linkage with HSPA1B1267A>G but, as with HSPA1B1267A>G, were not associated with stimulated mRNA levels. However, HSPA1B-179C>T, which is also in linkage with HSPA1B1267, was associated with stimulated HSPA1A and HSPA1B mRNA levels. Individuals homozygous for the C allele of HSPA1B-179C>T were associated with lower HSPA1A and HSPA1B mRNA levels than HSPA1B-179CT after 8 h lipopolysaccharide stimulation.

    Conclusions: HSPA1B-179C>T is in linkage disequilibrium with HSPA1B1267A>G and is associated with variable production of HSPA1B and HSPA1A production. This suggests that HSPA1B-179C>T affects HSP70 production and is a key determinant of individual susceptibility to a variety of infectious and inflammatory diseases.

    Intensive care medicine 2004;30;9;1761-7

  • Proteomic, functional, and domain-based analysis of in vivo 14-3-3 binding proteins involved in cytoskeletal regulation and cellular organization.

    Jin J, Smith FD, Stark C, Wells CD, Fawcett JP, Kulkarni S, Metalnikov P, O'Donnell P, Taylor P, Taylor L, Zougman A, Woodgett JR, Langeberg LK, Scott JD and Pawson T

    Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, 600 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X5, Canada.

    Background: 14-3-3 proteins are abundant and conserved polypeptides that mediate the cellular effects of basophilic protein kinases through their ability to bind specific peptide motifs phosphorylated on serine or threonine.

    Results: We have used mass spectrometry to analyze proteins that associate with 14-3-3 isoforms in HEK293 cells. This identified 170 unique 14-3-3-associated proteins, which show only modest overlap with previous 14-3-3 binding partners isolated by affinity chromatography. To explore this large set of proteins, we developed a domain-based hierarchical clustering technique that distinguishes structurally and functionally related subsets of 14-3-3 target proteins. This analysis revealed a large group of 14-3-3 binding partners that regulate cytoskeletal architecture. Inhibition of 14-3-3 phosphoprotein recognition in vivo indicates the general importance of such interactions in cellular morphology and membrane dynamics. Using tandem proteomic and biochemical approaches, we identify a phospho-dependent 14-3-3 binding site on the A kinase anchoring protein (AKAP)-Lbc, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for the Rho GTPase. 14-3-3 binding to AKAP-Lbc, induced by PKA, suppresses Rho activation in vivo.

    Conclusion: 14-3-3 proteins can potentially engage around 0.6% of the human proteome. Domain-based clustering has identified specific subsets of 14-3-3 targets, including numerous proteins involved in the dynamic control of cell architecture. This notion has been validated by the broad inhibition of 14-3-3 phosphorylation-dependent binding in vivo and by the specific analysis of AKAP-Lbc, a RhoGEF that is controlled by its interaction with 14-3-3.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK44239

    Current biology : CB 2004;14;16;1436-50

  • Analysis of MHC genes in a Tunisian isolate with autoimmune thyroid diseases: implication of TNF -308 gene polymorphism.

    Bougacha-Elleuch N, Rebai A, Mnif M, Makni H, Bellassouad M, Jouida J, Abid M and Hammadi A

    Laboratoire de Génétique Moléculaire Humaine Faculté de Médecine, Avenue Majida Boulila, 3029 Sfax, Tunisia.

    Autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITDs), which include Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT), Graves' disease (GD) and primary idiopathic myxoedema (PIM), are recognized as multifactorial diseases. In this study, we have examined single and haplotypic genetic variation across the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in a Tunisian isolate with a high prevalence of AITDs (62 patients: 32 with GD, 9 with HT and 21 with PIM). Genotyping was performed for HLA class I and II alleles as well as polymorphisms within tumor necrosis factor (TNF), lymphotoxin alpha (TLalpha) and heat shock protein (HSP70-02 and HSP70-hom) genes. Our results showed association of HLA-A2-B50-TNF 2 haplotype with AITDs (p = 0.045). Linkage analysis using Simwalk2 program has shown significant result with TNF -308 gene polymorphism (p = 0.03). The FBAT has given evidence for genetic association with TNF -308 and HLA-DR gene polymorphisms. TNF 2 allele was associated with GD (p = 0.0011), whereas TNF 1, HLA-DR11 and DR12 (p = 0.0039, p = 0.00089 and p = 0.0056, respectively) were rather implicated in HT pathogenesis. Results found by TDT-STDT have confirmed the involvement of the TNF -308 gene polymorphism in AITD pathogenesis (p < 10(-9)).

    Journal of autoimmunity 2004;23;1;75-80

  • Polymorphism of stress protein HSP70-2 gene in Tunisians: susceptibility implications in type 2 diabetes and obesity.

    Zouari Bouassida K, Chouchane L, Jellouli K, Chérif S, Haddad S, Gabbouj S and Danguir J

    Service de Nutrition expérimentale, Institut de Nutrition, Tunis, Tunisie.

    Objectives: Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) is expressed primarily in adipocytes and elevated levels of this cytokine have been linked to obesity and insulin resistance. Several studies have shown statistical evidence of linkage between obesity and the chromosomal region encompassing the TNFalpha gene, suggesting that TNF alpha and/or a nearby gene is involved in the pathogenesis of obesity. Recently we analyzed the -308 TNFalpha polymorphism and that of HSP70-2 gene in Tunisian patients with obesity and no significant difference in allele frequencies of the -308 TNFalpha polymorphism was found between obese patients and controls. In contrast, polymorphism in HSP70-2 gene was found to be highly associated with obesity. Both TNFalpha and HSP70-2 genes have been mapped within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). We designated a case-controlled study to investigate a potential association of genetic variation of the TNFalpha and that of the heat shock protein 70-2 (HSP70-2) with type 2 diabetes.

    Methods: We used the polymerase chain reaction and restriction enzyme to characterize the variation of the TNFalpha promoter region and that of the HSP70-2 gene in 280 unrelated Tunisian patients with type2 diabetes and 274 healthy control subjects.

    Results: Analysis of the -308 TNFalpha polymorphism in patients with type 2 diabetes and in control subjects revealed that the heterozygous TNF1/TNF2 genotype was significantly less frequent in the patient group (p=0.003), suggesting that TNF1/TNF2 may be considered as a protective marker against type 2 diabetes (OR=0.58). In contrast, a significant relative risk of type 2 diabetes was found associated with the P2-HSP70-2 homozygous genotype in non obese diabetic subjects (OR=1.97; p=0.0012).

    Conclusion: These results along with those showing high frequency of P2-HSP70-2 genotype in obese Tunisians, suggest that HSP70-2 polymorphism has susceptibility implications in both obesity and diabetes.

    Diabetes & metabolism 2004;30;2;175-80

  • A physical and functional map of the human TNF-alpha/NF-kappa B signal transduction pathway.

    Bouwmeester T, Bauch A, Ruffner H, Angrand PO, Bergamini G, Croughton K, Cruciat C, Eberhard D, Gagneur J, Ghidelli S, Hopf C, Huhse B, Mangano R, Michon AM, Schirle M, Schlegl J, Schwab M, Stein MA, Bauer A, Casari G, Drewes G, Gavin AC, Jackson DB, Joberty G, Neubauer G, Rick J, Kuster B and Superti-Furga G

    Cellzome AG, Meyerhofstrasse 1, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany. tewis.bouwmeester@cellzome.com

    Signal transduction pathways are modular composites of functionally interdependent sets of proteins that act in a coordinated fashion to transform environmental information into a phenotypic response. The pro-inflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha triggers a signalling cascade, converging on the activation of the transcription factor NF-kappa B, which forms the basis for numerous physiological and pathological processes. Here we report the mapping of a protein interaction network around 32 known and candidate TNF-alpha/NF-kappa B pathway components by using an integrated approach comprising tandem affinity purification, liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, network analysis and directed functional perturbation studies using RNA interference. We identified 221 molecular associations and 80 previously unknown interactors, including 10 new functional modulators of the pathway. This systems approach provides significant insight into the logic of the TNF-alpha/NF-kappa B pathway and is generally applicable to other pathways relevant to human disease.

    Nature cell biology 2004;6;2;97-105

  • Analysis of heat-shock protein 70 gene polymorphisms and the risk of Parkinson's disease.

    Wu YR, Wang CK, Chen CM, Hsu Y, Lin SJ, Lin YY, Fung HC, Chang KH and Lee-Chen GJ

    Second Department of Neurology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taipei, Taiwan.

    Parkinson's disease (PD) involves several genetic and environmental components. Heat-shock protein 70, a chaperone that is up-regulated in stress responses and that refolds protein, may be involved in the pathogenesis of PD. We have investigated the association of polymorphisms -110 A/C, +190 G/C, +1267 A/G, +2074 G/C, and +2437 G/C in the 5' and coding regions of the HSP70-1, HSP70-2, and HSP70-hom genes with the risk of PD by screening DNA samples from 274 PD patients and 183 controls in assays based on the polymerase chain reaction. There was no statistically significant difference in genotype distribution between patients and controls for the three coding-region polymorphisms in HSP70-2 and HSP70-hom. However, for HSP70-1, the overall genotype distribution was significantly different at the -110 site (P=0.004) and tended to be different at the +190 site (P=0.012) between patients and controls. The frequencies of the -110 CC and +190 CC genotypes were significantly higher in PD patients than in controls (P=0.001 and 0.006, respectively). Both -110 CC (odds ratio: 2.91; 95% CI: 1.51-5.96; P=0.002) and +190 CC (odds ratio: 3.59; 95% CI: 1.53-9.88; P=0.006) genotypes were significantly associated with PD. Reporter constructs containing the -110 A allele cloned into a luciferase reporter plasmid drove marginally higher transcriptional activity of HSP70-1 compared with the -110 C allele in both control and heat-shocked IMR32 and 293 cells. Therefore, -110 A/C may be a functional polymorphism in the 5' promoter region of HSP70-1 and may affect susceptibility to PD.

    Human genetics 2004;114;3;236-41

  • Heat shock protein 70 gene polymorphisms in Han nationality of China with chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases.

    Xie J, Xu Y, Zhang Z, Ni W and Chen S

    Department of Respiratory Medicine, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030.

    In order to investigate whether polymorphism in gene for heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) has any bearing on individual susceptibility to the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the geotypes of 88 patients with COPD and 87 healthy smoking control subjects were tested by polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment polymorphism analysis for HSP70 gene. In COPD group, HSP70-1 genotype A/A, A/B and B/B was 59.1%, 35.2% and 5.7%, HSP70-2 genotype A/A, A/B and B/B was 26.1%, 54.6% and 19.3%, and HSP70-hom genotype A/A, A/B and B/B was 70.4%, 27.3% and 2.3% respectively. In the control group, it was 60.9%, 27.5% and 3.5%, 20.7%, 56.3% and 23.0%, and 54.0%, 42.5% and 3.5%, respectively. The frequency of polymorphic genetypes showed no difference between the COPD group and the control group (P>0.05). It was suggested that geneic polymorphism in HSP70 is not associated with development of COPD in Han nationality of China.

    Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Medical sciences = Hua zhong ke ji da xue xue bao. Yi xue Ying De wen ban = Huazhong keji daxue xuebao. Yixue Yingdewen ban 2004;24;1;28-31

  • Tuba, a novel protein containing bin/amphiphysin/Rvs and Dbl homology domains, links dynamin to regulation of the actin cytoskeleton.

    Salazar MA, Kwiatkowski AV, Pellegrini L, Cestra G, Butler MH, Rossman KL, Serna DM, Sondek J, Gertler FB and De Camilli P

    Department of Cell Biology and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06519, USA.

    Tuba is a novel scaffold protein that functions to bring together dynamin with actin regulatory proteins. It is concentrated at synapses in brain and binds dynamin selectively through four N-terminal Src homology-3 (SH3) domains. Tuba binds a variety of actin regulatory proteins, including N-WASP, CR16, WAVE1, WIRE, PIR121, NAP1, and Ena/VASP proteins, via a C-terminal SH3 domain. Direct binding partners include N-WASP and Ena/VASP proteins. Forced targeting of the C-terminal SH3 domain to the mitochondrial surface can promote accumulation of F-actin around mitochondria. A Dbl homology domain present in the middle of Tuba upstream of a Bin/amphiphysin/Rvs (BAR) domain activates Cdc42, but not Rac and Rho, and may thus cooperate with the C terminus of the protein in regulating actin assembly. The BAR domain, a lipid-binding module, may functionally replace the pleckstrin homology domain that typically follows a Dbl homology domain. The properties of Tuba provide new evidence for a close functional link between dynamin, Rho GTPase signaling, and the actin cytoskeleton.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA46128; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM58801, GM62299; NINDS NIH HHS: NS36251

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;49;49031-43

  • Analysis of the gene-dense major histocompatibility complex class III region and its comparison to mouse.

    Xie T, Rowen L, Aguado B, Ahearn ME, Madan A, Qin S, Campbell RD and Hood L

    Institute for Systems Biology, Seattle, Washington 98103, USA.

    In mammals, the Major Histocompatibility Complex class I and II gene clusters are separated by an approximately 700-kb stretch of sequence called the MHC class III region, which has been associated with susceptibility to numerous diseases. To facilitate understanding of this medically important and architecturally interesting portion of the genome, we have sequenced and analyzed both the human and mouse class III regions. The cross-species comparison has facilitated the identification of 60 genes in human and 61 in mouse, including a potential RNA gene for which the introns are more conserved across species than the exons. Delineation of global organization, gene structure, alternative splice forms, protein similarities, and potential cis-regulatory elements leads to several conclusions: (1) The human MHC class III region is the most gene-dense region of the human genome: >14% of the sequence is coding, approximately 72% of the region is transcribed, and there is an average of 8.5 genes per 100 kb. (2) Gene sizes, number of exons, and intergenic distances are for the most part similar in both species, implying that interspersed repeats have had little impact in disrupting the tight organization of this densely packed set of genes. (3) The region contains a heterogeneous mixture of genes, only a few of which have a clearly defined and proven function. Although many of the genes are of ancient origin, some appear to exist only in mammals and fish, implying they might be specific to vertebrates. (4) Conserved noncoding sequences are found primarily in or near the 5'-UTR or the first intron of genes, and seldom in the intergenic regions. Many of these conserved blocks are likely to be cis-regulatory elements.

    Genome research 2003;13;12;2621-36

  • The DNA sequence and analysis of human chromosome 6.

    Mungall AJ, Palmer SA, Sims SK, Edwards CA, Ashurst JL, Wilming L, Jones MC, Horton R, Hunt SE, Scott CE, Gilbert JG, Clamp ME, Bethel G, Milne S, Ainscough R, Almeida JP, Ambrose KD, Andrews TD, Ashwell RI, Babbage AK, Bagguley CL, Bailey J, Banerjee R, Barker DJ, Barlow KF, Bates K, Beare DM, Beasley H, Beasley O, Bird CP, Blakey S, Bray-Allen S, Brook J, Brown AJ, Brown JY, Burford DC, Burrill W, Burton J, Carder C, Carter NP, Chapman JC, Clark SY, Clark G, Clee CM, Clegg S, Cobley V, Collier RE, Collins JE, Colman LK, Corby NR, Coville GJ, Culley KM, Dhami P, Davies J, Dunn M, Earthrowl ME, Ellington AE, Evans KA, Faulkner L, Francis MD, Frankish A, Frankland J, French L, Garner P, Garnett J, Ghori MJ, Gilby LM, Gillson CJ, Glithero RJ, Grafham DV, Grant M, Gribble S, Griffiths C, Griffiths M, Hall R, Halls KS, Hammond S, Harley JL, Hart EA, Heath PD, Heathcott R, Holmes SJ, Howden PJ, Howe KL, Howell GR, Huckle E, Humphray SJ, Humphries MD, Hunt AR, Johnson CM, Joy AA, Kay M, Keenan SJ, Kimberley AM, King A, Laird GK, Langford C, Lawlor S, Leongamornlert DA, Leversha M, Lloyd CR, Lloyd DM, Loveland JE, Lovell J, Martin S, Mashreghi-Mohammadi M, Maslen GL, Matthews L, McCann OT, McLaren SJ, McLay K, McMurray A, Moore MJ, Mullikin JC, Niblett D, Nickerson T, Novik KL, Oliver K, Overton-Larty EK, Parker A, Patel R, Pearce AV, Peck AI, Phillimore B, Phillips S, Plumb RW, Porter KM, Ramsey Y, Ranby SA, Rice CM, Ross MT, Searle SM, Sehra HK, Sheridan E, Skuce CD, Smith S, Smith M, Spraggon L, Squares SL, Steward CA, Sycamore N, Tamlyn-Hall G, Tester J, Theaker AJ, Thomas DW, Thorpe A, Tracey A, Tromans A, Tubby B, Wall M, Wallis JM, West AP, White SS, Whitehead SL, Whittaker H, Wild A, Willey DJ, Wilmer TE, Wood JM, Wray PW, Wyatt JC, Young L, Younger RM, Bentley DR, Coulson A, Durbin R, Hubbard T, Sulston JE, Dunham I, Rogers J and Beck S

    The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SA, UK. ajm@sanger.ac.uk

    Chromosome 6 is a metacentric chromosome that constitutes about 6% of the human genome. The finished sequence comprises 166,880,988 base pairs, representing the largest chromosome sequenced so far. The entire sequence has been subjected to high-quality manual annotation, resulting in the evidence-supported identification of 1,557 genes and 633 pseudogenes. Here we report that at least 96% of the protein-coding genes have been identified, as assessed by multi-species comparative sequence analysis, and provide evidence for the presence of further, otherwise unsupported exons/genes. Among these are genes directly implicated in cancer, schizophrenia, autoimmunity and many other diseases. Chromosome 6 harbours the largest transfer RNA gene cluster in the genome; we show that this cluster co-localizes with a region of high transcriptional activity. Within the essential immune loci of the major histocompatibility complex, we find HLA-B to be the most polymorphic gene on chromosome 6 and in the human genome.

    Nature 2003;425;6960;805-11

  • HSP70-2 (HSPA1B) is associated with noncognitive symptoms in late-onset Alzheimer's disease.

    Clarimón J, Bertranpetit J, Boada M, Tàrraga L and Comas D

    Unitat de Biologia Evolutiva, Facultat de Ciències de la Salut i de la Vida, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona, Spain.

    Neuropsychiatric manifestations are common in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and their phenotypic expression might be related to physiopathological and genetic causes. Multiple studies have implicated oxidative stress to the pathogenesis and possible etiology of AD. One of the mechanisms to protect cells from oxidative stress is the expression of heat-shock proteins (HSP). HSPA1B (alternatively known as HSP70-2) has been related to AD pathophysiology. In the present analysis, 77 AD patients were classified according to their cognitive status with the Neuropsychiatric Inventory and were genotyped for an insertion/deletion (A1/A2) polymorphism. The A2 allele conferred a significant increase of psychiatric morbidity in an allele-dose manner (P < .05). This pattern can be attributed to all AD stages and the severity of the behavioral disturbances was higher for those patients carrying one or two A2 alleles. These results indicate a possible association between the A2 allele and an overexpression of noncognitive symptoms in AD.

    Journal of geriatric psychiatry and neurology 2003;16;3;146-50

  • gp120 neurotoxicity fails to induce heat shock defenses, while the over expression of hsp70 protects against gp120.

    Lim MC, Brooke SM and Sapolsky RM

    Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University MC 5020, Stanford, CA 94305-5020, USA.

    gp120, the coat glycoprotein of HIV, can damage CNS neurons. This appears to mostly involve an indirect pathway in which gp120 infects microglia, triggering the release of cytokines and glutamatergic excitotoxins which then damage neurons. A well-characterized response of cells to insults is to mobilize the heat stress response, a defense that has a number of protective consequences. We tested the capacity of gp120, at a dose well-documented to be neurotoxic, to activate the heat shock response in cultures from cortex and hippocampus, two brain regions sensitive to the neurotoxic effects of gp120. We found that gp120 failed to induce expression of hsp70, hsp25 or hsp90 in cortical or hippocampal cultures, under conditions where induction can be demonstrated in response to other insults. The failure of gp120 to induce a heat shock response is significant because we subsequently demonstrated that such an induction would have been beneficial. Specifically, over expression of hsp70 with a herpes viral amplicon vector protected cultured hippocampal neurons from gp120 neurotoxicity.

    Funded by: NIMH NIH HHS: R01 MH 53814

    Brain research bulletin 2003;61;2;183-8

  • Polymorphism of the stress protein HSP70-2 gene is associated with the susceptibility to the nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    Jalbout M, Bouaouina N, Gargouri J, Corbex M, Ben Ahmed S and Chouchane L

    Laboratoire d'Immuno-Oncologie Moléculaire, Faculté de Médecine de Monastir, Monastir 5019, Tunisia.

    Several studies have shown statistical evidence of association between nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and specific human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles and highlighted the presence of candidate genes for this cancer within or nearby the HLA. Given their chromosomal location within HLA and their determining role in the immune response to tumor cells, we designed a case-controlled study to investigate the potential association of the genetic variation of the tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and that of the heat shock protein 70-2 (HSP70-2) with NPC. We used the polymerase chain reaction and restriction enzyme digestion to characterize the variation of the TNF-alpha promoter region and that of the HSP70-2 gene in 140 Tunisian patients with primary NPC and 274 healthy control subjects. No association was found between genetic variations in TNF-alpha and the risk of NPC in Tunisians. In contrast, a significant relative risk of NPC was found associated with the HSP70-2 homozygous genotype (P2/P2) (OR=2.309; P=0.006). The P2/P2 genotype of the HSP70-2 gene may be a marker of increased risk of NPC in Tunisians.

    Cancer letters 2003;193;1;75-81

  • [Effect of beta-carotene on gene expression of breast cancer cells].

    Li Z, Hu CY, Mo BQ, Xu JD and Zhao Y

    Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, PR China. zhli@njmu.edu.cn

    This study was conducted to investigate the altered gene expression of MCF-7 cell before and after the treatment with beta-carotene using cDNA microarray and to investigate the mechanism which beta-carotene induce breast cancer cell apoptosis.

    Methods: Two fluorescence cDNA probes were made using reverse transcriptional reaction from mRNA of beta-carotene untreated or treated MCF-7 cells (human estrogen receptor positive breast cancer cells), marked with two different fluorescence dyes (cy3 and cy5) respectively, hybridized with expressed cDNA microarray scanned and analyzed by computer system and finally the expressed gene was produced.

    Results: A total of 21 genes related to cell apoptosis, cell signal transduction, protein translation and immunity were expressed differently after the treatment of beta-carotene, which 3/21 were up-regulated (AF040958, AK001555,g41894),18/21 were down- regulated(hshsp90r,U83857,AB014509,AF126028,AF053641,AF117386,AF050127,NM_012177,humtopi,AJ250915,U37547,U78798,NM_004849,NM_005346,AF004711,NM_006595,NM_001418,AB015051).

    Conclusion: beta-carotene may inhibit the growth of breast cancer cells through inducing apoptosis,breaking signal transduction,and blocking protein translation.

    Ai zheng = Aizheng = Chinese journal of cancer 2003;22;4;380-4

  • Protective role of HSP72 against Clostridium difficile toxin A-induced intestinal epithelial cell dysfunction.

    Liu TS, Musch MW, Sugi K, Walsh-Reitz MM, Ropeleski MJ, Hendrickson BA, Pothoulakis C, Lamont JT and Chang EB

    The Martin Boyer Research Laboratories of the Inflammatory Bowel Disease Research Center, Department of Medicine, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA.

    We determined whether the cytoprotective heat shock protein HSP72 protects against the injurious effects of Clostridium difficile toxin A (TxA) on intestinal epithelial cells. Colonic epithelial Caco-2/bbe (C2) cells were stably transfected with HSP72 antisense (C2AS) or vector only (C2VC), resulting in low and high HSP72 expression, respectively. Measurements of epithelial barrier integrity, mitochondrial function, and apoptosis activation were assessed after TxA exposure. HSP72 and RhoA interactions were evaluated with immunoprecipitations. In C2AS cells, TxA was associated with a greater decrease in transepithelial resistance (TER), an increase in [(3)H]mannitol flux, and increased dissociation of perijunctional actin. Although HSP72 binds RhoA, it failed to prevent RhoA glucosylation. TxA caused a more rapid decrease in ATP, release of cytochrome c, and activation of caspase-9 in C2AS cells. To determine whether ATP depletion decreases TER, we treated cells with antimycin A, which caused a decline in TER. We conclude that HSP72 may protect intestinal epithelial cells from TxA-mediated damage through several mechanisms, including actin stabilization, mitochondrial protection, and inhibition of apoptosis activation, but not by prevention of RhoA glucosylation.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK-38510, DK-42086, DK-47722

    American journal of physiology. Cell physiology 2003;284;4;C1073-82

  • Heat-shock protein HSP70-2 genotypes in patients with Crohn's disease: a more severe clinical course with intestinal complications in presence of the PstI-polymorphism.

    Debler J, Schiemann U, Seybold U, Mussack T, Landauer N, Ladurner R and Gross M

    Medizinische Poliklinik, Klinikum der Universität - Innenstadt, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Germany.

    Background: 70 kDa Heat shock proteins are involved in mucosal protecting reactions in the gut of patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Recently, a single nucleotide polymorphism (PstI, nucleotide 1267) was associated with intestinal perforations and formation of abscesses and fistulas in Japanese patients with Crohn's disease. Our purpose was to evaluate this phenomenon in Caucasian patients with Crohn's disease and to verify the clinical importance of this polymorphism.

    61 consecutive patients with Crohn's disease and 61 healthy control persons were examined. After DNA extraction and PCR amplification spanning the PstI-site, restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses (RFLP) were performed. Homozygous and heterozygous genotypes (AA, AB, BB) were then correlated with the clinical characteristics of the patients, especially with their intestinal complications.

    Results: Intestinal perforations and formation of fistulas, abscesses and conglomerate tumors were significantly associated with allele B (p = 0.04). Patients with genotype BB showed the highest prevalence for surgical interventions (82%), whereas patients with genotype AA had the lowest prevalence (56%). Onset of disease, the need for immunosuppressive therapy and the occurrence of extraintestinal manifestations did not differ between the three genotypes. Allele A was significantly associated with combined involvement of ileum and colon.

    Conclusion: Caucasian patients carrying the HSP70-2 PstI-polymorphism seem to have a more severe form of Crohn's disease (perforations, abscesses, fistulas, conglomerate tumors). Especially, the homozygous genotype (BB) predisposes for a clinical course with high risk of surgical intervention.

    European journal of medical research 2003;8;3;120-4

  • Heat shock protein 70 genotypes HSPA1B and HSPA1L influence cytokine concentrations and interfere with outcome after major injury.

    Schröder O, Schulte KM, Ostermann P, Röher HD, Ekkernkamp A and Laun RA

    Department of Trauma Surgery, Ernst Moritz Arndt University of Greifswald and Unfallkrankenhaus Berlin, Germany.

    Objective: To examine the influence of genetic variations in heat shock proteins on trauma outcome.

    Design: Prospective, noninterventional, single-center study.

    Setting: Level I trauma center.

    Subjects: Eighty consecutive severe multiple trauma patients.

    Interventions: None.

    Plasma concentrations of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha were measured over a 5-day course by chemiluminescence-immunoassay. The genotypes of the polymorphisms HSPA1B (HSP70-2) G1538A and HSPA1L (HSP70-Hom) C2437T were determined by polymerase chain reaction and restriction cleavage with PstlI or NcoI, respectively. Allele frequency of the HSPA1B 1538 G allele was 0.569, and that of the HSPA1L 2437 T allele was 0.821. Interleukin-6 concentrations rapidly increased and dropped to almost normal after 5 days, whereas tumor necrosis factor-alpha concentrations increased until day 5. Patients carrying the genotypes HSPA1B AG or HSPA1L CT had significantly higher plasma concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 compared with those with genotype GG or TT. Presence of the HSPA1L genotype CT also was a significant risk factor to develop liver failure (odds ratio, 4.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.5-14.1) and to acquire at least one complication severe enough to score three points according to the Denver multiple organ failure score (odds ratio, 3.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-9.2).

    Conclusion: The data indicate that genetic variations of the heat shock proteins HSPA1B and HSPA1L may contribute to clinical outcome after severe injury.

    Critical care medicine 2003;31;1;73-9

  • Exercise induces hepatosplanchnic release of heat shock protein 72 in humans.

    Febbraio MA, Ott P, Nielsen HB, Steensberg A, Keller C, Krustrup P, Secher NH and Pedersen BK

    Copenhagen Muscle Research Centre, University of Copenhagen, Denmark. mark.febbraio@rmit.edu.au

    Physical exercise results in the appearance of heat shock protein (HSP) 72 in the circulation that precedes any increase in gene or protein expression in contracting skeletal muscle. In rodents, exercise increases liver HSP72 expression and the hepatosplanchnic viscera are known to release many acute phase proteins. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that the splanchnic tissue beds release HSP72 during exercise. Seven male subjects performed 120 min of semi-recumbent cycling at 62 +/- 2 % of maximal oxygen uptake. Blood samples were obtained simultaneously from a brachial artery, a femoral vein and the hepatic vein prior to and at 30, 60 and 120 min of exercise. Leg blood flow (LBF) was measured by thermodilution in the femoral vein, and hepatosplanchnic blood flow (HBL) was measured using indocyanine green dye. Net leg and net hepatosplanchnic HSP72 balance were calculated as the product of LBF and femoral venous-arterial HSP72 difference and the product of HBF and hepatic venous-arterial HSP72 difference, respectively. Arterial plasma HSP72 was only detected in one subject at rest but progressively appeared in the arterial samples throughout exercise such that at 120 min it was detected in all subjects (0.88 +/- 0.35 pg l(-1); P < 0.05 compared with rest). The contracting muscle did not, however, contribute to this increase since there was no difference in the femoral venous-arterial HSP72 concentration at any time. Rather, the increase in arterial HSP72 was accounted for, at least in part, by release from the hepatosplanchnic viscera with values increasing (P < 0.05) from undetectable levels at rest to 5.2 +/- 0.2 pg min(-1) after 120 min. These data demonstrate that the splanchnic tissues release HSP72 during exercise and this release is responsible, in part, for the elevated systemic concentration of this protein during exercise.

    The Journal of physiology 2002;544;3;957-62

  • Heat shock protein hsp72 is a negative regulator of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1.

    Park HS, Cho SG, Kim CK, Hwang HS, Noh KT, Kim MS, Huh SH, Kim MJ, Ryoo K, Kim EK, Kang WJ, Lee JS, Seo JS, Ko YG, Kim S and Choi EJ

    National Creative Research Initiative Center for Cell Death. Graduate School of Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 136-701, South Korea.

    Heat shock protein 72 (Hsp72) is thought to protect cells against cellular stress. The protective role of Hsp72 was investigated by determining the effect of this protein on the stress-activated protein kinase signaling pathways. Prior exposure of NIH 3T3 cells to mild heat shock (43 degrees C for 20 min) resulted in inhibition of H(2)O(2)-induced activation of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1). Overexpression of Hsp72 also inhibited H(2)O(2)-induced activation of ASK1 as well as that of downstream kinases in the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling cascade. Recombinant Hsp72 bound directly to ASK1 and inhibited ASK1 activity in vitro. Furthermore, coimmunoprecipitation analysis revealed a physical interaction between endogenous Hsp72 and ASK1 in NIH 3T3 cells exposed to mild heat shock. Hsp72 blocked both the homo-oligomerization of ASK1 and ASK1-dependent apoptosis. Hsp72 antisense oligonucleotides prevented the inhibitory effects of mild heat shock on H(2)O(2)-induced ASK1 activation and apoptosis. These observations suggest that Hsp72 functions as an endogenous inhibitor of ASK1.

    Molecular and cellular biology 2002;22;22;7721-30

  • IL-6 activates HSP72 gene expression in human skeletal muscle.

    Febbraio MA, Steensberg A, Fischer CP, Keller C, Hiscock N and Pedersen BK

    Copenhagen Muscle Research Centre, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Denmark. mark.febbraio@rmit.edu.au

    To determine whether the cytokine interleukin (IL)-6 induces heat shock protein (HSP) 72 gene expression in skeletal muscle, 18 healthy, young men had either a high dose of IL-6 (HiIL-6; n=6), low dose IL-6 (LoIL-6; n=6), or saline (CON; n=6) infused into one femoral artery for 3h. Muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis of the infusion limb and samples were analyzed for HSP72 mRNA. In addition, blood samples were collected from the femoral vein of the infusion limb and analyzed for plasma IL-6. In CON, femoral vein IL-6 concentration remained at basal levels throughout the experiment but in both HiIL-6 and LoIL-6, femoral vein IL-6 concentrations were markedly elevated (P<0.05). HSP72 gene expression did not increase above resting levels in CON. In contrast, in both HiIL-6 and LoIL-6, HSP72 mRNA increased (P<0.05) 2.5- and 2.3-fold, respectively after 30min of infusion and remained elevated (P<0.05) for 24h following infusion. These data demonstrate that IL-6 can rapidly induce HSP72 gene expression in human skeletal muscle.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2002;296;5;1264-6

  • Effect of hyaluronan oligosaccharides on the expression of heat shock protein 72.

    Xu H, Ito T, Tawada A, Maeda H, Yamanokuchi H, Isahara K, Yoshida K, Uchiyama Y and Asari A

    Seikagaku Corporation, Tateno 3-1253, Higashiyamato-shi, Tokyo 207-0021, Japan.

    We have previously shown that intraarticular treatment with a hyaluronan (HA) preparation (840 kDa), HA84, up-regulates heat shock protein 72 (Hsp72) expression and suppresses degeneration of synovial cells in an arthritis model. In that study, the HA84 administered was degraded into HA oligosaccharides in the synovial tissue, suggesting that HA84 or degradation products of HA may up-regulate Hsp72 expression. Thus, in the present study, we examined the effects of HA of various molecular sizes on Hsp72 expression and cell death in stressed cells. Western blotting analysis showed that treatment of K562 cells with HA tetrasaccharides up-regulated Hsp72 expression after exposure to hyperthermia. On the other hand, treatment of the cells with HA of other sizes (di-, hexa-, deca-, dodecasaccharides), HA84, or tetrasaccharides of keratan sulfate did not elicit any change in expression of the Hsp72 protein. Treatment of the cells with tetrasaccharides of HA up-regulated not only expression of the Hsp72 protein but also Hsp72 mRNA expression and enhanced activation of HSF1, a transcription factor controlling Hsp72 expression, after exposure to hyperthermia. Because the level of Hsp72 protein was not affected by tetrasaccharides of HA when the K562 cells were kept at 37 degrees C without any stress, it is evident that tetrasaccharides of HA did not act as a stress factor. In addition, tetrasaccharides of HA suppressed cell death in the case of K562 cells exposed to hyperthermia and of PC12 cells under serum deprivation. These results suggest that a certain size of oligosaccharides, i.e. the tetrasaccharides of HA, up-regulates Hsp72 expression by enhancing the activation of HSF1 under stress conditions and suppresses cell death.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;19;17308-14

  • Hsp72 and stress kinase c-jun N-terminal kinase regulate the bid-dependent pathway in tumor necrosis factor-induced apoptosis.

    Gabai VL, Mabuchi K, Mosser DD and Sherman MY

    Department of Biochemistry, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02118, USA.

    The major inducible heat shock protein Hsp72 has been shown to protect cells from certain apoptotic stimuli. Here we investigated the mechanism of Hsp72-mediated protection from tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-induced apoptosis of primary culture of IMR90 human fibroblasts. Hsp72 temporarily blocked apoptosis in response to TNF and permanently protected cells from heat shock. An Hsp72 mutant (Hsp72 Delta EEVD) with a deletion of the four C-terminal amino acids, which are essential for the chaperone function, blocked TNF-induced apoptosis in a manner similar to that of normal Hsp72 but did not inhibit heat shock-induced death. Therefore, the chaperone activity of Hsp72 is dispensable for suppression of TNF-induced apoptosis but is required for protection from heat shock. In fibroblasts derived from Bid knockout mice, similar temporal inhibition of TNF-induced apoptosis was seen. In these cells neither normal Hsp72 nor Hsp72 Delta EEVD conferred additional protection from apoptosis, suggesting that Hsp72 specifically affects Bid-dependent but not Bid-independent apoptotic pathways. Furthermore, both normal Hsp72 and Delta Hsp72EEVD inhibited Bid activation and downstream events, including release of cytochrome c, activation of caspase 3, and cleavage of poly-ADP-ribose polymerase. Both Hsp72 and Delta Hsp72EEVD blocked activation of the stress kinase c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) by TNF, and specific inhibition of JNK similarly temporarily blocked Bid activation and the downstream apoptotic events. These data strongly suggest that in TNF-induced apoptosis, Hsp72 specifically interferes with the Bid-dependent apoptotic pathway via inhibition of JNK.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: R01

    Molecular and cellular biology 2002;22;10;3415-24

  • Specific incorporation of heat shock protein 70 family members into primate lentiviral virions.

    Gurer C, Cimarelli A and Luban J

    Departments of Microbiology and Medicine, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, New York 10032, USA.

    To determine if any heat shock proteins are incorporated into human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) virions in a manner similar to that of the peptidyl-prolyl isomerase cyclophilin A, we probed purified virions with antibodies against heat shock proteins Hsp27, Hsp40, Hsp60, Hsp70, Hsc70, and Hsp90. Of these proteins, Hsp60, Hsp70, and Hsc70 associated with virions purified based on either particle density or size and were shown to be incorporated within the virion membrane, where they were protected from digestion by exogenous protease. Virion incorporation of Hsp70 was also observed with HIV-2 and with simian immunodeficiency viruses SIV(MAC) and SIV(AGM), but it appears to be specific for primate lentiviruses, since Hsp70 was not detected in association with Moloney murine leukemia virus virions. Of the HIV-1 genes, gag was found to be sufficient for Hsp70 incorporation, though Hsp70 was roughly equimolar with pol-encoded proteins in virions.

    Funded by: NIAID NIH HHS: AI 41857, P30 AI042848, P30 AI42848, R01 AI041857

    Journal of virology 2002;76;9;4666-70

  • A prospective evaluation of the heat shock protein 70 gene polymorphisms and the risk of stroke.

    Zee RY, Bates D and Ridker PM

    Center for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention, Division of Preventive Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA. rzee@rics.bwh.harvard.edu

    Genetic polymorphisms of heat shock protein 70-kD (HSP70) gene family have recently been hypothesized to be risk factors for cerebral ischemia. However, no prospective epidemiological data evaluating this gene family are available. The present investigation was conducted to examine the possible associations between the HSP70-1 nucleotide 190. HSP70-2 nucleotide 1267, and HSP70-hom nucleotide 2437 polymorphisms and the incidence of stroke in a large cohort of initially healthy men. 14916 apparently healthy men were followed over a 12-year period for incident stroke. Employing a nested case-control study design, 338 study participants who developed stroke (cases) and 338 age- and smoking-matched study participants who remained healthy during follow-up (controls) were evaluated. All observed genotype frequencies were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The allele and genotype distributions of the polymorphisms tested were similar among cases and controls, such that the relative risk of future stroke was 0.89 for HSP70-1 nucleotide 190 (95%CI = 0.70-1.12; p = 0.31), 1.13 for HSP70-2 nucleotide 1267 (95%CI = 0.90-1.42: p = 0.29); and 0.89 for HSP70-hom nucleotide 2437 (95%CI = 0.65-1.21; p = 0.45), assuming an additive model. No evidence of association was observed assuming dominant or recessive mode of inheritance. In this large, prospective study, genetic polymorphisms in the HSP70 genes were not associated with risks of future stroke. Screening for these polymorphisms is unlikely to be a useful tool for risk assessment.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL58755, HL63293

    Thrombosis and haemostasis 2002;87;4;622-5

  • Heat shock protein 70 gene polymorphisms in Mexican patients with spondyloarthropathies.

    Vargas-Alarcón G, Londoño JD, Hernández-Pacheco G, Gamboa R, Castillo E, Pacheco-Tena C, Cardiel MH, Granados J and Burgos-Vargas R

    Cellular Biology Section, Department of Physiology, Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez, Tlalpan, Mexico DF, Mexico. gvargas63@yahoo.com

    Objective: To investigate the role of HSP70 genes as contributors to genetic susceptibility of the spondyloarthropathies (SpA) in the Mexican population.

    Methods: The study included 150 patients with SpA (undifferentiated spondyloarthropathy (uSpA) 68, ankylosing spondylitis (AS) 60, and reactive arthritis 22) and 158 healthy controls. HSP70-1, HSP70-2 and HSP70-hom genotypes were analysed by the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism technique. Statistical methods included the Mantel-Haenzel, chi(2), Fisher's exact test, and Woolf's method for odds ratio (OR).

    Results: HSP70-2 B/B genotype frequency was increased in the whole group of patients with SpA (pC<0.05, OR=4.3), as well as in the different clinical subgroups (pC<0.05, OR=4.2 for AS; pC<0.05, OR=4.4 for uSpA; and pC<0.05, OR=4.1 for ReA). This frequency remained significantly increased when the patients with B27 negative SpA were analysed. On the other hand, HSP70-hom locus analysis showed significantly increased frequency of A allele in the whole group of SpA (pC<0.05, OR=3.4), as well as in the groups with AS (pC<0.05, OR=5.6) and with uSpA (pC<0.05, OR=3.1), when compared with healthy controls. In this case, also, the genotype A/A was increased in the whole group of SpA (pC<0.05, OR=4.5), as well as in patients with AS (pC<0.05, OR=6.4) and with uSpA (pC<0.05, OR=3.7). When the patients with B27 negative SpA were analysed the frequencies of HSP70-hom A allele and A/A genotype remained significantly increased in the whole group of SpA (pC<0.05, OR=3.2 for the A allele and pC<0.05, OR=4.2 for the A/A genotype) and in the uSpA subgroup (pC<0.05, OR=3.8 for the A allele and pC<0.05, OR=4.3 for the A/A genotype).

    Conclusion: In addition to the association of SpA with HLA-B27, there is a significant association of HSP70-2 and HSP70-hom alleles with SpA in Mexicans. This association seems to be independent of the susceptibility conferred by HLA-B27 in the group of patients with uSpA.

    Annals of the rheumatic diseases 2002;61;1;48-51

  • Multi-locus interactions predict risk for post-PTCA restenosis: an approach to the genetic analysis of common complex disease.

    Zee RY, Hoh J, Cheng S, Reynolds R, Grow MA, Silbergleit A, Walker K, Steiner L, Zangenberg G, Fernandez-Ortiz A, Macaya C, Pintor E, Fernandez-Cruz A, Ott J and Lindpainter K

    Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

    The complexity of recognizing the potential contribution of a number of possible predictors of complex disorders is increasingly challenging with the application of large-scale single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) typing. In the search for putative genetic factors predisposing to coronary artery restenosis following balloon angioplasty, we determined genotypes for 94 SNPs representing 62 candidate genes, in a prospectively assembled cohort of 342 cases and 437 controls. Using a customized coupled-logistic regression procedure accounting for both additive and interactive effects, we identified seven SNPs in seven genes that, together, showed a statistically significant association with restenosis incidence (P <0.0001), accounting for 11.6% of overall variance observed. Among them are candidate genes for cardiovascular pathophysiology (apolipoprotein-species and NOS), inflammatory response (TNF receptor and CD14), and cell-cycle control (p53 and p53-associated protein). Our results emphasize the need to account for complex multi-gene influences and interactions when assessing the molecular pathology of multifactorial medical entities.

    Funded by: NHGRI NIH HHS: HG00008; NHLBI NIH HHS: K04-HL-03138-01

    The pharmacogenomics journal 2002;2;3;197-201

  • Decreased expression of the heat shock protein hsp70-2 is associated with the pathogenesis of male infertility.

    Feng HL, Sandlow JI and Sparks AE

    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, North Shore University Hospital, New York University Medical College, Manhasset, New York 11030, USA. hfeng@nshs.edu

    Objective: To examine the expression of the heat shock protein hsp70-2, and the possible relationship with the pathogenesis of male infertility.

    Design: Prospective study.

    Setting: Reproductive testing laboratory in a university hospital.

    Men undergoing testicular biopsy during an investigation of subfertility.

    Testicular tissues were obtained from biopsies of men undergoing infertility evaluation and subdivided into three groups: normal testes, maturational arrest and Sertoli cell-only syndrome. Immunostaining and Western blotting techniques determined expression of the heat shock protein hsp70-2

    Expression of the heat shock protein hsp70-2 in the testes.

    The experimental data demonstrated that the heat shock protein hsp70-2 was expressed in the normal and maturation arrest testicular specimens. The heat shock protein hsp70-2 was strongly present in the cytoplasm of spermatocytes and spermatides in the adluminal compartment of the seminiferous epithelium in normal testis. However, maturation arrest testis tissue demonstrated light staining in spermatocytes and spermatides, and Sertoli-only specimens demonstrated no staining for the heat shock protein hsp70-2. The Western blotting data showed a 70-kDa heat shock protein in the normal and maturation arrest testicular tissues, but not in the Sertoli-only tissues.

    Conclusions: These results suggest that the heat shock protein hsp70-2 is expressed in spermatocytes and spermatides in normal and maturation arrest tissues. However, the expression of the heat shock protein hsp70-2 was low in maturation arrest, and no heat shock protein hsp70-2 was demonstrated in Sertoli-only specimens. Therefore the decreased expression of the heat shock protein hsp70-2 is associated with the pathogenesis of male infertility.

    Fertility and sterility 2001;76;6;1136-9

  • Heat-shock protein 70 antagonizes apoptosis-inducing factor.

    Ravagnan L, Gurbuxani S, Susin SA, Maisse C, Daugas E, Zamzami N, Mak T, Jäättelä M, Penninger JM, Garrido C and Kroemer G

    CNRS UMR 1599, Institute Gustave Roussy, Pavillon de Recherche 1, 39 rue Camille Desmoulins, 94805 Villejuif, France.

    Heat-shock protein 70 (Hsp70) has been reported to block apoptosis by binding apoptosis protease activating factor-1 (Apaf-1), thereby preventing constitution of the apoptosome, the Apaf-1/cytochrome c/caspase-9 activation complex [1,2]. Here we show that overexpression of Hsp70 protects Apaf-1-/- cells against death induced by serum withdrawal, indicating that Apaf-1 is not the only target of the anti-apoptotic action of Hsp70. We investigated the effect of Hsp70 on apoptosis mediated by the caspase-independent death effector apoptosis inducing factor (AIF), which is a mitochondrial intermembrane flavoprotein [3,4]. In a cell-free system, Hsp70 prevented the AIF-induced chromatin condensation of purified nuclei. Hsp70 specifically interacted with AIF, as shown by ligand blots and co-immunoprecipitation. Cells overexpressing Hsp70 were protected against the apoptogenic effects of AIF targeted to the extramitochondrial compartment. In contrast, an anti-sense Hsp70 complementary DNA, which reduced the expression of endogenous Hsp70, increased sensitivity to the lethal effect of AIF. The ATP-binding domain of Hsp70 seemed to be dispensable for inhibiting cell death induced by serum withdrawal, AIF binding and AIF inhibition, although it was required for Apaf-1 binding. Together, our data indicate that Hsp70 can inhibit apoptosis by interfering with target proteins other than Apaf-1, one of which is AIF.

    Nature cell biology 2001;3;9;839-43

  • Heat shock protein 70 gene polymorphism in Japanese patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Niino M, Kikuchi S, Fukazawa T, Yabe I, Sasaki H and Tashiro K

    Department of Neurology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Japan. niino@med.hokudai.ac.jp

    Despite the strength of the association of multiple sclerosis (MS) and human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR2, other genetic elements could have a role in the pathophysiology of MS. We investigated possible associations with polymorphic susceptibility genes located within the HLA complex, i.e., heat-shock protein (HSP)70-1, HSP70-2, and HSP70-hom in Japanese patients with MS. Furthermore, we analyzed the influence of HSP70 gene polymorphisms on the severity of the disease, clinical course, magnetic resonance imaging findings, and oligoclonal bands in the cerebrospinal fluid, and HLA in MS patients. The results of the present study indicated that there were no significant differences in the distribution of all HSP70 genotypes and allele frequencies between Japanese MS patients and controls. In MS patients, there were no associations between HSP70 gene polymorphisms and the clinical data. Moreover, there were no significant differences in HSP70 genotype or allele frequencies between MS patients positive for HLA-DRB1*1501 alleles and matched controls. Our data indicate that HSP70 gene polymorphisms are not relevant in the susceptibility to or the severity of Japanese MS patients.

    Tissue antigens 2001;58;2;93-6

  • Bag1-Hsp70 mediates a physiological stress signalling pathway that regulates Raf-1/ERK and cell growth.

    Song J, Takeda M and Morimoto RI

    Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Cell Biology, Rice Institute for Biomedical Research, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208, USA.

    Survival after stress requires the precise orchestration of cell-signalling events to ensure that biosynthetic processes are alerted and cell survival pathways are initiated. Here we show that Bag1, a co-chaperone for heat-shock protein 70 (Hsp70), coordinates signals for cell growth in response to cell stress, by downregulating the activity of Raf-1 kinase. Raf-1 and Hsp70 compete for binding to Bag1, such that Bag1 binds to and activates Raf-1, subsequently activating the downstream extracellular signal-related kinases (ERKs). When levels of Hsp70 are elevated after heat shock, or in cells conditionally overexpressing Hsp70, Bag1-Raf-1 is displaced by Bag1-Hsp70, and DNA synthesis is arrested. Mutants Bag1C204A and Bag1E208A, which cannot bind Hsp70, constitutively activate Raf-1/ERK kinases but are unaffected by Hsp70; consequently neither Bag1-Raf-1 nor DNA synthesis is negatively affected during heat shock. Likewise, mutants Hsp70F245S, Hsp70R262W and Hsp70L282R, which retain chaperone activity but do not bind to Bag1, fail to repress Bag1 activation of Raf-1/ERK kinase. We propose that Bag1 functions in the heat-shock response to coordinate cell growth signals and mitogenesis, and that Hsp70 functions as a sensor in stress signalling.

    Nature cell biology 2001;3;3;276-82

  • Heat-shock protein 70 can replace viral protein R of HIV-1 during nuclear import of the viral preintegration complex.

    Agostini I, Popov S, Li J, Dubrovsky L, Hao T and Bukrinsky M

    The Picower Institute for Medical Research, Manhasset, New York 11030, USA.

    Heat-shock proteins (Hsp's) are a family of molecular chaperones that contribute to protection from environmental stress. In this report, we demonstrate that a member of this family, Hsp70, facilitates nuclear import of HIV-1 preintegration complexes (PICs). The mechanism of this activity appears to be similar to the one used by Vpr, an HIV-1 protein regulating viral nuclear import and replication in macrophages. Indeed Hsp70 stimulated binding of HIV-1 matrix antigen to GST-karyopherin alpha fusion protein and rescued nuclear import of a Vpr-defective HIV-1 strain in vitro. Binding studies with truncated forms of GST-karyopherin alpha demonstrated that both Vpr and Hsp70 bind to a region in the amino-terminal part of the karyopherin alpha molecule. This region appears to be distinct from the binding sites for two other karyopherin alpha cargoes, basic-type NLS-containing proteins and transcription factor STAT-1. Vpr competed with Hsp70 for binding to karyopherin alpha. These results suggest the presence of a novel regulatory site on karyopherin alpha which is used by Hsp70 and Vpr to stimulate interaction between the HIV-1 PIC and karyopherin alpha and thus promote viral nuclear import.

    Funded by: NIAID NIH HHS: R01 AI 33776

    Experimental cell research 2000;259;2;398-403

  • Chaperone hsp27 inhibits translation during heat shock by binding eIF4G and facilitating dissociation of cap-initiation complexes.

    Cuesta R, Laroia G and Schneider RJ

    Department of Microbiology, New York University School of Medicine and Kaplan Cancer Center, New York, New York 10016 USA.

    Inhibition of protein synthesis during heat shock limits accumulation of unfolded proteins that might damage eukaryotic cells. We demonstrate that chaperone Hsp27 is a heat shock-induced inhibitor of cellular protein synthesis. Translation of most mRNAs requires formation of a cap-binding initiation complex known as eIF4F, consisting of factors eIF4E, eIF4A, eIF4E kinase Mnk1, poly(A)-binding protein, and adaptor protein eIF4G. Hsp27 specifically bound eIF4G during heat shock, preventing assembly of the cap-initiation/eIF4F complex and trapping eIF4G in insoluble heat shock granules. eIF4G is a specific target of Hsp27, as eIF4E, eIF4A, Mnk1, poly(A)-binding protein, eIF4B, and eIF3 were not bound by Hsp27 and were not recruited into insoluble complexes. Dissociation of eIF4F was enhanced during heat shock by ectopic overexpression of Hsp25, the murine homolog of human Hsp27. Overexpression of Hsc70, a constitutive homolog of Hsp70, prevented loss of cap-initiation complexes and maintained eIF4G solubility. Purified Hsp27 specifically bound purified eIF4G in vitro, prevented in vitro translation, eliminated eIF4G interaction with protein binding factors, and promoted eIF4G insolubilization. These results therefore demonstrate that Hsp27 is a heat-induced inhibitor of eIF4F-dependent mRNA translation.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA42357, R01 CA042357

    Genes & development 2000;14;12;1460-70

  • Requirement for a kinase-specific chaperone pathway in the production of a Cdk9/cyclin T1 heterodimer responsible for P-TEFb-mediated tat stimulation of HIV-1 transcription.

    O'Keeffe B, Fong Y, Chen D, Zhou S and Zhou Q

    Department of Molecular Biology, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720-3206, USA.

    Tat activation of HIV-1 transcription is mediated by human transcription elongation factor P-TEFb, which interacts with Tat and phosphorylates the C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II. The catalytic subunit of the P-TEFb complex, Cdk9, has been shown to interact with cyclin T and several other proteins of unknown identity. Consequently, the exact subunit composition of active P-TEFb has not been determined. Here we report the affinity purification and identification of the Cdk9-associated proteins. In addition to forming a heterodimer with cyclin T1, Cdk9 interacted with the molecular chaperone Hsp70 or a kinase-specific chaperone complex, Hsp90/Cdc37, to form two separate chaperone-Cdk9 complexes. Although the Cdk9/cyclin T1 dimer was exceptionally stable and produced slowly in the cell, free and unprotected Cdk9 appeared to be degraded rapidly. Several lines of evidence indicate the heterodimer of Cdk9/cyclin T1 to be the mature, active form of P-TEFb responsible for phosphorylation of the C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II interaction with the Tat activation domain, and mediation of Tat activation of HIV-1 transcription. Pharmacological inactivation of Hsp90/Cdc37 function by geldanamycin revealed an essential role for the chaperone-Cdk9 complexes in generation of Cdk9/cyclin T1. Our data suggest a previously unrecognized chaperone-dependent pathway involving the sequential actions of Hsp70 and Hsp90/Cdc37 in the stabilization/folding of Cdk9 as well as the assembly of an active Cdk9/cyclin T1 complex responsible for P-TEFb-mediated Tat transactivation.

    Funded by: NIAID NIH HHS: AI-41757

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2000;275;1;279-87

  • Structure of a new crystal form of human Hsp70 ATPase domain.

    Osipiuk J, Walsh MA, Freeman BC, Morimoto RI and Joachimiak A

    Argonne National Laboratory, Center for Mechanistic Biology and Biotechnology, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439, USA.

    Hsp70 proteins are highly conserved proteins induced by heat shock and other stress conditions. An ATP-binding domain of human Hsp70 protein has been crystallized in two major morphological forms at pH 7.0 in the presence of PEG 8000 and CaCl2. Both crystal forms belong to the orthorhombic space group P212121, but show no resemblance in unit-cell parameters. Analysis of the crystal structures for both forms shows a 1-2 A shift of one of the subdomains of the protein. This conformational change could reflect a 'natural' flexibility of the protein which might be relevant to ATP binding and may facilitate the interaction of other proteins with Hsp70 protein.

    Acta crystallographica. Section D, Biological crystallography 1999;55;Pt 5;1105-7

  • Control of mRNA decay by heat shock-ubiquitin-proteasome pathway.

    Laroia G, Cuesta R, Brewer G and Schneider RJ

    Department of Microbiology and Biochemistry, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA.

    Cytokine and proto-oncogene messenger RNAs (mRNAs) are rapidly degraded through AU-rich elements in the 3' untranslated region. Rapid decay involves AU-rich binding protein AUF1, which complexes with heat shock proteins hsc70-hsp70, translation initiation factor eIF4G, and poly(A) binding protein. AU-rich mRNA decay is associated with displacement of eIF4G from AUF1, ubiquitination of AUF1, and degradation of AUF1 by proteasomes. Induction of hsp70 by heat shock, down-regulation of the ubiquitin-proteasome network, or inactivation of ubiquitinating enzyme E1 all result in hsp70 sequestration of AUF1 in the perinucleus-nucleus, and all three processes block decay of AU-rich mRNAs and AUF1 protein. These results link the rapid degradation of cytokine mRNAs to the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA42357, CA52443

    Science (New York, N.Y.) 1999;284;5413;499-502

  • Inhibition of cellular proliferation by the Wilms tumor suppressor WT1 requires association with the inducible chaperone Hsp70.

    Maheswaran S, Englert C, Zheng G, Lee SB, Wong J, Harkin DP, Bean J, Ezzell R, Garvin AJ, McCluskey RT, DeCaprio JA and Haber DA

    Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center, Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) and Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, Massachusetts 02129, USA.

    The Wilms tumor suppressor WT1 encodes a zinc finger transcription factor that is expressed in glomerular podocytes during a narrow window in kidney development. By immunoprecipitation and protein microsequencing analysis, we have identified a major cellular protein associated with endogenous WT1 to be the inducible chaperone Hsp70. WT1 and Hsp70 are physically associated in embryonic rat kidney cells, in primary Wilms tumor specimens and in cultured cells with inducible expression of WT1. Colocalization of WT1 and Hsp70 is evident within podocytes of the developing kidney, and Hsp70 is recruited to the characteristic subnuclear clusters that contain WT1. The amino-terminal transactivation domain of WT1 is required for binding to Hsp70, and expression of that domain itself is sufficient to induce expression of Hsp70 through the heat shock element (HSE). Substitution of a heterologous Hsp70-binding domain derived from human DNAJ is sufficient to restore the functional properties of a WT1 protein with an amino-terminal deletion, an effect that is abrogated by a point mutation in DNAJ that reduces binding to Hsp70. These observations indicate that Hsp70 is an important cofactor for the function of WT1, and suggest a potential role for this chaperone during kidney differentiation.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA 58596

    Genes & development 1998;12;8;1108-20

  • Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 interaction with the membrane of CD4+ cells induces the synthesis and nuclear translocation of 70K heat shock protein.

    Furlini G, Vignoli M, Re MC, Gibellini D, Ramazzotti E, Zauli G and La Placa M

    Institute of Microbiology, University of Bologna, St Orsola General Hospital, Italy.

    In the last few years a growing body of experimental evidence has indicated that the interaction of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) surface glycoprotein (gp120) with the membrane of CD4+ cells may deliver negative signals, eventually leading to programmed cell death (apoptosis) of either mature CD4+ lymphocytes or CD34+ haematopoietic progenitor cells, in the absence of cell infection with HIV-1. However, information on the possible activation of the classical signal transduction pathway through gp120 engagement of cell surface CD4 is contradictory. Heat shock proteins (hsp) or 'stress' proteins' are involved in protecting cells from the deleterious effects of heat and other stresses and perform various cell roles. In mammalian cells there is evidence that hsp70 is involved in the transport of proteins to lysosomes, mitochondria and the nucleus. The results obtained in our study demonstrate that early (3 h) after the exposure of permissive CD4+ cells to HIV-1 (or to purified recombinant gp120) a peak of increased synthesis and nuclear translocation of a 70K hsp (and possibly other proteins) is observed. These data indicate that gp120 possesses the capacity to trigger a cascade of events through a transmembrane signalling activity.

    The Journal of general virology 1994;75 ( Pt 1);193-9

  • Syntenic conservation of HSP70 genes in cattle and humans.

    Grosz MD, Womack JE and Skow LC

    Department of Veterinary Anatomy and Public Health, Texas A&M University, College Station 77843.

    A phage library of bovine genomic DNA was screened for hybridization with a human HSP70 cDNA probe, and 21 positive plaques were identified and isolated. Restriction mapping and blot hybridization analysis of DNA from the recombinant plaques demonstrated that the cloned DNAs were derived from three different regions of the bovine genome. One region contains two tandemly arrayed HSP70 sequences, designated HSP70-1 and HSP70-2, separated by approximately 8 kb of DNA. Single HSP70 sequences, designated HSP70-3 and HSP70-4, were found in two other genomic regions. Locus-specific probes of unique flanking sequences from representative HSP70 clones were hybridized to restriction endonuclease-digested DNA from bovine-hamster and bovine-mouse somatic cell hybrid panels to determine the chromosomal location of the HSP70 sequences. The probe for the tandemly arrayed HSP70-1 and HSP70-2 sequences mapped to bovine chromosome 23, syntenic with glyoxalase 1, 21 steroid hydroxylase, and major histocompatibility class I loci. HSP70-3 sequences mapped to bovine chromosome 10, syntenic with nucleoside phosphorylase and murine osteosarcoma viral oncogene (v-fos), and HSP70-4 mapped to bovine syntenic group U6, syntenic with amylase 1 and phosphoglucomutase 1. On the basis of these data, we propose that bovine HSP70-1,2 are homologous to human HSPA1 and HSPA1L on chromosome 6p21.3, bovine HSP70-3 is the homolog of an unnamed human HSP70 gene on chromosome 14q22-q24, and bovine HSP70-4 is homologous to one of the human HSPA-6,-7 genes on chromosome 1.

    Genomics 1992;14;4;863-8

  • Structure and expression of the three MHC-linked HSP70 genes.

    Milner CM and Campbell RD

    Department of Biochemistry, University of Oxford, England.

    A duplicated locus encoding the major heat shock-induced protein HSP70 is located in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class III region 92 kilobases (kb) telomeric to the C2 gene. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the two intronless genes, HSP70-1 and HSP70-2, has shown that they encode an identical protein product of 641 amino acids. A third intronless gene, HSP70-Hom, has also been identified 4 kb telomeric to the HSP70-1 gene. This encodes a more basic protein of 641 amino acids which has 90% sequence similarity with HSP70-1. In order to investigate the expression of the three (MHC)-linked HSP70 genes individually by northern blot analysis, we have isolated locus-specific probes from the 3' untranslated regions of the genes. The HSP70-1 and HSP70-2 genes have been shown to be expressed at high levels as a approximately 2.4 kb mRNA in cells heat-shocked at 42 degrees C. HSP70-1 is also expressed constitutively at very low levels. The HSP70-Hom gene, which has no heat shock consensus sequence in its 5' flanking sequence, is expressed as a approximately 3 kb mRNA at low levels both constitutively and following heat shock.

    Immunogenetics 1990;32;4;242-51

  • Human major histocompatibility complex contains genes for the major heat shock protein HSP70.

    Sargent CA, Dunham I, Trowsdale J and Campbell RD

    Medical Research Council Immunochemistry Unit, Oxford, England.

    Little is known as to why a large number of human diseases are influenced by the major histocompatibility complex. In some cases, a direct involvement of the products of the polymorphic class I and class II, aas well as the less variable products of the class III, genes has been proposed. During characterization of the class III region for the presence of additional loci, we have located a duplicated locus encoding the major heat shock protein HSP70 between the complement and tumor necrosis factor genes. The HSP70 loci are 12 kilobases apart and lie 92 kilobases telomeric of the C2 gene. As HSP70 proteins have been linked with a protective role during and after cellular stress, and HSP70 analogues are often presented as antigens in bacterial and protozoal infections, this finding may have major implications with regard to the major histo-compatibility complex and associated diseases.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1989;86;6;1968-72

  • Chromosomal location of human genes encoding major heat-shock protein HSP70.

    Harrison GS, Drabkin HA, Kao FT, Hartz J, Hart IM, Chu EH, Wu BJ and Morimoto RI

    The HSP70 family of heat-shock proteins constitutes the major proteins synthesized in response to elevated temperatures and other forms of stress. In eukaryotes members of the HSP70 family also include a protein similar if not identical to bovine brain uncoating ATPase and glucose-regulated proteins. An intriguing relation has been established between expression of heat-shock proteins and transformation in mammalian cells. Elevated levels of HSP70 are found in some transformed cell lines, and viral and cellular gene products that are capable of transforming cells in vitro can also stimulate transcription of HSP70 genes. To determine the organization of this complex multigene family in the human genome, we used complementary approaches: Southern analysis and protein gels of Chinese hamster-human somatic cell hybrids, and in situ hybridization to human chromosomes. We demonstrate that functional genes encoding HSP70 proteins map to human chromosomes 6, 14, 21, and at least one other chromosome.

    Funded by: NICHD NIH HHS: HD-02080, HD-17449; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM32840; ...

    Somatic cell and molecular genetics 1987;13;2;119-30

  • Localization of a human heat-shock HSP 70 gene sequence to chromosome 6 and detection of two other loci by somatic-cell hybrid and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis.

    Goate AM, Cooper DN, Hall C, Leung TK, Solomon E and Lim L

    The human 70 kdalton heat-shock protein (HSP 70) is a member of a multigene family which is expressed in response to various physiological stresses including elevated temperatures. Using a cloned genomic HSP 70 DNA sequence we demonstrate by somatic cell hybrid and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analyses that there are a minimum of three distinct HSP 70 loci in the human genome, one of which is located on chromosome 6.

    Human genetics 1987;75;2;123-8

  • In vitro transcription of a human hsp 70 heat shock gene by extracts prepared from heat-shocked and non-heat-shocked human cells.

    Drabent B, Genthe A and Benecke BJ

    A cDNA clone homologous to HeLa cell mRNA encoding the 70 kDa human heat shock protein (hsp 70) was used to isolate a recombinant phage containing an entire human hsp 70 gene. Sequence analysis of the 5' and 3' flanking regions revealed the structural integrity of the regulatory elements. The functional integrity of this hsp 70 gene was substantiated by in vitro transcription studies with nuclear extracts. Specific run-off transcripts, synthesized by RNA polymerase II, were obtained with extracts prepared from heat-shocked cells. Extracts from non-heat-shocked cells were found inactive in hsp 70 gene transcription. However, 5' deletion mutants lacking the heat shock element (HSE) were transcribed by both heat shock and nonheat shock HeLa extracts.

    Nucleic acids research 1986;14;22;8933-48

  • Molecular cloning of sequences encoding the human heat-shock proteins and their expression during hyperthermia.

    Hickey E, Brandon SE, Sadis S, Smale G and Weber LA

    Plasmids containing cDNA copies of mRNAs induced in HeLa cells by heat shock have been isolated and characterized. In vitro translation of RNAs selected by hybridization to plasmid DNAs identified sequences representing the three major classes (89, 70 and 27-kDa) of heat-shock proteins (hsp) and a 60-kDa minor hsp. Plasmids with inserts specific for the 27, 60, and 70-kDa hsp each hybridize with a single discrete size class of heat-inducible mRNA. Plasmids specific for the 89-kDa protein, however, hybridize with either a 2.7- or 2.95-kb mRNA species. Both mRNAs are coordinately induced during heat shock. We show that the characteristic pattern of induction and repression of each class of hsp during sustained hyperthermia is the result of changes in the steady state level of each mRNA.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA26847; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM32381

    Gene 1986;43;1-2;147-54

  • Conserved features of eukaryotic hsp70 genes revealed by comparison with the nucleotide sequence of human hsp70.

    Hunt C and Morimoto RI

    We have determined the nucleotide sequence of the human hsp70 gene and 5' flanking region. The hsp70 gene is transcribed as an uninterrupted primary transcript of 2440 nucleotides composed of a 5' noncoding leader sequence of 212 nucleotides, a 3' noncoding region of 242 nucleotides, and a continuous open reading frame of 1986 nucleotides that encodes a protein with predicted molecular mass of 69,800 daltons. Upstream of the 5' terminus are the canonical TATAAA box, the sequence ATTGG that corresponds in the inverted orientation to the CCAAT motif, and the dyad sequence CTGGAAT/ATTCCCG that shares homology in 12 of 14 positions with the consensus transcription regulatory sequence common to Drosophila heat shock genes. Comparison of the predicted amino acid sequences of human hsp70 with the published sequences of Drosophila hsp70 and Escherichia coli dnaK reveals that human hsp70 is 73% identical to Drosophila hsp70 and 47% identical to E. coli dnaK. Surprisingly, the nucleotide sequences of the human and Drosophila genes are 72% identical and human and E. coli genes are 50% identical, which is more highly conserved than necessary given the degeneracy of the genetic code. The lack of accumulated silent nucleotide substitutions leads us to propose that there may be additional information in the nucleotide sequence of the hsp70 gene or the corresponding mRNA that precludes the maximum divergence allowed in the silent codon positions.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1985;82;19;6455-9

  • Structure and expression of the human gene encoding major heat shock protein HSP70.

    Wu B, Hunt C and Morimoto R

    We have cloned a human gene encoding the 70,000-dalton heat shock protein (HSP70) from a human genomic library, using the Drosophila HSP70 gene as a heterologous hybridization probe. The human recombinant clone hybridized to a 2.6-kilobase polyadenylated mRNA from HeLa cells exposed to 43 degrees C for 2 h. The 2.6-kilobase mRNA was shown to direct the translation in vitro of a 70,000-dalton protein similar in electrophoretic mobility to the HSP70 synthesized in vivo. From the analysis of S1 nuclease-resistant mRNA-DNA hybrids, the HSP70 gene appears to be transcribed as an uninterrupted mRNA of 2.3 kilobases. We show that the cloned HSP70 gene contains the sequences necessary for heat shock-induced expression by two criteria. First, hamster cells transfected with a subclone containing the HSP70 gene and flanking sequences synthesized a HSP70-like protein upon heat shock. Second, human cells transfected with a chimeric gene containing the 5' flanking sequences of the HSP70 gene and the coding sequences of the bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene transcribed the chimeric gene upon heat shock. We show that the HSP70 mRNA transcribed in an adenovirus 5 transformed human cell line (293 cells) is identical to the HSP70 mRNA induced by heat shock.

    Molecular and cellular biology 1985;5;2;330-41

Gene lists (6)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000015 G2C Homo sapiens Human NRC Human orthologues of mouse NRC adapted from Collins et al (2006) 186
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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