G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
piccolo (presynaptic cytomatrix protein)
G00000864 (Mus musculus)

Databases (7)

ENSG00000186472 (Ensembl human gene)
27445 (Entrez Gene)
457 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
PCLO (GeneCards)
604918 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:13406 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
Q9Y6V0 (UniProt)

Synonyms (3)

  • ACZ
  • DKFZp779G1236
  • KIAA0559

Literature (17)

Pubmed - other

  • The PCLO gene and depressive disorders: replication in a population-based study.

    Hek K, Mulder CL, Luijendijk HJ, van Duijn CM, Hofman A, Uitterlinden AG and Tiemeier H

    O3 Research Center, Department of Psychiatry, Erasmus University Medical Center, PO Box 2040, Rotterdam 3000 CA, The Netherlands.

    Previous genome-wide association analysis revealed a new putative candidate gene for major depression: the PCLO gene. Replication in one population-based cohort did not yield genome-wide significance and further replication efforts in clinical studies were unsuccessful. We aimed to validate the association of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs2522833 in the PCLO gene with depression in the Rotterdam Study, a prospective population-based cohort of elderly persons. In the Rotterdam Study, we identified 579 persons with a broad depression phenotype (depressive syndromes) of whom 178 cases with DSM-defined depressive disorder. The control group consisted of 912 persons free of depression during the follow-up period and in their histories. Logistic regression analysis showed an association between rs2522833 and depressive disorders (P = 0.0025). However, no association between the broader depressive syndrome group and this SNP was observed (P = 0.20). A meta-analysis combining all studies from the original publication and our study yielded a P-value of 2.16 x 10(-3) for the association between SNP rs2522833 and depressive disorders. However, as in the previous publication, high heterogeneity between studies was observed. Thus, a meta-analysis with the findings from three population-based studies was performed. This demonstrated a genome-wide significant P-value (P = 1.93 x 10(-9)). In conclusion, this study provides additional evidence for an association between PCLO and depressive disorders in a population-based study; no association with a broader syndromal phenotype was observed.

    Human molecular genetics 2010;19;4;731-4

  • Joint reanalysis of 29 correlated SNPs supports the role of PCLO/Piccolo as a causal risk factor for major depressive disorder.

    Bochdanovits Z, Verhage M, Smit AB, de Geus EJ, Posthuma D, Boomsma DI, Penninx BW, Hoogendijk WJ and Heutink P

    Molecular psychiatry 2009;14;7;650-2

  • Genome-wide association for major depressive disorder: a possible role for the presynaptic protein piccolo.

    Sullivan PF, de Geus EJ, Willemsen G, James MR, Smit JH, Zandbelt T, Arolt V, Baune BT, Blackwood D, Cichon S, Coventry WL, Domschke K, Farmer A, Fava M, Gordon SD, He Q, Heath AC, Heutink P, Holsboer F, Hoogendijk WJ, Hottenga JJ, Hu Y, Kohli M, Lin D, Lucae S, Macintyre DJ, Maier W, McGhee KA, McGuffin P, Montgomery GW, Muir WJ, Nolen WA, Nöthen MM, Perlis RH, Pirlo K, Posthuma D, Rietschel M, Rizzu P, Schosser A, Smit AB, Smoller JW, Tzeng JY, van Dyck R, Verhage M, Zitman FG, Martin NG, Wray NR, Boomsma DI and Penninx BW

    Department of Genetics, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7264, USA. pfsulliv@med.unc.edu

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common complex trait with enormous public health significance. As part of the Genetic Association Information Network initiative of the US Foundation for the National Institutes of Health, we conducted a genome-wide association study of 435 291 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped in 1738 MDD cases and 1802 controls selected to be at low liability for MDD. Of the top 200, 11 signals localized to a 167 kb region overlapping the gene piccolo (PCLO, whose protein product localizes to the cytomatrix of the presynaptic active zone and is important in monoaminergic neurotransmission in the brain) with P-values of 7.7 x 10(-7) for rs2715148 and 1.2 x 10(-6) for rs2522833. We undertook replication of SNPs in this region in five independent samples (6079 MDD independent cases and 5893 controls) but no SNP exceeded the replication significance threshold when all replication samples were analyzed together. However, there was heterogeneity in the replication samples, and secondary analysis of the original sample with the sample of greatest similarity yielded P=6.4 x 10(-8) for the nonsynonymous SNP rs2522833 that gives rise to a serine to alanine substitution near a C2 calcium-binding domain of the PCLO protein. With the integrated replication effort, we present a specific hypothesis for further studies.

    Funded by: Medical Research Council: G0600204; NIAAA NIH HHS: R01 AA013320; NIDA NIH HHS: R01 DA012854, R56 DA012854; NIMH NIH HHS: MH081802, R01 MH059160, R01 MH059160-04, R01 MH074027, R01 MH077139, R01 MH081802, R01 MH081802-01, R01 MH084022, R01 MH084022-01A1

    Molecular psychiatry 2009;14;4;359-75

  • PCLO variants are nominally associated with early-onset type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance in Pima Indians.

    Ma L, Hanson RL, Que LN, Guo Y, Kobes S, Bogardus C and Baier LJ

    Department of Health and HumanServices, Diabetes Molecular Genetics Section, Phoenix Epidemiology and Clinical Research Branch, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and KidneyDiseases, National Institutes of Health, Phoenix, Arizona, USA.

    Objective: A prior genome-wide association (GWA) study in Pima Indians identified variants within PCLO that were associated with early-onset type 2 diabetes. PCLO encodes a presynaptic cytomatrix protein that functions as a Ca(2+) sensor that may be involved in insulin secretion and/or insulin action. Therefore, PCLO was analyzed as a candidate gene for type 2 diabetes.

    Sequencing of PCLO identified four nonsynonymous variants and a 10-amino acid insertion. These variants, together with 100 additional variants identified by sequencing or chosen from databases, were genotyped for association analysis in the same 895 subjects analyzed in the prior GWA study (300 case subjects with diabetes onset at aged <25 years, 334 nondiabetic control subjects aged >45 years, and 261 discordant siblings of the case or control subjects for within-family analyses), as well as 415 nondiabetic Pima Indians who had been metabolically phenotyped for predictors of diabetes. Selected variants were further genotyped in a population-based sample of 3,501 Pima Indians.

    Results: Four variants were modestly associated with early-onset type 2 diabetes in both general and within-family analyses (P = 0.004-0.04, recessive model), where the diabetes risk allele was also nominally associated with a lower insulin-mediated glucose disposal rate (P = 0.009-0.14, recessive model) in nondiabetic Pima Indians. However, their association with diabetes in the population-based sample was weaker (P = 0.02-0.20, recessive model).

    Conclusions: Variation within PCLO may have a modest effect on early-onset type 2 diabetes, possibly as a result of reduced insulin action, but has minimal, if any, impact on population-based risk for type 2 diabetes.

    Funded by: Intramural NIH HHS

    Diabetes 2008;57;11;3156-60

  • Genetic correlates of longevity and selected age-related phenotypes: a genome-wide association study in the Framingham Study.

    Lunetta KL, D'Agostino RB, Karasik D, Benjamin EJ, Guo CY, Govindaraju R, Kiel DP, Kelly-Hayes M, Massaro JM, Pencina MJ, Seshadri S and Murabito JM

    The National Heart Lung and Blood Institute's Framingham Heart Study, Framingham, MA, USA. klunetta@bu.edu

    Background: Family studies and heritability estimates provide evidence for a genetic contribution to variation in the human life span.

    Methods: We conducted a genome wide association study (Affymetrix 100K SNP GeneChip) for longevity-related traits in a community-based sample. We report on 5 longevity and aging traits in up to 1345 Framingham Study participants from 330 families. Multivariable-adjusted residuals were computed using appropriate models (Cox proportional hazards, logistic, or linear regression) and the residuals from these models were used to test for association with qualifying SNPs (70, 987 autosomal SNPs with genotypic call rate > or =80%, minor allele frequency > or =10%, Hardy-Weinberg test p > or = 0.001).

    Results: In family-based association test (FBAT) models, 8 SNPs in two regions approximately 500 kb apart on chromosome 1 (physical positions 73,091,610 and 73, 527,652) were associated with age at death (p-value < 10(-5)). The two sets of SNPs were in high linkage disequilibrium (minimum r2 = 0.58). The top 30 SNPs for generalized estimating equation (GEE) tests of association with age at death included rs10507486 (p = 0.0001) and rs4943794 (p = 0.0002), SNPs intronic to FOXO1A, a gene implicated in lifespan extension in animal models. FBAT models identified 7 SNPs and GEE models identified 9 SNPs associated with both age at death and morbidity-free survival at age 65 including rs2374983 near PON1. In the analysis of selected candidate genes, SNP associations (FBAT or GEE p-value < 0.01) were identified for age at death in or near the following genes: FOXO1A, GAPDH, KL, LEPR, PON1, PSEN1, SOD2, and WRN. Top ranked SNP associations in the GEE model for age at natural menopause included rs6910534 (p = 0.00003) near FOXO3a and rs3751591 (p = 0.00006) in CYP19A1. Results of all longevity phenotype-genotype associations for all autosomal SNPs are web posted at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/projects/gap/cgi-bin/study.cgi?id=phs000007 webcite.

    Conclusion: Longevity and aging traits are associated with SNPs on the Affymetrix 100K GeneChip. None of the associations achieved genome-wide significance. These data generate hypotheses and serve as a resource for replication as more genes and biologic pathways are proposed as contributing to longevity and healthy aging.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: 1S10RR163736-01A1; NHLBI NIH HHS: N01-HC-25195, N01HC25195; NIA NIH HHS: AG028321, R01 AG028321, R01 AR/AG 41398; NIAMS NIH HHS: R01 AR041398; NINDS NIH HHS: R01 NS017950

    BMC medical genetics 2007;8 Suppl 1;S13

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • Physical and functional interaction of the active zone proteins, CAST, RIM1, and Bassoon, in neurotransmitter release.

    Takao-Rikitsu E, Mochida S, Inoue E, Deguchi-Tawarada M, Inoue M, Ohtsuka T and Takai Y

    KAN Research Institute, Kyoto Research Park, Shimogyo-ku, Kyoto 600-8815, Japan.

    We have recently isolated a novel cytomatrix at the active zone (CAZ)-associated protein, CAST, and found it directly binds another CAZ protein RIM1 and indirectly binds Munc13-1 through RIM1; RIM1 and Munc13-1 directly bind to each other and are implicated in priming of synaptic vesicles. Here, we show that all the CAZ proteins thus far known form a large molecular complex in the brain, including CAST, RIM1, Munc13-1, Bassoon, and Piccolo. RIM1 and Bassoon directly bind to the COOH terminus and central region of CAST, respectively, forming a ternary complex. Piccolo, which is structurally related to Bassoon, also binds to the Bassoon-binding region of CAST. Moreover, the microinjected RIM1- or Bassoon-binding region of CAST impairs synaptic transmission in cultured superior cervical ganglion neurons. Furthermore, the CAST-binding domain of RIM1 or Bassoon also impairs synaptic transmission in the cultured neurons. These results indicate that CAST serves as a key component of the CAZ structure and is involved in neurotransmitter release by binding these CAZ proteins.

    The Journal of cell biology 2004;164;2;301-11

  • The DNA sequence of human chromosome 7.

    Hillier LW, Fulton RS, Fulton LA, Graves TA, Pepin KH, Wagner-McPherson C, Layman D, Maas J, Jaeger S, Walker R, Wylie K, Sekhon M, Becker MC, O'Laughlin MD, Schaller ME, Fewell GA, Delehaunty KD, Miner TL, Nash WE, Cordes M, Du H, Sun H, Edwards J, Bradshaw-Cordum H, Ali J, Andrews S, Isak A, Vanbrunt A, Nguyen C, Du F, Lamar B, Courtney L, Kalicki J, Ozersky P, Bielicki L, Scott K, Holmes A, Harkins R, Harris A, Strong CM, Hou S, Tomlinson C, Dauphin-Kohlberg S, Kozlowicz-Reilly A, Leonard S, Rohlfing T, Rock SM, Tin-Wollam AM, Abbott A, Minx P, Maupin R, Strowmatt C, Latreille P, Miller N, Johnson D, Murray J, Woessner JP, Wendl MC, Yang SP, Schultz BR, Wallis JW, Spieth J, Bieri TA, Nelson JO, Berkowicz N, Wohldmann PE, Cook LL, Hickenbotham MT, Eldred J, Williams D, Bedell JA, Mardis ER, Clifton SW, Chissoe SL, Marra MA, Raymond C, Haugen E, Gillett W, Zhou Y, James R, Phelps K, Iadanoto S, Bubb K, Simms E, Levy R, Clendenning J, Kaul R, Kent WJ, Furey TS, Baertsch RA, Brent MR, Keibler E, Flicek P, Bork P, Suyama M, Bailey JA, Portnoy ME, Torrents D, Chinwalla AT, Gish WR, Eddy SR, McPherson JD, Olson MV, Eichler EE, Green ED, Waterston RH and Wilson RK

    Genome Sequencing Center, Washington University School of Medicine, Campus Box 8501, 4444 Forest Park Avenue, St Louis, Missouri 63108, USA.

    Human chromosome 7 has historically received prominent attention in the human genetics community, primarily related to the search for the cystic fibrosis gene and the frequent cytogenetic changes associated with various forms of cancer. Here we present more than 153 million base pairs representing 99.4% of the euchromatic sequence of chromosome 7, the first metacentric chromosome completed so far. The sequence has excellent concordance with previously established physical and genetic maps, and it exhibits an unusual amount of segmentally duplicated sequence (8.2%), with marked differences between the two arms. Our initial analyses have identified 1,150 protein-coding genes, 605 of which have been confirmed by complementary DNA sequences, and an additional 941 pseudogenes. Of genes confirmed by transcript sequences, some are polymorphic for mutations that disrupt the reading frame.

    Nature 2003;424;6945;157-64

  • Human chromosome 7: DNA sequence and biology.

    Scherer SW, Cheung J, MacDonald JR, Osborne LR, Nakabayashi K, Herbrick JA, Carson AR, Parker-Katiraee L, Skaug J, Khaja R, Zhang J, Hudek AK, Li M, Haddad M, Duggan GE, Fernandez BA, Kanematsu E, Gentles S, Christopoulos CC, Choufani S, Kwasnicka D, Zheng XH, Lai Z, Nusskern D, Zhang Q, Gu Z, Lu F, Zeesman S, Nowaczyk MJ, Teshima I, Chitayat D, Shuman C, Weksberg R, Zackai EH, Grebe TA, Cox SR, Kirkpatrick SJ, Rahman N, Friedman JM, Heng HH, Pelicci PG, Lo-Coco F, Belloni E, Shaffer LG, Pober B, Morton CC, Gusella JF, Bruns GA, Korf BR, Quade BJ, Ligon AH, Ferguson H, Higgins AW, Leach NT, Herrick SR, Lemyre E, Farra CG, Kim HG, Summers AM, Gripp KW, Roberts W, Szatmari P, Winsor EJ, Grzeschik KH, Teebi A, Minassian BA, Kere J, Armengol L, Pujana MA, Estivill X, Wilson MD, Koop BF, Tosi S, Moore GE, Boright AP, Zlotorynski E, Kerem B, Kroisel PM, Petek E, Oscier DG, Mould SJ, Döhner H, Döhner K, Rommens JM, Vincent JB, Venter JC, Li PW, Mural RJ, Adams MD and Tsui LC

    Department of Genetics and Genomic Biology, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, M5G 1X8. steve@genet.sickkids.on.ca

    DNA sequence and annotation of the entire human chromosome 7, encompassing nearly 158 million nucleotides of DNA and 1917 gene structures, are presented. To generate a higher order description, additional structural features such as imprinted genes, fragile sites, and segmental duplications were integrated at the level of the DNA sequence with medical genetic data, including 440 chromosome rearrangement breakpoints associated with disease. This approach enabled the discovery of candidate genes for developmental diseases including autism.

    Funded by: Canadian Institutes of Health Research: 38103; NIGMS NIH HHS: P01 GM061354

    Science (New York, N.Y.) 2003;300;5620;767-72

  • The GIT family of proteins forms multimers and associates with the presynaptic cytomatrix protein Piccolo.

    Kim S, Ko J, Shin H, Lee JR, Lim C, Han JH, Altrock WD, Garner CC, Gundelfinger ED, Premont RT, Kaang BK and Kim E

    Department of Biological Sciences, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701, Korea.

    The cytoskeletal matrix assembled at active zones (CAZ) is implicated in defining neurotransmitter release sites. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms by which the CAZ is organized. Here we report a novel interaction between Piccolo, a core component of the CAZ, and GIT proteins, multidomain signaling integrators with GTPase-activating protein activity for ADP-ribosylation factor small GTPases. A small region (approximately 150 amino acid residues) in Piccolo, which is not conserved in the closely related CAZ protein Bassoon, mediates a direct interaction with the Spa2 homology domain (SHD) domain of GIT1. Piccolo and GIT1 colocalize at synaptic sites in cultured neurons. In brain, Piccolo forms a complex with GIT1 and various GIT-associated proteins, including betaPIX, focal adhesion kinase, liprin-alpha, and paxillin. Point mutations in the SHD of GIT1 differentially interfere with the association of GIT1 with Piccolo, betaPIX, and focal adhesion kinase, suggesting that these proteins bind to the SHD by different mechanisms. Intriguingly, GIT proteins form homo- and heteromultimers through their C-terminal G-protein-coupled receptor kinase-binding domain in a tail-to-tail fashion. This multimerization enables GIT1 to simultaneously interact with multiple SHD-binding proteins including Piccolo and betaPIX. These results suggest that, through their multimerization and interaction with Piccolo, the GIT family proteins are involved in the organization of the CAZ.

    Funded by: NIA NIH HHS: P01-AG06569; NINDS NIH HHS: R01-NS39471

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;8;6291-300

  • Gene structure and genetic localization of the PCLO gene encoding the presynaptic active zone protein Piccolo.

    Fenster SD and Garner CC

    Department of Neurobiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294-0021, USA.

    Piccolo belongs to a family of presynaptic cytoskeletal proteins likely to be involved in the assembly and function of presynaptic active zones as sites of neurotransmitter release. Given that abnormalities in the formation of synaptic junctions are thought to contribute to cognitive dysfunction during brain development, we have analyzed and compared the gene structure of the Piccolo gene, PCLO, from humans and mice and determined their chromosomal localization. A comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence of cDNA clones encoding Piccolo from human, mouse, rat and chicken reveals the presence of distinct homology domains. Only subsets of these are also present in the structurally related active zone protein Bassoon indicating that Piccolo and Bassoon perform related but distinct functions at active zones. Characterization of the PCLO gene reveals the presence of 25 coding exons spread over 380kb of genomic DNA. The human PCLO gene maps to 7q11.23-q21.3, a region of chromosome 7 implicated as a linkage site for autism and Williams Syndrome suggesting that alterations in the expression of Piccolo or the PCLO gene could contribute to developmental disabilities and mental retardation.

    Funded by: NIA NIH HHS: P01 AG06569; NICHD NIH HHS: P50 HD32901; NINDS NIH HHS: R01 NS39471

    International journal of developmental neuroscience : the official journal of the International Society for Developmental Neuroscience 2002;20;3-5;161-71

  • Piccolo, a presynaptic zinc finger protein structurally related to bassoon.

    Fenster SD, Chung WJ, Zhai R, Cases-Langhoff C, Voss B, Garner AM, Kaempf U, Kindler S, Gundelfinger ED and Garner CC

    Department of Neurobiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 35294, USA.

    Piccolo is a novel component of the presynaptic cytoskeletal matrix (PCM) assembled at the active zone of neurotransmitter release. Analysis of its primary structure reveals that Piccolo is a multidomain zinc finger protein structurally related to Bassoon, another PCM protein. Both proteins were found to be shared components of glutamatergic and GABAergic CNS synapses but not of the cholinergic neuromuscular junction. The Piccolo zinc fingers were found to interact with the dual prenylated rab3A and VAMP2/Synaptobrevin II receptor PRA1. We show that PRA1 is a synaptic vesicle-associated protein that is colocalized with Piccolo in nerve terminals of hippocampal primary neurons. These data suggest that Piccolo plays a role in the trafficking of synaptic vesicles (SVs) at the active zone.

    Funded by: NIA NIH HHS: AG 06569-09, AG 12978-02; NICHD NIH HHS: P50 HD32901

    Neuron 2000;25;1;203-14

  • Aczonin, a 550-kD putative scaffolding protein of presynaptic active zones, shares homology regions with Rim and Bassoon and binds profilin.

    Wang X, Kibschull M, Laue MM, Lichte B, Petrasch-Parwez E and Kilimann MW

    Institut für Physiologische Chemie, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum, Germany.

    Neurotransmitter exocytosis is restricted to the active zone, a specialized area of the presynaptic plasma membrane. We report the identification and initial characterization of aczonin, a neuron-specific 550-kD protein concentrated at the presynaptic active zone and associated with a detergent-resistant cytoskeletal subcellular fraction. Analysis of the amino acid sequences of chicken and mouse aczonin indicates an organization into multiple domains, including two pairs of Cys(4) zinc fingers, a polyproline tract, and a PDZ domain and two C2 domains near the COOH terminus. The second C2 domain is subject to differential splicing. Aczonin binds profilin, an actin-binding protein implicated in actin cytoskeletal dynamics. Large parts of aczonin, including the zinc finger, PDZ, and C2 domains, are homologous to Rim or to Bassoon, two other proteins concentrated in presynaptic active zones. We propose that aczonin is a scaffolding protein involved in the organization of the molecular architecture of synaptic active zones and in the orchestration of neurotransmitter vesicle trafficking.

    The Journal of cell biology 1999;147;1;151-62

  • Toward a complete human genome sequence.

    Sanger Center and Genome Sequencing Center

    Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SA, UK;

    We have begun a joint program as part of a coordinated international effort to determine a complete human genome sequence. Our strategy is to map large-insert bacterial clones and to sequence each clone by a random shotgun approach followed by directed finishing. As of September 1998, we have identified the map positions of bacterial clones covering approximately 860 Mb for sequencing and completed >98 Mb ( approximately 3.3%) of the human genome sequence. Our progress and sequencing data can be accessed via the World Wide Web (http://webace.sanger.ac.uk/HGP/ or http://genome.wustl.edu/gsc/).

    Genome research 1998;8;11;1097-108

  • Prediction of the coding sequences of unidentified human genes. IX. The complete sequences of 100 new cDNA clones from brain which can code for large proteins in vitro.

    Nagase T, Ishikawa K, Miyajima N, Tanaka A, Kotani H, Nomura N and Ohara O

    Kazusa DNA Research Institute, Kisarazu, Chiba, Japan.

    As an extension of a series of projects for sequencing human cDNA clones derived from relatively long transcripts, we herein report the entire sequences of 100 newly determined cDNA clones with the potential of coding for large proteins in vitro. The cDNA clones were isolated from size-fractionated human brain cDNA libraries with insert sizes between 4.5 and 8.3 kb. The sequencing of these clones revealed that the average size of the cDNA inserts and of their open reading frames was 5.3 kb and 2.8 kb (930 amino acid residues), respectively. Homology search against public databases indicated that the predicted coding sequences of 86 clones exhibited significant similarities to known genes; 51 of them (59%) were related to those for cell signaling/communication, nucleic acid management, and cell structure/motility. All the clones characterized in this study are accompanied by their expression profiles in 14 human tissues examined by reverse transcription-coupled polymerase chain reaction and the chromosomal mapping data.

    DNA research : an international journal for rapid publication of reports on genes and genomes 1998;5;1;31-9

  • Piccolo, a novel 420 kDa protein associated with the presynaptic cytomatrix.

    Cases-Langhoff C, Voss B, Garner AM, Appeltauer U, Takei K, Kindler S, Veh RW, De Camilli P, Gundelfinger ED and Garner CC

    Center for Molecular Neurobiology, University of Hamburg, Germany.

    In this study, we describe a novel 420 kDa protein, called Piccolo, found at a wide variety of adult rat brain synapses. High protein levels in the cerebellum, the olfactory bulb and the hippocampus were frequently observed to be associated with asymmetric type 1 synapses. Piccolo is selectively enriched in presynaptic terminals, but is not a component of synaptic vesicles (SVs). Immunogold electron microscopy revealed that Piccolo localizes to the amorphous material among SVs at the presynaptic plasma membrane. Biochemical studies showed that it is very tightly bound to this structure. Thus, we speculate that Piccolo is a structural component of the presynaptic cytomatrix which anchors SVs to the presynaptic plasmalemma.

    Funded by: NICHD NIH HHS: P50-HD32901

    European journal of cell biology 1996;69;3;214-23

Gene lists (6)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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