G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
protein phosphatase 1, catalytic subunit, alpha isozyme
G00000889 (Mus musculus)

Databases (7)

ENSG00000172531 (Ensembl human gene)
5499 (Entrez Gene)
528 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
PPP1CA (GeneCards)
176875 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:9281 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
P62136 (UniProt)

Synonyms (2)

  • PP-1A
  • PP1alpha

Literature (93)

Pubmed - other

  • Tensin1 requires protein phosphatase-1alpha in addition to RhoGAP DLC-1 to control cell polarization, migration, and invasion.

    Hall EH, Daugherty AE, Choi CK, Horwitz AF and Brautigan DL

    Center for Cell Signaling and Department of Microbiology, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908, USA.

    Tensin is a family of multidomain scaffold proteins that bind the cytoplasmic tail of beta-integrins and localize to adhesions that anchor stress fibers in cells. Tensin expression is suppressed in cancer, especially metastatic cancer. The N-terminal domain of tensin1 associates with protein phosphatase-1alpha (PP1alpha) and mediates PP1alpha localization to adhesions. Here, we show F302A mutation in a KVXF motif of tensin1 abrogates binding to PP1alpha. The SH2 domain in tensin family member c-ten requires R474 to bind a RhoGAP called DLC-1 (deleted in liver cancer). We mutated the corresponding residue in tensin1, R1488A, and showed this reduces association with DLC-1. Unexpectedly, tensin1 F302A also had reduced association with DLC-1. Expression of tensin1 F302A or R1488A showed similar dominant phenotypes, with reduced cell polarization, lowered MLC20 phosphorylation and reduced levels of RhoA(GTP) compared with cells expressing tensin1 WT. However, migration and invasion of metastatic MDA MB 231 breast cancer cells were differentially affected by tensin1 mutated at F302A or R1488A. Cancer cells stably expressing F302A tensin1 showed increased migration and invasion compared with cells stably expressing either R1488A tensin1 or WT tensin1. This suggests that PP1alpha bound to tensin1 has additional effects in reducing migration and invasion that are not mediated through DLC-1. Our results show the importance of PP1alpha binding to tensin1 for the regulation of cell polarization, migration, and invasion.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA40042, P01 CA040042, T32 CA009109; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM23244, R01 GM023244, R37 GM023244

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2009;284;50;34713-22

  • The metastasis efficiency modifier ribosomal RNA processing 1 homolog B (RRP1B) is a chromatin-associated factor.

    Crawford NP, Yang H, Mattaini KR and Hunter KW

    Laboratory of Cancer Biology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.

    There is accumulating evidence for a role of germ line variation in breast cancer metastasis. We have recently identified a novel metastasis susceptibility gene, Rrp1b (ribosomal RNA processing 1 homolog B). Overexpression of Rrp1b in a mouse mammary tumor cell line induces a gene expression signature that predicts survival in breast cancer. Here we extend the analysis of RRP1B function by demonstrating that the Rrp1b activation gene expression signature accurately predicted the outcome in three of four publicly available breast carcinoma gene expression data sets. In addition, we provide insights into the mechanism of RRP1B. Tandem affinity purification demonstrated that RRP1B physically interacts with many nucleosome binding factors, including histone H1X, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1, TRIM28 (tripartite motif-containing 28), and CSDA (cold shock domain protein A). Co-immunofluorescence and co-immunoprecipitation confirmed these interactions and also interactions with heterochromatin protein-1alpha and acetyl-histone H4 lysine 5. Finally, we investigated the effects of ectopic expression of an RRP1B allelic variant previously associated with improved survival in breast cancer. Gene expression analyses demonstrate that, compared with ectopic expression of wild type RRP1B in HeLa cells, the variant RRP1B differentially modulates various transcription factors controlled by TRIM28 and CSDA. These data suggest that RRP1B, a tumor progression and metastasis susceptibility candidate gene, is potentially a dynamic modulator of transcription and chromatin structure.

    Funded by: Intramural NIH HHS

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2009;284;42;28660-73

  • Androgen receptor phosphorylation and activity are regulated by an association with protein phosphatase 1.

    Chen S, Kesler CT, Paschal BM and Balk SP

    Cancer Biology Program, Hematology-Oncology Division, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA. schen@bidmc.harvard.edu

    Androgen receptor (AR) is phosphorylated at multiple sites in response to ligand binding, but the functional consequences and mechanisms regulating AR phosphorylation remain to be established. We observed initially that okadaic acid, an inhibitor of the major PPP family serine/threonine phosphatases PP2A and protein phosphatase 1 (PP1), had cell type-dependent effects on AR expression. More specific inhibitors of PP2A (fostriecin) and PP1 (tautomycin and siRNA against the PP1alpha catalytic subunit) demonstrated that PP1 and protein phosphatase 2A had opposite effects on AR protein and transcriptional activity. PP1 inhibition enhanced proteasome-mediated AR degradation, while PP1alpha overexpression increased AR expression and markedly enhanced AR transcriptional activity. Coprecipitation experiments demonstrated an AR-PP1 interaction, while immunofluorescence and nuclear-cytoplasmic fractionation showed androgen-stimulated nuclear translocation of both AR and PP1 in prostate cancer cells. Studies with phosphospecific AR antibodies showed that PP1 inhibition dramatically increased phosphorylation of Ser-650, a site in the AR hinge region shown to mediate nuclear export. Significantly, PP1 inhibition caused a marked decrease in nuclear localization of the wild-type AR, but did not alter total or nuclear levels of a S650A mutant AR. These findings reveal a critical role of PP1 in regulating AR protein stability and nuclear localization through dephosphorylation of Ser-650. Moreover, AR may function as a PP1 regulatory subunit and mediate PP1 recruitment to chromatin, where it can modulate transcription and splicing.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: K99CA135592, P01CA10406, P50 CA90381, R01CA111803

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2009;284;38;25576-84

  • Direct interaction between myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2) and protein phosphatase 1alpha represses MEF2-dependent gene expression.

    Perry RL, Yang C, Soora N, Salma J, Marback M, Naghibi L, Ilyas H, Chan J, Gordon JW and McDermott JC

    Department of Biology, York University, 4700 Keele St., Toronto, Ontario, Canada M3J 1P3. jmcderm@yorku.ca.

    The myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2) transcription factors play important roles in neuronal, cardiac, and skeletal muscle tissues. MEF2 serves as a nuclear sensor, integrating signals from several signaling cascades through protein-protein interactions with kinases, chromatin remodeling factors, and other transcriptional regulators. Here, we report a novel interaction between the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 1alpha (PP1alpha) and MEF2. Interaction occurs within the nucleus, and binding of PP1alpha to MEF2 potently represses MEF2-dependent transcription. The interaction utilizes uncharacterized domains in both PP1alpha and MEF2, and PP1alpha phosphatase activity is not obligatory for MEF2 repression. Moreover, a MEF2-PP1alpha regulatory complex leads to nuclear retention and recruitment of histone deacetylase 4 to MEF2 transcription complexes. PP1alpha-mediated repression of MEF2 overrides the positive influence of calcineurin signaling, suggesting PP1alpha exerts a dominant level of control over MEF2 function. Indeed, PP1alpha-mediated repression of MEF2 function interferes with the prosurvival effect of MEF2 in primary hippocampal neurons. The PP1alpha-MEF2 interaction constitutes a potent locus of control for MEF2-dependent gene expression, having potentially important implications for neuronal cell survival, cardiac remodeling in disease, and terminal differentiation of vascular, cardiac, and skeletal muscle.

    Molecular and cellular biology 2009;29;12;3355-66

  • GlcNAcylation of a histone methyltransferase in retinoic-acid-induced granulopoiesis.

    Fujiki R, Chikanishi T, Hashiba W, Ito H, Takada I, Roeder RG, Kitagawa H and Kato S

    Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biosciences, University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032, Japan.

    The post-translational modifications of histone tails generate a 'histone code' that defines local and global chromatin states. The resultant regulation of gene function is thought to govern cell fate, proliferation and differentiation. Reversible histone modifications such as methylation are under mutual controls to organize chromosomal events. Among the histone modifications, methylation of specific lysine and arginine residues seems to be critical for chromatin configuration and control of gene expression. Methylation of histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4) changes chromatin into a transcriptionally active state. Reversible modification of proteins by beta-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) in response to serum glucose levels regulates diverse cellular processes. However, the epigenetic impact of protein GlcNAcylation is unknown. Here we report that nuclear GlcNAcylation of a histone lysine methyltransferase (HKMT), MLL5, by O-GlcNAc transferase facilitates retinoic-acid-induced granulopoiesis in human HL60 promyelocytes through methylation of H3K4. MLL5 is biochemically identified in a GlcNAcylation-dependent multi-subunit complex associating with nuclear retinoic acid receptor RARalpha (also known as RARA), serving as a mono- and di-methyl transferase to H3K4. GlcNAcylation at Thr 440 in the MLL5 SET domain evokes its H3K4 HKMT activity and co-activates RARalpha in target gene promoters. Increased nuclear GlcNAcylation by means of O-GlcNAc transferase potentiates retinoic-acid-induced HL60 granulopoiesis and restores the retinoic acid response in the retinoic-acid-resistant HL60-R2 cell line. Thus, nuclear MLL5 GlcNAcylation triggers cell lineage determination of HL60 through activation of its HKMT activity.

    Nature 2009;459;7245;455-9

  • Mutually exclusive binding of PP1 and RNA to AKAP149 affects the mitochondrial network.

    Rogne M, Stokka AJ, Taskén K, Collas P and Küntziger T

    1Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Department of Biochemistry, University of Oslo, Post Box 1112, Blindern, 0317 Oslo, Norway.

    A-kinase-anchoring protein 149 (AKAP149) is a membrane protein of the mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum/nuclear envelope network. AKAP149 controls the subcellular localization and temporal order of protein phosphorylation by tethering protein kinases and phosphatases to these compartments. AKAP149 also includes an RNA-binding K homology (KH) domain, the loss of function of which has been associated in other proteins with neurodegenerative syndromes. We show here that protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) binding occurs through a conserved RVXF motif found in the KH domain of AKAP149 and that PP1 and RNA binding to this same site is mutually exclusive and controlled through a novel, phosphorylation-dependent mechanism. A collapse of the mitochondrial network is observed upon introduction of RNA-binding deficient mutants of AKAP149, pointing to the importance of RNA tethering to the mitochondrial membrane by AKAP149 for mitochondrial distribution.

    Human molecular genetics 2009;18;5;978-87

  • Crystal structures of protein phosphatase-1 bound to nodularin-R and tautomycin: a novel scaffold for structure-based drug design of serine/threonine phosphatase inhibitors.

    Kelker MS, Page R and Peti W

    Department of Molecular Pharmacology, Physiology and Biotechnology, Brown University, Providence, RI 02903, USA.

    Protein phosphatase 1 occurs in all tissues and regulates many pathways, ranging from cell-cycle progression to carbohydrate metabolism. Many naturally occurring, molecular toxins modulate PP1 activity, though the exact mechanism of this differential regulation is not understood. A detailed elucidation of these interactions is crucial for understanding the cellular basis of phosphatase function and signaling pathways but, more importantly, they can serve as the basis for highly specific therapeutics, e.g. against cancer. We report the crystal structures of PP1 in complex with nodularin-R at 1.63 A and tautomycin at 1.70 A resolution. The PP1:nodularin-R complex was used to demonstrate the utility of our improved PP1 production technique, which produces highly active, soluble PP1. Tautomycin is one of the few toxins that reportedly preferentially binds PP1>PP2A. Therefore, the PP1:tautomycin structure is the first complex structure with a toxin with preferred PP1 specificity. Furthermore, since tautomycin is a linear non-peptide-based toxin, our reported structure will aid the design of lead compounds for novel PP1-specific pharmaceuticals.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: P20 RR016457, P20 RR016457-087275, P20RR016457; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM-0080; NINDS NIH HHS: F32NS054493, R01 NS056128, R01 NS056128-02, R01NS056128

    Journal of molecular biology 2009;385;1;11-21

  • Doublecortin induces mitotic microtubule catastrophe and inhibits glioma cell invasion.

    Santra M, Santra S, Roberts C, Zhang RL and Chopp M

    Department of Neurology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan, USA.

    Doublecortin (DCX) is a microtubule (MT) binding protein that induces growth arrest at the G2-M phase of cell cycle in glioma and suppresses tumor xenograft in immunocompromised hosts. DCX expression was found in neuronal cells, but lacking in glioma cells. We tested the hypothesis that DCX inhibits glioma U87 cell mitosis and invasion. Our data showed that DCX synthesizing U87 cells underwent mitotic MT spindle catastrophe in a neurabin II dependent pathway. Synthesis of both DCX and neurabin II were required to induce apoptosis in U87 and human embryonic kidney 293T cells. In DCX expressing U87 cells, association of phosphorylated DCX with protein phosphatase-1 (PP1) in the cytosol disrupted the interaction between kinesin-13 and PP1 in the nucleus and yielded spontaneously active kinesin-13. The activated kinesin-13 caused mitotic MT catastrophe in spindle checkpoint. Phosphorylated-DCX induced depolymerization of actin filaments in U87 cells, down-regulated matrix metalloproteinases-2 and -9, and inhibited glioma U87 cell invasion in a neurabin II dependent pathway. Thus, localization of the DCX-neurabin II-PP1 complex in the cytosol of U87 tumor cells inhibited PP1 phosphatase activities leading to anti-glioma effects via (1) mitotic MT spindle catastrophe that blocks mitosis and (2) depolymerization of actin that inhibits glioma cell invasion.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: P01 CA043892, P01 CA043892-110003, P01 CA043892-120003, P01 CA043892-130003

    Journal of neurochemistry 2009;108;1;231-45

  • Phosphatase inhibitor-2 balances protein phosphatase 1 and aurora B kinase for chromosome segregation and cytokinesis in human retinal epithelial cells.

    Wang W, Stukenberg PT and Brautigan DL

    Center for Cell Signaling, Departments of Microbiology and Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA.

    Mitosis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae depends on IPL1 kinase, which genetically interacts with GLC8. The metazoan homologue of GLC8 is inhibitor-2 (I-2), but its function is not understood. We found endogenous and ectopic I-2 localized to the spindle, midzone, and midbody of mitotic human epithelial ARPE-19 cells. Knockdown of I-2 by RNA interference produced multinucleated cells, with supernumerary centrosomes, multipolar spindles and lagging chromosomes during anaphase. These defects did not involve changes in levels of protein phosphatase-1 (PP1), and the multinuclear phenotype was rescued by overexpression of I-2. Appearance of multiple nuclei and supernumerary centrosomes required progression through the cell cycle and I-2 knockdown cells failed cytokinesis, as observed by time-lapse microscopy. Inhibition of Aurora B by hesperadin produced multinucleated cells and reduced H3S10 phosphorylation. I-2 knockdown enhanced this latter effect. Partial knockdown of PP1Calpha prevented multiple nuclei caused by either knockdown of I-2 or treatment with hesperadin. Expression of enhanced green fluorescent protein-I-2 or hemagglutinin-I-2 made cells resistant to hesperadin. We propose that I-2 acts to enhance Aurora B by inhibiting specific PP1 holoenzymes that dephosphorylate Aurora B substrates necessary for chromosome segregation and cytokinesis. Conserved together throughout eukaryotic evolution, I-2, PP1 and Aurora B function interdependently during mitosis.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM-56362, GM-63045, R01 GM056362, R01 GM063045

    Molecular biology of the cell 2008;19;11;4852-62

  • PP2B and PP1alpha cooperatively disrupt 7SK snRNP to release P-TEFb for transcription in response to Ca2+ signaling.

    Chen R, Liu M, Li H, Xue Y, Ramey WN, He N, Ai N, Luo H, Zhu Y, Zhou N and Zhou Q

    Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education for Cell Biology and Tumor Cell Engineering, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005, Fujian, China. chenrc@xmu.edu.cn

    The positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb), consisting of Cdk9 and cyclin T, stimulates RNA polymerase II elongation and cotranscriptional pre-mRNA processing. To accommodate different growth conditions and transcriptional demands, a reservoir of P-TEFb is kept in an inactive state in the multisubunit 7SK snRNP. Under certain stress or disease conditions, P-TEFb is released to activate transcription, although the signaling pathway(s) that controls this is largely unknown. Here, through analyzing the UV- or hexamethylene bisacetamide (HMBA)-induced release of P-TEFb from 7SK snRNP, an essential role for the calcium ion (Ca2+)-calmodulin-protein phosphatase 2B (PP2B) signaling pathway is revealed. However, Ca2+ signaling alone is insufficient, and PP2B must act sequentially and cooperatively with protein phosphatase 1alpha (PP1alpha) to disrupt 7SK snRNP. Activated by UV/HMBA and facilitated by a PP2B-induced conformational change in 7SK snRNP, PP1alpha releases P-TEFb through dephosphorylating phospho-Thr186 in the Cdk9 T-loop. This event is also necessary for the subsequent recruitment of P-TEFb by the bromodomain protein Brd4 to the preinitiation complex, where Cdk9 remains unphosphorylated and inactive until after the synthesis of a short RNA. Thus, through cooperatively dephosphorylating Cdk9 in response to Ca2+ signaling, PP2B and PP1alpha alter the P-TEFb functional equilibrium through releasing P-TEFb from 7SK snRNP for transcription.

    Funded by: NIAID NIH HHS: AI41757

    Genes & development 2008;22;10;1356-68

  • NOM1 targets protein phosphatase I to the nucleolus.

    Gunawardena SR, Ruis BL, Meyer JA, Kapoor M and Conklin KF

    Department of Genetics, Cell Biology and Development, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA.

    Protein phosphatase I (PP1) is an essential eukaryotic serine/threonine phosphatase required for many cellular processes, including cell division, signaling, and metabolism. In mammalian cells there are three major isoforms of the PP1 catalytic subunit (PP1alpha, PP1beta, and PP1gamma) that are over 90% identical. Despite this high degree of identity, the PP1 catalytic subunits show distinct localization patterns in interphase cells; PP1alpha is primarily nuclear and largely excluded from nucleoli, whereas PP1gamma and to a lesser extent PP1beta concentrate in the nucleoli. The subcellular localization and the substrate specificity of PP1 catalytic subunits are determined by their interaction with targeting subunits, most of which bind PP1 through a so-called "RVXF" sequence. Although PP1 targeting subunits have been identified that direct PP1 to a number of subcellular locations and/or substrates, no targeting subunit has been identified that localizes PP1 to the nucleolus. Identification of nucleolar PP1 targeting subunit(s) is important because all three PP1 isoforms are included in the nucleolar proteome, enzymatically active PP1 is present in nucleoli, and PP1gamma is highly concentrated in nucleoli of interphase cells. In this study, we identify NOM1 (nucleolar protein with MIF4G domain 1) as a PP1-interacting protein and further identify the NOM1 RVXF motif required for its binding to PP1. We also define the NOM1 nucleolar localization sequence. Finally, we demonstrate that NOM1 can target PP1 to the nucleolus and show that a specific NOM1 RVXF motif and the NOM1 nucleolar localization sequence are required for this targeting activity. We therefore conclude that NOM1 is a PP1 nucleolar targeting subunit, the first identified in eukaryotic cells.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2008;283;1;398-404

  • A complex of catalytically inactive protein phosphatase-1 sandwiched between Sds22 and inhibitor-3.

    Lesage B, Beullens M, Pedelini L, Garcia-Gimeno MA, Waelkens E, Sanz P and Bollen M

    Laboratory of Biosignaling and Therapeutics, Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Catholic University of Leuven, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium.

    Protein Ser/Thr phosphatase-1 (PP1) associates with a host of proteins to form substrate-specific holoenzymes. Sds22 and Inhibitor-3 (I3) are two independently described ancient interactors of PP1. We show here by various approaches that Sds22 and I3 form a heterotrimeric complex with PP1, both in cell lysates and after purification. The stability of the complex depended on functional PP1 interaction sites in Sds22 and I3, indicating that PP1 is sandwiched between Sds22 and I3. Intriguingly, I3 could not be replaced in this complex by another PP1 interactor with the same PP1 binding motif. In vitro, Sds22 and I3 were potent inhibitors of PP1, but with only some substrates. The inhibition by Sds22 could be reproduced with synthetic Sds22 fragments comprising leucine-rich repeats (LRR) 2 and 5. Sds22 and LRR5 also slowly converted PP1 into a conformation that was inactive with all tested substrates. Cell lysates that were prepared under conditions that prevented the Sds22-induced inactivation of PP1 contained a catalytically inactive complex of Sds22, PP1, and I3, indicating that this complex exists in vivo. Therefore, our studies show that a pool of PP1 is complexly controlled by both Sds22 and I3.

    Biochemistry 2007;46;31;8909-19

  • Systematic analysis of the protein interaction network for the human transcription machinery reveals the identity of the 7SK capping enzyme.

    Jeronimo C, Forget D, Bouchard A, Li Q, Chua G, Poitras C, Thérien C, Bergeron D, Bourassa S, Greenblatt J, Chabot B, Poirier GG, Hughes TR, Blanchette M, Price DH and Coulombe B

    Laboratory of Gene Transcription and Proteomics Discovery Platform, Institut de Recherches Cliniques de Montréal, Montréal, QC, Canada.

    We have performed a survey of soluble human protein complexes containing components of the transcription and RNA processing machineries using protein affinity purification coupled to mass spectrometry. Thirty-two tagged polypeptides yielded a network of 805 high-confidence interactions. Remarkably, the network is significantly enriched in proteins that regulate the formation of protein complexes, including a number of previously uncharacterized proteins for which we have inferred functions. The RNA polymerase II (RNAP II)-associated proteins (RPAPs) are physically and functionally associated with RNAP II, forming an interface between the enzyme and chaperone/scaffolding proteins. BCDIN3 is the 7SK snRNA methylphosphate capping enzyme (MePCE) present in an snRNP complex containing both RNA processing and transcription factors, including the elongation factor P-TEFb. Our results define a high-density protein interaction network for the mammalian transcription machinery and uncover multiple regulatory factors that target the transcription machinery.

    Funded by: Canadian Institutes of Health Research: 14309-3, 82851-1

    Molecular cell 2007;27;2;262-74

  • Association of the tensin N-terminal protein-tyrosine phosphatase domain with the alpha isoform of protein phosphatase-1 in focal adhesions.

    Eto M, Kirkbride J, Elliott E, Lo SH and Brautigan DL

    Center for Cell Signaling, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908, USA.

    Focal adhesions attach cultured cells to the extracellular matrix, and we found endogenous protein phosphatase-1alpha isoform (PP1alpha) localized in adhesions across the entire area of adherent fibroblasts. However, in fibroblasts migrating into a scrape wound or spreading after replating PP1alpha did not appear in adhesions near the leading edge but was recruited into other adhesions coincident in time and space with incorporation of tensin. Endogenous tensin and PP1alpha co-precipitated from cell lysates with isoform-specific PP1 antibodies. Chemical cross-linking of focal adhesion preparations with Lomant's reagent demonstrated molecular proximity of endogenous PP1alpha and tensin, whereas neither focal adhesion kinase nor vinculin was cross-linked and co-precipitated with PP1alpha, suggesting distinct spatial subdomains within adhesions. Transient expression of truncated tensin showed the N-terminal 360 residues, which comprise a protein-tyrosine phosphatase domain, alone were sufficient for isoform-selective co-precipitation of co-expressed PP1alpha. Human prostate cancer PC3 cells are deficient in tensin relative to fibroblasts and have fewer, mostly peripheral adhesions. Transient expression of green fluorescent protein tensin in these cancer cells induced formation of adhesions and recruited endogenous PP1alpha into those adhesions. Thus, the protein-tyrosine phosphatase domain of tensin exhibits isoform-specific association with PP1alpha in a restricted spatial region of adhesions that are formed during cell migration.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA 40042; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM 56362

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2007;282;24;17806-15

  • The interaction of PP1 with BRCA1 and analysis of their expression in breast tumors.

    Winter SL, Bosnoyan-Collins L, Pinnaduwage D and Andrulis IL

    Fred A, Litwin Centre for Cancer Genetics, Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. sherry.winter@moffitt.org

    Background: The breast cancer susceptibility gene, BRCA1, is implicated in multiple cellular processes including DNA repair, the transactivation of genes, and the ubiquitination of proteins; however its precise functions remain to be fully understood. Identification and characterization of BRCA1 protein interactions may help to further elucidate the function and regulation of BRCA1. Additionally, detection of changes in the expression levels of BRCA1 and its interacting proteins in primary human breast tumors may further illuminate their role in the development of breast cancer.

    Methods: We performed a yeast two-hybrid study to identify proteins that interact with exon11 of BRCA1 and identified Protein Phosphatase 1beta (PP1beta), an isoform of the serine threonine phosphatase, PP1. GST-pull down and co-immunoprecipitation assays were performed to further characterize this interaction. Additionally, Real-Time PCR was utilized to determine the expression of BRCA1, PP1alpha, beta and gamma in primary human breast tumors and normal breast tissue to identify alterations in the expression of these genes in breast cancer.

    Results: PP1 and BRCA1 co-immunoprecipitate and the region within BRCA1 as well as the specific PP1 interacting domain mediating this interaction were identified. Following mRNA expression analysis, we identified low levels of BRCA1 and variable levels of PP1alpha and beta in primary sporadic human breast tumors. Furthermore, BRCA1, PP1beta and PP1gamma were significantly higher in normal tissue specimens (BRCA1 p = 0.01, PP1beta: p = 0.03, PP1gamma, p = 1.9 x 10(-6)) compared to sporadic breast tumor samples. Interestingly, we also identified that ER negative tumors are associated with low levels of PP1alpha expression.

    Conclusion: The identification and characterization of the interaction of BRCA1 with PP1 and detection of changes in the expression of PP1 and genes encoding other BRCA1 associated proteins identifies important genetic pathways that may be significant to breast tumorigenesis. Alterations in the expression of genes, particularly phosphatases that operate in association with BRCA1, could negatively affect the function of BRCA1 or BRCA1 associated proteins, contributing to the development of breast cancer.

    BMC cancer 2007;7;85

  • Identification of phostensin, a PP1 F-actin cytoskeleton targeting subunit.

    Kao SC, Chen CY, Wang SL, Yang JJ, Hung WC, Chen YC, Lai NS, Liu HT, Huang HL, Chen HC, Lin TH and Huang HB

    Department of Life Science, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan.

    We have identified a novel protein, protein phosphatase 1 F-actin cytoskeleton targeting subunit (phostensin). This protein is encoded by KIAA1949 and was found to associate with protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) in the yeast two-hybrid assay, co-immunoprecipitation, and GST pull-down assay. Northern blot analysis revealed that phostensin mRNA was predominantly distributed in leukocytes and spleen, and phostensin protein was present in crude extracts of human peripheral leukocytes. Immunofluorescence microscopic analysis revealed that the phostensin/PP1 complex was conspicuously localized with the actin cytoskeleton at the cell periphery in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) epithelial cells. Taken together, our data shows that phostensin targets PP1 to F-actin cytoskeleton. The phostensin/PP1 complex may play a vital role in modulation of actin rearrangements.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2007;356;3;594-8

  • Protein phosphatase 1 regulates assembly and function of the beta-catenin degradation complex.

    Luo W, Peterson A, Garcia BA, Coombs G, Kofahl B, Heinrich R, Shabanowitz J, Hunt DF, Yost HJ and Virshup DM

    Department of Oncological Sciences, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112-5550, USA.

    The Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway is critical in both cellular proliferation and organismal development. However, how the beta-catenin degradation complex is inhibited upon Wnt activation remains unclear. Using a directed RNAi screen we find that protein phosphatase 1 (PP1), a ubiquitous serine/threonine phosphatase, is a novel potent positive physiologic regulator of the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway. PP1 expression synergistically activates, and inhibition of PP1 inhibits, Wnt/beta-catenin signaling in Drosophila and mammalian cells as well as in Xenopus embryos. The data suggest that PP1 controls Wnt signaling through interaction with, and regulated dephosphorylation of, axin. Inhibition of PP1 leads to enhanced phosphorylation of specific sites on axin by casein kinase I. Axin phosphorylation markedly enhances the binding of glycogen synthase kinase 3, leading to a more active beta-catenin destruction complex. Wnt-regulated changes in axin phosphorylation, mediated by PP1, may therefore determine beta-catenin transcriptional activity. Specific inhibition of PP1 in this pathway may offer therapeutic approaches to disorders with increased beta-catenin signaling.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: P01 CA073992, P01CA073992, P30 CA042014, P30CA42014; NHLBI NIH HHS: 5R01HL057840, R01 HL057840; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM 37537, R01 GM037537

    The EMBO journal 2007;26;6;1511-21

  • Phosphorylation of protein phosphatase 1 by cyclin-dependent protein kinase 5 during nerve growth factor-induced PC12 cell differentiation.

    Li T, Chalifour LE and Paudel HK

    Bloomfield Center for Research in Aging, Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research, Sir Mortimer B. Davis-Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, Canada.

    The transcription factor Egr-1 activates cyclin-dependent protein kinase 5 (Cdk5) during nerve growth factor (NGF)-induced differentiation of PC12 cells into neurons (Harada, T. Morooka, T., Ogawa, S., and Nishida, E. (2001) Nat. Cell Biol. 3, 453-459). The downstream target of Cdk5 in the Egr-1/Cdk5 pathway is not clear. In this study, we observed that phosphorylation of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) on Thr(320) is reduced in brain extracts from Egr-1(-/-) mice, indicating that a kinase downstream of Egr-1 phosphorylates PP1. In HEK 293 cells co-transfected with PP1 and Cdk5, Cdk5 phosphorylates PP1. In vitro, Cdk5 purified from bovine brain phosphorylates bacterially expressed recombinant PP1. In NGF-treated PC12 cells, inhibition of Cdk5 by olomoucine or silencing Cdk5 expression by small interfering RNA strategy, suppresses PP1 phosphorylation. Silencing Cdk5 expression by small interfering RNA also blocks NGF-induced neurite outgrowth. Overexpression of PP1 (wild type) promotes NGF-induced differentiation of PC12 cells, whereas that of PP1 (T320A) has no effect. Our data indicate that PP1 is a downstream target of the NGF/Egr-1/Cdk5 pathway during NGF-induced differentiation of PC12 cells and suggest that PP1 phosphorylation promotes neuronal differentiation.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2007;282;9;6619-28

  • A limited screen for protein interactions reveals new roles for protein phosphatase 1 in cell cycle control and apoptosis.

    Flores-Delgado G, Liu CW, Sposto R and Berndt N

    Division Of Hematology/Oncology, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, 4650 Sunset Boulevard, Los Angeles, California 90027, USA.

    Protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) catalytic subunits typically combine with other proteins that modulate their activity, direct them to distinct substrates, or serve as substrates for PP1. More than 50 PP1-interacting proteins (PIPs) have been identified so far. Given there are approximately 10 000 phosphoproteins in mammals, many PIPs remain to be discovered. We have used arrays containing 100 carefully selected antibodies to identify novel PIPs that are important in cell proliferation and cell survival in murine fetal lung epithelial cells and human A549 lung cancer cells. The antibody arrays identified 31 potential novel PIPs and 11 of 17 well-known PIPs included as controls, suggesting a sensitivity of at least 65%. A majority of the interactions between PP1 and putative PIPs were isoform- or cell type-specific. We confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation that 9 of these proteins associate with PP1: APAF-1, Bax, E-cadherin, HSP-70, Id2, p19Skp1, p53, PCNA, and PTEN. We examined two of these interactions in greater detail in A549 cells. Exposure to nicotine enhanced association of PP1 with Bax (and Bad), but also induced inhibitory phosphorylation of PP1. In addition to p19Skp1, PP1alpha antibodies also coprecipitated cullin 1, suggesting that PP1alpha is associated with the SCF1 complex. This interaction was only detectable during the G1/S transition and S phase. Forced loss of PP1 function decreased the levels of p27Kip1, a well-known SCF1 substrate, suggesting that PP1 may rescue proteins from ubiquitin/proteasome-mediated destruction. Both of these novel interactions are consistent with PP1 facilitating cell cycle arrest and/or apoptosis.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R01-CA54167

    Journal of proteome research 2007;6;3;1165-75

  • Suppression of IP3-mediated calcium release and apoptosis by Bcl-2 involves the participation of protein phosphatase 1.

    Xu L, Kong D, Zhu L, Zhu W, Andrews DW and Kuo TH

    Department of Pathology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, 540 E. Canfield, Detroit, MI 48201, USA.

    The involvement and potential interdependence of inositol trisphosphate (IP3) receptors and Bcl-2 in the regulation of Ca2+ signaling is not clear. Here, we have explored the mechanism(s) of how Bcl-2 suppresses the IP3-sensitive Ca2+ release in MCF-7 cells focusing on the possible role of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1). We found that through influences on protein-protein interaction, Bcl-2 may alter the balance between the effects of phosphatase (PP1) and kinase (PKA) on the IP3 R1 signaling complex. Using various experimental approaches including phosphatase inhibition and RNAi, we show that Bcl-2 by competing with IP3R1 for the binding of PP1 can reduce the IP3-mediated calcium signal and protect cells from mitochondrial dysfunction and cell death.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL-39481

    Molecular and cellular biochemistry 2007;295;1-2;153-65

  • Protein kinase C-induced activation of a ceramide/protein phosphatase 1 pathway leading to dephosphorylation of p38 MAPK.

    Kitatani K, Idkowiak-Baldys J, Bielawski J, Taha TA, Jenkins RW, Senkal CE, Ogretmen B, Obeid LM and Hannun YA

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina 29425, USA.

    Recently we showed that, in human breast cancer cells, activation of protein kinase C by 4beta-phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) produced ceramide formed from the salvage pathway (Becker, K. P., Kitatani, K., Idkowiak-Baldys, J., Bielawski, J., and Hannun, Y. A. (2005) J. Biol. Chem. 280, 2606-2612). In this study, we investigated intracellular signaling events mediated by this novel activated pathway of ceramide generation. PMA treatment resulted in transient activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (ERK1/2, JNK1/2, and p38) followed by dephosphorylation/inactivation. Interestingly, fumonisin B1 (FB1), an inhibitor of the salvage pathway, attenuated loss of phosphorylation of p38, suggesting a role for ceramide in p38 dephosphorylation. This was confirmed by knock-down of longevity-assurance homologue 5, which partially suppressed the formation of C(16)-ceramide induced by PMA and increased the phosphorylation of p38. These results demonstrate a role for the salvage pathway in feedback inhibition of p38. To determine which protein phosphatases act in this pathway, specific knock-down of serine/threonine protein phosphatases was performed, and it was observed that knock-down of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) catalytic subunits significantly increased p38 phosphorylation, suggesting activation of PP1 results in an inhibitory effect on p38. Moreover, PMA recruited PP1 catalytic subunits to mitochondria, and this was significantly suppressed by FB1. In addition, phospho-p38 resided in PMA-stimulated mitochondria. Upon PMA treatment, a mitochondria-enriched/purified fraction exhibited significant increases in C(16)-ceramide, a major ceramide specie, which was suppressed by FB1. Taken together, these data suggest that accumulation of C(16)-ceramide in mitochondria formed from the protein kinase C-dependent salvage pathway results at least in part from the action of longevity-assurance homologue 5, and the generated ceramide modulates the p38 cascade via PP1.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA87584, CA88932; NIA NIH HHS: AG16583; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM08716

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2006;281;48;36793-802

  • PITK, a PP1 targeting subunit that modulates the phosphorylation of the transcriptional regulator hnRNP K.

    Kwiek NC, Thacker DF, Datto MB, Megosh HB and Haystead TA

    Department of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology, Duke University Medical Center, Box 3813, Durham, NC 27710, USA.

    Protein phosphatase-1 (PP1), through interactions with substrate targeting subunits, plays critical roles in the regulation of numerous cellular processes. Herein, we describe a newly identified regulatory subunit (PITK; Phosphatase Interactor Targeting K protein) that specifically targets the catalytic subunit of PP1 to nuclear foci to selectively bind and dephosphorylate the transcriptional regulator heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K) at a regulatory S284 site. Additionally, PITK is phosphorylated in vivo at S1013 and S1017, residues that flank or reside within the PP1C-binding motif, and this phosphorylation negatively regulates the binding of the phosphatase to PITK. A mutant variant, S1013,1017A-PITK, when expressed in intact cells, exhibited an increase in native PP1 binding and elicited a more profound dephosphorylation of hnRNPK at S284. A global analysis of transcription by Affymetrix microarray revealed that the expression of PITK resulted in the altered expression of 47 genes, including a marked induction of MEK5 (>14-fold, p<0.007). Additionally, the effects of PITK and S1013,1017A-PITK on transcription could be modulated by the co-expression of hnRNP K. Taken together, our findings provide a putative mechanism by which transcriptional activity of hnRNP K can be discretely controlled through the regulation of PP1 activity.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: 5R01DK052378-09

    Cellular signalling 2006;18;10;1769-78

  • Gene amplification and overexpression of protein phosphatase 1alpha in oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines.

    Hsu LC, Huang X, Seasholtz S, Potter DM and Gollin SM

    Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Magee-Womens Research Institute, Pittsburgh, PA, 15213 USA. rsilh@mwri.magee.edu

    Gene amplification of chromosomal band 11q13 is observed frequently in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC). Several genes have been identified in the 11q13 amplicon, including FGF3, FGF4, CCND1, EMS1 and TAOS1. Some of these genes show good correlation between gene copy number and gene expression, and are thought to play a role in driving 11q13 amplification. The PPP1CA gene, which encodes the catalytic subunit of serine/threonine protein phosphatase protein phosphatase 1alpha (PP1alpha), is also located in 11q13. Protein phosphatase 1alpha, one of the isoforms of PP1, regulates critical cellular events, such as cell cycle progression, and apoptosis. We sought to explore the possibility that PPP1CA was amplified and overexpressed in OSCC cells. Indeed, some OSCC cell lines had PPP1CA gene amplification, as analysed by fluorescence in situ hybridization. We have also demonstrated that PPP1CA gene copy number is increased in 21% of the OSCC cell lines determined by quantitative microsatellite analysis. PP1alpha RNA expression determined by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was significantly higher in OSCC cell lines with 11q13 amplification compared to those without 11q13 amplification (P=0.011). The difference was even more significant between cell lines with at least three copies of the PPP1CA gene and those with less than three copies of the gene (P=0.00045). Relative PP1alpha protein levels were also significantly associated with PPP1CA gene copy number (P=0.014). Furthermore, knockdown of PP1alpha and/or cyclin D1 by small interfering RNA suppressed OSCC cell growth, at least in part by modulating pRB phosphorylation, resulting in G0 growth arrest. These data suggest that like the cyclin D1 gene, CCND1, amplification and overexpression of the PP1alpha gene, PPP1CA, may be involved in OSCC tumorigenesis and/or progression.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: P30 CA47904, R01 CA111436; NIDCR NIH HHS: R01 DE14729

    Oncogene 2006;25;40;5517-26

  • Protein phosphatase 1alpha activity prevents oncogenic transformation.

    Liu CW, Wang RH and Berndt N

    Division of Hematology/Oncology, Childrens Hospital Los Angeles, The University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine, Los Angeles, 90027, USA.

    Cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (Cdk2) phosphorylates Thr320 of protein phosphatase 1alpha (PP1alpha) in late G(1), thereby inhibiting its activity. Phosphorylation-resistant PP1alphaT320A, acting as a constitutively active (CA) mutant, causes a late G(1) arrest by preventing the phosphorylation and inactivation of the retinoblastoma protein (pRb). Both PP1alpha-mediated G(1) arrest and PP1alpha phosphorylation in late G(1) require the presence of pRb, indicating that PP1alpha is a crucial regulator of the pRb pathway, which is almost invariably mutated in human cancer. These findings prompted us to investigate whether PP1alpha interferes with oncogenic transformation. The ability of NIH 3T3 cells to form foci after transformation with ras/cyclin D1 was significantly inhibited by co-transfection with PP1alphaT320A, but not PP1alpha. Likewise, cells expressing PP1alphaT320A or PP1alphaT320A fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP) were unable to form colonies in soft agar, regardless of whether PP1alpha constructs were co-transfected with ras/cyclin D1 or transfected into stably transformed cells. Overexpressed wild-type (Wt) PP1alpha and GFP-PP1alpha were phosphorylated in Thr320, most likely explaining its lack of effect. Expression of GFP-PP1alphaT320A was associated with caspase-cleaved pRb in Western blots (WB) and morphological signs of cell death. These findings demonstrate that PP1alpha activity can override oncogenic signaling by causing cell-cycle arrest and/or apoptosis rather than restoring contact inhibition or anchorage dependence.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R01 CA54167

    Molecular carcinogenesis 2006;45;9;648-56

  • Nuclear targeting of protein phosphatase-1 by HIV-1 Tat protein.

    Ammosova T, Jerebtsova M, Beullens M, Lesage B, Jackson A, Kashanchi F, Southerland W, Gordeuk VR, Bollen M and Nekhai S

    Center for Sickle Cell Disease, Howard University, Washington, DC 20059, USA.

    Transcription of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 genes is activated by HIV-1 Tat protein, which induces phosphorylation of the C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase-II by CDK9/cyclin T1. We previously showed that Tat-induced HIV-1 transcription is regulated by protein phosphatase-1 (PP1). In the present study we demonstrate that Tat interacts with PP1 and that disruption of this interaction prevents induction of HIV-1 transcription. We show that PP1 interacts with Tat in part through the binding of Val36 and Phe38 of Tat to PP1 and that Tat is involved in the nuclear and subnuclear targeting of PP1. The PP1 binding mutant Tat-V36A/F38A displayed a decreased affinity for PP1 and was a poor activator of HIV-1 transcription. Surprisingly, Tat-Q35R mutant that had a higher affinity for PP1 was also a poor activator of HIV-1 transcription, because strong PP1 binding competed out binding of Tat to CDK9/cyclin T1. Our results suggest that Tat might function as a nuclear regulator of PP1 and that interaction of Tat with PP1 is critical for activation of HIV-1 transcription by Tat.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: 5G12RR03048; NHLBI NIH HHS: UH1 HL03679; NIAID NIH HHS: AI056973-01, AI43894, AI44357, R21 AI056973, R21 AI056973-02

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2005;280;43;36364-71

  • Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network.

    Rual JF, Venkatesan K, Hao T, Hirozane-Kishikawa T, Dricot A, Li N, Berriz GF, Gibbons FD, Dreze M, Ayivi-Guedehoussou N, Klitgord N, Simon C, Boxem M, Milstein S, Rosenberg J, Goldberg DS, Zhang LV, Wong SL, Franklin G, Li S, Albala JS, Lim J, Fraughton C, Llamosas E, Cevik S, Bex C, Lamesch P, Sikorski RS, Vandenhaute J, Zoghbi HY, Smolyar A, Bosak S, Sequerra R, Doucette-Stamm L, Cusick ME, Hill DE, Roth FP and Vidal M

    Center for Cancer Systems Biology and Department of Cancer Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, 44 Binney Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    Systematic mapping of protein-protein interactions, or 'interactome' mapping, was initiated in model organisms, starting with defined biological processes and then expanding to the scale of the proteome. Although far from complete, such maps have revealed global topological and dynamic features of interactome networks that relate to known biological properties, suggesting that a human interactome map will provide insight into development and disease mechanisms at a systems level. Here we describe an initial version of a proteome-scale map of human binary protein-protein interactions. Using a stringent, high-throughput yeast two-hybrid system, we tested pairwise interactions among the products of approximately 8,100 currently available Gateway-cloned open reading frames and detected approximately 2,800 interactions. This data set, called CCSB-HI1, has a verification rate of approximately 78% as revealed by an independent co-affinity purification assay, and correlates significantly with other biological attributes. The CCSB-HI1 data set increases by approximately 70% the set of available binary interactions within the tested space and reveals more than 300 new connections to over 100 disease-associated proteins. This work represents an important step towards a systematic and comprehensive human interactome project.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R33 CA132073; NHGRI NIH HHS: P50 HG004233, R01 HG001715, RC4 HG006066, U01 HG001715; NHLBI NIH HHS: U01 HL098166

    Nature 2005;437;7062;1173-8

  • Dephosphorylation of CDK9 by protein phosphatase 2A and protein phosphatase-1 in Tat-activated HIV-1 transcription.

    Ammosova T, Washington K, Debebe Z, Brady J and Nekhai S

    Center for Sickle Cell Disease, Howard University, 2121 Georgia Ave., N.W. Washington, DC 20059, USA. tammosova@mail.ru

    Background: HIV-1 Tat protein recruits human positive transcription elongation factor P-TEFb, consisting of CDK9 and cyclin T1, to HIV-1 transactivation response (TAR) RNA. CDK9 is maintained in dephosphorylated state by TFIIH and undergo phosphorylation upon the dissociation of TFIIH. Thus, dephosphorylation of CDK9 prior to its association with HIV-1 preinitiation complex might be important for HIV-1 transcription. Others and we previously showed that protein phosphatase-2A and protein phosphatase-1 regulates HIV-1 transcription. In the present study we analyze relative contribution of PP2A and PP1 to dephosphorylation of CDK9 and to HIV-1 transcription in vitro and in vivo.

    Results: In vitro, PP2A but not PP1 dephosphorylated autophosphorylated CDK9 and reduced complex formation between P-TEFb, Tat and TAR RNA. Inhibition of PP2A by okadaic acid inhibited basal as well as Tat-induced HIV-1 transcription whereas inhibition of PP1 by recombinant nuclear inhibitor of PP1 (NIPP1) inhibited only Tat-induced transcription in vitro. In cultured cells, low concentration of okadaic acid, inhibitory for PP2A, only mildly inhibited Tat-induced HIV-1 transcription. In contrast Tat-mediated HIV-1 transcription was strongly inhibited by expression of NIPP1. Okadaic acid induced phosphorylation of endogenous as well transiently expressed CDK9, but this induction was not seen in the cells expressing NIPP1. Also the okadaic acid did not induce phosphorylation of CDK9 with mutation of Thr 186 or with mutations in Ser-329, Thr-330, Thr-333, Ser-334, Ser-347, Thr-350, Ser-353, and Thr-354 residues involved in autophosphorylation of CDK9.

    Conclusion: Our results indicate that although PP2A dephosphorylates autophosphorylated CDK9 in vitro, in cultured cells PP1 is likely to dephosphorylate CDK9 and contribute to the regulation of activated HIV-1 transcription.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: UH1 HL003679, UH1 HL03679; NIAID NIH HHS: AI 056973-01S1, AI 156973-01, R21 AI056973

    Retrovirology 2005;2;47

  • High-throughput mapping of a dynamic signaling network in mammalian cells.

    Barrios-Rodiles M, Brown KR, Ozdamar B, Bose R, Liu Z, Donovan RS, Shinjo F, Liu Y, Dembowy J, Taylor IW, Luga V, Przulj N, Robinson M, Suzuki H, Hayashizaki Y, Jurisica I and Wrana JL

    Program in Molecular Biology and Cancer, Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, M5G 1X5.

    Signaling pathways transmit information through protein interaction networks that are dynamically regulated by complex extracellular cues. We developed LUMIER (for luminescence-based mammalian interactome mapping), an automated high-throughput technology, to map protein-protein interaction networks systematically in mammalian cells and applied it to the transforming growth factor-beta (TGFbeta) pathway. Analysis using self-organizing maps and k-means clustering identified links of the TGFbeta pathway to the p21-activated kinase (PAK) network, to the polarity complex, and to Occludin, a structural component of tight junctions. We show that Occludin regulates TGFbeta type I receptor localization for efficient TGFbeta-dependent dissolution of tight junctions during epithelial-to-mesenchymal transitions.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: P50 GM-62413

    Science (New York, N.Y.) 2005;307;5715;1621-5

  • Nucleolar proteome dynamics.

    Andersen JS, Lam YW, Leung AK, Ong SE, Lyon CE, Lamond AI and Mann M

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Campusvej 55, DK-5230 Odense M, Denmark.

    The nucleolus is a key organelle that coordinates the synthesis and assembly of ribosomal subunits and forms in the nucleus around the repeated ribosomal gene clusters. Because the production of ribosomes is a major metabolic activity, the function of the nucleolus is tightly linked to cell growth and proliferation, and recent data suggest that the nucleolus also plays an important role in cell-cycle regulation, senescence and stress responses. Here, using mass-spectrometry-based organellar proteomics and stable isotope labelling, we perform a quantitative analysis of the proteome of human nucleoli. In vivo fluorescent imaging techniques are directly compared to endogenous protein changes measured by proteomics. We characterize the flux of 489 endogenous nucleolar proteins in response to three different metabolic inhibitors that each affect nucleolar morphology. Proteins that are stably associated, such as RNA polymerase I subunits and small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle complexes, exit from or accumulate in the nucleolus with similar kinetics, whereas protein components of the large and small ribosomal subunits leave the nucleolus with markedly different kinetics. The data establish a quantitative proteomic approach for the temporal characterization of protein flux through cellular organelles and demonstrate that the nucleolar proteome changes significantly over time in response to changes in cellular growth conditions.

    Funded by: Wellcome Trust: 073980

    Nature 2005;433;7021;77-83

  • Analysis of isoform specific function of PP1 catalytic subunits in mammalian cells using siRNA.

    Okada T, Fujii T, Tanuma N, Mitsuhashi S, Urano T, Araki Y, Shima H and Kikuchi K

    Division of Biochemical Oncology and Immunology, Institute for Genetic Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita-15, Nishi-7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-0815, Japan.

    Protein phosphatase type 1 (PP1) is involved in the regulation of numerous cell functions in mammalian cells. The major isoforms of PP1 catalytic subunit (PP1C)alpha, gamma1 and delta have nearly identical catalytic domain, but they vary in sequences at the amino and carboxyl termini. We previously showed that PP1Calpha is highly expressed in rat hepatoma cells. To examine isoform specific function of PP1C, each isoform was depleted from HeLa cells by RNA interference. The PP1Calpha-depleted cells rounded up and showed increased cell death, indicating that PP1Calpha is essential in cell proliferation. PP1Cgamma1-depleted cells slightly rounded up and have decreased G1 phase population and increased S phase population. The PP1Cdelta-depleted cells were enlarged, and appeared flat and rich in lamellipodia. These data suggested that each PP1C isoform has non-redundant function in vivo.

    International journal of oncology 2004;25;5;1383-8

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • Functional proteomics mapping of a human signaling pathway.

    Colland F, Jacq X, Trouplin V, Mougin C, Groizeleau C, Hamburger A, Meil A, Wojcik J, Legrain P and Gauthier JM

    Hybrigenics SA, 75014 Paris, France. fcolland@hybrigenics.fr

    Access to the human genome facilitates extensive functional proteomics studies. Here, we present an integrated approach combining large-scale protein interaction mapping, exploration of the interaction network, and cellular functional assays performed on newly identified proteins involved in a human signaling pathway. As a proof of principle, we studied the Smad signaling system, which is regulated by members of the transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) superfamily. We used two-hybrid screening to map Smad signaling protein-protein interactions and to establish a network of 755 interactions, involving 591 proteins, 179 of which were poorly or not annotated. The exploration of such complex interaction databases is improved by the use of PIMRider, a dedicated navigation tool accessible through the Web. The biological meaning of this network is illustrated by the presence of 18 known Smad-associated proteins. Functional assays performed in mammalian cells including siRNA knock-down experiments identified eight novel proteins involved in Smad signaling, thus validating this integrated functional proteomics approach.

    Genome research 2004;14;7;1324-32

  • Phactrs 1-4: A family of protein phosphatase 1 and actin regulatory proteins.

    Allen PB, Greenfield AT, Svenningsson P, Haspeslagh DC and Greengard P

    Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06508, USA. patrick.allen@yale.edu

    Protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) is a multifunctional enzyme with diverse roles in the nervous system, including regulation of synaptic activity and dendritic morphology. PP1 activity is controlled via association with a family of regulatory subunits that govern subcellular localization and substrate specificity. A previously undescribed class of PP1-binding proteins was detected by interaction cloning. Family members were also found to bind to cytoplasmic actin via Arg, Pro, Glu, and Leu repeat-containing sequences. The prototypical member of this family, phosphatase and actin regulator (phactr) 1 was a potent modulator of PP1 activity in vitro. Phactr-1 protein is selectively expressed in brain, where high levels were found in cortex, hippocampus, and striatum, with enrichment of the protein at synapses. Additional family members displayed highly distinct mRNA transcript expression patterns within rat brain. The current findings present a mechanism by which PP1 may be directed toward neuronal substrates associated with the actin cytoskeleton.

    Funded by: NIDA NIH HHS: DA10044, P01 DA010044; NIMH NIH HHS: MH40899, P01 MH040899

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2004;101;18;7187-92

  • A physical and functional map of the human TNF-alpha/NF-kappa B signal transduction pathway.

    Bouwmeester T, Bauch A, Ruffner H, Angrand PO, Bergamini G, Croughton K, Cruciat C, Eberhard D, Gagneur J, Ghidelli S, Hopf C, Huhse B, Mangano R, Michon AM, Schirle M, Schlegl J, Schwab M, Stein MA, Bauer A, Casari G, Drewes G, Gavin AC, Jackson DB, Joberty G, Neubauer G, Rick J, Kuster B and Superti-Furga G

    Cellzome AG, Meyerhofstrasse 1, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany. tewis.bouwmeester@cellzome.com

    Signal transduction pathways are modular composites of functionally interdependent sets of proteins that act in a coordinated fashion to transform environmental information into a phenotypic response. The pro-inflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha triggers a signalling cascade, converging on the activation of the transcription factor NF-kappa B, which forms the basis for numerous physiological and pathological processes. Here we report the mapping of a protein interaction network around 32 known and candidate TNF-alpha/NF-kappa B pathway components by using an integrated approach comprising tandem affinity purification, liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, network analysis and directed functional perturbation studies using RNA interference. We identified 221 molecular associations and 80 previously unknown interactors, including 10 new functional modulators of the pathway. This systems approach provides significant insight into the logic of the TNF-alpha/NF-kappa B pathway and is generally applicable to other pathways relevant to human disease.

    Nature cell biology 2004;6;2;97-105

  • Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.

    Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, Otsuki T, Sugiyama T, Irie R, Wakamatsu A, Hayashi K, Sato H, Nagai K, Kimura K, Makita H, Sekine M, Obayashi M, Nishi T, Shibahara T, Tanaka T, Ishii S, Yamamoto J, Saito K, Kawai Y, Isono Y, Nakamura Y, Nagahari K, Murakami K, Yasuda T, Iwayanagi T, Wagatsuma M, Shiratori A, Sudo H, Hosoiri T, Kaku Y, Kodaira H, Kondo H, Sugawara M, Takahashi M, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Furuya T, Kikkawa E, Omura Y, Abe K, Kamihara K, Katsuta N, Sato K, Tanikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ninomiya K, Ishibashi T, Yamashita H, Murakawa K, Fujimori K, Tanai H, Kimata M, Watanabe M, Hiraoka S, Chiba Y, Ishida S, Ono Y, Takiguchi S, Watanabe S, Yosida M, Hotuta T, Kusano J, Kanehori K, Takahashi-Fujii A, Hara H, Tanase TO, Nomura Y, Togiya S, Komai F, Hara R, Takeuchi K, Arita M, Imose N, Musashino K, Yuuki H, Oshima A, Sasaki N, Aotsuka S, Yoshikawa Y, Matsunawa H, Ichihara T, Shiohata N, Sano S, Moriya S, Momiyama H, Satoh N, Takami S, Terashima Y, Suzuki O, Nakagawa S, Senoh A, Mizoguchi H, Goto Y, Shimizu F, Wakebe H, Hishigaki H, Watanabe T, Sugiyama A, Takemoto M, Kawakami B, Yamazaki M, Watanabe K, Kumagai A, Itakura S, Fukuzumi Y, Fujimori Y, Komiyama M, Tashiro H, Tanigami A, Fujiwara T, Ono T, Yamada K, Fujii Y, Ozaki K, Hirao M, Ohmori Y, Kawabata A, Hikiji T, Kobatake N, Inagaki H, Ikema Y, Okamoto S, Okitani R, Kawakami T, Noguchi S, Itoh T, Shigeta K, Senba T, Matsumura K, Nakajima Y, Mizuno T, Morinaga M, Sasaki M, Togashi T, Oyama M, Hata H, Watanabe M, Komatsu T, Mizushima-Sugano J, Satoh T, Shirai Y, Takahashi Y, Nakagawa K, Okumura K, Nagase T, Nomura N, Kikuchi H, Masuho Y, Yamashita R, Nakai K, Yada T, Nakamura Y, Ohara O, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Helix Research Institute, 1532-3 Yana, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0812, Japan.

    As a base for human transcriptome and functional genomics, we created the "full-length long Japan" (FLJ) collection of sequenced human cDNAs. We determined the entire sequence of 21,243 selected clones and found that 14,490 cDNAs (10,897 clusters) were unique to the FLJ collection. About half of them (5,416) seemed to be protein-coding. Of those, 1,999 clusters had not been predicted by computational methods. The distribution of GC content of nonpredicted cDNAs had a peak at approximately 58% compared with a peak at approximately 42%for predicted cDNAs. Thus, there seems to be a slight bias against GC-rich transcripts in current gene prediction procedures. The rest of the cDNAs unique to the FLJ collection (5,481) contained no obvious open reading frames (ORFs) and thus are candidate noncoding RNAs. About one-fourth of them (1,378) showed a clear pattern of splicing. The distribution of GC content of noncoding cDNAs was narrow and had a peak at approximately 42%, relatively low compared with that of protein-coding cDNAs.

    Nature genetics 2004;36;1;40-5

  • Caveolin-1 maintains activated Akt in prostate cancer cells through scaffolding domain binding site interactions with and inhibition of serine/threonine protein phosphatases PP1 and PP2A.

    Li L, Ren CH, Tahir SA, Ren C and Thompson TC

    Scott Department of Urology, Baylor College of Medicine, 6560 Fannin, Suite 2100, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

    Previously it has been reported that caveolin-1 (cav-1) has antiapoptotic activities in prostate cancer cells and functions downstream of androgenic stimulation. In this study, we demonstrate that cav-1 overexpression significantly reduced thapsigargin (Tg)-stimulated apoptosis. Examination of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K)/Akt signaling cascade revealed higher activities of PDK1 and Akt but not PI3-K in cav-1-stimulated cells compared to control cells. We subsequently found that cav-1 interacts with and inhibits serine/threonine protein phosphatases PP1 and PP2A through scaffolding domain binding site interactions. Deletion of the cav-1 scaffolding domain significantly reduces phosphorylated Akt and cell viability compared with wild-type cav-1. Analysis of potential substrates for PP1 and PP2A revealed that cav-1-mediated inhibition of PP1 and PP2A leads to increased PDK1, Akt, and ERK1/2 activities. We demonstrate that increased Akt activities are largely responsible for cav-1-mediated cell survival using dominant-negative Akt mutants and specific inhibitors to MEK1/MEK and show that cav-1 increases the half-life of phosphorylated PDK1 and Akt after inhibition of PI3-K by LY294002. We further demonstrate that cav-1-stimulated Akt activities lead to increased phosphorylation of multiple Akt substrates, including GSK3, FKHR, and MDM2. In addition, overexpression of cav-1 significantly increases translocation of phosphorylated androgen receptor to nucleus. Our studies therefore reveal a novel mechanism of Akt activation in prostate cancer and potentially other malignancies.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA 50588, CA 68814, P50 CA 58204, R01 CA050588, R01 CA068814

    Molecular and cellular biology 2003;23;24;9389-404

  • Scapinin, a putative protein phosphatase-1 regulatory subunit associated with the nuclear nonchromatin structure.

    Sagara J, Higuchi T, Hattori Y, Moriya M, Sarvotham H, Shima H, Shirato H, Kikuchi K and Taniguchi S

    Department of Molecular Oncology, Institute on Aging and Adaptation, Shinshu University Graduate School of Medicine, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto 390-8621, Japan. sagara@sch.md.shinshu-u.ac.jp

    It is thought that the nuclear nonchromatin structures, such as the nuclear matrix and lamina, play regulatory roles in gene expression. In this study, we identified an insoluble protein that was associated with the chromatin-depleted nuclear structure of proliferating human leukemia HL-60 cells. Preparation of the chromatin-depleted nuclear structure, referred to as the nuclear matrix-intermediate filament scaffold (Fey, E., Krochmalnic, G., and Penman, S. (1986) J. Cell. Biol. 102, 1654-1665), involved cell extraction using a series of buffers containing Triton X-100, DNase I, and 2 M NaCl. A yeast two-hybrid assay revealed that this protein bound to the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase-1 (PP1). Furthermore, it inhibited PP1 activity in vitro. We therefore named it scapinin (scaffold-associated PP1 inhibiting protein). cDNA cloning revealed that scapinin had two splicing variants of 448 amino acids (scapinin-S) and 518 amino acids (scapinin-L). Scapinin was down-regulated by differentiation in HL-60 cells. These results suggest that scapinin is a putative regulatory subunit of PP1 and is involved in transformed or immature phenotypes of HL-60 cells. We also describe the presence of scapinin family proteins from worm to human.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;46;45611-9

  • Dephosphorylation of histone gamma-H2AX during repair of DNA double-strand breaks in mammalian cells and its inhibition by calyculin A.

    Nazarov IB, Smirnova AN, Krutilina RI, Svetlova MP, Solovjeva LV, Nikiforov AA, Oei SL, Zalenskaya IA, Yau PM, Bradbury EM and Tomilin NV

    Department of Biological Chemistry, University of California Davis School of Medicine, Davis, California 95616, USA.

    The induction of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) by ionizing radiation in mammalian chromosomes leads to the phosphorylation of Ser-139 in the replacement histone H2AX, but the molecular mechanism(s) of the elimination of phosphorylated H2AX (called gamma-H2AX) from chromatin in the course of DSB repair remains unknown. We showed earlier that gamma-H2AX cannot be replaced by exchange with free H2AX, suggesting the direct dephosphorylation of H2AX in chromatin by a protein phosphatase. Here we studied the dynamics of dephosphorylation of gamma-H2AX in vivo and found that more than 50% was dephosphorylated in 3 h, but a significant amount of gamma-H2AX could be detected even 6 h after the induction of DSBs. At this time, a significant fraction of the gamma-H2AX nuclear foci co-localized with the foci of RAD50 protein that did not co-localize with replication sites. However, gamma-H2AX could be detected in some cells treated with methyl methanesulfonate which accumulated RAD18 protein at stalled replication sites. We also found that calyculin A inhibited early elimination of gamma-H2AX and DSB rejoining in vivo and that protein phosphatase 1 was able to remove phosphate groups from gamma-H2AX-containing chromatin in vitro. Our results confirm the tight association between DSBs and gamma-H2AX and the coupling of its in situ dephosphorylation to DSB repair.

    Radiation research 2003;160;3;309-17

  • Nuclear protein phosphatase-1 regulates HIV-1 transcription.

    Ammosova T, Jerebtsova M, Beullens M, Voloshin Y, Ray PE, Kumar A, Bollen M and Nekhai S

    Center for Sickle Cell Disease and Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Howard University, Washington, D. C. 20059, USA.

    We recently reported that protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) dephosphorylates RNA polymerase II C-terminal repeats and regulates HIV-1 transcription in vitro. Here we provide evidence that PP1 is also required for Tat-induced HIV-1 transcription and for viral replication in cultured cells. Inhibition of PP1 by overexpression of nuclear inhibitor of PP1 (NIPP1) inhibited Tat-induced HIV-1 transcription in transient transfection assays. A mutant of NIPP1 that was defective in binding to PP1 did not have this effect. Also the co-expression of PP1 gamma reversed the inhibitory effect of NIPP1. Adeno-associated virus-mediated delivery of NIPP1 significantly reduced HIV-1 transcription induced by Tat-expressing adenovirus in CD4+ HeLa cells that contained an integrated HIV-1 promoter (HeLa MAGI cells). In addition, infection of HeLa MAGI cells with adeno-associated virus-NIPP1 prior to the infection with HIV-1 significantly reduced the level of HIV-1 replication. Our results indicate that PP1 might be a host cell factor that is required for HIV-1 viral transcription. Therefore, nuclear PP1 may represent a novel target for anti-HIV-1 therapeutics.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: R01 HL055605, R01 HL55605, UH1 HL03679; NIAID NIH HHS: R21 AI 156973-01, R21 AI056973, R21 AI056973-01; NIDDK NIH HHS: R01 DK49414

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;34;32189-94

  • BAD and glucokinase reside in a mitochondrial complex that integrates glycolysis and apoptosis.

    Danial NN, Gramm CF, Scorrano L, Zhang CY, Krauss S, Ranger AM, Datta SR, Greenberg ME, Licklider LJ, Lowell BB, Gygi SP and Korsmeyer SJ

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Dana-Faber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    Glycolysis and apoptosis are considered major but independent pathways that are critical for cell survival. The activity of BAD, a pro-apoptotic BCL-2 family member, is regulated by phosphorylation in response to growth/survival factors. Here we undertook a proteomic analysis to assess whether BAD might also participate in mitochondrial physiology. In liver mitochondria, BAD resides in a functional holoenzyme complex together with protein kinase A and protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) catalytic units, Wiskott-Aldrich family member WAVE-1 as an A kinase anchoring protein, and glucokinase (hexokinase IV). BAD is required to assemble the complex in that Bad-deficient hepatocytes lack this complex, resulting in diminished mitochondria-based glucokinase activity and blunted mitochondrial respiration in response to glucose. Glucose deprivation results in dephosphorylation of BAD, and BAD-dependent cell death. Moreover, the phosphorylation status of BAD helps regulate glucokinase activity. Mice deficient for BAD or bearing a non-phosphorylatable BAD(3SA) mutant display abnormal glucose homeostasis including profound defects in glucose tolerance. This combination of proteomics, genetics and physiology indicates an unanticipated role for BAD in integrating pathways of glucose metabolism and apoptosis.

    Nature 2003;424;6951;952-6

  • The protein phosphatase-1 (PP1) regulator, nuclear inhibitor of PP1 (NIPP1), interacts with the polycomb group protein, embryonic ectoderm development (EED), and functions as a transcriptional repressor.

    Jin Q, van Eynde A, Beullens M, Roy N, Thiel G, Stalmans W and Bollen M

    Division of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Leuven, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium.

    The nuclear protein NIPP1 (nuclear inhibitor of protein Ser/Thr phosphatase-1) interacts with the splicing factors SAP155 and CDC5L and is involved in a late step of spliceosome assembly. In addition, NIPP1 is an interactor of protein phosphatase-1 and a COOH-terminal NIPP1 fragment displays an RNase E like endoribonuclease activity. A yeast two-hybrid screening resulted in the identification of the Polycomb group protein EED (embryonic ectoderm development), an established transcriptional repressor, as a novel NIPP1 interactor. NIPP1 only interacted with full-length EED, whereas two EED interaction domains were mapped to the central and COOH-terminal thirds of NIPP1. The NIPP1-EED interaction was potentiated by the binding of (d)G-rich nucleic acids to the central domain of NIPP1. Nucleic acids also decreased the potency of NIPP1 as an inhibitor of PP1, but they did not prevent the formation of a ternary NIPP1.EED.PP1 complex. EED had no effect on the function of NIPP1 as a splicing factor or as an endoribonuclease. However, similar to EED, NIPP1 acted as a transcriptional repressor of targeted genes and this NIPP1 effect was mediated by the EED interaction domain. Also, the histone deacetylase 2 was present in a complex with NIPP1. Our data are in accordance with a role for NIPP1 as a DNA-targeting protein for EED and associated chromatin-modifying enzymes.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;33;30677-85

  • Inducible expression of catalytically active type 1 serine/threonine protein phosphatase in a human carcinoma cell line.

    Reeder JE, Sowden MP, Messing EM, Klover P, Villa-Moruzzi E and Ludlow JW

    Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, 601 Elmwood Avenue, Rochester, New York, 14642, USA. jludlow@vestatherapeutics.com

    BACKGROUND: One of the major cellular serine/threonine protein phosphatases is protein phosphatase type 1 (PP1). Studies employing many eukaryotic systems all point to a crucial role for PP1 activity in controlling cell cycle progression. One physiological substrate for PP1 appears to be the product of the retinoblastoma susceptibility gene (pRB), a demonstrated tumor suppressor. The growth suppressive activity of pRB is regulated by its phosphorylation state. Of critical importance is the question of the in vivo effect of PP1 activity on pRB and growth regulation. As a first step towards addressing this question, we developed an inducible PP1 expression system to investigate the regulation of PP1 activity. RESULTS: We have established a cell line for inducing protein expression of the type 1, alpha-isotype, serine/threonine protein phosphatase (PP1alpha). A plasmid encoding a fusion protein of the catalytic subunit of PP1alpha with a 6-histidine peptide (6His) and a peptide from hemagluttinin (HA) was transfected into the UMUC3 transitional cell carcinoma cell line, previously transfected with the reverse tetracycline transactivator plasmid pUHD172-1neo. A stable cell line designated LLWO2F was established by selection with hygromycin B. 6His-HA-PP1alpha protein appeared in cell lysates within two hours following addition of doxycycline to the culture medium. This protein localizes to the nucleus as does endogenous PP1alpha, and was shown to associate with PNUTS, a PP1-nuclear targeting subunit. Like endogenous PP1alpha, immunocomplexed 6His-HA-PP1alpha is active toward phosphorylase a and the product of the retinoblastoma susceptibility gene, pRB. When forcibly overexpressing 6His-HA-PP1alpha, there is a concomitant decrease in endogenous PP1alpha levels. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest the existence of an autoregulatory mechanism by which PP1alpha protein levels and activity remain relatively constant. RT-PCR analyses of isolated polysome fractions support the notion that this putative autoregulatory mechanism is exerted, at least in part, at the translational level. Implications of these findings for the study of PP1alpha function in vivo are discussed.

    Cancer cell international 2003;3;1;12

  • Initiation factor 2B activity is regulated by protein phosphatase 1, which is activated by the mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent pathway in insulin-like growth factor 1-stimulated neuronal cells.

    Quevedo C, Salinas M and Alcázar A

    Servicio de Bioquímica-Investigación, Hospital Ramón y Cajal, 28034 Madrid, Spain.

    We have previously demonstrated that insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) induces eukaryotic initiation factor 2B (eIF2B) activation in neuronal cells through the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase/glycogen synthase kinase 3 pathway as well as by activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-activating kinase (MEK)/MAPK signaling pathway (Quevedo, C., Alcázar, A., and Salinas, M. (2000) J. Biol. Chem. 275, 19192-19197). This paper addresses the mechanism involved in IGF1-induced eIF2B activation via the MEK/MAPK cascade in cultured neurons treated with IGF1 and demonstrates that extracellular signal-regulated MAP kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1 and -2) immunoprecipitates of IGF1-treated neuronal cells promote this activation. This effect did not directly result from eIF2B phosphorylation by ERK immunoprecipitates. In addition, recombinant ERK1 and -2 neither activate eIF2B nor phosphorylate it. Endogenous protein phosphatase 1 and 2A catalytic subunits (PP1C and PP2AC, respectively) were co-immunoprecipitated with ERK1 and -2, and the association of ERK with PP1C was stimulated by IGF1 treatment, resulting in increased PP1 activity. ERK immunoprecipitates incubated with PP1 inhibitors did not activate eIF2B, indicating that PP1C activates eIF2B. In vitro experiments with phosphorylated eIF2B showed that recombinant PP1C (alpha isoform) dephosphorylates and activates eIF2B. Paralleling eIF2B activation, IGF1 treatment induced PP1 activation in a MEK/MAPK-dependent fashion. Moreover, the treatment of neurons with the PP1 inhibitor tautomycin inhibited PP1 activation and prevented IGF1-induced eIF2B activation. These findings strongly suggest that IGF1-induced eIF2B activation in neurons is effected by PP1, the activation of which is mediated by the MEK/MAPK signaling pathway.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;19;16579-86

  • Human BAG-1 proteins bind to the cellular stress response protein GADD34 and interfere with GADD34 functions.

    Hung WJ, Roberson RS, Taft J and Wu DY

    Division of Medical Oncology, Department of Medicine, Veterans Administration Puget Sound Health Care System, Seattle Division, 1660 S. Columbian Way, Seattle, WA 98108, USA.

    The cellular stress response protein GADD34 mediates growth arrest and apoptosis in response to DNA damage, negative growth signals, and protein malfolding. GADD34 binds to protein phosphatase PP1 and can attenuate the translational elongation of key transcriptional factors through dephosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2alpha (eIF2alpha). Recently, we reported the involvement of human SNF5/INI1 (hSNF5/INI1) protein in the functions of GADD34 and showed that hSNF5/INI1 binds GADD34 and stimulates the bound PP1 phosphatase activity. To better understand the regulatory and functional mechanisms of GADD34, we undertook a yeast two-hybrid screen with full-length GADD34 as bait in order to identify additional protein partners of GADD34. We report here that human cochaperone protein BAG-1 interacts with GADD34 in vitro and in SW480 cells treated with the proteasome inhibitor z-LLL-B to induce apoptosis. Two other proteins, Hsp70/Hsc70 and PP1, associate reversibly with the GADD34-BAG-1 complex, and their dissociation is promoted by ATP. BAG-1 negatively modulates GADD34-bound PP1 activity, and the expression of BAG-1 isoforms can also mask GADD34-mediated inhibition of colony formation and suppression of transcription. Our findings suggest that BAG-1 may function to suppress the GADD34-mediated cellular stress response and support a role for BAG-1 in the survival of cells undergoing stress.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: 5K08 CA 71928-01

    Molecular and cellular biology 2003;23;10;3477-86

  • Characterization of the Aalpha and Abeta subunit isoforms of protein phosphatase 2A: differences in expression, subunit interaction, and evolution.

    Zhou J, Pham HT, Ruediger R and Walter G

    Department of Pathology, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, U.S.A.

    Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is very versatile owing to a large number of regulatory subunits and its ability to interact with numerous other proteins. The regulatory A subunit exists as two closely related isoforms designated Aalpha and Abeta. Mutations have been found in both isoforms in a variety of human cancers. Although Aalpha has been intensely studied, little is known about Abeta. We generated Abeta-specific antibodies and determined the cell cycle expression, subcellular distribution, and metabolic stability of Abeta in comparison with Aalpha. Both forms were expressed at constant levels throughout the cell cycle, but Aalpha was expressed at a much higher level than Abeta. Both forms were found predominantly in the cytoplasm, and both had a half-life of approx. 10 h. However, Aalpha and Abeta differed substantially in their expression patterns in normal tissues and in tumour cell lines. Whereas Aalpha was expressed at similarly high levels in all tissues and cell lines, Abeta expression varied greatly. In addition, in vivo studies with epitope-tagged Aalpha and Abeta subunits demonstrated that Abeta is a markedly weaker binder of regulatory B and catalytic C subunits than Aalpha. Construction of phylogenetic trees revealed that the conservation of Aalpha during the evolution of mammals is extraordinarily high in comparison with both Abeta and cytochrome c, suggesting that Aalpha is involved in more protein-protein interactions than Abeta. We also measured the binding of polyoma virus middle tumour antigen and simian virus 40 (SV40) small tumour antigen to Aalpha and Abeta. Whereas both isoforms bound polyoma virus middle tumour antigen equally well, only Aalpha bound SV40 small tumour antigen.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA 36111

    The Biochemical journal 2003;369;Pt 2;387-98

  • A novel transmembrane Ser/Thr kinase complexes with protein phosphatase-1 and inhibitor-2.

    Wang H and Brautigan DL

    Center for Cell Signaling, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, VA 22908-0577, USA.

    Protein kinases and protein phosphatases exert coordinated control over many essential cellular processes. Here, we describe the cloning and characterization of a novel human transmembrane protein KPI-2 (Kinase/Phosphatase/Inhibitor-2) that was identified by yeast two-hybrid using protein phosphatase inhibitor-2 (Inh2) as bait. KPI-2 mRNA was predominantly expressed in skeletal muscle. KPI-2 is a 1503-residue protein with two predicted transmembrane helices at the N terminus, a kinase domain, followed by a C-terminal domain. The transmembrane helices were sufficient for targeting proteins to the membrane. KPI-2 kinase domain has about 60% identity with its closest relative, a tyrosine kinase. However, it only exhibited serine/threonine kinase activity in autophosphorylation reactions or with added substrates. KPI-2 kinase domain phosphorylated protein phosphatase-1 (PP1C) at Thr(320), which attenuated PP1C activity. KPI-2 C-terminal domain directly associated with PP1C, and this required a VTF motif. Inh2 associated with KPI-2 C-terminal domain with and without PP1C. Thus, KPI-2 is a kinase with sites to associate with PP1C and Inh2 to form a regulatory complex that is localized to membranes.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM 56362

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;51;49605-12

  • Binding of the concave surface of the Sds22 superhelix to the alpha 4/alpha 5/alpha 6-triangle of protein phosphatase-1.

    Ceulemans H, Vulsteke V, De Maeyer M, Tatchell K, Stalmans W and Bollen M

    Afdeling Biochemie, Faculteit Geneeskunde, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium. Hugo.Ceulemans@med.kuleuven.ac.be

    Functional studies of the protein phosphatase-1 (PP1) regulator Sds22 suggest that it is indirectly and/or directly involved in one of the most ancient functions of PP1, i.e. reversing phosphorylation by the Aurora-related protein kinases. We predict that the conserved portion of Sds22 folds into a curved superhelix and demonstrate that mutation to alanine of any of eight residues (Asp(148), Phe(170), Glu(192), Phe(214), Asp(280), Glu(300), Trp(302), or Tyr(327)) at the concave surface of this superhelix thwarts the interaction with PP1. Furthermore, we show that all mammalian isoforms of PP1 have the potential to bind Sds22. Interaction studies with truncated versions of PP1 and with chimeric proteins comprising fragments of PP1 and the yeast PP1-like protein phosphatase Ppz1 suggest that the site(s) required for the binding of Sds22 reside between residues 43 and 173 of PP1gamma(1). Within this region, a major interaction site was mapped to a triangular region delineated by the alpha4-, alpha5-, and alpha6-helices. Our data also show that well known regulatory binding sites of PP1, such as the RVXF-binding channel, the beta12/beta13-loop, and the acidic groove, are not essential for the interaction with Sds22.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;49;47331-7

  • Inhibitor-2 regulates protein phosphatase-1 complexed with NimA-related kinase to induce centrosome separation.

    Eto M, Elliott E, Prickett TD and Brautigan DL

    Center for Cell Signaling, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville 22908, USA. me2h@virginia.edu

    Centrosome separation is regulated by balance of in situ protein kinase/phosphatase activities during the cell cycle. The mammalian NimA-related kinase Nek2 forms a complex with the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase-1 (PP1C). This complex is located at centrosomes and has been implicated in regulation of the cycle of duplication and separation. Inhibitor-2 (Inh2) is an inhibitor protein specific for PP1C, and its expression level fluctuates during the cell cycle. Here we report cellular regulation of the Nek2.PP1C complex by Inh2. PP1C-binding segments of Nek2 were isolated by yeast two-hybrid screening using Inh2 bait. Inh2 indirectly associates with Nek2 via PP1C, which binds to both proteins, forming a bridged heterotrimeric complex. Double Ala mutation of the PP1C-binding site (KVHF) in Nek2 eliminated both PP1C and Inh2 interactions in both a yeast conjugation assay and an in vitro binding assay. The kinase activity of Nek2.PP1C was enhanced 2-fold by addition of recombinant Inh2, with EC(50) = 10 nm. Immunofluorescence showed concentration of endogenous Inh2 at centrosomes and in a region surrounding the centrosomes. Transient expression of wild-type Inh2 increased by 5-fold dispersed/split centrosomes in fibroblasts, mimicking the phenotype produced by overexpression of Nek2. Deletion of the Inh2 C-terminal domain yielded Inh2-(1-118), which failed to interact with or activate the Nek2.PP1C complex, suggesting that the C-terminal region of Inh2 is required for regulation of the Nek2.PP1C complex. Thus, Inh2 can enhance the kinase activity of the Nek2.PP1C complex via inhibition of phosphatase activity to initiate centrosome separation.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA40042; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM56362

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;46;44013-20

  • Regulation of BRCA1 phosphorylation by interaction with protein phosphatase 1alpha.

    Liu Y, Virshup DM, White RL and Hsu LC

    Department of Oncological Sciences, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112, USA.

    Numerous reports have revealed that the tumor suppressor BRCA1 may play an important role in DNA damage repair. BRCA1 is expressed and phosphorylated during cell cycle progression and after DNA damage. BRCA1 is hypophosphorylated in G0-G1 and probably during mitosis as well. Kinases known to phosphorylate BRCA1 include cyclin-dependent kinase 2, as well as ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) and ATM and Rad3-related kinase (ATR), which function in G2 checkpoint control. However, protein phosphatases responsible for dephosphorylation of BRCA1 had yet to be identified. hCds1, which acts downstream of ATM, also phosphorylates a BRCA1 fragment containing amino acids 759-1064 [BRCA1 fragment 4 (BF4)]. We have used a GST-BF4 protein phosphorylated by hCds1 [glutathione S-transferase (GST)-BF4-P] as a substrate to identify potential phosphatases responsible for BRCA1 dephosphorylation. Data presented here show that both recombinant protein phosphatase 1 alpha (PP1alpha) catalytic subunit and endogenous PP1alpha dephosphorylate GST-BF4-P. Inhibitor 2 abolishes this activity. Overexpression of PP1alpha partially inhibits hyperphosphorylation of BRCA1 after ionizing radiation, indicating that PP1alpha dephosphorylates BRCA1 in vivo. BRCA1 and PP1alpha reciprocally coimmunoprecipitate, and a glutathione S-transferase pull-down assay shows that PP1alpha catalytic subunit associates directly with the BF4 region of BRCA1. In addition, BRCA1 inhibits PP1alpha activity. Therefore, BRCA1 is both a substrate and a regulator of PP1alpha. The interaction between BRCA1 and PP1alpha thus may play a role in DNA damage repair and cell cycle progression.

    Cancer research 2002;62;22;6357-61

  • A-kinase anchoring protein AKAP220 binds to glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta ) and mediates protein kinase A-dependent inhibition of GSK-3beta.

    Tanji C, Yamamoto H, Yorioka N, Kohno N, Kikuchi K and Kikuchi A

    Department of Biochemistry, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Hiroshima University, 1-2-3, Kasumi, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8551, Japan.

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is regulated by various extracellular ligands and phosphorylates many substrates, thereby regulating cellular functions. Using yeast two-hybrid screening, we found that GSK-3beta binds to AKAP220, which is known to act as an A-kinase anchoring protein. GSK-3beta formed a complex with AKAP220 in intact cells at the endogenous level. Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and type 1 protein phosphatase (PP1) were also detected in this complex, suggesting that AKAP220, GSK-3beta, PKA, and PP1 form a quaternary complex. It has been reported that PKA phosphorylates GSK-3beta, thereby decreasing its activity. When COS cells were treated with dibutyryl cyclic AMP to activate PKA, the activity of GSK-3beta bound to AKAP220 decreased more markedly than the total GSK-3beta activity. Calyculin A, a protein phosphatase inhibitor, also inhibited the activity of GSK-3beta bound to AKAP220 more strongly than the total GSK-3beta activity. These results suggest that PKA and PP1 regulate the activity of GSK-3beta efficiently by forming a complex with AKAP220.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;40;36955-61

  • The direct binding of the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 1 to the PKR protein kinase is necessary but not sufficient for inactivation and disruption of enzyme dimer formation.

    Tan SL, Tareen SU, Melville MW, Blakely CM and Katze MG

    Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, 98195, USA. tan_seng-lai@lilly.com

    The PKR protein kinase is among the best-studied effectors of the host interferon (IFN)-induced antiviral and antiproliferative response system. In response to stress signals, including virus infection, the normally latent PKR becomes activated through autophosphorylation and dimerization and phosphorylates the eIF2alpha translation initiation factor subunit, leading to an inhibition of mRNA translation initiation. While numerous virally encoded or modulated proteins that bind and inhibit PKR during virus infection have been studied, little is known about the cellular proteins that counteract PKR activity in uninfected cells. Overexpression of PKR in yeast also leads to an inhibition of eIF2alpha-dependent protein synthesis, resulting in severe growth suppression. Screening of a human cDNA library for clones capable of counteracting the PKR-mediated growth defect in yeast led to the identification of the catalytic subunit (PP1(C)) of protein phosphatase 1alpha. PP1(C) reduced double-stranded RNA-mediated auto-activation of PKR and inhibited PKR transphosphorylation activities. A specific and direct interaction between PP1(C) and PKR was detected, with PP1(C) binding to the N-terminal regulatory region regardless of the double-stranded RNA-binding activity of PKR. Importantly, a consensus motif shared by many PP1(C)-interacting proteins was necessary for PKR binding to PP1(C). The PKR-interactive site was mapped to a C-terminal non-catalytic region that is conserved in the PP1(C)2 isoform. Indeed, co-expression of PP1(C) or PP1(C)2 inhibited PKR dimer formation in Escherichia coli. Interestingly, co-expression of a PP1(C) mutant lacking the catalytic domain, despite retaining its ability to bind PKR, did not prevent PKR dimerization. Our findings suggest that PP1(C) modulates PKR activity via protein dephosphorylation and subsequent disruption of PKR dimers.

    Funded by: NIAID NIH HHS: AI22646

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;39;36109-17

  • The human SNF5/INI1 protein facilitates the function of the growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible protein (GADD34) and modulates GADD34-bound protein phosphatase-1 activity.

    Wu DY, Tkachuck DC, Roberson RS and Schubach WH

    Division of Medical Oncology, Department of Medicine, Veterans Administration Puget Sound Health Care System, Seattle Division, Seattle, Washington 98108, USA. danielw@u.washington.edu

    The growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible protein (GADD34) mediates growth arrest and apoptosis in response to DNA damage, negative growth signals, and protein malfolding. GADD34 binds to protein phosphatase-1 (PP1) and can attenuate translational elongation of key transcriptional factors through dephosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor-2alpha. We reported previously that the human trithorax leukemia fusion protein (HRX) can bind to GADD34 and abrogate GADD34-mediated apoptosis in response to UV irradiation. We found that hSNF5/INI1, a component of the hSWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex, also binds to GADD34 and can coexist with GADD34 and HRX fusion proteins as a trimolecular complexes in vivo. In the present report, we demonstrate that hSNF5/INI1 binds to GADD34 in part through the PP1 docking site within a domain homologous to herpes simplex virus-1 ICP34.5. We found that hSNF5/INI1 can bind PP1 independently and weakly stimulate its phosphatase activity in solution and in complex with GADD34. hSNF5/INI1 and PP1 do not compete for binding to GADD34 but rather form a stable heterotrimeric complex with GADD34. We also show that Epstein-Barr nuclear protein 2, which binds hSNF5/INI1, can disrupt hSNF5/INI1 binding to GADD34 and partially reverse the GADD34-mediated growth suppression function in Ha-ras expressing HIH-3T3 (3T3-ras) cells. These results implicate hSNF5/INI1 in the function of GADD34 and suggest that hSNF5/INI1 may regulate PP1 activity in vivo.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: 5K08CA71928-01

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;31;27706-15

  • A vitamin D receptor-Ser/Thr phosphatase-p70 S6 kinase complex and modulation of its enzymatic activities by the ligand.

    Bettoun DJ, Buck DW, Lu J, Khalifa B, Chin WW and Nagpal S

    Gene Regulation, Bone, and Inflammation Research, Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, Indiana 46285, USA.

    We provide evidence of a cross-talk between nuclear receptor and Ser/Thr protein phosphatases and show that vitamin D receptor (VDR) interacts with the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatases, PP1c and PP2Ac, and induces their enzymatic activity in a ligand-dependent manner. PP1c specifically interacts with VDR but not retinoic acid receptor alpha and retinoid X receptor alpha in yeast. Although VDR-PP1c and VDR-PP2Ac interaction is ligand-independent in vivo, 1alpha,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D(3) induces VDR-associated phosphatase activity. Further, VDR modulation of PP1c/PP2Ac activity results in a rapid and specific dephosphorylation and inactivation of their substrate, p70 S6 kinase (p70(S6k)). Finally, we demonstrate that the endogenous VDR, PP1c or PP2Ac, and p70(S6k) are present in a ternary complex in vivo, and the interaction of p70(S6k) with the VDR-PP complex is modulated by the phosphorylation state of the kinase. Since p70(S6k) is essential for G(1)-S transition, our results provide a molecular basis of 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3)-induced G(1) block in colon cancer cells.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;28;24847-50

  • The anti-apoptotic molecules Bcl-xL and Bcl-w target protein phosphatase 1alpha to Bad.

    Ayllón V, Cayla X, García A, Fleischer A and Rebollo A

    Centro Nacional de Biotenología, Department of Immunology and Oncology, Campus de Cantoblanco, UAM, Madrid, Spain.

    Bcl-xL and Bcl-w specifically interact with PP1alpha and Bad. A phosphatase activity sensitive to okadaic acid was detected in Bcl-xL, Bcl-w and Bad immunoprecipitates. Serine phosphorylation of Bcl-xL and Bcl-w correlates with the number of trimolecular complexes formed. Depletion of Bcl-xL and Bcl-w decreases the remaining Bad-associated phosphatase activity and association of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1)alpha to Bad. Bcl-xL and Bcl-w contain the R/K X V/I X F consensus motif shared by PP1 targeting subunits. This motif, in addition to F X X R X R motif, is involved in binding of Bcl-xL and Bcl-w to PP1alpha. Disruption of Bcl-xL/PP1alpha or Bcl-w/PP1alpha association strongly decreases Bad-associated phosphataseactivity and stability of trimolecular complexes. These results suggest that Bcl-xL and Bcl-w are PP1alpha targeting subunits and this trimolecular complex may be involved in the control of apoptosis.

    European journal of immunology 2002;32;7;1847-55

  • Targeting protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) to the actin cytoskeleton: the neurabin I/PP1 complex regulates cell morphology.

    Oliver CJ, Terry-Lorenzo RT, Elliott E, Bloomer WA, Li S, Brautigan DL, Colbran RJ and Shenolikar S

    Department of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA.

    Neurabin I, a neuronal actin-binding protein, binds protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) and p70 ribosomal S6 protein kinase (p70S6K), both proteins implicated in cytoskeletal dynamics. We expressed wild-type and mutant neurabins fused to green fluorescent protein in Cos7, HEK293, and hippocampal neurons. Biochemical and cellular studies showed that an N-terminal F-actin-binding domain dictated neurabin I localization at actin cytoskeleton and promoted disassembly of stress fibers. Deletion of the C-terminal coiled-coil and sterile alpha motif domains abolished neurabin I dimerization and induced filopodium extension. Immune complex assays showed that neurabin I recruited an active PP1 via a PP1-docking sequence,(457)KIKF(460). Mutation of the PP1-binding motif or PP1 inhibition by okadaic acid and calyculin A abolished filopodia and restored stress fibers in cells expressing neurabin I. In vitro and in vivo studies suggested that the actin-binding domain attenuated protein kinase A (PKA) phosphorylation of neurabin I. Modification of a major PKA site, serine-461, impaired PP1 binding. Finally, p70S6K was excluded from neurabin I/PP1 complexes and required the displacement of PP1 for recruitment to neurabin I. These studies provided new insights into the assembly and regulation of a neurabin I/PP1 complex that controls actin rearrangement to promote spine development in mammalian neurons.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA40042, P01 CA040042; NIDDK NIH HHS: DK52054, R01 DK052054; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM56362, R01 GM056362; NINDS NIH HHS: NS37508, NS41063, R01 NS041063

    Molecular and cellular biology 2002;22;13;4690-701

  • Type 1 phosphatase, a negative regulator of cardiac function.

    Carr AN, Schmidt AG, Suzuki Y, del Monte F, Sato Y, Lanner C, Breeden K, Jing SL, Allen PB, Greengard P, Yatani A, Hoit BD, Grupp IL, Hajjar RJ, DePaoli-Roach AA and Kranias EG

    Department of Pharmacology and Cell Biophysics, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio 45267, USA.

    Increases in type 1 phosphatase (PP1) activity have been observed in end stage human heart failure, but the role of this enzyme in cardiac function is unknown. To elucidate the functional significance of increased PP1 activity, we generated models with (i) overexpression of the catalytic subunit of PP1 in murine hearts and (ii) ablation of the PP1-specific inhibitor. Overexpression of PP1 (threefold) was associated with depressed cardiac function, dilated cardiomyopathy, and premature mortality, consistent with heart failure. Ablation of the inhibitor was associated with moderate increases in PP1 activity (23%) and impaired beta-adrenergic contractile responses. Extension of these findings to human heart failure indicated that the increased PP1 activity may be partially due to dephosphorylation or inactivation of its inhibitor. Indeed, expression of a constitutively active inhibitor was associated with rescue of beta-adrenergic responsiveness in failing human myocytes. Thus, PP1 is an important regulator of cardiac function, and inhibition of its activity may represent a novel therapeutic target in heart failure.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: P40RR12358; NHLBI NIH HHS: HL06308, HL07382, HL26057, HL52318, HL64018, P50 HL052318, R01 HL026057, R01 HL064018, R37 HL026057, T32 HL007382; NIDA NIH HHS: DA10044, P01 DA010044; NIDDK NIH HHS: DK36569, R01 DK036569; NIMH NIH HHS: MH40899, P01 MH040899

    Molecular and cellular biology 2002;22;12;4124-35

  • The RNA-binding protein Staufen from rat brain interacts with protein phosphatase-1.

    Monshausen M, Rehbein M, Richter D and Kindler S

    Institute for Cell Biochemistry and Clinical Neurobiology, University of Hamburg, Germany.

    In mammalian neurones, homologues of the Drosophila RNA-binding protein Staufen are part of ribonucleoprotein complexes that move bidirectionally along dendritic microtubules and appear to regulate mRNA translocation and translation. In this study, putative components of Staufen granules were identified in a yeast two-hybrid screen of a rat brain cDNA library with a rat Staufen bait. Protein phosphatase-1 was found as an interacting partner. Binding appears to be mediated by a five amino acid residue sequence motif (R-K-V-T-F) in Staufen that is conserved in a number of proteins interacting with the phosphatase. A two amino acid residue mutation within this motif (R-K-V-G-A) disrupted the interaction. A cytoplasmic interaction of both proteins was shown by coimmunoprecipitation of rat Staufen and protein phosphatase-1 from the cytoplasm of transfected cells and rat brain homogenates. In mammalian brain, the phosphatase represents the first described endogenous interaction partner of Staufen. In primary hippocampal neurones, both proteins partially colocalize in somata and neuronal processes. Staufen does not modulate the in vitro protein phosphatase activity. These findings show that protein phosphatase-1 is a native component of Staufen particles. Cellular functions of Staufen may be regulated via phosphorylation or Staufen may recruite the phosphatase into specific ribonucleoprotein complexes.

    Journal of neurochemistry 2002;81;3;557-64

  • A protein phosphatase from human T cells augments tat transactivation of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 long-terminal repeat.

    Bharucha DC, Zhou M, Nekhai S, Brady JN, Shukla RR and Kumar A

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The George Washington University Medical Center, Washington, DC 20037, USA.

    HIV-1 Tat protein regulates viral gene expression by modulating the activity and association of cellular transcription factors with RNA polymerase II (RNAPII). Possible mechanisms include Tat-associated protein kinase(s) and phosphatase(s) that regulate phosphorylation of the C-terminal domain (CTD) of the large subunit of RNAPII. Hypophosphorylated RNAPII (RNAPIIa) is recruited to promoters during formation of a preinitiation complex, whereas hyperphosphorylated RNAPII (RNAPIIo) is associated with the elongation complex. The role of phosphatases in maintaining the equilibrium between the two phosphorylated states of RNAPII, which is required for sustained transcriptional activation from the HIV-1 LTR, is not clear. In this study, we discuss the properties of a Tat-associated CTD phosphatase fractionated from Jurkat T cells. The Tat-associated protein phosphatase (TAPP) is related to the serine/threonine, type 1, protein phosphatase (PP1) family. TAPP dephosphorylates the hyperphosphorylated form of recombinant CTD specifically on serine 2, and augments Tat-mediated transcriptional transactivation of HIV-1 LTR in an in vitro transcription reaction. TAPP is associated with the transcription complex during the early initiation steps, and its release from the HIV-1 promoter coincides with the Tat-specific activation of CDK9. The results suggest a unique role of the Tat-associated phosphatase which regulates viral transcription by target-specific dephosphorylation of RNAPII during the early stages of elongation.

    Funded by: NIAID NIH HHS: AI42491

    Virology 2002;296;1;6-16

  • Dephosphorylation of PKCdelta by protein phosphatase 2Ac and its inhibition by nucleotides.

    Srivastava J, Goris J, Dilworth SM and Parker PJ

    Protein Phosphorylation Laboratory, Cancer Research UK London Research Institute, Lincoln's Inn Fields Laboratories, 44 Lincoln's Inn Fields, WC2A 3PX, London, UK.

    The protein phosphatases PP1(c), PP2A(c) and PP2Calpha are shown to dephosphorylate protein kinase Cdelta (PKCdelta) in vitro; of these PP2A(c) displayed the highest specific activity towards PKCdelta. The role of PP2A(c) in the dephosphorylation of PKCdelta in cells was supported by the demonstration that these proteins could be co-immunoprecipitated from NIH3T3 cells. However the observation that binding of Mg-ATP to PKCdelta could protect the enzyme from dephosphorylation by PP2A(c) in vitro indicates that an additional input/factor is required for dephosphorylation in vivo.

    FEBS letters 2002;516;1-3;265-9

  • Requirement of a macromolecular signaling complex for beta adrenergic receptor modulation of the KCNQ1-KCNE1 potassium channel.

    Marx SO, Kurokawa J, Reiken S, Motoike H, D'Armiento J, Marks AR and Kass RS

    Department of Pharmacology, Center for Molecular Cardiology, Department of Medicine, College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA.

    Sympathetic nervous system (SNS) regulation of cardiac action potential duration (APD) is mediated by beta adrenergic receptor (betaAR) activation, which increases the slow outward potassium ion current (IKS). Mutations in two human I(KS) channel subunits, hKCNQ1 and hKCNE1, prolong APD and cause inherited cardiac arrhythmias known as LQTS (long QT syndrome). We show that betaAR modulation of I(KS) requires targeting of adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) to hKCNQ1 through the targeting protein yotiao. Yotiao binds to hKCNQ1 by a leucine zipper motif, which is disrupted by an LQTS mutation (hKCNQ1-G589D). Identification of the hKCNQ1 macromolecular complex provides a mechanism for SNS modulation of cardiac APD through IKS.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: P01HL67849-01, R01-HL44365-07, R01-HL56180, R01-HL56810-05, R01-HL61503, R01-HL68093; NIAID NIH HHS: R01-AI39794

    Science (New York, N.Y.) 2002;295;5554;496-9

  • Protein phosphatase 1--targeted in many directions.

    Cohen PT

    Medical Research Council Protein Phosphorylation Unit, School of Life Sciences, University of Dundee, Dundee DD15EH, Scotland, UK. p.t.w.cohen@dundee.ac.uk

    Protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) is a major eukaryotic protein serine/threonine phosphatase that regulates an enormous variety of cellular functions through the interaction of its catalytic subunit (PP1c) with over fifty different established or putative regulatory subunits. Most of these target PP1c to specific subcellular locations and interact with a small hydrophobic groove on the surface of PP1c through a short conserved binding motif--the RVxF motif--which is often preceded by further basic residues. Weaker interactions may subsequently enhance binding and modulate PP1 activity/specificity in a variety of ways. Several putative targeting subunits do not possess an RVxF motif but nevertheless interact with the same region of PP1c. In addition, several 'modulator' proteins bind to PP1c but do not possess a domain targeting them to a specific location. Most are potent inhibitors of PP1c and possess at least two sites for interaction with PP1c, one of which is identical or similar to the RVxF motif. Regulation of PP1c in response to extracellular and intracellular signals occurs mostly through changes in the levels, conformation or phosphorylation status of targeting subunits. Understanding of the mode of action of PP1c complexes may facilitate development of drugs that target particular PP1c complexes and thereby modulate the phosphorylation state of a very limited subset of proteins.

    Journal of cell science 2002;115;Pt 2;241-56

  • Interaction and feedback regulation between STK15/BTAK/Aurora-A kinase and protein phosphatase 1 through mitotic cell division cycle.

    Katayama H, Zhou H, Li Q, Tatsuka M and Sen S

    Division of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA.

    STK15 is an Aurora/Ipl-1 related serine/threonine kinase that is associated with centrosomes and induces aneuploidy when overexpressed in mammalian cells. It is well known that phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of kinases are important for regulation of their activity. But mechanisms by which STK15 activity is regulated have not been elucidated. We report that STK15 contains two functional binding sites for protein phosphatase type 1 (PP1), and the binding of these proteins is cell cycle-regulated peaking at mitosis. Activated STK15 at mitosis phosphorylates PP1 and inhibits PP1 activity in vitro. In vivo, PP1 activity co-immunoprecipitated with STK15 is also reduced. These data indicate that STK15 inhibits PP1 activity during mitosis. Also, PP1 is shown to dephosphorylate active STK15 and abolish its activity in vitro. Furthermore, we show that non-binding mutants of STK15 for PP1 are superphosphorylated, but their kinase activities are markedly reduced. Cells transfected with these non-binding mutants manifest aberrant chromosome alignment during mitosis. Our results suggest that a feedback regulation through phosphorylation/dephosphorylation events between STK15 kinase and PP1 phosphatase operates through the cell cycle. Deregulation of this balance may contribute to anomalous segregation of chromosomes during mitotic progression of cancer cells.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA 61979, P30 CA 16672-24, U01CA85078

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2001;276;49;46219-24

  • Dynamic targeting of protein phosphatase 1 within the nuclei of living mammalian cells.

    Trinkle-Mulcahy L, Sleeman JE and Lamond AI

    MSI/WTB Complex, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 5EH, Scotland. l.trinklemulcahy@dundee.ac.uk

    Protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) is expressed in mammalian cells as three closely related isoforms, alpha, beta/delta and gamma1, which are encoded by separate genes. It has yet to be determined whether the separate isoforms behave in a similar fashion or play distinct roles in vivo. We report here on analyses by fluorescence microscopy of functional and fluorescently tagged PP1 isoforms in live cells. PP1alpha and PP1gamma fluorescent protein fusions show largely complimentary localization patterns, particularly within the nucleus where tagged PP1gamma accumulates in the nucleolus, whereas tagged PP1alpha is primarily found in the nucleoplasm. Overexpression of NIPP1 (nuclear inhibitor of PP1), a PP1 targeting subunit that accumulates at interchromatin granule clusters in the nucleoplasm, results in a retargeting of both isoforms to these structures, indicating that steady-state localization is based, at least in part, on relative affinities for various targeting subunits. Photobleaching analyses show that PP1gamma is rapidly exchanging between the nucleolar, nucleoplasmic and cytoplasmic compartments. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) analyses indicate that the direct interaction of the two proteins predominantly occurs at or near interchromatin granule clusters. These data indicate that PP1 isoforms are highly mobile in cells and can be dynamically (re)localized through direct interaction with targeting subunits.

    Journal of cell science 2001;114;Pt 23;4219-28

  • Myr 8, a novel unconventional myosin expressed during brain development associates with the protein phosphatase catalytic subunits 1alpha and 1gamma1.

    Patel KG, Liu C, Cameron PL and Cameron RS

    Section of Neurobiology, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, Georgia, 30912-3175, USA.

    Directed neuronal, astroglial, and oligodendroglial cell migrations comprise a prominent feature of mammalian brain development. Because molecular motor proteins have been implicated in a wide spectrum of processes associated with cell motility, we initiated studies to define the pool of myosins in migrating cerebellar granule neurons and type-1 neocortical astrocytes. Our analyses identified two isoforms of a novel unconventional myosin, which we have cloned, sequenced, and designated myr 8a and 8b (eighth unconventional myosin from rat). Phylogenetic analysis indicates that myr 8 myosins comprise a new class of myosins, which we have designated class XVI. The head domain contains a large N-terminal extension composed of multiple ankyrin repeats, which are implicated in mediating an association with the protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) catalytic subunits 1alpha and 1gamma. The motor domain is followed by a single putative light-chain binding domain. The tail domain of myr 8a is comparatively short with a net positive charge, whereas the tail domain of myr 8b is extended, bears an overall neutral charge, and reveals several stretches of poly-proline residues. Neither the myr 8a nor the myr 8b sequence reveals alpha-helical coiled-coil motifs, suggesting that these myosins exist as monomers. Both immunoblot and Northern blot analyses indicate that myr 8b is the predominant isoform expressed in brain, principally at developmental time periods. The structural features and restricted expression patterns suggest that members of this novel class of unconventional myosins comprise a mechanism to target selectively the protein phosphatase 1 catalytic subunits 1alpha and/or 1gamma in developing brain.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: NS34763

    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 2001;21;20;7954-68

  • Growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible protein GADD34 assembles a novel signaling complex containing protein phosphatase 1 and inhibitor 1.

    Connor JH, Weiser DC, Li S, Hallenbeck JM and Shenolikar S

    Department of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA.

    The growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible protein, GADD34, was identified by its interaction with human inhibitor 1 (I-1), a protein kinase A (PKA)-activated inhibitor of type 1 protein serine/threonine phosphatase (PP1), in a yeast two-hybrid screen of a human brain cDNA library. Recombinant GADD34 (amino acids 233 to 674) bound both PKA-phosphorylated and unphosphorylated I-1(1-171). Serial truncations mapped the C terminus of I-1 (amino acids 142 to 171) as essential for GADD34 binding. In contrast, PKA phosphorylation was required for PP1 binding and inhibition by the N-terminal I-1(1-80) fragment. Pulldowns of GADD34 proteins expressed in HEK293T cells showed that I-1 bound the central domain of GADD34 (amino acids 180 to 483). By comparison, affinity isolation of cellular GADD34/PP1 complexes showed that PP1 bound near the C terminus of GADD34 (amino acids 483 to 619), a region that shows sequence homology with the virulence factors ICP34.5 of herpes simplex virus and NL-S of avian sarcoma virus. While GADD34 inhibited PP1-catalyzed dephosphorylation of phosphorylase a, the GADD34-bound PP1 was an active eIF-2alpha phosphatase. In brain extracts from active ground squirrels, GADD34 bound both I-1 and PP1 and eIF-2alpha was largely dephosphorylated. In contrast, the I-1/GADD34 and PP1/GADD34 interactions were disrupted in brain from hibernating animals, in which eIF-2alpha was highly phosphorylated at serine-51 and protein synthesis was inhibited. These studies suggested that modification of the I-1/GADD34/PP1 signaling complex regulates the initiation of protein translation in mammalian tissues.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK52054, R01 DK052054

    Molecular and cellular biology 2001;21;20;6841-50

  • Bcl-2 targets protein phosphatase 1 alpha to Bad.

    Ayllón V, Cayla X, García A, Roncal F, Fernández R, Albar JP, Martínez C and Rebollo A

    Department of Immunology and Oncology, Centro Nacional de Biotecnología, Campus de Cantoblanco, Madrid, Spain.

    The diverse forms of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) in vivo result from the association of the catalytic subunit with different regulatory subunits. We recently have described that PP1alpha is a Ras-activated Bad phosphatase that regulates IL-2 deprivation-induced apoptosis. With the yeast two-hybrid system, GST fusion proteins, indirect immunofluorescence, and coimmunoprecipitation, we found that Bcl-2 interacts with PP1alpha and Bad. In contrast, Bad did not interact with 14-3-3 protein. Bcl-2 depletion decreased phosphatase activity and association of PP1alpha to Bad. Bcl-2 contains the RIVAF motif, analogous to the well characterized R/KXV/IXF consensus motif shared by most PP1-interacting proteins. This sequence is involved in the binding of Bcl-2 to PP1alpha. Disruption of Bcl-2/PP1alpha association strongly decreased Bcl-2 and Bad-associated phosphatase activity and formation of the trimolecular complex. These results suggest that Bcl-2 targets PP1alpha to Bad.

    Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 2001;166;12;7345-52

  • Functional analysis of the human CDC5L complex and identification of its components by mass spectrometry.

    Ajuh P, Kuster B, Panov K, Zomerdijk JC, Mann M and Lamond AI

    Department of Biochemistry, The University of Dundee, Dow Street, Dundee DD1 5EH, UK.

    Recently, we identified proteins that co-purify with the human spliceosome using mass spectrometry. One of the identified proteins, CDC5L, corresponds to the human homologue of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe CDC5(+) gene product. Here we show that CDC5L is part of a larger multiprotein complex in HeLa nuclear extract that incorporates into the spliceosome in an ATP-dependent step. We also show that this complex is required for the second catalytic step of pre-mRNA splicing. Immunodepletion of the CDC5L complex from HeLa nuclear extract inhibits the formation of pre-mRNA splicing products in vitro but does not prevent spliceosome assembly. The first catalytic step of pre-mRNA splicing is less affected by immunodepleting the complex. The purified CDC5L complex in HeLa nuclear extract restores pre-mRNA splicing activity when added to extracts that have been immunodepleted using anti-CDC5L antibodies. Using mass spectrometry and database searches, the major protein components of the CDC5L complex have been identified. This work reports a first purification and characterization of a functional, human non-snRNA spliceosome subunit containing CDC5L and at least five additional protein factors.

    The EMBO journal 2000;19;23;6569-81

  • Identification and characterization of a novel protein inhibitor of type 1 protein phosphatase.

    Shirato H, Shima H, Sakashita G, Nakano T, Ito M, Lee EY and Kikuchi K

    Division of Biochemical Oncology and Immunology, Institute for Genetic Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita-15, Nishi-7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-0815, Japan.

    We have isolated human cDNA for a novel type 1 protein phosphatase (PP1) inhibitory protein, named inhibitor-4 (I-4), from a cDNA library of germ cell tumors. I-4, composed of 202 amino acids, is 44% identical to a PP1 inhibitor, inhibitor-2 (I-2). I-4 conserves functionally important structure of I-2 and exhibited similar biochemical properties. I-4 inhibited activity of the catalytic subunit of PP1 (PP1C), specifically with an IC(50) of 0.2 nM, more potently than I-2 with an IC(50) of 2 nM. I-4 weakly inhibited the activity of myosin-associated phosphates (PP1M). However, the level of inhibition of PP1M was increased during preincubation of PP1M with I-4, suggesting that the inhibition is caused by interaction of I-4 with PP1C in such a manner that it competes with the M subunit of PP1M. Gel overlay experiments showed that I-4 binds PP1C directly. Three I-4 peptides containing the N-terminal residues 1-123, 1-131, and 1-142 all showed strong binding ability to PP1C but did not show PP1 inhibitory activity, whereas an I-2 peptide (residues 1-134), lacking the corresponding C-terminal residues, potently inhibited PP1C activity as previously reported. Removal of the 18 N-terminal amino acid residues from I-4 dramatically reduced the PP1 binding activity with a correlated loss of inhibitory activity, whereas removal of the 10 N-terminal residues had only a little effect. The two peptides GST-I-4(19-131) and GST-I-4(132-202) showed ability to bind to PP1C, albeit very weakly. These results strongly suggest a multiple-point interaction between I-4 and PP1C, which is thought to cause the inhibition of I-4 which is stronger than the inhibition of I-2.

    Biochemistry 2000;39;45;13848-55

  • Recruitment of protein phosphatase 1 to the nuclear envelope by A-kinase anchoring protein AKAP149 is a prerequisite for nuclear lamina assembly.

    Steen RL, Martins SB, Taskén K and Collas P

    Institute of Medical Biochemistry, University of Oslo, 0317 Oslo, Norway.

    Subcellular targeting of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (protein kinase A [PKA]) and of type 1 protein phosphatase (PP1) is believed to enhance the specificity of these enzymes. We report that in addition to anchoring PKA, A-kinase anchoring protein AKAP149 recruits PP1 at the nuclear envelope (NE) upon somatic nuclear reformation in vitro, and that PP1 targeting to the NE is a prerequisite for assembly of B-type lamins. AKAP149 is an integral membrane protein of the endoplasmic reticulum/NE network. The PP1-binding domain of AKAP149 was identified as K(153)GVLF(157). PP1 binds immobilized AKAP149 in vitro and coprecipitates with AKAP149 from purified NE extracts. Affinity isolation of PP1 from solubilized NEs copurifies AKAP149. Upon reassembly of somatic nuclei in interphase extract, PP1 is targeted to the NE. Targeting is inhibited by a peptide containing the PP1-binding domain of AKAP149, abolished in nuclei assembled with membranes immunodepleted of AKAP149, and restored after reincorporation of AKAP149 into nuclear membranes. B-type lamins do not assemble into a lamina when NE targeting of PP1 is abolished, and is rescued upon recruitment of PP1 to the NE. We propose that kinase and phosphatase anchoring at the NE by AKAP149 plays in a role in modulating nuclear reassembly at the end of mitosis.

    The Journal of cell biology 2000;150;6;1251-62

  • NIPP1-mediated interaction of protein phosphatase-1 with CDC5L, a regulator of pre-mRNA splicing and mitotic entry.

    Boudrez A, Beullens M, Groenen P, Van Eynde A, Vulsteke V, Jagiello I, Murray M, Krainer AR, Stalmans W and Bollen M

    Afdeling Biochemie and Center for Human Genetics (VIB), Faculteit Geneeskunde, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium.

    NIPP1 is a regulatory subunit of a species of protein phosphatase-1 (PP1) that co-localizes with splicing factors in nuclear speckles. We report that the N-terminal third of NIPP1 largely consists of a Forkhead-associated (FHA) protein interaction domain, a known phosphopeptide interaction module. A yeast two-hybrid screening revealed an interaction between this domain and a human homolog (CDC5L) of the fission yeast protein cdc5, which is required for G(2)/M progression and pre-mRNA splicing. CDC5L and NIPP1 co-localized in nuclear speckles in COS-1 cells. Furthermore, an interaction between CDC5L, NIPP1, and PP1 in rat liver nuclear extracts could be demonstrated by co-immunoprecipitation and/or co-purification experiments. The binding of the FHA domain of NIPP1 to CDC5L was dependent on the phosphorylation of CDC5L, e.g. by cyclin E-Cdk2. When expressed in COS-1 or HeLa cells, the FHA domain of NIPP1 did not affect the number of cells in the G(2)/M transition. However, the FHA domain blocked beta-globin pre-mRNA splicing in nuclear extracts. A mutation in the FHA domain that abolished its interaction with CDC5L also canceled its anti-splicing effects. We suggest that NIPP1 either targets CDC5L or an associated protein for dephosphorylation by PP1 or serves as an anchor for both PP1 and CDC5L.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM-42699

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2000;275;33;25411-7

  • Interaction of inhibitor-2 with the catalytic subunit of type 1 protein phosphatase. Identification of a sequence analogous to the consensus type 1 protein phosphatase-binding motif.

    Yang J, Hurley TD and DePaoli-Roach AA

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202-5122, USA.

    Inhibitor-2 (I-2) is the regulatory subunit of a cytosolic type 1 Ser/Thr protein phosphatase (PP1) and potently inhibits the activity of the free catalytic subunit (CS1). Previous work from the laboratory had proposed that the interaction of I-2 with CS1 involved multiple sites (Park, I. K., and DePaoli-Roach, A. A. (1994) J. Biol. Chem. 269, 28919-28928). The present study refines the earlier analysis and arrives at a more detailed model for the interaction between I-2 and CS1. Although the NH(2)-terminal I-2 regions containing residues 1-35 and 1-64 have no inhibitory activity on their own, they increase the IC(50) for I-2 by approximately 30-fold, indicating the presence of a CS1-interacting site. Based on several experimental approaches, we have also identified the sequence Lys(144)-Leu-His-Tyr(147) as a second site of interaction that corresponds to the RVXF motif present in many CS1-binding proteins. The peptide I-2(135-151) significantly increases the IC(50) for I-2 and attenuates CS1 inhibition. Replacement of Leu and Tyr with Ala abolishes the ability to counteract inhibition by I-2. The I-2(135-151) peptide, but not I-2(1-35), also antagonizes inhibition of CS1 by DARPP-32 in a pattern similar to that of I-2. Furthermore, a peptide derived from the glycogen-binding subunit, R(GL)/G(M)(61-80), which contains a consensus CS1-binding motif, completely counteracts CS1 inhibition by I-2 and DARPP-32. The NH(2)-terminal 35 residues of I-2 bind to CS1 at a site that is specific for I-2, whereas the KLHY sequence interacts with CS1 at a site shared with other interacting proteins. Other results suggest the presence of yet more sites of interaction. A model is presented in which multiple "anchoring interactions" serve to position a segment of I-2 such that it sterically occludes the catalytic pocket but need not make high affinity contacts itself.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK36569

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2000;275;30;22635-44

  • NIMA-related kinase 2 (Nek2), a cell-cycle-regulated protein kinase localized to centrosomes, is complexed to protein phosphatase 1.

    Helps NR, Luo X, Barker HM and Cohen PT

    Medical Research Council Protein Phosphorylation Unit, Department of Biochemistry, MSI/WTB Complex, University of Dundee, Dow Street, Dundee DD1 5EH, Scotland, UK.

    The cell cycle-regulated protein serine/threonine NIMA-related kinase 2 (Nek2), which shows a predominant localization at centrosomes, is identified as a protein which interacts with protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) using the yeast two-hybrid system. Complex formation between Nek2 and PP1 is supported by co-precipitation of the two proteins using transfected expression constructs of Nek2 and the endogenous Nek2/PP1 proteins. The sequence KVHF in the C-terminal region of Nek2, which conforms to the consensus PP1-binding motif, is shown to be essential for the interaction of Nek2 with PP1. Nek2 activity increases with autophosphorylation and addition of phosphatase inhibitors and decreases in the presence of PP1. PP1 is a substrate for Nek2 and phosphorylation of PP1gamma(1) on two C-terminal sites reduces its phosphatase activity. The presence of a ternary complex containing centrosomal Nek2-associated protein (C-Nap1), Nek2 and PP1 has also been demonstrated, and C-Nap1 is shown to be a substrate for both Nek2 and PP1 in vitro and in cell extracts. The implications of kinase-phosphatase complex formation involving Nek2 and PP1 are discussed in terms of the coordination of centrosome separation with cell cycle progression.

    The Biochemical journal 2000;349;Pt 2;509-18

  • Protein phosphatase 1alpha is a Ras-activated Bad phosphatase that regulates interleukin-2 deprivation-induced apoptosis.

    Ayllón V, Martínez-A C, García A, Cayla X and Rebollo A

    Centro Nacional de Biotecnología, Department of Immunology and Oncology, Campus de Cantoblanco, UAM, E-28049 Madrid, Spain.

    Growth factor deprivation is a physiological mechanism to regulate cell death. We utilize an interleukin-2 (IL-2)-dependent murine T-cell line to identify proteins that interact with Bad upon IL-2 stimulation or deprivation. Using the yeast two-hybrid system, glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion proteins and co-immunoprecipitation techniques, we found that Bad interacts with protein phosphatase 1alpha (PP1alpha). Serine phosphorylation of Bad is induced by IL-2 and its dephosphorylation correlates with appearance of apoptosis. IL-2 deprivation induces Bad dephosphorylation, suggesting the involvement of a serine phosphatase. A serine/threonine phosphatase activity, sensitive to the phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid, was detected in Bad immunoprecipitates from IL-2-stimulated cells, increasing after IL-2 deprivation. This enzymatic activity also dephosphorylates in vivo (32)P-labeled Bad. Treatment of cells with okadaic acid blocks Bad dephosphorylation and prevents cell death. Finally, Ras activation controls the catalytic activity of PP1alpha. These results strongly suggest that Bad is an in vitro and in vivo substrate for PP1alpha phosphatase and that IL-2 deprivation-induced apoptosis may operate by regulating Bad phosphorylation through PP1alpha phosphatase, whose enzymatic activity is regulated by Ras.

    The EMBO journal 2000;19;10;2237-46

  • PKA phosphorylation dissociates FKBP12.6 from the calcium release channel (ryanodine receptor): defective regulation in failing hearts.

    Marx SO, Reiken S, Hisamatsu Y, Jayaraman T, Burkhoff D, Rosemblit N and Marks AR

    Center for Molecular Cardiology, Department of Medicine, College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia University, New York, New York 10032, USA.

    The ryanodine receptor (RyR)/calcium release channel on the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) is the major source of calcium (Ca2+) required for cardiac muscle excitation-contraction (EC) coupling. The channel is a tetramer comprised of four type 2 RyR polypeptides (RyR2) and four FK506 binding proteins (FKBP12.6). We show that protein kinase A (PKA) phosphorylation of RyR2 dissociates FKBP12.6 and regulates the channel open probability (Po). Using cosedimentation and coimmunoprecipitation we have defined a macromolecular complex comprised of RyR2, FKBP12.6, PKA, the protein phosphatases PP1 and PP2A, and an anchoring protein, mAKAP. In failing human hearts, RyR2 is PKA hyperphosphorylated, resulting in defective channel function due to increased sensitivity to Ca2+-induced activation.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: R01 HL56180, R01 HL61503; NIAID NIH HHS: R01 AI39794; ...

    Cell 2000;101;4;365-76

  • Association of a protein phosphatase 1 activity with the human factor C1 (HCF) complex.

    Ajuh PM, Browne GJ, Hawkes NA, Cohen PT, Roberts SG and Lamond AI

    Department of Biochemistry, The University of Dundee, MSI/WTB Complex, Dow Street, Dundee DD1 5EH, UK.

    We have screened a human cDNA expression library with a digoxygenin-labelled protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) probe to identify novel PP1 interacting proteins. Eleven cDNA clones were isolated, which included genes encoding two previously characterised and six novel PP1 binding proteins. Three of the cDNAs encoded a protein called host cell factor (HCF), which is an essential component of the cellular complex required for the transcription of the herpes simplex virus (HSV) immediate-early (IE) genes. We demonstrate that HCF and PP1 exist as a complex in nuclear extracts and that this complex is distinct from the form of HCF that associates with HSV VP16. The data suggest novel roles for HCF and PP1, which may be relevant to their functions in transcription and cell cycle progression.

    Nucleic acids research 2000;28;3;678-86

  • BH-protocadherin-c, a member of the cadherin superfamily, interacts with protein phosphatase 1 alpha through its intracellular domain.

    Yoshida K, Watanabe M, Kato H, Dutta A and Sugano S

    Department of Virology, Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Japan.

    Using a yeast two-hybrid system, we isolated eight cDNA clones which interacted with BH-protocadherin-c (BH-Pcdh-c) from the human brain cDNA library. One clone encoded protein phosphatase type I isoform alpha (PP1alpha) and another two PP1alpha2. PP1alpha was co-immunoprecipitated from the extract of a gastric adenocarcinoma cell line MKN-28 with anti-BH-Pcdh-c antibody. PP1alpha activity towards glycogen phosphorylase was inhibited by the intracellular domain of BH-Pcdh-c. Inhibition of the phosphatase required more than the minimal domain of BH-Pcdh-c which could associate with PP1alpha. In situ hybridization revealed that BH-Pcdh-c mRNA was predominantly expressed in cerebral cortex neurons in the adult mouse brain.

    FEBS letters 1999;460;1;93-8

  • Regulation of neurabin I interaction with protein phosphatase 1 by phosphorylation.

    McAvoy T, Allen PB, Obaishi H, Nakanishi H, Takai Y, Greengard P, Nairn AC and Hemmings HC

    Departments of Anesthesiology and Pharmacology, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, New York 10021, USA.

    Neurabin I is a brain-specific actin-binding protein. Here we show that neurabin I binds protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) and inhibits PP1 activity. Neurabin I interacted with PP1alpha in an overlay assay, in yeast two-hybrid interaction analysis, and in coprecipitation and co-immunoprecipitation experiments. Neurabin I also copurified with both the alpha and gamma isoforms of PP1. A glutathione S-transferase (GST)-neurabin I fusion protein (residues 318-661) containing the putative PP1 binding domain (residues 456-460) inhibited PP1 activity (K(i) = 2.7 +/- 1.2 nM). This fusion protein was also rapidly phosphorylated in vitro by PKA (K(m) = 6 microM) to a stoichiomtry of 1 mol/mol. The phosphorylated residue was identified as serine 461 by HPLC-MS analysis of a tryptic digest. Phosphorylation of GST-neurabin I (residues 318-661) by PKA significantly reduced its binding to PP1 by overlay and by glutathione-Sepharose coprecipitation assays. A 35-fold decrease in inhibitory potency was also observed using a S461E mutant, which mimics phosphorylation of S461. These findings identify a signaling mechanism involving the regulation of PP1 activity and localization mediated by the cAMP pathway.

    Funded by: NIDA NIH HHS: DA10044, P01 DA010044; NIMH NIH HHS: MH40899

    Biochemistry 1999;38;39;12943-9

  • Characterization of a novel giant scaffolding protein, CG-NAP, that anchors multiple signaling enzymes to centrosome and the golgi apparatus.

    Takahashi M, Shibata H, Shimakawa M, Miyamoto M, Mukai H and Ono Y

    Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Kobe University, Kobe 657-8501, Japan.

    A novel 450-kDa coiled-coil protein, CG-NAP (centrosome and Golgi localized PKN-associated protein), was identified as a protein that interacted with the regulatory region of the protein kinase PKN, having a catalytic domain homologous to that of protein kinase C. CG-NAP contains two sets of putative RII (regulatory subunit of protein kinase A)-binding motif. Indeed, CG-NAP tightly bound to RIIalpha in HeLa cells. Furthermore, CG-NAP was coimmunoprecipitated with the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), when one of the B subunit of PP2A (PR130) was exogenously expressed in COS7 cells. CG-NAP also interacted with the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 1 in HeLa cells. Immunofluorescence analysis of HeLa cells revealed that CG-NAP was localized to centrosome throughout the cell cycle, the midbody at telophase, and the Golgi apparatus at interphase, where a certain population of PKN and RIIalpha were found to be accumulated. These data indicate that CG-NAP serves as a novel scaffolding protein that assembles several protein kinases and phosphatases on centrosome and the Golgi apparatus, where physiological events, such as cell cycle progression and intracellular membrane traffic, may be regulated by phosphorylation state of specific protein substrates.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1999;274;24;17267-74

  • Characterization of the neuronal targeting protein spinophilin and its interactions with protein phosphatase-1.

    Hsieh-Wilson LC, Allen PB, Watanabe T, Nairn AC and Greengard P

    Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience, The Rockefeller University, New York 10021, USA. hsiehl@rockvax.rockefeller.edu

    Protein phosphatase-1 (PP1) plays an important role in a variety of cellular processes, including muscle contraction, cell-cycle progression, and neurotransmission. The localization and substrate specificity of PP1 are determined by a class of proteins known as targeting subunits. In the present study, the interaction between PP1 and spinophilin, a neuronal protein that targets PP1 to dendritic spines, has been characterized. Deletion analysis revealed that a high-affinity binding domain is located within residues 417-494 of spinophilin. This domain contains a pentapeptide motif (R/K-R/K-V/I-X-F) between amino acids 447 and 451 (R-K-I-H-F) that is conserved in other PP1 regulatory subunits. Mutation of phenylalanine-451 (F451A) or deletion of the conserved motif abolished the ability of spinophilin to bind PP1, as observed by coprecipitation, overlay, and competition binding assays. In addition, deletion of regions 417-442 or 474-494, either singly or in combination, impaired the ability of spinophilin to coprecipitate PP1. A comparison of the binding and inhibitory properties of spinophilin peptides suggested that distinct subdomains of spinophilin are responsible for binding and modulating PP1 activity. Mutational analysis of the modulatory subdomain revealed that spinophilin interacts with PP1 via a mechanism unlike those used by the cytosolic inhibitors DARPP-32 (dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein, Mr 32 000) and inhibitor-1. Finally, characterization of the interactions between spinophilin and PP1 has facilitated the design of peptide antagonists capable of disrupting spinophilin-PP1 interactions. These studies support the notion that spinophilin functions in vivo as a neuronal PP1 targeting subunit by directing the enzyme to postsynaptic densities and regulating its activity toward physiological substrates.

    Funded by: NIDA NIH HHS: DA10044, P01 DA010044; NIMH NIH HHS: MH40899

    Biochemistry 1999;38;14;4365-73

  • Pharmacological characterization of protein phosphatase activities in preparations from failing human hearts.

    Neumann J, Maas R, Bokník P, Jones LR, Zimmermann N and Scholz H

    Institut für Pharmakologie und Toxikologie, Universität Münster, Münster, Germany.

    beta-Adrenoceptor stimulation acts in the heart in part by increasing the phosphorylation state of phospholamban and phospholemman. There is evidence that the beta-adrenoceptor-mediated increase in phospholamban phosphorylation is in part due to inhibition of type 1 phosphatases. The aim of the present study was to elucidate which phosphatases dephosphorylate phospholamban and phospholemman in the human heart. In the past, cardiac serine/threonine phosphatases have been studied using phosphorylase a as substrate. Here, type 1 and type 2A phosphatase activities were studied in preparations from failing human hearts using phosphorylated phospholamban and phospholemman as substrates. Phospholamban and phospholemman phosphatase activity was detectable in human cardiac homogenates. Moreover, using a heparin-Sepharose column, the catalytic subunits of type 1 and type 2A phosphatases could be separated from human ventricles. Okadaic acid and cantharidin inhibited phosphatase activities dephosphorylating phospholamban, phospholemman, and phosphorylase a in homogenates in a concentration-dependent manner. However, okadaic acid was more potent. Cantharidin inhibited type 2A and type 1 activities against all substrates studied with IC50 values <15 nM and >290 nM, respectively. Okadaic acid inhibited type 1 and type 2A phosphatase activities as effectively but 10-30 times more potently than cantharidin. This work provides evidence that in the human heart, type 1 and 2A phosphatases are involved in the dephosphorylation of phospholamban and phospholemman and could play a role in the effects of beta-adrenergic stimulation in the heart.

    The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics 1999;289;1;188-93

  • Association of the type 1 protein phosphatase PP1 with the A-kinase anchoring protein AKAP220.

    Schillace RV and Scott JD

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, L-474 Vollum Institute, Oregon Health Sciences University, 3181 S.W. Sam Jackson Park Road, Portland, Oregon 97201-3098, USA.

    The cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and the type 1 protein phosphatase (PP1) are broad-specificity signaling enzymes with opposing actions that catalyze changes in the phosphorylation state of cellular proteins. Subcellular targeting to the vicinity of preferred substrates is a means of restricting the specificity of each enzyme [1] [2]. Compartmentalization of the PKA holoenzyme is mediated through association of the regulatory subunits with A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs), whereas a diverse family of phosphatase-targeting subunits directs the location of the PP1 catalytic subunit (PP1c) [3] [4]. Here, we demonstrate that the PKA-anchoring protein, AKAP220, binds PP1c with a dissociation constant (KD) of 12.1 +/- 4 nM in vitro. Immunoprecipitation of PP1 from cell extracts resulted in a 10.4 +/- 3.8-fold enrichment of PKA activity. AKAP220 co-purified with PP1c by affinity chromatography on microcystin sepharos Immunocytochemical analysis demonstrated that the kinase, the phosphatase and the anchoring protein had distinct but overlapping staining patterns in rat hippocampal neurons. Collectively, these results provide the first evidence that AKAP220 is a multivalent anchoring protein that maintains a signaling scaffold of PP1 and the PKA holoenzyme.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK48239

    Current biology : CB 1999;9;6;321-4

  • Identification and characterization of the human HCG V gene product as a novel inhibitor of protein phosphatase-1.

    Zhang J, Zhang L, Zhao S and Lee EY

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, New York Medical College, Valhalla 10595, USA.

    The catalytic subunit of mammalian protein phosphatase-1 (PP1) is known to bind to a number of regulatory subunits, whose functions include the targeting of the catalytic subunit to the molecular proximity of its substrate proteins. In addition, PP1 is potently inhibited by several inhibitory polypeptides that include inhibitor-1 and inhibitor-2. In this study the yeast two-hybrid system was used to screen a human cDNA library for putative PP1-binding proteins. Ten putative positive clones were identified, one of which was found to be a partial cDNA of the hemochromatosis candidate gene V (HCG V) whose function was previously unknown. The full-length protein of 126 amino acid residues was expressed in Escherichia coli as a glutathione S-transferase fusion protein and also as a nonfusion protein. The recombinant protein inhibited recombinant and rabbit muscle protein phosphatase-1 with IC50s of ca. 1 nM, but did not inhibit PP2A. The term inhibitor-3 is proposed for this novel inhibitor. It is extremely hydrophilic, is heat stable, and behaves anomalously on SDS-PAGE with an apparent molecular mass of 23 kDa and on gel filtration with a relative molecular weight of 55 000, in contrast to its calculated molecular mass of 14 kDa. These characteristics are shared by the previously described protein phosphatase-1 inhibitor-2 and inhibitor-1 proteins.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK18512

    Biochemistry 1998;37;47;16728-34

  • Isolation and characterization of PNUTS, a putative protein phosphatase 1 nuclear targeting subunit.

    Allen PB, Kwon YG, Nairn AC and Greengard P

    Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience, The Rockefeller University, New York, New York 10021, USA. allenp@rockvax.rockefeller.edu

    Protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) is found in the cell nucleus and has been implicated in several aspects of nuclear function. We report here the cloning and initial characterization of a novel protein approximately named phosphatase 1 nuclear targeting subunit (PNUTS). This protein interacts with PP1 in a yeast two-hybrid assay, is found in a stable complex with PP1 in mammalian cell lysates, and exhibits a potent modulation of PP1 catalytic activity toward exogenous substrate in vitro. PNUTS is a ubiquitously expressed protein that exhibits a discreet nuclear compartmentalization and is colocalized with chromatin at distinct phases during mitosis. The subcellular localization of PP1 and the activity toward substrates involved in many aspects of cell physiology have previously been shown to be regulated by association with noncatalytic targeting subunits. The properties of PNUTS are consistent with its role as a targeting subunit for the regulation of nuclear PP1 function.

    Funded by: NIDA NIH HHS: P01 DA010044; NIMH NIH HHS: MH 40899

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1998;273;7;4089-95

  • Association of brain protein phosphatase 1 with cytoskeletal targeting/regulatory subunits.

    Colbran RJ, Bass MA, McNeill RB, Bollen M, Zhao S, Wadzinski BE and Strack S

    Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee 37232-0615, U.S.A.

    Protein phosphatase 1 catalytic subunit (PP1C) is highly enriched in isolated rat postsynaptic densities. Gel overlay analyses using digoxigenin (DIG)-labeled PP1C revealed four major rat brain PP1C-binding proteins (PP1bps) with molecular masses of approximately 216, 175, 134, and 75 kDa, which were (1) more abundant in brain than other rat tissues; (2) differentially expressed in microdissected brain regions; and (3) enriched in isolated cortex postsynaptic densities. PP1bp175, PP1bp134, PP1bp75, and PP1C were partially released from forebrain particulate extracts by incubation at low ionic strength, which destabilizes the actin cytoskeleton. Size-exclusion chromatography of solubilized extracts separated two main PP1 activities (approximately 600 and approximately 100 kDa). PP1bps and PP1C gamma1 were enriched in the approximately 600-kDa peak, but PP1C beta was enriched in the approximately 100-kDa peak. Furthermore, PP1bp175 and PP1bp134 exhibited lower binding of recombinant DIG-PP1C beta than recombinant DIG-PP1C gamma1 or DIG-PP1C alpha. Solubilized PP1bp175 and PP1bp134 interact with PP1C under native conditions, because they both (1) coeluted from size-exclusion and ion-exchange columns; (2) bound to microcystin-LR-Sepharose; and (3) coprecipitated using PP1C antibodies. Trypsinolysis of the approximately 600-kDa form of PP1 increased phosphorylase a phosphatase activity approximately fourfold, suggesting that interaction of PP1C with these PP1bps modulates its activity. Thus, brain PP1 activity is likely targeted to the cytoskeleton, including postsynaptic densities, by isoform-selective binding of PP1C to these targeting/regulatory subunits, contributing to the specificity of its physiological roles.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM47973, GM51366

    Journal of neurochemistry 1997;69;3;920-9

  • Platelet adhesion to collagen under flow causes dissociation of a phosphoprotein complex of heat-shock proteins and protein phosphatase 1.

    Polanowska-Grabowska R, Simon CG, Falchetto R, Shabanowitz J, Hunt DF and Gear AR

    Department of Biochemistry, University of Virginia, Charlottesville 22908, USA.

    Phosphorylation/dephosphorylation events in human blood platelets were investigated during their adhesion to collagen under flow conditions. Using 32P-labeled platelets and one-dimensional gel electrophoresis, we found that adhesion to collagen mediated primarily by the alpha2beta1 integrin resulted in a strong dephosphorylation of several protein bands. Neither adhesion to polylysine nor thrombin-induced aggregation caused similar protein dephosphorylation. In addition, treatment with okadaic acid (OA), an inhibitor of serine/threonine protein phosphatases type 1 (PP1) and 2A (PP2A), caused significant inhibition of adhesion, suggesting that adhesion is regulated by OA-sensitive phosphatases. Recent studies indicate that phosphatases may be associated with the heat-shock proteins. Immunoprecipitations with antibodies against either the heat-shock cognate protein 70 (hsc70) or heat-shock protein 90 (hsp90) showed the presence of a phosphoprotein complex in 32P-labeled, resting human platelets. Antibody probing of this complex detected hsc70, hsp90, two isoforms of the catalytic subunit of PP1, PP1C alpha and PP1C delta, as well as the M regulatory subunit of PP1 (PP1M). OA, at concentrations that markedly blocked platelet adhesion to collagen, caused hyperphosphorylation of the hsc70 complex. In platelets adhering to collagen, hsc70 was completely dephosphorylated and hsp90, PP1 alpha, and PP1M were dissociated from the complex, suggesting involvement of heat-shock proteins and protein phosphatases in platelet adhesion.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL-27014; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM-37537

    Blood 1997;90;4;1516-26

  • Characterization of the interaction between DARPP-32 and protein phosphatase 1 (PP-1): DARPP-32 peptides antagonize the interaction of PP-1 with binding proteins.

    Kwon YG, Huang HB, Desdouits F, Girault JA, Greengard P and Nairn AC

    Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10021, USA.

    The catalytic subunit of PP-1 (PP-1C) is potently inhibited (IC50, approximately 1 nM) by DARPP-32 (dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein, M(r) 32,000), inhibitor-1, and inhibitor-2. The NH2-terminal 50 amino acid residues of DARPP-32 and inhibitor-1 are similar, and phosphorylation of a common threonine residue (Thr-34/Thr-35) is necessary for inhibition of PP-1C. We have characterized further the interaction between DARPP-32 and PP-1C. Using synthetic peptides derived from the NH2-terminal region of DARPP-32, residues 6-11, RKKIQF, have been shown to be required for inhibition of PP-1C. Peptides containing this motif were able to antagonize the inhibition of PP-1C by phospho-DARPP-32 and phosphoinhibitor-1. The inhibition of PP-1C by inhibitor-2, but not by okadaic acid, microcystin, or calyculin A, was also attentuated by these antagonist peptides. These results together with results from other studies support a model in which two subdomains of phospho-DARPP-32 interact with PP-1C. The region encompassing phospho-Thr-34 appears to interact with the active site of the enzyme blocking enzyme activity. The region encompassing the RKKIQF motif binds to a domain of PP-1C removed from the active site. Amino acid sequence analysis indicates that basic and hydrophobic features of the RKKIQF motif are conserved in the binding domains of certain PP-1C targeting proteins, suggesting that interaction of inhibitor proteins and targeting proteins may be mutually exclusive.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA45382; NIDA NIH HHS: P01 DA010044; NIMH NIH HHS: P01 MH040899

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1997;94;8;3536-41

  • Comparative mapping of the gene encoding the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase type 1 alpha (PPP1CA) to human, rat, and mouse chromosomes.

    Saadat M, Mizuno Y, Kikuchi K and Yoshida MC

    Section of Biochemistry, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan.

    Using fluorescence in situ hybridization method, the gene encoding the protein phosphatase type 1 alpha catalytic subunit (PPP1CA) was localized to human chromosome band 11q13, rat chromosome band 1q43, and mouse chromosome band 7E3-F2. These results suggest that PPP1CA is a member of a syntenic group.

    Cytogenetics and cell genetics 1995;70;1-2;55-7

  • Cloning and characterization of a human protein phosphatase 1-encoding cDNA.

    Song Q, Khanna KK, Lu H and Lavin MF

    Queensland Cancer Fund Research Unit, Queensland Institute of Medical Research, Bancroft Centre, Brisbane, Australia.

    While sequence information is available for a number of eukaryotic protein phosphatase 1 (PP1)-encoding genes, the cloning and characterization of a complete human pp1 gene has not been reported. We have used two conserved regions within the pp1 family of genes to synthesize oligodeoxyribonucleotide primers for the amplification of a 438-bp sequence from human mRNA. This DNA fragment was sequenced to verify that it corresponded to a pp1 cDNA and it was used to screen a human cDNA library to isolate a full-length clone. The deduced amino acid (aa) sequence identified a protein of 330 aa in length. Comparison with the rabbit pp1 cDNA sequence showed some nucleotide differences, largely at the third position of the codon, with complete concordance at the aa level. Northern blot analysis revealed an mRNA of approximately 1.6 kb.

    Gene 1993;129;2;291-5

  • The retinoblastoma protein associates with the protein phosphatase type 1 catalytic subunit.

    Durfee T, Becherer K, Chen PL, Yeh SH, Yang Y, Kilburn AE, Lee WH and Elledge SJ

    Center for Molecular Medicine/Institute of Biotechnology, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio 78245.

    The retinoblastoma protein (p110RB) interacts with many cellular proteins in complexes potentially important for its growth-suppressing function. We have developed and used an improved version of the yeast two-hybrid system to isolate human cDNAs encoding proteins able to bind p110RB. One clone encodes a novel type 1 protein phosphatase catalytic subunit (PP-1 alpha 2), which differs from the originally defined PP-1 alpha by an amino-terminal 11-amino-acid insert. In vitro-binding assays demonstrated that PP-1 alpha isoforms preferentially bind the hypophosphorylated form of p110RB. Moreover, similar p110RB sequences are required for binding PP-1 alpha 2 and SV40 large T antigen. Cell cycle synchrony experiments revealed that this association occurs from mitosis to early G1. The implications of these findings on the regulation of both proteins are discussed.

    Funded by: NHGRI NIH HHS: HG-00463; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM-44664; PHS HHS: O5758

    Genes & development 1993;7;4;555-69

  • Localization of the gene encoding a type I protein phosphatase catalytic subunit to human chromosome band 11q13.

    Barker HM, Jones TA, da Cruz e Silva EF, Spurr NK, Sheer D and Cohen PT

    Department of Biochemistry, University of Dundee, Scotland.

    A cDNA encoding one isoform (PP1 alpha) of the catalytic subunit of human protein phosphatase 1 has been isolated and used to map the human PP1 alpha gene (PPP1A) to chromosome band 11q13 by analysis of somatic cell hybrids and in situ hybridization. Neoplasms that map to 11q13 are discussed in the light of the recent findings that PP1 alpha is a putative tumor suppressor and that it plays a key role in the control of mitosis.

    Funded by: Cancer Research UK: A3585; Wellcome Trust

    Genomics 1990;7;2;159-66

  • Phosphorylation and activation of hamster carbamyl phosphate synthetase II by cAMP-dependent protein kinase. A novel mechanism for regulation of pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthesis.

    Carrey EA, Campbell DG and Hardie DG

    The trifunctional protein CAD, which contains the first three enzyme activities of pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthesis (carbamyl phosphate synthetase II, aspartate transcarbamylase and dihydro-orotase), is phosphorylated stoichiometrically by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. Phosphorylation activates the ammonia-dependent carbamyl phosphate synthetase activity of the complex by reducing the apparent Km for ATP. This effect is particularly marked in the presence of the allosteric feedback inhibitor, UTP, when the apparent Km is reduced by greater than 4-fold. Inhibition by physiological concentrations of UTP is substantially relieved by phosphorylation. Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase phosphorylates two serine residues on the protein termed sites 1 and 2, and the primary structures of tryptic peptides containing these sites have been determined: Site 1: Arg-Leu-Ser(P)-Ser-Phe-Val-Thr-Lys Site 2: Ile-His-Arg-Ala-Ser(P)-Asp-Pro-Gly-Leu-Pro-Ala-Glu-Glu-Pro-Lys During the phosphorylation reaction, activation of the carbamyl phosphate synthetase shows a better correlation with occupancy of site 1 rather than site 2. Both phosphorylation and activation can be reversed using purified preparations of the catalytic subunits of protein phosphatases 1- and -2A, and inactivation also correlates better with dephosphorylation of site 1 rather than site 2. We believe this to be the first report that a key enzyme in nucleotide biosynthesis is regulated in a significant manner by reversible covalent modification. The physiological role of this phosphorylation in the stimulation of cell proliferation by growth factors and other mitogens is discussed.

    The EMBO journal 1985;4;13B;3735-42

  • DARPP-32, a dopamine-regulated neuronal phosphoprotein, is a potent inhibitor of protein phosphatase-1.

    Hemmings HC, Greengard P, Tung HY and Cohen P

    The neurotransmitter dopamine has been demonstrated by biochemical, histochemical and immunocytochemical techniques to be unevenly distributed in the mammalian central nervous system. DARPP-32 (dopamine- and cyclic-AMP-regulated phosphoprotein of molecular weight 32,000) is a neuronal phosphoprotein that displays a regional distribution in the mammalian brain very similar to that of dopamine-containing nerve terminals, being highly concentrated in the basal ganglia. The state of phosphorylation of DARPP-32 can be regulated by dopamine and by cyclic AMP in intact nerve cells, suggesting a role for this phosphoprotein in mediating certain of the effects of dopamine on dopaminoceptive cells. The observation that many of the physical and chemical properties of purified DARPP-32 resemble those of phosphatase inhibitor-1 (inhibitor-1), a widely distributed inhibitor of protein phosphatase-1, suggests that DARPP-32 might also function as a phosphatase inhibitor. We report here that DARPP-32 inhibits protein phosphatase-1 at nanomolar concentrations. Moreover, like inhibitor-1, DARPP-32 is effective as an inhibitor in its phosphorylated but not its dephosphorylated form. Thus, the basal ganglia of mammalian brain contain a region-specific neuronal phosphoprotein that is a protein phosphatase inhibitor.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM-07205-09; NIMH NIH HHS: MH-17387; NINDS NIH HHS: NS-08440

    Nature 1984;310;5977;503-5

Gene lists (6)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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