G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
ras homolog gene family, member G (rho G)
G00000893 (Mus musculus)

Databases (7)

ENSG00000177105 (Ensembl human gene)
391 (Entrez Gene)
547 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
RHOG (GeneCards)
179505 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
Protein Sequence
P84095 (UniProt)

Synonyms (3)

  • MGC125835
  • MGC125836
  • RhoG

Literature (31)

Pubmed - other

  • The variant rs1867277 in FOXE1 gene confers thyroid cancer susceptibility through the recruitment of USF1/USF2 transcription factors.

    Landa I, Ruiz-Llorente S, Montero-Conde C, Inglada-Pérez L, Schiavi F, Leskelä S, Pita G, Milne R, Maravall J, Ramos I, Andía V, Rodríguez-Poyo P, Jara-Albarrán A, Meoro A, del Peso C, Arribas L, Iglesias P, Caballero J, Serrano J, Picó A, Pomares F, Giménez G, López-Mondéjar P, Castello R, Merante-Boschin I, Pelizzo MR, Mauricio D, Opocher G, Rodríguez-Antona C, González-Neira A, Matías-Guiu X, Santisteban P and Robledo M

    Hereditary Endocrine Cancer Group, Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO), Madrid, Spain.

    In order to identify genetic factors related to thyroid cancer susceptibility, we adopted a candidate gene approach. We studied tag- and putative functional SNPs in genes involved in thyroid cell differentiation and proliferation, and in genes found to be differentially expressed in thyroid carcinoma. A total of 768 SNPs in 97 genes were genotyped in a Spanish series of 615 cases and 525 controls, the former comprising the largest collection of patients with this pathology from a single population studied to date. SNPs in an LD block spanning the entire FOXE1 gene showed the strongest evidence of association with papillary thyroid carcinoma susceptibility. This association was validated in a second stage of the study that included an independent Italian series of 482 patients and 532 controls. The strongest association results were observed for rs1867277 (OR[per-allele] = 1.49; 95%CI = 1.30-1.70; P = 5.9x10(-9)). Functional assays of rs1867277 (NM_004473.3:c.-283G>A) within the FOXE1 5' UTR suggested that this variant affects FOXE1 transcription. DNA-binding assays demonstrated that, exclusively, the sequence containing the A allele recruited the USF1/USF2 transcription factors, while both alleles formed a complex in which DREAM/CREB/alphaCREM participated. Transfection studies showed an allele-dependent transcriptional regulation of FOXE1. We propose a FOXE1 regulation model dependent on the rs1867277 genotype, indicating that this SNP is a causal variant in thyroid cancer susceptibility. Our results constitute the first functional explanation for an association identified by a GWAS and thereby elucidate a mechanism of thyroid cancer susceptibility. They also attest to the efficacy of candidate gene approaches in the GWAS era.

    PLoS genetics 2009;5;9;e1000637

  • Yersinia enterocolitica differentially modulates RhoG activity in host cells.

    Roppenser B, Röder A, Hentschke M, Ruckdeschel K and Aepfelbacher M

    Institut für Medizinische Mikrobiologie, Virologie und Hygiene, Universitätsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistrabetae 52, 20246 Hamburg, Germany.

    Pathogenic bacteria of the genus Yersinia (Y. pestis, Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis) have evolved numerous virulence factors (termed a stratagem) to manipulate the activity of Rho GTPases. Here, we show that Y. enterocolitica modulates RhoG, an upstream regulator of other Rho GTPases. At the contact site of virulent Y. enterocolitica and host cells, we could visualise spatiotemporally organised activation and deactivation of RhoG. On the one hand, the beta1-integrin clustering protein Invasin on the bacterial surface was found to activate RhoG and this promoted cell invasion. On the other hand, active RhoG was downregulated by the type III secretion system effector YopE acting as a GTPase-activating protein (GAP). YopE localised to Golgi and endoplasmic reticulum, and this determined its specificity for RhoG and other selected Rho GTPases. RhoG and its downstream effector module Elmo/Dock180 controlled both Rac1 activation by Invasin and Rac1 deactivation by YopE. We propose that RhoG is a central target of the Yersinia stratagem and a major upstream regulator of Rac1 during different phases of the Yersinia infection cycle.

    Journal of cell science 2009;122;Pt 5;696-705

  • RhoG regulates endothelial apical cup assembly downstream from ICAM1 engagement and is involved in leukocyte trans-endothelial migration.

    van Buul JD, Allingham MJ, Samson T, Meller J, Boulter E, García-Mata R and Burridge K

    Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA. j.vanbuul@sanquin.nl

    During trans-endothelial migration (TEM), leukocytes use adhesion receptors such as intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM1) to adhere to the endothelium. In response to this interaction, the endothelium throws up dynamic membrane protrusions, forming a cup that partially surrounds the adherent leukocyte. Little is known about the signaling pathways that regulate cup formation. In this study, we show that RhoG is activated downstream from ICAM1 engagement. This activation requires the intracellular domain of ICAM1. ICAM1 colocalizes with RhoG and binds to the RhoG-specific SH3-containing guanine-nucleotide exchange factor (SGEF). The SH3 domain of SGEF mediates this interaction. Depletion of endothelial RhoG by small interfering RNA does not affect leukocyte adhesion but decreases cup formation and inhibits leukocyte TEM. Silencing SGEF also results in a substantial reduction in RhoG activity, cup formation, and TEM. Together, these results identify a new signaling pathway involving RhoG and its exchange factor SGEF downstream from ICAM1 that is critical for leukocyte TEM.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL080166, HL45100, P01 HL045100, P01 HL080166

    The Journal of cell biology 2007;178;7;1279-93

  • RhoG regulates anoikis through a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent mechanism.

    Yamaki N, Negishi M and Katoh H

    Laboratory of Molecular Neurobiology, Graduate School of Biostudies, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.

    In normal epithelial cells, cell-matrix interaction is required for cell survival and proliferation, whereas disruption of this interaction causes epithelial cells to undergo apoptosis called anoikis. Here we show that the small GTPase RhoG plays an important role in the regulation of anoikis. HeLa cells are capable of anchorage-independent cell growth and acquire resistance to anoikis. We found that RNA interference-mediated knockdown of RhoG promoted anoikis in HeLa cells. Previous studies have shown that RhoG activates Rac1 and induces several cellular functions including promotion of cell migration through its effector ELMO and the ELMO-binding protein Dock180 that function as a Rac-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor. However, RhoG-induced suppression of anoikis was independent of the ELMO- and Dock180-mediated activation of Rac1. On the other hand, the regulation of anoikis by RhoG required phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) activity, and constitutively active RhoG bound to the PI3K regulatory subunit p85alpha and induced the PI3K-dependent phosphorylation of Akt. Taken together, these results suggest that RhoG protects cells from apoptosis caused by the loss of anchorage through a PI3K-dependent mechanism, independent of its activation of Rac1.

    Experimental cell research 2007;313;13;2821-32

  • Dock4 is regulated by RhoG and promotes Rac-dependent cell migration.

    Hiramoto K, Negishi M and Katoh H

    Laboratory of Molecular Neurobiology, Graduate School of Biostudies, Kyoto University, Yoshidakonoe-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan.

    Cell migration is essential for normal development and many pathological processes including tumor metastasis. Rho family GTPases play important roles in this event. In particular, Rac is required for lamellipodia formation at the leading edge during migration. Dock4 is a member of the Dock180 family proteins, and Dock4 mutations are present in a subset of human cancer cell lines. However, the function and the regulatory mechanism of Dock4 remain unclear. Here we show that Dock4 is regulated by the small GTPase RhoG and its effector ELMO and promotes cell migration by activating Rac1. Dock4 formed a complex with ELMO, and expression of active RhoG induced translocation of the Dock4-ELMO complex from the cytoplasm to the plasma membrane and enhanced the Dock4- and ELMO-dependent Rac1 activation and cell migration. On the other hand, RNA interference-mediated knockdown of Dock4 in NIH3T3 cells reduced cell migration. Taken together, these results suggest that Dock4 plays an important role in the regulation of cell migration through activation of Rac1, and that RhoG is a key upstream regulator for Dock4.

    Experimental cell research 2006;312;20;4205-16

  • Involvement of the Rho/Rac family member RhoG in caveolar endocytosis.

    Prieto-Sánchez RM, Berenjeno IM and Bustelo XR

    Centro de Investigación del Cáncer, Instituto de Biología Molecular y Celular del Cáncer (IBMCC), and Red Temática Cooperativa de Centros de Cáncer, CSIC-University of Salamanca, Spain.

    We show here that the GTPase RhoG is involved in caveolar trafficking. Wild-type RhoG moves sequentially to the plasma membrane, intracellular vesicles, and the Golgi apparatus along markers of this endocytic pathway. Such translocation is associated with changes in RhoG GDP/GTP levels and is highly dependent on lipid raft integrity and on the function of the GTPase dynamin2. In addition, the constitutively active RhoG(Q61L) mutant is preferentially located in endocytic vesicles that can be decorated with markers of the caveola-derived endocytic pathway. RhoG(Q61L), but not the analogous Rac1 mutant protein, affects caveola internalization and the subsequent delivery of endocytic vesicles to the Golgi apparatus. The expression of RhoG/Rac1 chimeric proteins and RhoG(Q61L) effector mutants in cells induces alterations in the internalization of caveolae and severe changes in vesicle structure, respectively. However, the knockdown of endogenous rhoG transcripts using small interfering RNAs does not affect significantly the trafficking of caveola-derived vesicles, suggesting that RhoG function is dispensable for this endocytic process or, alternatively, that its function is compensated by other molecules. Taken together, these observations assign a novel function to RhoG and suggest that caveolar trafficking, as previously shown for other endocytic routes, is modulated by GTPases of the Ras superfamily.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: 5-R01-CA73735-08, R01 CA073735

    Oncogene 2006;25;21;2961-73

  • RhoG regulates the neutrophil NADPH oxidase.

    Condliffe AM, Webb LM, Ferguson GJ, Davidson K, Turner M, Vigorito E, Manifava M, Chilvers ER, Stephens LR and Hawkins PT

    Inositide Laboratory, Babraham Institute, Babraham Research Campus, Cambridge, UK. alison.condliffe@bbsrc.ac.uk

    RhoG is a Rho family small GTPase implicated in cytoskeletal regulation, acting either upstream of or in parallel to Rac1. The precise function(s) of RhoG in vivo has not yet been defined. We have identified a novel role for RhoG in signaling the neutrophil respiratory burst stimulated by G protein-coupled receptor agonists. Bone marrow-derived neutrophils from RhoG knockout (RhoG(-/-)) mice exhibited a marked impairment of oxidant generation in response to C5a or fMLP, but normal responses to PMA or opsonized zymosan and normal bacterial killing. Activation of Rac1 and Rac2 by fMLP was diminished in RhoG(-/-) neutrophils only at very early (5 s) time points (by 25 and 32%, respectively), whereas chemotaxis in response to soluble agonists was unaffected by lack of RhoG. Additionally, fMLP-stimulated phosphorylation of protein kinase B and p38MAPK, activation of phospholipase D, and calcium fluxes were equivalent in wild-type and RhoG(-/-) neutrophils. Our results define RhoG as a critical component of G protein-coupled receptor-stimulated signaling cascades in murine neutrophils, acting either via a subset of total cellular Rac relevant to oxidase activation and/or by a novel and as yet undefined interaction with the neutrophil NADPH oxidase.

    Funded by: Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council: BBS/E/B/00001207; Medical Research Council: G117/424; Wellcome Trust

    Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 2006;176;9;5314-20

  • Activation of Rac1 by RhoG regulates cell migration.

    Katoh H, Hiramoto K and Negishi M

    Laboratory of Molecular Neurobiology, Graduate School of Biostudies, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502, Japan. hirokato@pharm.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    Cell migration is essential for normal development and many pathological processes. Rho-family small GTPases play important roles in this event. In particular, Rac regulates lamellipodia formation at the leading edge during migration. The small GTPase RhoG activates Rac through its effector ELMO and the ELMO-binding protein Dock180, which functions as a Rac-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor. Here we investigated the role of RhoG in cell migration. RNA interference-mediated knockdown of RhoG in HeLa cells reduced cell migration in Transwell and scratch-wound migration assays. In RhoG-knockdown cells, activation of Rac1 and formation of lamellipodia at the leading edge in response to wounding were attenuated. By contrast, expression of active RhoG promoted cell migration through ELMO and Dock180. However, the interaction of Dock180 with Crk was dispensable for the activation of Rac1 and promotion of cell migration by RhoG. Taken together, these results suggest that RhoG contributes to the regulation of Rac activity in migrating cells.

    Journal of cell science 2006;119;Pt 1;56-65

  • p190 Rho-GTPase activating protein associates with plexins and it is required for semaphorin signalling.

    Barberis D, Casazza A, Sordella R, Corso S, Artigiani S, Settleman J, Comoglio PM and Tamagnone L

    Institute for Cancer Research and Treatment (IRCC), University of Turin Medical School, Candiolo, Torino 10060, Italy.

    Plexins are transmembrane receptors for semaphorins, guiding cell migration and axon extension. Plexin activation leads to the disassembly of integrin-based focal adhesive structures and to actin cytoskeleton remodelling and inhibition of cell migration; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms are unclear. We consistently observe a transient decrease of cellular RhoA-GTP levels upon plexin activation in adherent cells. One of the main effectors of RhoA downregulation is p190, a ubiquitously expressed GTPase activating protein (GAP). We show that, in p190-deficient fibroblasts, the typical functional activities mediated by plexins (such as cell collapse and inhibition of integrin-based adhesion) are blocked or greatly impaired. Notably, the functional response can be rescued in these cells by re-expressing exogenous p190, but not a mutant form specifically lacking RhoGAP activity. We furthermore demonstrate that semaphorin function is blocked in epithelial cells, primary endothelial cells and neuroblasts upon treatment with small interfering RNAs that knockdown p190 expression. Finally, we show that p190 transiently associates with plexins, and its RhoGAP activity is increased in response to semaphorin stimulation. We conclude that p190-RhoGAP is crucially involved in semaphorin signalling to the actin cytoskeleton, via interaction with plexins.

    Journal of cell science 2005;118;Pt 20;4689-700

  • High-throughput mapping of a dynamic signaling network in mammalian cells.

    Barrios-Rodiles M, Brown KR, Ozdamar B, Bose R, Liu Z, Donovan RS, Shinjo F, Liu Y, Dembowy J, Taylor IW, Luga V, Przulj N, Robinson M, Suzuki H, Hayashizaki Y, Jurisica I and Wrana JL

    Program in Molecular Biology and Cancer, Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, M5G 1X5.

    Signaling pathways transmit information through protein interaction networks that are dynamically regulated by complex extracellular cues. We developed LUMIER (for luminescence-based mammalian interactome mapping), an automated high-throughput technology, to map protein-protein interaction networks systematically in mammalian cells and applied it to the transforming growth factor-beta (TGFbeta) pathway. Analysis using self-organizing maps and k-means clustering identified links of the TGFbeta pathway to the p21-activated kinase (PAK) network, to the polarity complex, and to Occludin, a structural component of tight junctions. We show that Occludin regulates TGFbeta type I receptor localization for efficient TGFbeta-dependent dissolution of tight junctions during epithelial-to-mesenchymal transitions.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: P50 GM-62413

    Science (New York, N.Y.) 2005;307;5715;1621-5

  • Phagocytosis of apoptotic cells is regulated by a UNC-73/TRIO-MIG-2/RhoG signaling module and armadillo repeats of CED-12/ELMO.

    deBakker CD, Haney LB, Kinchen JM, Grimsley C, Lu M, Klingele D, Hsu PK, Chou BK, Cheng LC, Blangy A, Sondek J, Hengartner MO, Wu YC and Ravichandran KS

    Department of Microbiology, Beirne Carter Center for Immunology Research, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA.

    Background: Phagocytosis of cells undergoing apoptosis is essential during development, cellular turnover, and wound healing. Failure to promptly clear apoptotic cells has been linked to autoimmune disorders. C. elegans CED-12 and mammalian ELMO are evolutionarily conserved scaffolding proteins that play a critical role in engulfment from worm to human. ELMO functions together with Dock180 (a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rac) to mediate Rac-dependent cytoskeletal reorganization during engulfment and cell migration. However, the components upstream of ELMO and Dock180 during engulfment remain elusive.

    Results: Here, we define a conserved signaling module involving the small GTPase RhoG and its exchange factor TRIO, which functions upstream of ELMO/Dock180/Rac during engulfment. Complementary studies in C. elegans show that MIG-2 (which we identify as the homolog of mammalian RhoG) and UNC-73 (the TRIO homolog) also regulate corpse clearance in vivo, upstream of CED-12. At the molecular level, we identify a novel set of evolutionarily conserved Armadillo (ARM) repeats within CED-12/ELMO that mediate an interaction with activated MIG-2/RhoG; this, in turn, promotes Dock180-mediated Rac activation and cytoskeletal reorganization.

    Conclusions: The combination of in vitro and in vivo studies presented here identify two evolutionarily conserved players in engulfment, TRIO/UNC73 and RhoG/MIG-2, and the TRIO --> RhoG signaling module is linked by ELMO/CED-12 to Dock180-dependent Rac activation during engulfment. This work also identifies ARM repeats within CED-12/ELMO and their role in linking RhoG and Rac, two GTPases that function in tandem during engulfment.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM-64709

    Current biology : CB 2004;14;24;2208-16

  • The C-terminal basic tail of RhoG assists the guanine nucleotide exchange factor trio in binding to phospholipids.

    Skowronek KR, Guo F, Zheng Y and Nassar N

    Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Stony Brook University, Health Sciences Center, Stony Brook, New York 11794-8661, USA.

    The multidomain protein Trio regulates among others neuronal outgrowth and axonal guidance in vertebrates and invertebrates. Trio contains two Dbl-homology/pleckstrin homology (DH/PH) tandem domains that activate several RhoGTPases. Here, we present the x-ray structure of the N-terminal DH/PH, hereafter TrioN, refined to 1.7-A resolution. We show that the relative orientations of the DH and PH domains of TrioN and free Dbs are similar. However, this relative orientation is dissimilar to Dbs in the Dbs/Cdc42 structure. In vitro nucleotide exchange experiments catalyzed by TrioN show that RhoG is approximately 3x more efficiently exchanged than Rac and support the conclusion that RhoG is likely the downstream target of TrioN. Residues 54 and 69, which are not conserved between the two GTPases, are responsible for this specificity. Dot-blot assay reveals that the TrioN-PH domain does not detectably bind phosphatidylinositol 3,4-bisphosphate, PtdIns(3,4)P(2), or other phospholipids. This finding is supported by our three-dimensional structure and affinity binding experiments. Interestingly, the presence of RhoG but not Rac or a C-terminal-truncated RhoG mutant allows TrioN to bind PtdIns(3,4)P(2) with a micromolar affinity constant. We conclude the variable C-terminal basic tail of RhoG specifically assists the recruitment of the TrioN-PH domain to specific membrane-bound phospholipids. Our data suggest a role for the phosphoinositide 3-kinase, PI 3-kinase, in modulating the Trio/RhoG signaling pathway.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: RR-01646; NIDDK NIH HHS: T32-DK07521-16

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2004;279;36;37895-907

  • RhoG activates Rac1 by direct interaction with the Dock180-binding protein Elmo.

    Katoh H and Negishi M

    Laboratory of Molecular Neurobiology, Graduate School of Biostudies, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502, Japan. hirokato@pharm.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    The small GTPase Rac has a central role in regulating the actin cytoskeleton during cell migration and axon guidance. Elmo has been identified as an upstream regulator of Rac1 that binds to and functionally cooperates with Dock180 (refs 2-4). Dock180 does not contain a conventional catalytic domain for guanine nucleotide exchange on Rac, but possesses a domain that directly binds to and specifically activates Rac1 (refs 5, 6). The small GTPase RhoG mediates several cellular morphological processes, such as neurite outgrowth in neuronal cells, through a signalling cascade that activates Rac1 (refs 7-12); however, the downstream target of RhoG and the mechanism by which RhoG regulates Rac1 activity remain unclear. Here we show that RhoG interacts directly with Elmo in a GTP-dependent manner and forms a ternary complex with Dock180 to induce activation of Rac1. The RhoG-Elmo-Dock180 pathway is required for activation of Rac1 and cell spreading mediated by integrin, as well as for neurite outgrowth induced by nerve growth factor. We conclude that RhoG activates Rac1 through Elmo and Dock180 to control cell morphology.

    Nature 2003;424;6947;461-4

  • Direct interaction of Rnd1 with Plexin-B1 regulates PDZ-RhoGEF-mediated Rho activation by Plexin-B1 and induces cell contraction in COS-7 cells.

    Oinuma I, Katoh H, Harada A and Negishi M

    Laboratory of Molecular Neurobiology, Graduate School of Biostudies, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502, Japan.

    Plexins are receptors for the axon guidance molecule semaphorins, and several lines of evidence suggest that Rho family small GTPases are implicated in the downstream signaling of Plexins. Recent studies have demonstrated that Plexin-B1 activates RhoA and induces growth cone collapse through Rho-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor PDZ-RhoGEF. Here we show that Rnd1, a member of Rho family GTPases, directly interacted with the cytoplasmic domain of Plexin-B1. In COS-7 cells, coexpression of Rnd1 and Plexin-B1 induced cell contraction in response to semaphorin 4D (Sema4D), a ligand for Plexin-B1, whereas expression of Plexin-B1 alone or coexpression of Rnd1 and a Rnd1 interaction-defective mutant of Plexin-B1 did not. The Sema4D-induced contraction in Plexin-B1/Rnd1-expressing COS-7 cells was suppressed by dominant negative RhoA, a Rho-associated kinase inhibitor, a dominant negative form of PDZ-RhoGEF, or deletion of the carboxyl-terminal PDZ-RhoGEF-binding region of Plexin-B1, indicating that the PDZ-RhoGEF/RhoA/Rho-associated kinase pathway is involved in this morphological effect. We also found that Rnd1 promoted the interaction between Plexin-B1 and PDZ-RhoGEF and thereby dramatically potentiated the Plexin-B1-mediated RhoA activation. We propose that Rnd1 plays an important role in the regulation of Plexin-B1 signaling, leading to Rho activation during axon guidance and cell migration.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;28;25671-7

  • RhoG regulates gene expression and the actin cytoskeleton in lymphocytes.

    Vigorito E, Billadeu DD, Savoy D, McAdam S, Doody G, Fort P and Turner M

    Laboratory for Lymphocyte Signalling and Development, Molecular Immunology Programme, The Babraham Institute, Cambridge, UK. elena.vigorito@bbsrc.ac.uk

    RhoG, a member of the Rho family of GTPases, has been implicated as a regulator of the actin cytoskeleton. In this study, we show a novel function for the small GTPase RhoG on the regulation of the interferon-gamma promoter and nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) gene transcription in lymphocytes. Optimal function of RhoG for the expression of these genes requires a calcium signal, normally provided by the antigen receptor. In addition, RhoG potentiation of NFAT requires the indirect activity of Rac and Cdc42; however, pathways distinct from those activated by Rac and Cdc42 mediate RhoG activation of NFAT-dependent transcription. Using effector domain mutants of RhoG we found that its ability to potentiate NFAT-dependent transcription correlates with its capacity to increase actin polymerization, supporting the suggestion that NFAT-dependent transcription is an actin-dependent process. RhoG also promotes T-cell spreading on fibronectin, a property that is independent of its ability to enhance NFAT-dependent transcription. Hence, these results implicate RhoG in leukocyte trafficking and the control of gene expression induced in response to antigen encounter.

    Oncogene 2003;22;3;330-42

  • RhoG signals in parallel with Rac1 and Cdc42.

    Wennerberg K, Ellerbroek SM, Liu RY, Karnoub AE, Burridge K and Der CJ

    Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599-7295, USA. krister@med.unc.edu

    RhoG is a member of the Rho family of small GTPases and shares high sequence identity with Rac1 and Cdc42. Previous studies suggested that RhoG mediates its effects through activation of Rac1 and Cdc42. To further understand the mechanism of RhoG signaling, we studied its potential activation pathways, downstream signaling properties, and functional relationship to Rac1 and Cdc42 in vivo. First, we determined that RhoG was regulated by guanine nucleotide exchange factors that also activate Rac and/or Cdc42. Vav2 (which activates RhoA, Rac1, and Cdc42) and to a lesser degree Dbs (which activates RhoA and Cdc42) activated RhoG in vitro. Thus, RhoG may be activated concurrently with Rac1 and Cdc42. Second, some effectors of Rac/Cdc42 (IQGAP2, MLK-3, PLD1), but not others (e.g. PAKs, POSH, WASP, Par-6, IRSp53), interacted with RhoG in a GTP-dependent manner. Third, consistent with this differential interaction with effectors, activated RhoG stimulated some (JNK and Akt) but not other (SRF and NF-kappaB) downstream signaling targets of activated Rac1 and Cdc42. Finally, transient transduction of a tat-tagged Rac1(17N) dominant-negative fusion protein inhibited the induction of lamellipodia by the Rac-specific activator, Tiam1, but not by activated RhoG. Together, these data argue that RhoG function is mediated by signals independent of Rac1 and Cdc42 activation and instead by direct utilization of a subset of common effectors.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA63071; NHLBI NIH HHS: HL45100; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM29860

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;49;47810-7

  • Critical but distinct roles for the pleckstrin homology and cysteine-rich domains as positive modulators of Vav2 signaling and transformation.

    Booden MA, Campbell SL and Der CJ

    Department of Pharmacology, Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA. mbooden@med.unc.edu

    Vav2, like all Dbl family proteins, possesses tandem Dbl homology (DH) and pleckstrin homology (PH) domains and functions as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rho family GTPases. Whereas the PH domain is a critical positive regulator of DH domain function for a majority of Dbl family proteins, the PH domains of the related Vav and Vav3 proteins are dispensable for DH domain activity. Instead, Vav proteins contain a cysteine-rich domain (CRD) critical for DH domain function. We evaluated the contribution of the PH domain and the CRD to Vav2 guanine nucleotide exchange, signaling, and transforming activity. Unexpectedly, we found that mutations of the PH domain impaired Vav2 signaling, transforming activity, and membrane association. However, these mutations do not influence exchange activity on Rac and only slightly affect exchange on RhoA and Cdc42. We also found that the CRD was critical for the exchange activity in vitro and contributed to Vav2 membrane localization. Finally, we found that phosphoinositol 3-kinase activation synergistically enhanced Vav2 transforming and signaling activity by stimulating exchange activity but not membrane association. In conclusion, the PH domain and CRD are mechanistically distinct, positive modulators of Vav2 DH domain function in vivo.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA55008, CA63071, CA84480-01A1, R01 CA063071, R01 CA084480

    Molecular and cellular biology 2002;22;8;2487-97

  • Kinectin is a key effector of RhoG microtubule-dependent cellular activity.

    Vignal E, Blangy A, Martin M, Gauthier-Rouvière C and Fort P

    Centre de Recherche en Biochimie Macromoléculaire, CNRS-UPR1086, 34293 Montpellier cedex 5, France.

    RhoG is a member of the Rho family of GTPases that activates Rac1 and Cdc42 through a microtubule-dependent pathway. To gain understanding of RhoG downstream signaling, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screen from which we identified kinectin, a 156-kDa protein that binds in vitro to conventional kinesin and enhances microtubule-dependent kinesin ATPase activity. We show that RhoG(GTP) specifically interacts with the central domain of kinectin, which also contains a RhoA binding domain in its C terminus. Interaction was confirmed by coprecipitation of kinectin with active RhoG(G12V) in COS-7 cells. RhoG, kinectin, and kinesin colocalize in REF-52 and COS-7 cells, mainly in the endoplasmic reticulum but also in lysosomes. Kinectin distribution in REF-52 cells is modulated according to endogenous RhoG activity. In addition, by using injection of anti-kinectin antibodies that challenge RhoG-kinectin interaction or by blocking anti-kinesin antibodies, we show that RhoG morphogenic activity relies on kinectin interaction and kinesin activity. Finally, kinectin overexpression elicits Rac1- and Cdc42-dependent cytoskeletal effects and switches cells to a RhoA phenotype when RhoG activity is inhibited or microtubules are disrupted. The functional links among RhoG, kinectin, and kinesin are further supported by time-lapse videomicroscopy of COS-7 cells, which showed that the microtubule-dependent lysosomal transport is facilitated by RhoG activation or kinectin overexpression and is severely stemmed upon RhoG inhibition. These data establish that kinectin is a key mediator of microtubule-dependent RhoG activity and suggest that kinectin also mediates RhoG- and RhoA-dependent antagonistic pathways.

    Molecular and cellular biology 2001;21;23;8022-34

  • Plexin signaling via off-track and rho family GTPases.

    Whitford KL and Ghosh A

    Department of Neuroscience, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA.

    Two papers in this issue of Neuron examine new aspects of Semaphorin signaling via Plexin receptors. Winberg et al. present evidence that the transmembrane protein Off-track (OTK) interacts biochemically and genetically with Plexin A and is important for Sema 1a repulsive signaling. Hu et al. examine the coupling of Plexin B to Rac and RhoA and propose that Plexin B signaling involves inhibition of Rac function by direct sequestration and simultaneous activation of RhoA.

    Neuron 2001;32;1;1-3

  • Interactions between Rho GTPases and Rho GDP dissociation inhibitor (Rho-GDI).

    Fauré J and Dagher MC

    Laboratoire de Biochimie et Biophysique des Systèmes Intégrés (BBSI), UMR CEA/CNRS/UJF 5092, CEA Grenoble, 17, rue des Martyrs, 38054 cedex 9, Grenoble, France.

    The Rho-GDP dissociation inhibitor (Rho-GDI) was used as bait in a two-hybrid screen of a human leucocyte cDNA library. Most of the isolated cDNAs encoded GTPases of the Rho subfamily: RhoA, B, C, Rac1, 2, CDC42 and RhoG. The newly discovered RhoH interacted very poorly with Rho-GDI. Another protein partner shared a homology with RhoA that points to Asp67(RhoA)-Arg68(RhoA)-Leu69(RhoA) as critical for interaction with Rho-GDI. A second screen with RhoA as bait led to the isolation of GDI only. In order to investigate the relative role of protein-protein and protein-lipid interactions between Rho GTPases and Rho-GDI, CAAX box mutants of RhoA were produced. They were found to interact with Rho-GDI as efficiently as wild type RhoA, indicating that protein-protein interactions alone lead to strong binding of the two proteins. The C-terminal polybasic region of RhoA was also shown to be a site of protein-protein interaction with Rho-GDI.

    Biochimie 2001;83;5;409-14

  • PIST: a novel PDZ/coiled-coil domain binding partner for the rho-family GTPase TC10.

    Neudauer CL, Joberty G and Macara IG

    Center for Cell Signaling, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, 22908-0577, USA.

    TC10 is a member of the Rho family of GTPases, most closely related to Cdc42. This family of proteins mediates cytoskeletal rearrangements, activation of signal transduction cascades, and activation of gene transcription. A current focus is to identify and characterize the GTPase effectors that are involved in these cellular events. Many specific effectors for Cdc42 have been identified, most of which bind equally well to TC10, though a subset has only a low affinity for TC10. No protein that specifically interacts with TC10 has yet been described. Here, we report the cloning and characterization of PIST, a TC10-specific interacting protein. PIST possesses a PDZ domain and two, putative, coiled-coil domains, one of which contains a leucine zipper. It interacts directly and specifically with TC10:GTP, though with low affinity, and a mutation within the effector binding domain of TC10 disrupts the interaction. PIST also forms homodimers. The first coiled-coil and PDZ domains are not necessary for these interactions, but deletion of the N-terminal portion of the leucine zipper abolishes dimerization. PIST may function as a scaffolding protein to link TC10 to signaling pathways.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA40042

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2001;280;2;541-7

  • Activation of the small GTPases, rac and cdc42, after ligation of the platelet PAR-1 receptor.

    Azim AC, Barkalow K, Chou J and Hartwig JH

    Division of Hematology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

    Stimulation of platelet PAR-1 receptors results in the rapid (10 to 30 seconds) and extensive (30% to 40% of total) guanosine triphosphate (GTP) charging of endogenous platelet rac, previously identified as a possible key intermediate in the signal pathway between PAR-1 and actin filament barbed-end uncapping, leading to actin assembly. During PAR-1-mediated platelet activation, rac distributes from the cell interior to the cell periphery, and this reorganization is resistant to the inhibition of PI-3-kinase activity. Rac, in resting or activated platelets, is Triton X-100 soluble, suggesting that it does not form tight complexes with actin cytoskeletal proteins, though its retention in octyl-glucoside-treated platelets and ultrastructural observations of activated platelets implies that rac binds to plasma membranes, where it can interact with phosphoinositide kinases implicated in actin assembly reactions. PAR-1 stimulation also rapidly and extensively activates cdc42, though, in contrast to rac, some cdc42 associates with the actin cytoskeleton in resting platelets, and the bound fraction increases during stimulation. The differences in subcellular distribution and previous evidence showing quantitatively divergent effects of rac and cdc42 on actin nucleation in permeabilized platelets indicate different signaling roles for these GTPases.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL56252, HL56949

    Blood 2000;95;3;959-64

  • The HIV-1 vpr protein induces anoikis-resistance by modulating cell adhesion process and microfilament system assembly.

    Matarrese P, Conti L, Varano B, Gauzzi MC, Belardelli F, Gessani S and Malorni W

    Department of Ultrastructures, Instituto Superiore di Sanità, Viale Regina Elena, 299-00161 Rome, Italy.

    We have previously shown that CD4+ T Jurkat cells constitutively expressing low levels of the human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) vpr protein were less susceptible to undergo apoptosis than control cells.1 In this study we have investigated the role of vpr in affecting mechanisms of importance in the control of apoptosis. Vpr-expressing clones consistently aggregated in clusters with time in culture, whereas mock-transfected cells grew as dispersed cultures. The analysis of adhesion molecules involved in cell-to-cell as well as in cell-substrate interactions showed a higher expression of cadherin and integrins alpha5 and alpha6 in vpr-transfected clones with respect to mock-transfected cells. This up-modulation was specifically blocked by cell exposure to antisense oligonucleotides targeted at the vpr. In addition, F-actin microfilament cytoskeletal organization, known to be involved in cell-cell interaction pathways and in the modulation of cell surface molecule expression, was significantly improved in vpr-expressing clones, in which filament polymerization was increased. We thus envisage that vpr viral protein can maintain cell survival via a specific activity on cytoskeleton-dependent cell adhesion pathways, i.e. by inducing anoikis-resistance. These particular effects of vpr might enhance the homing, spreading and survival of the infected lymphocytes, thus contributing to virus persistence in the course of acute HIV-1 infection.

    Cell death and differentiation 2000;7;1;25-36

  • Biological and regulatory properties of Vav-3, a new member of the Vav family of oncoproteins.

    Movilla N and Bustelo XR

    Department of Pathology, State University of New York at Stony Brook, University Hospital, Stony Brook, New York 11794-7025, USA.

    We report here the identification and characterization of a novel Vav family member, Vav-3. Signaling experiments demonstrate that Vav-3 participates in pathways activated by protein tyrosine kinases. Vav-3 promotes the exchange of nucleotides on RhoA, on RhoG and, to a lesser extent, on Rac-1. During this reaction, Vav-3 binds physically to the nucleotide-free states of those GTPases. These functions are stimulated by tyrosine phosphorylation in wild-type Vav-3 and become constitutively activated upon deletion of the entire calponin-homology region. Expression of truncated versions of Vav-3 leads to drastic actin relocalization and to the induction of stress fibers, lamellipodia, and membrane ruffles. Moreover, expression of Vav-3 alters cytokinesis, resulting in the formation of binucleated cells. All of these responses need only the expression of the central region of Vav-3 encompassing the Dbl homology (DH), pleckstrin homology (PH), and zinc finger (ZF) domains but do not require the presence of the C-terminal SH3-SH2-SH3 regions. Studies conducted with Vav-3 proteins containing loss-of-function mutations in the DH, PH, and ZF regions indicate that only the DH and ZF regions are essential for Vav-3 biological activity. Finally, we show that one of the functions of the Vav-3 ZF region is to work coordinately with the catalytic DH region to promote both the binding to GTP-hydrolases and their GDP-GTP nucleotide exchange. These results highlight the role of Vav-3 in signaling and cytoskeletal pathways and identify a novel functional cross-talk between the DH and ZF domains of Vav proteins that is imperative for the binding to, and activation of, Rho GTP-binding proteins.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA7373501

    Molecular and cellular biology 1999;19;11;7870-85

  • RhoG GTPase controls a pathway that independently activates Rac1 and Cdc42Hs.

    Gauthier-Rouvière C, Vignal E, Mériane M, Roux P, Montcourier P and Fort P

    IGMM, CNRS-UMR5535, Route de Mende, 34293 Montpellier Cedex 05 France. gauthier@igm.cnrs-mop.fr

    RhoG is a member of the Rho family of GTPases that shares 72% and 62% sequence identity with Rac1 and Cdc42Hs, respectively. We have expressed mutant RhoG proteins fused to the green fluorescent protein and analyzed subsequent changes in cell surface morphology and modifications of cytoskeletal structures. In rat and mouse fibroblasts, green fluorescent protein chimera and endogenous RhoG proteins colocalize according to a tubular cytoplasmic pattern, with perinuclear accumulation and local concentration at the plasma membrane. Constitutively active RhoG proteins produce morphological and cytoskeletal changes similar to those elicited by a simultaneous activation of Rac1 and Cdc42Hs, i.e., the formation of ruffles, lamellipodia, filopodia, and partial loss of stress fibers. In addition, RhoG and Cdc42Hs promote the formation of microvilli at the cell apical membrane. RhoG-dependent events are not mediated through a direct interaction with Rac1 and Cdc42Hs targets such as PAK-1, POR1, or WASP proteins but require endogenous Rac1 and Cdc42Hs activities: coexpression of a dominant negative Rac1 impairs membrane ruffling and lamellipodia but not filopodia or microvilli formation. Conversely, coexpression of a dominant negative Cdc42Hs only blocks microvilli and filopodia, but not membrane ruffling and lamellipodia. Microtubule depolymerization upon nocodazole treatment leads to a loss of RhoG protein from the cell periphery associated with a reversal of the RhoG phenotype, whereas PDGF or bradykinin stimulation of nocodazole-treated cells could still promote Rac1- and Cdc42Hs-dependent cytoskeletal reorganization. Therefore, our data demonstrate that RhoG controls a pathway that requires the microtubule network and activates Rac1 and Cdc42Hs independently of their growth factor signaling pathways.

    Molecular biology of the cell 1998;9;6;1379-94

  • Structure of the human ARHG locus encoding the Rho/Rac-like RhoG GTPase.

    Le Gallic L and Fort P

    Institut de Génétique Moléculaire, CNRS UMR5535, Montpellier, France.

    Members of the Rho/Rac/Cdc42Hs family of GTPases have been shown to participate in many aspects of the signaling of cell growth and differentiation. Although the biochemical properties of these GTPases have been extensively studied, very little is known about their gene structure and regulation. RhoG, a member related to Rac and Cdc42Hs, is activated at the transcriptional level in the mid-G1 phase of stimulated fibroblasts. As a first step toward the characterization of the regulatory elements involved in serum-regulated expression, we isolated and determined the structure of the corresponding human locus (ARHG, localized in 11p15.4-p15.5). This is the first gene structure of a member of the Rho/Rac/Cdc42Hs family. At variance with Ras and Rab3A genes, ARHG contains a single intron larger than 20 kb that splits a 62-nt-long 5' noncoding first exon from the rest of the mRNA. The sequences upstream of the cap sites exhibit transcriptional activity. They are G/C-rich and devoid of TATA or CAAT boxes, as found for many housekeeping genes, including Ras genes.

    Genomics 1997;42;1;157-60

  • RhoGDI-3 is a new GDP dissociation inhibitor (GDI). Identification of a non-cytosolic GDI protein interacting with the small GTP-binding proteins RhoB and RhoG.

    Zalcman G, Closson V, Camonis J, Honoré N, Rousseau-Merck MF, Tavitian A and Olofsson B

    Unité INSERM 248, Section de Recherche, Institut Curie, 26 rue d'Ulm, 75231 Paris Cedex 05, France.

    RhoB is a small GTP-binding protein highly homologous to the RhoA protein. While RhoA is known to regulate the assembly of focal adhesions and stress fibers in response to growth factors, the function of RhoB remains unknown. We have reported that the transient expression of the endogenous RhoB protein is regulated during the cell cycle, contrasting with the permanent RhoA protein expression (). Using the yeast two-hybrid system to characterize proteins interacting with RhoB, we identified a new mouse Rho GDP dissociation inhibitor, referenced as RhoGDI-3. The NH2-terminal alpha helix of RhoGDI-3 is strongly amphipatic and differs thus from that found in previously described bovine, human, and yeast RhoGDI proteins and mouse and human D4/Ly-GDIs. Contrary to the cytosolic localization of all known GDI proteins, acting on Rab or Rho, RhoGDI-3 is associated to a Triton X-100-insoluble membranous or cytoskeletal subcellular fraction. In the two-hybrid system, RhoGDI-3 interacts specifically with GDP- and GTP-bound forms of post-translationally processed RhoB and RhoG proteins, both of which show a growth-regulated expression in mammalian cells. No interaction is found with RhoA, RhoC, or Rac1 proteins. We show that GDI-3 is able to inhibit GDP/GTP exchange of RhoB and to release GDP-bound but not GTP-bound RhoB from cell membranes.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1996;271;48;30366-74

  • Localization of ARHG, a member of the RAS homolog gene family, to 11p15.5-11p15.4 by fluorescence in situ hybridization.

    Taviaux SA, Vincent S, Fort P and Demaille JG

    CRBM du CNRS, UPR 9008, INSERM U.249, Montpellier, France.

    Genomics 1993;16;3;788-90

  • Oncogene ect2 is related to regulators of small GTP-binding proteins.

    Miki T, Smith CL, Long JE, Eva A and Fleming TP

    Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Biology, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland 20892.

    We have developed an efficient expression cloning system that allows rapid isolation of complementary DNAs able to induce the transformed phenotype. We searched for molecules expressed in epithelial cells and possessing transforming potential to fibroblasts, and cloned a cDNA for the normal receptor of a growth factor secreted by NIH/3T3 cells. Here we report a second novel transforming gene, ect2. The isolated cDNA is activated by amino-terminal truncation of the normal product. The Ect2 protein has sequence similarity within a central core of 255 amino acids with the products of the breakpoint cluster gene, bcr (ref. 5), the yeast cell cycle gene, CDC24 (ref. 6), and the dbl oncogene. Each of these genes encodes regulatory molecules or effectors for Rho-like small GTP-binding proteins. The baculovirus-expressed Ect2 protein could bind highly specifically to Rho and Rac proteins, whereas the dbl product showed broader binding specificity to Rho family proteins. Thus ect2 is a new member of an expanding family, whose products have transforming properties and interact with Rho-like proteins of the Ras superfamily.

    Nature 1993;362;6419;462-5

  • Growth-regulated expression of rhoG, a new member of the ras homolog gene family.

    Vincent S, Jeanteur P and Fort P

    URA CNRS 1191 Génétique Moléculaire, Université Montpellier II Sciences et Techniques du Languedoc, France.

    Cellular transition from the resting state to DNA synthesis involves master switches genes encoding transcriptional factors (e.g., fos, jun, and egr genes), whose targets remain to be fully characterized. To isolate coding sequences specifically accumulated in late G1, a differential screening was performed on a cDNA library prepared from hamster lung fibroblasts stimulated for 5 h with serum. One of the positive clones which displayed a sevenfold induction, turned out to code for a protein sharing homology to Ras-like products. Cloning and sequence analysis of the human homolog revealed that this putative new small GTPase, referred to as rhoG, is more closely related to the rac, CDC42, and TC10 members of the rho (ras homolog) gene family and might have diverged very early during evolution. rhoG mRNA accumulates in proportion to the mitogenic strength of various purified growth factors used for the stimulation, as a consequence of transcriptional activation. G1-specific RNA accumulation is impaired upon addition of antimitogenic cyclic AMP and is enhanced when protein synthesis is inhibited, mainly as a result of RNA stabilization. rhoG mRNA expression is observed in a wide variety of human organs but reaches a particularly high level in lung and placental tissues.

    Molecular and cellular biology 1992;12;7;3138-48

Gene lists (6)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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