G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
flotillin 2
G00000873 (Mus musculus)

Databases (8)

ENSG00000132589 (Ensembl human gene)
2319 (Entrez Gene)
479 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
FLOT2 (GeneCards)
131560 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:3758 (HGNC)
Protein Expression
1396 (human protein atlas)
Protein Sequence
Q14254 (UniProt)

Synonyms (4)

  • ECS-1
  • ECS1
  • ESA
  • ESA1

Literature (31)

Pubmed - other

  • Flotillins are involved in the polarization of primitive and mature hematopoietic cells.

    Rajendran L, Beckmann J, Magenau A, Boneberg EM, Gaus K, Viola A, Giebel B and Illges H

    Systems and Cell Biology of Neurodegeneration, Department of Psychiatry Research, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland. rajendran@bli.uzh.ch

    Background: Migration of mature and immature leukocytes in response to chemokines is not only essential during inflammation and host defense, but also during development of the hematopoietic system. Many molecules implicated in migratory polarity show uniform cellular distribution under non-activated conditions, but acquire a polarized localization upon exposure to migratory cues.

    Here, we present evidence that raft-associated endocytic proteins (flotillins) are pre-assembled in lymphoid, myeloid and primitive hematopoietic cells and accumulate in the uropod during migration. Furthermore, flotillins display a polarized distribution during immunological synapse formation. Employing the membrane lipid-order sensitive probe Laurdan, we show that flotillin accumulation in the immunological synapse is concomittant with membrane ordering in these regions.

    Conclusions: Together with the observation that flotillin polarization does not occur in other polarized cell types such as polarized epithelial cells, our results suggest a specific role for flotillins in hematopoietic cell polarization. Based on our results, we propose that in hematopoietic cells, flotillins provide intrinsic cues that govern segregation of certain microdomain-associated molecules during immune cell polarization.

    PloS one 2009;4;12;e8290

  • Basolateral internalization of GPI-anchored proteins occurs via a clathrin-independent flotillin-dependent pathway in polarized hepatic cells.

    Aït-Slimane T, Galmes R, Trugnan G and Maurice M

    Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, Unité Mixte de Recherche S 938, Centre de Recherche Saint-Antoine, 75571 Paris Cedex 12, France. tounsia.ait-slimane@inserm.fr

    In polarized hepatocytes, the predominant route for apical resident proteins to reach the apical bile canalicular membrane is transcytosis. Apical proteins are first sorted to the basolateral membrane from which they are internalized and transported to the opposite surface. We have noted previously that transmembrane proteins and GPI-anchored proteins reach the apical bile canaliculi at very different rates. Here, we investigated whether these differences may be explained by the use of distinct endocytic mechanisms. We show that endocytosis of both classes of proteins at the basolateral membrane of polarized hepatic cells is dynamin dependent. However, internalization of transmembrane proteins is clathrin mediated, whereas endocytosis of GPI-anchored proteins does not require clathrin. Further analysis of basolateral endocytosis of GPI-anchored proteins showed that caveolin, as well as the small GTPase cdc42 were dispensable. Alternatively, internalized GPI-anchored proteins colocalized with flotillin-2-positive vesicles, and down-expression of flotillin-2 inhibited endocytosis of GPI-anchored proteins. These results show that basolateral endocytosis of GPI-anchored proteins in hepatic cells occurs via a clathrin-independent flotillin-dependent pathway. The use of distinct endocytic pathways may explain, at least in part, the different rates of transcytosis between transmembrane and GPI-anchored proteins.

    Molecular biology of the cell 2009;20;17;3792-800

  • Paradoxical condensation of copper with elevated beta-amyloid in lipid rafts under cellular copper deficiency conditions: implications for Alzheimer disease.

    Hung YH, Robb EL, Volitakis I, Ho M, Evin G, Li QX, Culvenor JG, Masters CL, Cherny RA and Bush AI

    Oxidation Biology Laboratory, The Mental Health Research Institute of Victoria, Parkville, Victoria, Australia.

    Redox-active copper is implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD), beta-amyloid peptide (Abeta) aggregation, and amyloid formation. Abeta.copper complexes have been identified in AD and catalytically oxidize cholesterol and lipid to generate H2O2 and lipid peroxides. The site and mechanism of this abnormality is not known. Growing evidence suggests that amyloidogenic processing of the beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP) occurs in lipid rafts, membrane microdomains enriched in cholesterol. beta- and gamma-secretases, and Abeta have been identified in lipid rafts in cultured cells, human and rodent brains, but the role of copper in lipid raft amyloidogenic processing is presently unknown. In this study, we found that copper modulates flotillin-2 association with cholesterol-rich lipid raft domains, and consequently Abeta synthesis is attenuated via copper-mediated inhibition of APP endocytosis. We also found that total cellular copper is associated inversely with lipid raft copper levels, so that under intracellular copper deficiency conditions, Abeta.copper complexes are more likely to form. This explains the paradoxical hypermetallation of Abeta with copper under tissue copper deficiency conditions in AD.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2009;284;33;21899-907

  • Hetero-oligomerization of reggie-1/flotillin-2 and reggie-2/flotillin-1 is required for their endocytosis.

    Babuke T, Ruonala M, Meister M, Amaddii M, Genzler C, Esposito A and Tikkanen R

    Institute of Biochemistry, University of Giessen, Friedrichstrasse 24, 35392 Giessen, Germany.

    Reggie-1/flotillin-2 and reggie-2/flotillin-1 are membrane raft associated proteins which have been implicated in growth factor signaling, phagocytosis, regulation of actin cytoskeleton and membrane trafficking. Membrane and raft association of reggies is mediated by myristoylation, palmitoylation and oligomerization. We have shown that upon EGF stimulation of cells, reggie-1 is tyrosine phosphorylated by Src kinase and endocytosed into late endosomes. Here we have analyzed the mechanism of the EGF-stimulated endocytosis of reggies in more detail and show that the Src-mediated phosphorylation of reggie-1 is not the driving force for endocytosis. However, hetero-oligomerization with reggie-2 is necessary for the translocation of reggie-1, which does not take place in the absence of reggie-2. In addition, the Y163F mutant of reggie-1, which is not capable of undergoing endocytosis, oligomerizes poorly with reggie-2. EGF stimulation results in changes in the size but not in the stoichiometry of the reggie hetero-oligomers, and reggie-1 oligomer size is decreased by knockdown of reggie-2. Based on our findings, we propose a model according to which reggie hetero-oligomers are dynamic, and changes in the size of the hetero-oligomers result in endocytosis of the complex from the plasma membrane.

    Cellular signalling 2009;21;8;1287-97

  • Flotillins interact with PSGL-1 in neutrophils and, upon stimulation, rapidly organize into membrane domains subsequently accumulating in the uropod.

    Rossy J, Schlicht D, Engelhardt B and Niggli V

    Department of Pathology, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.

    Background: Neutrophils polarize and migrate in response to chemokines. Different types of membrane microdomains (rafts) have been postulated to be present in rear and front of polarized leukocytes and disruption of rafts by cholesterol sequestration prevents leukocyte polarization. Reggie/flotillin-1 and -2 are two highly homologous proteins that are ubiquitously enriched in detergent resistant membranes and are thought to shape membrane microdomains by forming homo- and hetero-oligomers. It was the goal of this study to investigate dynamic membrane microdomain reorganization during neutrophil activation.

    We show now, using immunofluorescence staining and co-immunoprecipitation, that endogenous flotillin-1 and -2 colocalize and associate in resting spherical and polarized primary neutrophils. Flotillins redistribute very early after chemoattractant stimulation, and form distinct caps in more than 90% of the neutrophils. At later time points flotillins accumulate in the uropod of polarized cells. Chemotactic peptide-induced redistribution and capping of flotillins requires integrity and dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton, but does not involve Rho-kinase dependent signaling related to formation of the uropod. Both flotillin isoforms are involved in the formation of this membrane domain, as uropod location of exogenously expressed flotillins is dramatically enhanced by co-overexpression of tagged flotillin-1 and -2 in differentiated HL-60 cells as compared to cells expressing only one tagged isoform. Flotillin-1 and -2 associate with P-selectin glycoprotein ligand 1 (PSGL-1) in resting and in stimulated neutrophils as shown by colocalization and co-immunoprecipitation. Neutrophils isolated from PSGL-1-deficient mice exhibit flotillin caps to the same extent as cells isolated from wild type animals, implying that PSGL-1 is not required for the formation of the flotillin caps. Finally we show that stimulus-dependent redistribution of other uropod-located proteins, CD43 and ezrin/radixin/moesin, occurs much slower than that of flotillins and PSGL-1.

    These results suggest that flotillin-rich actin-dependent membrane microdomains are importantly involved in neutrophil uropod formation and/or stabilization and organize uropod localization of PSGL-1.

    PloS one 2009;4;4;e5403

  • Trafficking of the microdomain scaffolding protein reggie-1/flotillin-2.

    Langhorst MF, Reuter A, Jaeger FA, Wippich FM, Luxenhofer G, Plattner H and Stuermer CA

    Department of Biology, University of Konstanz, Universitätsstrasse 10, D-78457 Konstanz, Germany. Matthiaslanghorst@email.de

    The reggie/flotillin proteins oligomerize and associate into clusters which form scaffolds for membrane microdomains. Besides their localization at the plasma membrane, the reggies/flotillins reside at various intracellular compartments; however, the trafficking pathways used by reggie-1/flotillin-2 remain unclear. Here, we show that trafficking of reggie-1/flotillin-2 is BFA sensitive and that deletion mutants of reggie-1/flotillin-2 accumulate in the Golgi complex in HeLa, Jurkat and PC12 cells, suggesting Golgi-dependent trafficking of reggie-1/flotillin-2. Using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, we observed fast cycling of reggie-1/flotillin-2-positive vesicles at the plasma membrane, which engaged in transient interactions with the plasma membrane only. Reggie-1/flotillin-2 cycling was independent of clathrin, but was inhibited by cholesterol depletion and microtubule disruption. Cycling of reggie-1/flotillin-2 was negatively correlated with cell-cell contact formation but was stimulated by serum, epidermal growth factor and by cholesterol loading mediated by low density lipoproteins. However, reggie-1/flotillin-2 was neither involved in endocytosis of the epidermal growth factor itself nor in endocytosis of GPI-GFPs or the GPI-anchored cellular prion protein (PrP(c)). Reggie-2/flotillin-1 and stomatin-1 also exhibited cycling at the plasma membrane similar to reggie-1/flotillin-2, but these vesicles and microdomains only partially co-localized with reggie-2/flotillin-1. Thus, regulated vesicular cycling might be a general feature of SPFH protein-dependent trafficking.

    European journal of cell biology 2008;87;4;211-26

  • Flotillin-dependent clustering of the amyloid precursor protein regulates its endocytosis and amyloidogenic processing in neurons.

    Schneider A, Rajendran L, Honsho M, Gralle M, Donnert G, Wouters F, Hell SW and Simons M

    Centre for Biochemistry and Molecular Cell Biology, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Göttingen, 37073 Göttingen, Germany.

    The flotillins/reggie proteins are associated with noncaveolar membrane microdomains and have been implicated in the regulation of a clathrin- and caveolin-independent endocytosis pathway. Endocytosis is required for the amyloidogenic processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) and thus to initiate the release of the neurotoxic beta-amyloid peptide (Abeta), the major component of extracellular plaques found in the brains of Alzheimer's disease patients. Here, we report that small interference RNA-mediated downregulation of flotillin-2 impairs the endocytosis of APP, in both neuroblastoma cells and primary cultures of hippocampal neurons, and reduces the production of Abeta. Similar to tetanus neurotoxin endocytosis, but unlike the internalization of transferrin, clathrin-dependent endocytosis of APP requires cholesterol and adaptor protein-2 but is independent of epsin1 function. Moreover, on a nanoscale resolution using stimulated emission depletion microscopy and by Förster resonance energy transfer with fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy, we provide evidence that flotillin-2 promotes the clustering of APP at the cell surface. We show that the interaction of flotillin-2 with APP is dependent on cholesterol and that clustering of APP enhances its endocytosis rate. Together, our data suggest that cholesterol/flotillin-dependent clustering of APP may stimulate the internalization into a specialized clathrin-dependent endocytosis pathway to promote amyloidogenic processing.

    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 2008;28;11;2874-82

  • Identification of flotillin-2, a major protein on lipid rafts, as a novel target of p53 family members.

    Sasaki Y, Oshima Y, Koyama R, Maruyama R, Akashi H, Mita H, Toyota M, Shinomura Y, Imai K and Tokino T

    Department of Molecular Biology, Cancer Research Institute, Sapporo Medical University, Chuo-ku, Sapporo, 060-8556 Japan.

    p73 and p63 are members of the p53 gene family and have been shown to play an important role in development and homeostasis mainly by regulating the transcription of a variety of genes. A subset of these genes encodes secreted proteins and receptors that may be involved in the communication between adjacent cells. We report here that flotillin-2, a major hydrophobic protein on biomembrane microdomain lipid rafts, is a direct transcriptional target of the p53 family member genes. It has been suggested that such rafts could play an important role in many cellular processes including signal transduction, membrane trafficking, cytoskeletal organization, and pathogen entry. We found that the expression of flotillin-2 was specifically up-regulated by either TAp73beta or TAp63gamma, but not significantly by p53. In addition, flotillin-2 transcription is activated in response to cisplatin in a manner dependent on endogenous p73. By using small interference RNA designed to target p73, we showed that silencing endogenous p73 abolishes the induction of flotillin-2 transcription following cisplatin treatment. Furthermore, we identified a p73/p63-binding site located upstream of the flotillin-2 gene that is responsive to the p53 family members. This response element is highly conserved between humans and rodents. We also found that ectopic expression of TAp73 as well as TAp63 enhances signal transduction by assessing the interleukin-6-mediated phosphorylation of signal transducers and activators of transcription 3. Thus, in addition to direct transactivation, p53 family member genes enhance a set of cellular processes via lipid rafts.

    Molecular cancer research : MCR 2008;6;3;395-406

  • Linking membrane microdomains to the cytoskeleton: regulation of the lateral mobility of reggie-1/flotillin-2 by interaction with actin.

    Langhorst MF, Solis GP, Hannbeck S, Plattner H and Stuermer CA

    Department of Biology, University of Konstanz, Universitaetsstrasse 10, D-78457 Konstanz, Germany. Mattiaslanghorst@email.de

    The reggies/flotillins are oligomeric scaffolding proteins for membrane microdomains. We show here that reggie-1/flotillin-2 microdomains are organized along cortical F-actin in several cell types. Interaction with F-actin is mediated by the SPFH domain as shown by in vivo co-localization and in vitro binding experiments. Reggie-1/flotillin-2 microdomains form independent of actin, but disruption or stabilization of the actin cytoskeleton modulate the lateral mobility of reggie-1/flotillin-2 as shown by FRAP. Furthermore, reggie/flotillin microdomains can efficiently be immobilized by actin polymerisation, while exchange of reggie-1/flotillin-2 molecules between microdomains is enhanced by actin disruption as shown by tracking of individual microdomains using TIRF microscopy.

    FEBS letters 2007;581;24;4697-703

  • Coassembly of flotillins induces formation of membrane microdomains, membrane curvature, and vesicle budding.

    Frick M, Bright NA, Riento K, Bray A, Merrified C and Nichols BJ

    Medical Research Council Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge, UK.

    Endocytosis has a crucial role in many cellular processes. The best-characterized mechanism for endocytosis involves clathrin-coated pits [1], but evidence has accumulated for additional endocytic pathways in mammalian cells [2]. One such pathway involves caveolae, plasma-membrane invaginations defined by caveolin proteins. Plasma-membrane microdomains referred to as lipid rafts have also been associated with clathrin-independent endocytosis by biochemical and pharmacological criteria [3]. The mechanisms, however, of nonclathrin, noncaveolin endocytosis are not clear [4, 5]. Here we show that coassembly of two similar membrane proteins, flotillin1 and flotillin2 [6-8], is sufficient to generate de novo membrane microdomains with some of the predicted properties of lipid rafts [9]. These microdomains are distinct from caveolin1-positive caveolae, are dynamic, and bud into the cell. Coassembly of flotillin1 and flotillin2 into microdomains induces membrane curvature, the formation of plasma-membrane invaginations morphologically similar to caveolae, and the accumulation of intracellular vesicles. We propose that flotillin proteins are defining structural components of the machinery that mediates a clathrin-independent endocytic pathway. Key attributes of this machinery are the dependence on coassembly of both flotillins and the inference that flotillin microdomains can exist in either flat or invaginated states.

    Funded by: Medical Research Council: MC_U105178778

    Current biology : CB 2007;17;13;1151-6

  • The lipid raft proteins flotillins/reggies interact with Galphaq and are involved in Gq-mediated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation through tyrosine kinase.

    Sugawara Y, Nishii H, Takahashi T, Yamauchi J, Mizuno N, Tago K and Itoh H

    Laboratory of Signal Transduction, Department of Cell Biology, Graduate School of Biological Sciences, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, 8916-5 Takayama, Ikoma, Nara 630-0192, Japan.

    The heterotrimeric G protein alpha q subunit (Galphaq) mediates a variety of cell functions by activating the effector molecule phospholipase Cbeta. Galphaq activity is regulated by G protein betagamma subunits, G protein-coupled receptors, RGS proteins, and Ric-8. In this study, we identified the lipid raft resident proteins, flotillin-1/reggie-2 and flotillin-2/reggie-1, as Galphaq-binding proteins. The interactions of Galphaq and flotillins were independent of the nucleotide-binding state of Galphaq, and the N-terminal portion of flotillins was critical for the interaction. A short interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of flotillins, particularly flotillin-2, attenuated the UTP-induced activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) but not that of ERK1/2. The activation of p38 MAPK was inhibited by the Src family tyrosine kinase inhibitor PP2 and the cholesterol-depleting agent methyl-beta-cyclodextrin, which is generally used for the disruption of lipid rafts. In contrast, the activation of ERK1/2 was not inhibited by these compounds. These lines of evidence suggested that a Gq-coupled receptor activates specifically p38 MAPK through lipid rafts and Src kinase activation, in which flotillins positively modulate the Gq signaling.

    Cellular signalling 2007;19;6;1301-8

  • Arginase-flotillin interaction brings arginase to red blood cell membrane.

    Jiang M, Ding Y, Su Y, Hu X, Li J and Zhang Z

    Department of Physiology and Biophysics, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, China.

    Flotillin-1 and arginase are both up-regulated in red blood cell membrane of type 2 diabetic patients. For studying why the soluble arginase can bind to the membrane and whether such binding would modify arginase activity, the arginase1 and related proteins were cloned and expressed. The results showed that flotillin-1 can interact with arginase1, and hence arginase activity was up-regulated by 26.8%. It was estimated that about 61% of arginase1 is bound to the membrane mediated by flotillin-1. The arginase activity in diabetic patients was significantly higher than that of the controls (752.4+/-38.5 U/mg protein vs 486.7+/-28.7 U/mg protein).

    FEBS letters 2006;580;28-29;6561-4

  • High flotillin-2 expression is associated with lymph node metastasis and Breslow depth in melanoma.

    Doherty SD, Prieto VG, George S, Hazarika P and Duvic M

    Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA16672, K24-CA86815, P50-CA09345926

    Melanoma research 2006;16;5;461-3

  • Caveolins and flotillin-2 are present in the blood stages of Plasmodium vivax.

    Bracho C, Dunia I, Romano M, Raposo G, De La Rosa M, Benedetti EL and Pérez HA

    Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas (IVIC), Centro de Microbiología y Biología Celular, Apdo. 21827, Caracas 1020A, Venezuela. cbracho@ivic.ve

    Blood stages of Plasmodium vivax induce the development of caveolae and caveola-vesicle complexes (CVC) in the membrane of their host erythrocyte. Caveolae are found in almost all types of cells and are involved in endogenous processes as calcium and cholesterol homeostasis, cell signalling, transporting, ligand internalization and transcytosis of serum components. Major structural components of caveolae are the proteins caveolins and flotillins. The functional role of caveolae in the P. vivax-infected erythrocyte is not properly understood. As these organelles have been shown to contain malaria antigens, it has been suggested that they are involved in the transport and release of specific parasite antigens from the infected erythrocyte and in the uptake of plasma proteins. Using specific antibodies to classical caveolae proteins and an immunolocalization approach, we found caveolin-2, caveolin-3, and flotillin-2 in the vesicle profiles and some CVC of P. vivax-infected erythrocytes. Caveolin-1-3 were not found in uninfected erythrocytes. This is the first report of identification and localization of caveolins in the CVC present in erythrocytes infected with P. vivax, thereby providing evidence of the role of this particular organelle in the protein-trafficking pathway that connect parasite-encoded proteins with the erythrocyte cytoplasm and the cell surface throughout the asexual blood cycle of vivax malaria parasite.

    Parasitology research 2006;99;2;153-9

  • Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network.

    Rual JF, Venkatesan K, Hao T, Hirozane-Kishikawa T, Dricot A, Li N, Berriz GF, Gibbons FD, Dreze M, Ayivi-Guedehoussou N, Klitgord N, Simon C, Boxem M, Milstein S, Rosenberg J, Goldberg DS, Zhang LV, Wong SL, Franklin G, Li S, Albala JS, Lim J, Fraughton C, Llamosas E, Cevik S, Bex C, Lamesch P, Sikorski RS, Vandenhaute J, Zoghbi HY, Smolyar A, Bosak S, Sequerra R, Doucette-Stamm L, Cusick ME, Hill DE, Roth FP and Vidal M

    Center for Cancer Systems Biology and Department of Cancer Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, 44 Binney Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    Systematic mapping of protein-protein interactions, or 'interactome' mapping, was initiated in model organisms, starting with defined biological processes and then expanding to the scale of the proteome. Although far from complete, such maps have revealed global topological and dynamic features of interactome networks that relate to known biological properties, suggesting that a human interactome map will provide insight into development and disease mechanisms at a systems level. Here we describe an initial version of a proteome-scale map of human binary protein-protein interactions. Using a stringent, high-throughput yeast two-hybrid system, we tested pairwise interactions among the products of approximately 8,100 currently available Gateway-cloned open reading frames and detected approximately 2,800 interactions. This data set, called CCSB-HI1, has a verification rate of approximately 78% as revealed by an independent co-affinity purification assay, and correlates significantly with other biological attributes. The CCSB-HI1 data set increases by approximately 70% the set of available binary interactions within the tested space and reveals more than 300 new connections to over 100 disease-associated proteins. This work represents an important step towards a systematic and comprehensive human interactome project.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R33 CA132073; NHGRI NIH HHS: P50 HG004233, R01 HG001715, RC4 HG006066, U01 HG001715; NHLBI NIH HHS: U01 HL098166

    Nature 2005;437;7062;1173-8

  • D1 dopamine receptor signaling involves caveolin-2 in HEK-293 cells.

    Yu P, Yang Z, Jones JE, Wang Z, Owens SA, Mueller SC, Felder RA and Jose PA

    Department of Pediatrics, Georgetown University School of Medicine, Washington, D.C., USA. yup@georgetown.edu

    Background: Dopamine receptors in the kidney, especially those belonging to the D1-like receptor family, are important in the regulation of renal function and blood pressure. Because of increasing evidence that G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are associated with caveolae and lipid rafts, we tested the hypothesis that the D1 dopamine receptor (D1R) and signaling molecules are regulated by caveolin in caveolae or lipid rafts.

    Methods: Six experimental approaches were used: (1) construction of tagged human D1Rs (hD1Rs) and transfectants; (2) cell culture [human embryonic kidney (HEK)-293 and immortalized rat renal proximal tubule cells] and biotinylation; (3) cell fractionation by sucrose gradient centrifugation; (4) immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting; (5) immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy; and (6) adenylyl cyclase assays.

    Results: hD1Rs, heterologously expressed in HEK-293 cells, formed protein species with molecular mass ranging from 50 to 250 kD, and were localized in lipid rafts and nonraft plasma membranes. The hD1Rs cofractionated with caveolin-2, G protein subunits, and several signaling molecules. Both exogenously expressed hD1Rs and endogenously expressed rat D1Rs colocalized and coimmunoprecipitated with caveolin-2. A D1R agonist (fenoldopam) increased the amount of caveolin-2beta associated with hD1Rs and activated adenylyl cyclase to a greater extent in lipid rafts than in nonraft plasma membranes. Reduction in the expression of caveolin-2 with antisense oligonucleotides attenuated the stimulatory effect of fenoldopam on cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) accumulation.

    Conclusion: The majority of hD1Rs are distributed in lipid rafts. Heterologously and endogenously expressed D1Rs in renal cells are associated with and regulated by caveolin-2.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: 2P30-CA-51008; NCRR NIH HHS: 1S10 RR15768-01; NHLBI NIH HHS: HL23081, HL68686, HL74940; NIDDK NIH HHS: DK39308, DK52612

    Kidney international 2004;66;6;2167-80

  • Up-regulation of Flotillin-2 is associated with melanoma progression and modulates expression of the thrombin receptor protease activated receptor 1.

    Hazarika P, McCarty MF, Prieto VG, George S, Babu D, Koul D, Bar-Eli M and Duvic M

    Department of Dermatology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, USA.

    Flotillin 2 (flot-2) is a highly conserved protein isolated from caveolae/lipid raft domains that tether growth factor receptors linked to signal transduction pathways. Flot-2 protein and mRNA were increased in tumorigenic and metastatic melanoma cell lines in vitro, and the immunostaining intensity increased substantially across a tissue array of melanocytic lesions. Flot-2 transfection transformed SB2 melanoma cells from nontumorigenic, nonmetastatic to highly tumorigenic and metastatic in a nude mouse xenograft model. SB2 cells stably transfected with the flot-2 cDNA (SB2-flot)-2 cells proliferated faster in the absence of serum, and their migration through Matrigel was additionally enhanced by thrombin. When SB2-flot-2 cells were compared with SB2-vector-control cells on a cancer gene pathway array, SB2-flot-2 cells had increased expression of protease activated receptor 1 (PAR-1) mRNA, a transmembrane, G-protein-coupled receptor involved in melanoma progression. PAR-1 and flot-2 were coimmunoprecipitated from SB2-flot-2 cells. Up-regulation of PAR-1 was additionally confirmed in SB2-flot-2 cells and melanoma cell lines. SB2-flot-2 cells transfected with flot-2-specific small-interfering RNAs made substantially less flot-2 and PAR-1 mRNA. In conclusion, flot-2 overexpression is associated with melanoma progression, with increased PAR-1 expression, and with transformation of SB2 melanoma cells to a highly metastatic line. Flot-2 binds to PAR-1, a known upstream mediator of major signal transduction pathways implicated in cell growth and metastasis, and may thereby influence tumor progression.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA-16672, CA086814-K24

    Cancer research 2004;64;20;7361-9

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • Analysis of a high-throughput yeast two-hybrid system and its use to predict the function of intracellular proteins encoded within the human MHC class III region.

    Lehner B, Semple JI, Brown SE, Counsell D, Campbell RD and Sanderson CM

    Functional Genomics Group, MRC Rosalind Franklin Centre for Genomics Research, Hinxton, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

    High-throughput (HTP) protein-interaction assays, such as the yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) system, are enormously useful in predicting the functions of novel gene-products. HTP-Y2H screens typically do not include all of the reconfirmation and specificity tests used in small-scale studies, but the effects of omitting these steps have not been assessed. We performed HTP-Y2H screens that included all standard controls, using the predicted intracellular proteins expressed from the human MHC class III region, a region of the genome associated with many autoimmune diseases. The 91 novel interactions identified provide insight into the potential functions of many MHC genes, including C6orf47, LSM2, NELF-E (RDBP), DOM3Z, STK19, PBX2, RNF5, UAP56 (BAT1), ATP6G2, LST1/f, BAT2, Scythe (BAT3), CSNK2B, BAT5, and CLIC1. Surprisingly, our results predict that 1/3 of the proteins may have a role in mRNA processing, which suggests clustering of functionally related genes within the human genome. Most importantly, our analysis shows that omitting standard controls in HTP-Y2H screens could significantly compromise data quality.

    Genomics 2004;83;1;153-67

  • Global profiling of the cell surface proteome of cancer cells uncovers an abundance of proteins with chaperone function.

    Shin BK, Wang H, Yim AM, Le Naour F, Brichory F, Jang JH, Zhao R, Puravs E, Tra J, Michael CW, Misek DE and Hanash SM

    Departments of Pediatrics and Pathology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-0656, USA.

    There is currently limited data available pertaining to the global characterization of the cell surface proteome. We have implemented a strategy for the comprehensive profiling and identification of surface membrane proteins. This strategy has been applied to cancer cells, including the SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma, the A549 lung adenocarcinoma, the LoVo colon adenocarcinoma, and the Sup-B15 acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B cell) cell lines and ovarian tumor cells. Surface membrane proteins of viable, intact cells were subjected to biotinylation then affinity-captured and purified on monomeric avidin columns. The biotinylated proteins were eluted from the monomeric avidin columns as intact proteins and were subsequently separated by two-dimensional PAGE, transferred to polyvinylidene difluoride membranes, and visualized by hybridization with streptavidin-horseradish peroxidase. Highly reproducible, but distinct, two-dimensional patterns consisting of several hundred biotinylated proteins were obtained for the different cell populations analyzed. Identification of a subset of biotinylated proteins among the different cell populations analyzed using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization and tandem mass spectrometry uncovered proteins with a restricted expression pattern in some cell line(s), such as CD87 and the activin receptor type IIB. We also identified more widely expressed proteins, such as CD98, and a sushi repeat-containing protein, a member of the selectin family. Remarkably, a set of proteins identified as chaperone proteins were found to be highly abundant on the cell surface, including GRP78, GRP75, HSP70, HSP60, HSP54, HSP27, and protein disulfide isomerase. Comprehensive profiling of the cell surface proteome provides an effective approach for the identification of commonly occurring proteins as well as proteins with restricted expression patterns in this compartment.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;9;7607-16

  • Expressed sequence tag analysis of human RPE/choroid for the NEIBank Project: over 6000 non-redundant transcripts, novel genes and splice variants.

    Wistow G, Bernstein SL, Wyatt MK, Fariss RN, Behal A, Touchman JW, Bouffard G, Smith D and Peterson K

    Section on Molecular Structure and Function, National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892-2740, USA. graeme@helix.nih.gov

    Purpose: The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and choroid comprise a functional unit of the eye that is essential to normal retinal health and function. Here we describe expressed sequence tag (EST) analysis of human RPE/choroid as part of a project for ocular bioinformatics.

    Methods: A cDNA library (cs) was made from human RPE/choroid and sequenced. Data were analyzed and assembled using the program GRIST (GRouping and Identification of Sequence Tags). Complete sequencing, Northern and Western blots, RH mapping, peptide antibody synthesis and immunofluorescence (IF) have been used to examine expression patterns and genome location for selected transcripts and proteins.

    Results: Ten thousand individual sequence reads yield over 6300 unique gene clusters of which almost half have no matches with named genes. One of the most abundant transcripts is from a gene (named "alpha") that maps to the BBS1 region of chromosome 11. A number of tissue preferred transcripts are common to both RPE/choroid and iris. These include oculoglycan/opticin, for which an alternative splice form is detected in RPE/choroid, and "oculospanin" (Ocsp), a novel tetraspanin that maps to chromosome 17q. Antiserum to Ocsp detects expression in RPE, iris, ciliary body, and retinal ganglion cells by IF. A newly identified gene for a zinc-finger protein (TIRC) maps to 19q13.4. Variant transcripts of several genes were also detected. Most notably, the predominant form of Bestrophin represented in cs contains a longer open reading frame as a result of splice junction skipping.

    Conclusions: The unamplified cs library gives a view of the transcriptional repertoire of the adult RPE/choroid. A large number of potentially novel genes and splice forms and candidates for genetic diseases are revealed. Clones from this collection are being included in a large, nonredundant set for cDNA microarray construction.

    Molecular vision 2002;8;205-20

  • The lipid raft microdomain-associated protein reggie-1/flotillin-2 is expressed in human B cells and localized at the plasma membrane and centrosome in PBMCs.

    Solomon S, Masilamani M, Rajendran L, Bastmeyer M, Stuermer CA and Illges H

    Faculty of Sciences, Department of Biology, University of Konstanz, Germany.

    Reggie-1/flotillin-2 is a plasma membrane-associated cytoplasmic protein, which defines non-caveolar raft microdomains. Reggie-1/flotillin-2 is enriched in detergent insoluble (TX100) membrane fractions (DIG), co-localizes with activated GPI-linked proteins and the fyn-kinase in neurons and T cells, and thus apparently participates in the assembly of protein complexes essential for signal transduction. In T cells activated by crosslinking the GPI-linked protein Thy-1 or by crosslinking the ganglioside GM1, reggie-1/flotillin-2 co-localizes with the T cell receptor. To determine whether reggie-1/flotillin-2 is also expressed in B cells, primary B cells from human blood and cell lines representing the developmental stages of pro, pre, mature and plasma B cells were analyzed by Western blotting, RT-PCR and immunofluorescence. Here, we show that reggie-1/flotillin-2 is expressed throughout B cell development, as well as in primary B cells, purified by cell sorting. On non-activated mature B cell Raji cell line we found reggie-1/flotillin-2 are exclusively in the detergent (TX100) insoluble membrane fractions that are staining positive for the raft marker GM1. Immunofluorescence microscopy showed that reggie-1/flotillin-2 is localized at the plasma membrane and marks intracellular spots in PBMCs. Confocal co-localization studies showed that reggie-1/flotillin-2 is associated with the plasma membrane, and the centrosomes (microtubule organizing centers) in these PBMCs. Comparison of reggie-1/flotillin-2 cDNA sequences with the genomic sequence database allowed us to determine the exon/intron structures in mouse and human. The gene organizations are highly conserved suggesting an important function of reggie-1/flotillin-2. Since reggie/flotillin proteins co-cluster with the T cell receptor and fyn kinases upon T cell stimulation, our findings of reggie-1/flotillin-2 in B cells suggest a similar role in B cell function.

    Immunobiology 2002;205;1;108-19

  • Glycosylphosphatidyl inositol-anchored proteins and fyn kinase assemble in noncaveolar plasma membrane microdomains defined by reggie-1 and -2.

    Stuermer CA, Lang DM, Kirsch F, Wiechers M, Deininger SO and Plattner H

    Department of Biology, University of Konstanz, 78467 Konstanz, Germany. claudia.stuermer@uni.konstanz.de

    Using confocal laser scanning and double immunogold electron microscopy, we demonstrate that reggie-1 and -2 are colocalized in < or =0.1-microm plasma membrane microdomains of neurons and astrocytes. In astrocytes, reggie-1 and -2 do not occur in caveolae but clearly outside these structures. Microscopy and coimmunoprecipitation show that reggie-1 and -2 are associated with fyn kinase and with the glycosylphosphatidyl inositol-anchored proteins Thy-1 and F3 that, when activated by antibody cross-linking, selectively copatch with reggie. Jurkat cells, after cross-linking of Thy-1 or GM1 (with the use of cholera toxin), exhibit substantial colocalization of reggie-1 and -2 with Thy-1, GM1, the T-cell receptor complex and fyn. This, and the accumulation of reggie proteins in detergent-resistant membrane fractions containing F3, Thy-1, and fyn imparts to reggie-1 and -2 properties of raft-associated proteins. It also suggests that reggie-1 and -2 participate in the formation of signal transduction centers. In addition, we find reggie-1 and -2 in endolysosomes. In Jurkat cells, reggie-1 and -2 together with fyn and Thy-1 increase in endolysosomes concurrent with a decrease at the plasma membrane. Thus, reggie-1 and -2 define raft-related microdomain signaling centers in neurons and T cells, and the protein complex involved in signaling becomes subject to degradation.

    Molecular biology of the cell 2001;12;10;3031-45

  • Stomatin, flotillin-1, and flotillin-2 are major integral proteins of erythrocyte lipid rafts.

    Salzer U and Prohaska R

    Institute of Medical Biochemistry, University of Vienna, Vienna Biocenter, Vienna, Austria.

    Lipid rafts are sphingolipid- and cholesterol-rich membrane microdomains that are insoluble in nonionic detergents, have a low buoyant density, and preferentially contain lipid-modified proteins, like glycosyl phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins. The lipid rafts were isolated from human erythrocytes and major protein components were identified. Apart from the GPI-anchored proteins, the most abundant integral proteins were found to be the distantly related membrane proteins stomatin (band 7.2b), flotillin-1, and flotillin-2. Flotillins, already described as lipid raft components in neurons and caveolae-associated proteins in A498 kidney cells, have not been recognized as red cell components yet. In addition, it was shown that the major cytoskeletal proteins, spectrin, actin, band 4.1, and band 4.2, are partly associated with the lipid rafts. Stomatin and the flotillins are present as independently organized high-order oligomers, suggesting that these complexes act as separate scaffolding components at the cytoplasmic face of erythrocyte lipid rafts.

    Blood 2001;97;4;1141-3

  • Flotillin 2 is distinct from epidermal surface antigen (ESA) and is associated with filopodia formation.

    Hazarika P, Dham N, Patel P, Cho M, Weidner D, Goldsmith L and Duvic M

    Department of Dermatology, University of Texas Medical School and Department of Medical Specialties, Section of Dermatology, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA.

    ECS-1, a monoclonal antibody (MoAb) raised to cultured human keratinocytes, stains the intercellular glycocalyx with a pemphigus-like pattern and recognizes a 35-kDa epidermal surface antigen (ESA) on Western blotting of keratinocyte extracts. When ECS-1 MoAb was used to screen a keratinocyte expression library, a unique cDNA was identified that predicted a 42-kDa globular protein of unknown function. This putative ESA was conserved between mice and humans and was encoded by a gene on chromosome 17q11-12 in linkage with neurofibromin. Homology between the cDNA sequence has been reported with flotillin 1, a caveolae associated protein, as well as Reggie 1 and 2, neuronal proteins expressed during axonal regeneration present in activated GPI-anchored cell adhesion molecules in non-caveolar-associated micropatches. In order to determine whether the cDNA predicted protein and ECS-1 antigen were identical, we compared ECS-1 with the immunoreactivity of a new antibody raised to the cDNA fusion protein in epidermis and cultured cells. The cDNA fusion protein was expressed in bacteria and in cos cells with his, FLAG, and EGFP reporter tags and by stable transfection as an EGFP fusion protein. The fusion protein and native protein of 42 kDa were detected by the new antibody, but not by the original ECS-1. Thus, the ECS-1 antigen, ESA (35 kDa), is clearly distinct from the protein predicted by the cDNA (renamed flotillin 2). Stable transfection of ESA/flotillin 2 fusion protein in cos cells induced filopodia formation and changed epithelial cells to a neuronal appearance. Thus, the function of flotillin 2 may resemble that of the goldfish optic nerve neuronal regeneration proteins, Reggie 1 and 2.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA-16672-22

    Journal of cellular biochemistry 1999;75;1;147-59

  • Flotillins/cavatellins are differentially expressed in cells and tissues and form a hetero-oligomeric complex with caveolins in vivo. Characterization and epitope-mapping of a novel flotillin-1 monoclonal antibody probe.

    Volonte D, Galbiati F, Li S, Nishiyama K, Okamoto T and Lisanti MP

    Department of Molecular Pharmacology and The Albert Einstein Cancer Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York 10461, USA.

    Caveolae are vesicular organelles that represent a subcompartment of the plasma membrane. Caveolins and flotillins are two families of mammalian caveolae-associated integral membrane proteins. However, it remains unknown whether flotillins interact with caveolin proteins to form a stable caveolar complex or if expression of flotillins can drive vesicle formation. Here, we examine the cell type and tissue-specific expression of the flotillin gene family. For this purpose, we generated a novel monoclonal antibody probe that recognizes only flotillin-1. A survey of cell and tissue types demonstrates that flotillins 1 and 2 have a complementary tissue distribution. At the cellular level, flotillin-2 was ubiquitously expressed, whereas flotillin-1 was most abundant in A498 kidney cells, muscle cell lines, and fibroblasts. Using three different models of cellular differentiation, we next examined the expression of flotillins 1 and 2. Taken together, our data suggest that the expression levels of flotillins 1 and 2 are independently regulated and does not strictly correlate with known expression patterns of caveolin family members. However, when caveolins and flotillins are co-expressed within the same cell, as in A498 cells, they form a stable hetero-oligomeric "caveolar complex." In support of these observations, we show that heterologous expression of murine flotillin-1 in Sf21 insect cells using baculovirus-based vectors is sufficient to drive the formation of caveolae-like vesicles. These results suggest that flotillins may participate functionally in the formation of caveolae or caveolae-like vesicles in vivo. Thus, flotillin-1 represents a new integral membrane protein marker for the slightly larger caveolae-related domains (50-200 nm) that are observed in cell types that fail to express caveolin-1. As a consequence of these findings, we propose the term "cavatellins" be used (instead of flotillins) to describe this gene family.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA-71326, R01-CA-80250; NIMH NIH HHS: MH-56036

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1999;274;18;12702-9

  • Construction and characterization of a full length-enriched and a 5'-end-enriched cDNA library.

    Suzuki Y, Yoshitomo-Nakagawa K, Maruyama K, Suyama A and Sugano S

    International and Interdisciplinary Studies, The University of Tokyo, Japan.

    Using 'oligo-capped' mRNA [Maruyama, K., Sugano, S., 1994. Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with oligoribonucleotides. Gene 138, 171-174], whose cap structure was replaced by a synthetic oligonucleotide, we constructed two types of cDNA library. One is a 'full length-enriched cDNA library' which has a high content of full-length cDNA clones and the other is a '5'-end-enriched cDNA library', which has a high content of cDNA clones with their mRNA start sites. The 5'-end-enriched library was constructed especially for isolating the mRNA start sites of long mRNAs. In order to characterize these libraries, we performed one-pass sequencing of randomly selected cDNA clones from both libraries (84 clones for the full length-enriched cDNA library and 159 clones for the 5'-end-enriched cDNA library). The cDNA clones of the polypeptide chain elongation factor 1 alpha were most frequently (nine clones) isolated, and more than 80% of them (eight clones) contained the mRNA start site of the gene. Furthermore, about 80% of the cDNA clones of both libraries whose sequence matched with known genes had the known 5' ends or sequences upstream of the known 5' ends (28 out of 35 for the full length-enriched library and 51 out of 62 for the 5'-end-enriched library). The longest full-length clone of the full length-enriched cDNA library was about 3300 bp (among 28 clones). In contrast, seven clones (out of the 51 clones with the mRNA start sites) from the 5'-end-enriched cDNA library came from mRNAs whose length is more than 3500 bp. These cDNA libraries may be useful for generating 5' ESTs with the information of the mRNA start sites that are now scarce in the EST database.

    Gene 1997;200;1-2;149-56

  • Cloning and characterization of a novel epidermal cell surface antigen (ESA).

    Schroeder WT, Stewart-Galetka S, Mandavilli S, Parry DA, Goldsmith L and Duvic M

    Department of Dermatology, University of Texas Medical School, Houston 77030.

    We report here the isolation and characterization of a cDNA that encodes a novel extracellular epidermal molecule, epidermal surface antigen (ESA), which is thought to play a role in intercellular epidermal adhesion. Sequence analysis reveals that the 379 amino acid ESA has a molecular mass of about 41.7 kDa and an alpha-helix-rich secondary conformation. Much of this also has an heptad substructure, consistent with the formation of several bundles of alpha-helices in a compact globular structure. The ESA protein appears to consist of an NH2-terminal hydrophobic region with mixed alpha and beta structure followed by a more hydrophilic COOH-terminal region which is very rich in alpha-helix. The 2.5-kilobase ESA mRNA is expressed in cultured keratinocytes, melanocytes, fibroblasts, carcinoma, and melanoma cell lines. The ESA gene is conserved in all mammalian species examined and has been localized to human chromosome 17 (M17S1) in the same region as the gene for von Recklinghausen neurofibromatosis. The high level of expression of the ESA mRNA in human skin and in cultured cells derived from the epidermis, the appearance of ESA protein early in human development, and conservation of the ESA gene throughout mammalian evolution suggest that the novel ESA protein plays a vital role in epidermal structure and maintenance.

    Funded by: NIAMS NIH HHS: AR-30965, AR-36546, AR-40970; ...

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1994;269;31;19983-91

  • Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with oligoribonucleotides.

    Maruyama K and Sugano S

    Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Japan.

    We have devised a method to replace the cap structure of a mRNA with an oligoribonucleotide (r-oligo) to label the 5' end of eukaryotic mRNAs. The method consists of removing the cap with tobacco acid pyrophosphatase (TAP) and ligating r-oligos to decapped mRNAs with T4 RNA ligase. This reaction was made cap-specific by removing 5'-phosphates of non-capped RNAs with alkaline phosphatase prior to TAP treatment. Unlike the conventional methods that label the 5' end of cDNAs, this method specifically labels the capped end of the mRNAs with a synthetic r-oligo prior to first-strand cDNA synthesis. The 5' end of the mRNA was identified quite simply by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).

    Gene 1994;138;1-2;171-4

  • The human gene for an epidermal surface antigen (M17S1) is located at 17q11-12.

    Schroeder WT, Siciliano MJ, Stewart-Galetka SL and Duvic M

    Department of Dermatology, University of Texas Medical School, Houston 77030.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA34936; NIAMS NIH HHS: R29-AR36546

    Genomics 1991;11;2;481-2

Gene lists (6)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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