G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
G00002111
Gene symbol
SHANK1 (HGNC)
Species
Homo sapiens
Description
SH3 and multiple ankyrin repeat domains 1
Orthologue
G00000862 (Mus musculus)

Databases (8)

Curated Gene
OTTHUMG00000137380 (Vega human gene)
Gene
ENSG00000161681 (Ensembl human gene)
50944 (Entrez Gene)
28 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
SHANK1 (GeneCards)
Literature
604999 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:15474 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
Q9Y566 (UniProt)

Synonyms (3)

  • SPANK-1
  • SSTRIP
  • synamon

Literature (19)

Pubmed - other

  • Shank1 mRNA: dendritic transport by kinesin and translational control by the 5'untranslated region.

    Falley K, Schütt J, Iglauer P, Menke K, Maas C, Kneussel M, Kindler S, Wouters FS, Richter D and Kreienkamp HJ

    Institut für Humangenetik, Universitätsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf; Martinistrasse 52; 20246 Hamburg, Germany.

    Dendritic mRNA transport coupled with local regulation of translation enables neurons to selectively alter the protein composition of individual postsynaptic sites. We have analyzed dendritic localization of shank1 mRNAs; shank proteins (shank1-3) are scaffolding molecules of the postsynaptic density (PSD) of excitatory synapses, which are crucial for PSD assembly and the formation of dendritic spines. Live cell imaging demonstrates saltatory movements of shank1 mRNA containing granules along microtubules in both anterograde and retrograde directions. A population of brain messenger ribonucleoprotein particles (mRNPs) containing shank1 mRNAs associates with the cargo-binding domain of the motor protein KIF5C. Through expression of dominant negative proteins, we show that dendritic targeting of shank1 mRNA granules involves KIF5C and the KIF5-associated RNA-binding protein staufen1. While transport of shank1 mRNAs follows principles previously outlined for other dendritic transcripts, shank1 mRNAs are distinguished by their translational regulation. Translation is strongly inhibited by a GC-rich 5(')untranslated region; in addition, internal ribosomal entry sites previously detected in other dendritic transcripts are absent in the shank1 mRNA. A concept emerges from our data in which dendritic transport of different mRNAs occurs collectively via a staufen1- and KIF5-dependent pathway, whereas their local translation is controlled individually by unique cis-acting elements.

    Traffic (Copenhagen, Denmark) 2009;10;7;844-57

  • The crystal structure of mitochondrial (Type 1A) peptide deformylase provides clear guidelines for the design of inhibitors specific for the bacterial forms.

    Fieulaine S, Juillan-Binard C, Serero A, Dardel F, Giglione C, Meinnel T and Ferrer JL

    Institut de Biologie Structurale J-P. Ebel CEA-CNRS-UJF, UMR5075, Laboratoire de Cristallographie et Cristallogenèse des Protéines (LCCP/GSY), 41 Rue Jules Horowitz, F-38027 Grenoble Cedex 1, France.

    Peptide deformylase (PDF) inhibitors have a strong potential to be used as a new class of antibiotics. However, recent studies have shown that the mitochondria of most eukaryotes, including humans, contain an essential PDF, PDF1A. The crystal structure of the Arabidopsis thaliana PDF1A (AtPDF1A), considered representative of PDF1As in general, has been determined. This structure displays several similarities to that of known bacterial PDFs. AtPDF1A behaves as a dimer, with the C-terminal residues responsible for linking the two subunits. This arrangement is similar to that of Leptospira interrogans PDF, the only other dimeric PDF identified to date. AtPDF1A is the first PDF for which zinc has been identified as the catalytic ion. However, the zinc binding pocket does not differ from the binding pockets of PDFs with iron rather than zinc. The crystal structure of AtPDF1A in complex with a substrate analog revealed that the substrate binding pocket of PDF1A displays strong modifications. The S1' binding pocket is significantly narrower, due to the creation of a floor from residues present in all PDF1As but not in bacterial PDFs. A true S3' pocket is created by the residues of a helical CD-loop, which is very long in PDF1As. Finally, these modified substrate binding pockets modify the position of the substrate in the active site. These differences provide guidelines for the design of bacterial PDF inhibitors that will not target mitochondrial PDFs.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2005;280;51;42315-24

  • Ribosomal S6 kinase 2 interacts with and phosphorylates PDZ domain-containing proteins and regulates AMPA receptor transmission.

    Thomas GM, Rumbaugh GR, Harrar DB and Huganir RL

    Department of Neuroscience and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 725 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA.

    Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling is important for neuronal synaptic plasticity. We report here that the protein kinase ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK)2, a downstream target of ERK, uses a C-terminal motif to bind several PDZ domain proteins in heterologous systems and in vivo. Different RSK isoforms display distinct specificities in their interactions with PDZ domain proteins. Mutation of the RSK2 PDZ ligand does not inhibit RSK2 activation in intact cells or phosphorylation of peptide substrates by RSK2 in vitro but greatly reduces RSK2 phosphorylation of PDZ domain proteins of the Shank family in heterologous cells. In primary neurons, NMDA receptor (NMDA-R) activation leads to ERK and RSK2 activation and RSK-dependent phosphorylation of transfected Shank3. RSK2-PDZ domain interactions are functionally important for synaptic transmission because neurons expressing kinase-dead RSK2 display a dramatic reduction in frequency of AMPA-type glutamate receptor-mediated miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents, an effect dependent on the PDZ ligand. These results suggest that binding of RSK2 to PDZ domain proteins and phosphorylation of these proteins or their binding partners regulates excitatory synaptic transmission.

    Funded by: NIMH NIH HHS: R01 MH064856, R01 MH64856-04; Wellcome Trust

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2005;102;42;15006-11

  • A novel scaffold protein, TANC, possibly a rat homolog of Drosophila rolling pebbles (rols), forms a multiprotein complex with various postsynaptic density proteins.

    Suzuki T, Li W, Zhang JP, Tian QB, Sakagami H, Usuda N, Usada N, Kondo H, Fujii T and Endo S

    Department of Neuroplasticity, Institute on Ageing and Adaptation, Shinshu University Graduate School of Medicine, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto 390-8621, Japan. suzukit@sch.md.shinshu-u.ac.jp

    We cloned from the rat brain a novel gene, tanc (GenBank Accession No. AB098072), which encoded a protein containing three tetratricopeptide repeats (TPRs), ten ankyrin repeats and a coiled-coil region, and is possibly a rat homolog of Drosophila rolling pebbles (rols). The tanc gene was expressed widely in the adult rat brain. Subcellular distribution, immunohistochemical study of the brain and immunocytochemical studies of cultured neuronal cells indicated the postsynaptic localization of TANC protein of 200 kDa. Pull-down experiments showed that TANC protein bound PSD-95, SAP97, and Homer via its C-terminal PDZ-binding motif, -ESNV, and fodrin via both its ankyrin repeats and the TPRs together with the coiled-coil domain. TANC also bound the alpha subunit of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II. An immunoprecipitation study showed TANC association with various postsynaptic proteins, including guanylate kinase-associated protein (GKAP), alpha-internexin, and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-type glutamate receptor 2B and AMPA-type glutamate receptor (GluR1) subunits. These results suggest that TANC protein may work as a postsynaptic scaffold component by forming a multiprotein complex with various postsynaptic density proteins.

    The European journal of neuroscience 2005;21;2;339-50

  • Crystal structure of the Shank PDZ-ligand complex reveals a class I PDZ interaction and a novel PDZ-PDZ dimerization.

    Im YJ, Lee JH, Park SH, Park SJ, Rho SH, Kang GB, Kim E and Eom SH

    Department of Life Science, Kwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 500-712, South Korea.

    The Shank/proline-rich synapse-associated protein family of multidomain proteins is known to play an important role in the organization of synaptic multiprotein complexes. For instance, the Shank PDZ domain binds to the C termini of guanylate kinase-associated proteins, which in turn interact with the guanylate kinase domain of postsynaptic density-95 scaffolding proteins. Here we describe the crystal structures of Shank1 PDZ in its peptide free form and in complex with the C-terminal hexapeptide (EAQTRL) of guanylate kinase-associated protein (GKAP1a) determined at 1.8- and 2.25-A resolutions, respectively. The structure shows the typical class I PDZ interaction of PDZ-peptide complex with the consensus sequence -X-(Thr/Ser)-X-Leu. In addition, Asp-634 within the Shank1 PDZ domain recognizes the positively charged Arg at -1 position and hydrogen bonds, and salt bridges between Arg-607 and the side chains of the ligand at -3 and -5 positions contribute further to the recognition of the peptide ligand. Remarkably, whether free or complexed, Shank1 PDZ domains form dimers with a conserved beta B/beta C loop and N-terminal beta A strands, suggesting a novel model of PDZ-PDZ homodimerization. This implies that antiparallel dimerization through the N-terminal beta A strands could be a common configuration among PDZ dimers. Within the dimeric structure, the two-peptide binding sites are arranged so that the N termini of the bound peptide ligands are in close proximity and oriented toward the 2-fold axis of the dimer. This configuration may provide a means of facilitating dimeric organization of PDZ-target assemblies.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;48;48099-104

  • Novel human and mouse genes encoding a shank-interacting protein and its upregulation in gastric fundus of W/WV mouse.

    Daigo Y, Takayama I, Ward SM, Sanders KM and Fujino MA

    Department of Medicine, University of Yamanashi Medical School, Yamanashi, Japan.

    A division of labor exists between different classes of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) in the gastrointestinal tract. In the stomach and small intestine, ICC at the level of the myenteric plexus (IC-MY) act as slow wave pacemaker cells, whereas intramuscular ICC (IC-IM) in the stomach act as intermediaries in enteric motor neurotransmission. The muscle layers of the gastric fundus do not have IC-MY, therefore electric slow waves are not generated. Intramuscular ICC are absent in the gastric fundus of W/WV mutant mice, and excitatory and inhibitory motor nerve responses are reduced in these tissues. The absence of IC-IM in W/WV mutants in the fundus provides a unique opportunity to study the molecular changes that are associated with the loss of these cells.

    Methods: The tissue gene expression of wild-type and W/WV mice from gastric fundus was assayed using a murine microarray chip analysis displaying a total of 8734 elements.

    Results: Twenty-one queries were differentially expressed in wild-type and W/WV mice. One candidate gene, encoding a novel protein homologous to rat Shank-interacting protein (Sharpin) was significantly upregulated in fed and starved W/WV mice. The full-length clone of the murine gene and its human counterpart were isolated and designated as Shank-interacting protein-like 1 (SIPL1). Human SIPL1 complementary DNA encodes a protein of 345 amino acids. This gene was localized to chromosome 8. SIPL1 was abundantly expressed in human stomach and small intestine, and scarcely expressed in cecum and rectum.

    Conclusions: Gene analysis showed that SIPL1 differentially express in the gastric fundus of normal and W/WV mice. The upregulation of SIPL1 in the fundus of W/WV mice, and expression in the upper gastrointestinal tract suggest that the SIPL1 gene could be associated with ICC function in mice and humans.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: P01 DK41315

    Journal of gastroenterology and hepatology 2003;18;6;712-8

  • The Shank family of postsynaptic density proteins interacts with and promotes synaptic accumulation of the beta PIX guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rac1 and Cdc42.

    Park E, Na M, Choi J, Kim S, Lee JR, Yoon J, Park D, Sheng M and Kim E

    Department of Biological Sciences, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701, Korea.

    The Shank/ProSAP family of multidomain proteins is known to play an important role in organizing synaptic multiprotein complexes. Here we report a novel interaction between Shank and beta PIX, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for the Rac1 and Cdc42 small GTPases. This interaction is mediated by the PDZ domain of Shank and the C-terminal leucine zipper domain and the PDZ domain-binding motif at the extreme C terminus of beta PIX. Shank colocalizes with beta PIX at excitatory synaptic sites in cultured neurons. In brain, Shank forms a complex with beta PIX and beta PIX-associated signaling molecules including p21-associated kinase (PAK), an effector kinase of Rac1/Cdc42. Importantly, overexpression of Shank in cultured neurons promotes synaptic accumulation of beta PIX and PAK. Considering the involvement of Rac1 and PAK in spine dynamics, these results suggest that Shank recruits beta PIX and PAK to spines for the regulation of postsynaptic structure.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;21;19220-9

  • The insulin receptor substrate IRSp53 links postsynaptic shank1 to the small G-protein cdc42.

    Soltau M, Richter D and Kreienkamp HJ

    Institut für Zellbiochemie und klinische Neurobiologie, Universitätskrankenhaus Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.

    The multidomain shank/ProSAP/SSTRIP proteins are major scaffold proteins in glutamatergic synapses in the mammalian brain; expression of shank1/SSTRIP in hippocampal neurons induces morphological changes in dendritic spines, suggesting that shank1 is involved in synapse formation and activity-dependent changes of synaptic structure. Using part of the proline-rich region of shank1 in a yeast two hybrid screen, we identified the insulin receptor substrate IRSp53 as an interaction partner. Overlay assays verified a strong interaction between a proline-rich sequence (residues 911-940) in shank1 and the SH3 domain of IRSp53. When coexpressed in HEK cells, shank1 colocalizes with IRSp53 in intracellular structures, preventing targeting of IRSp53 to filopodia which are induced by IRSp53 expression in the absence of shank1. IRSp53 also binds to the activated form of the small G-protein cdc42. Interestingly, IRSp53 coprecipitates with shank1 from transfected HEK cells in a small G-protein-regulated manner. Thus, IRSp53 constitutes a cdc42-regulated ligand for shank1 which may provide a molecular basis for small G-protein mediated effects on the structure of the postsynaptic complex.

    Molecular and cellular neurosciences 2002;21;4;575-83

  • Dynamin isoform-specific interaction with the shank/ProSAP scaffolding proteins of the postsynaptic density and actin cytoskeleton.

    Okamoto PM, Gamby C, Wells D, Fallon J and Vallee RB

    Department of Cell Biology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts 01605, USA.

    Dynamin is a GTPase involved in endocytosis and other aspects of membrane trafficking. A critical function in the presynaptic compartment attributed to the brain-specific dynamin isoform, dynamin-1, is in synaptic vesicle recycling. We report that dynamin-2 specifically interacts with members of the Shank/ProSAP family of postsynaptic density scaffolding proteins and present evidence that dynamin-2 is specifically associated with the postsynaptic density. These data are consistent with a role for this otherwise broadly distributed form of dynamin in glutamate receptor down-regulation and other aspects of postsynaptic membrane turnover.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: P20 RR015578, P20 RR015578-020002; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM26701; NINDS NIH HHS: P01 NS039321, P01 NS039321-020002

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2001;276;51;48458-65

  • Synaptic scaffolding proteins in rat brain. Ankyrin repeats of the multidomain Shank protein family interact with the cytoskeletal protein alpha-fodrin.

    Böckers TM, Mameza MG, Kreutz MR, Bockmann J, Weise C, Buck F, Richter D, Gundelfinger ED and Kreienkamp HJ

    Arbeitsgruppe Molekulare Neurobiologie, Institut für Anatomie, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität, 48149 Münster, Germany,.

    The postsynaptic density is the ultrastructural entity containing the neurotransmitter reception apparatus of excitatory synapses in the brain. A recently identified family of multidomain proteins termed Src homology 3 domain and ankyrin repeat-containing (Shank), also known as proline-rich synapse-associated protein/somatostatin receptor-interacting protein, plays a central role in organizing the subsynaptic scaffold by interacting with several synaptic proteins including the glutamate receptors. We used the N-terminal ankyrin repeats of Shank1 and -3 to search for interacting proteins by yeast two-hybrid screening and by affinity chromatography. By cDNA sequencing and mass spectrometry the cytoskeletal protein alpha-fodrin was identified as an interacting molecule. The interaction was verified by pull-down assays and by coimmunoprecipitation experiments from transfected cells and brain extracts. Mapping of the interacting domains of alpha-fodrin revealed that the highly conserved spectrin repeat 21 is sufficient to bind to the ankyrin repeats. Both interacting partners are coexpressed widely in the rat brain and are colocalized in synapses of hippocampal cultures. Our data indicate that the Shank1 and -3 family members provide multiple independent connections between synaptic glutamate receptor complexes and the cytoskeleton.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2001;276;43;40104-12

  • Sharpin, a novel postsynaptic density protein that directly interacts with the shank family of proteins.

    Lim S, Sala C, Yoon J, Park S, Kuroda S, Sheng M and Kim E

    Department of Biological Sciences, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Yusong-ku, Daejon, 305-701, Korea.

    The Shank family of proteins (also termed CortBP, ProSAP, or Synamon) is highly enriched in the postsynaptic density (PSD) of excitatory synapses in brain. Shank contains multiple domains for protein-protein interactions, including ankyrin repeats, SH3 domain, PDZ domain, SAM domain, and an extensive proline-rich region. We have identified a novel protein, termed Sharpin, that directly interacts with the ankyrin repeats of Shank. Sharpin is enriched in the PSD and forms a complex with Shank in heterologous cells and brain. Immunostaining reveals the presence of Sharpin at excitatory synapses and its colocalization with Shank. While the C-terminal half of Sharpin interacts with Shank, the N-terminal half of Sharpin mediates homomultimerization. Considering the fact that the ankyrin repeats and the SH3 domain of Shank can be truncated by alternative splicing, these results define Sharpin as a novel PSD protein that may regulate the complexity of the Shank-based protein network in an alternative splicing-dependent manner.

    Molecular and cellular neurosciences 2001;17;2;385-97

  • The G protein-coupled receptor CL1 interacts directly with proteins of the Shank family.

    Tobaben S, Südhof TC and Stahl B

    Max Planck-Institute for Experimental Medicine, 37075 Göttingen, Germany.

    PDZ domains play a pivotal role in the synaptic localization of ion channels, receptors, signaling enzymes, and cell adhesion molecules. These domains mediate protein-protein interactions via the recognition of a conserved sequence motif at the extreme C terminus of their target proteins. By means of a yeast two-hybrid screen using the C terminus of the G protein-coupled alpha-latrotoxin receptor CL1 as bait, three PDZ domain proteins of the Shank family were identified. These proteins belong to a single protein family characterized by a common domain organization. The PDZ domain is highly conserved among the family members, significantly different from other known PDZ domains, and specifically binds to the C terminus of CL1. Shank1 and CL1 are expressed primarily in brain, and both proteins co-enrich in the postsynaptic density. Furthermore, Shank1 induces a clustering of CL1 in transfected cells, strongly supporting an interaction of both proteins in vivo.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2000;275;46;36204-10

  • The calcium-independent receptor for alpha-latrotoxin from human and rodent brains interacts with members of the ProSAP/SSTRIP/Shank family of multidomain proteins.

    Kreienkamp HJ, Zitzer H, Gundelfinger ED, Richter D and Bockers TM

    Institut für Zellbiochemie und Klinische Neurobiologie, Universität Hamburg, Martinistrasse 52, 20246 Hamburg, Germany.

    Subtypes of the calcium-independent receptors for alpha-latrotoxin (CIRL1-3) define a distinct subgroup within the large family of the seven-transmembrane region cell surface receptors. The physiological function of CIRLs is unknown because neither extracellular ligands nor intracellular coupling proteins (G-proteins) have been identified. Using yeast two-hybrid screening, we identified a novel interaction between the C termini of CIRL1 and -2 and the PSD-95/discs large/ZO-1 (PDZ) domain of a recently discovered multidomain protein family (ProSAP/SSTRIP/Shank) present in human and rat brain. In vitro, CIRL1 and CIRL2 interacted strongly with the PDZ domain of ProSAP1. The specificity of this interaction has been verified by in vivo experiments using solubilized rat brain membrane fractions and ProSAP1 antibodies; only CIRL1, but not CIRL2, was co-immunoprecipitated with ProSAP1. In situ hybridization revealed that ProSAP1 and CIRL1 are co-expressed in the cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum. Colocalization was also observed at the subcellular level, as both CIRL1 and ProSAP1 are enriched in the postsynaptic density fraction from rat brain. Expression of all three CIRL isoforms is highly regulated during postnatal brain development, with CIRL3 exhibiting its highest expression levels immediately after birth, followed by CIRL2 and finally CIRL1 in aged rats.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2000;275;42;32387-90

  • The Shank family of scaffold proteins.

    Sheng M and Kim E

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Neurobiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston ,MA 02114, USA. sheng@helix.mgh.harvard.edu.

    Shank proteins make up a new family of scaffold proteins recently identified through their interaction with a variety of membrane and cytoplasmic proteins. Shank polypeptides contain multiple sites for protein-protein interaction, including ankyrin repeats, an SH3 domain, a PDZ domain, a long proline-rich region, and a SAM domain. Binding partners for most of these domains have been identified: for instance, the PDZ domain of Shank proteins interacts with GKAP (a postsynaptic-density protein) as well as several G-protein-coupled receptors. The specific localization of Shank proteins at postsynaptic sites of brain excitatory synapses suggests a role for this family of proteins in the organization of cytoskeletal/ signaling complexes at specialized cell junctions.

    Journal of cell science 2000;113 ( Pt 11);1851-6

  • Identification of proteins interacting with the rat somatostatin receptor subtype 2.

    Kreienkamp HJ, Zitzer H and Richter D

    Institut für Zellbiochemie und klinische Neurobiologie, Universität Hamburg, Germany.

    Using the yeast two hybrid system we have identified a novel protein termed somatostatin receptor interacting protein (SSTRIP) from human brain which interacts with the rat somatostatin receptor subtype 2. Interaction with the receptor C-terminus is mediated by a PSD-95/discs large/ZO-1 (PDZ) domain which exhibits high similarity to the PDZ domain of cortactin binding protein 1 (CortBP1). SSTRIP and CortBP1 define a novel family of multidomain proteins containing ankyrin repeats, SH3- and SH3 binding regions and a sterile alpha motif (SAM domain) in addition to the PDZ domain. Both SSTRIP and CortBP1 can be co-immunoprecipitated with the somatostatin receptor when co-expressed in HEK cells. Interestingly, co-localization of SSTR2 and CortBP1 at the plasma membrane is increased when SSTR2 is stimulated by agonists.

    Journal of physiology, Paris 2000;94;3-4;193-8

  • Somatostatin receptor interacting protein defines a novel family of multidomain proteins present in human and rodent brain.

    Zitzer H, Hönck HH, Bächner D, Richter D and Kreienkamp HJ

    Institut für Zellbiochemie und Klinische Neurobiologie, Universitätsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Universität Hamburg, Martinistrasse 52, 20246 Hamburg, Germany.

    By using the yeast two-hybrid system we identified a novel protein from the human brain interacting with the C terminus of somatostatin receptor subtype 2. This protein termed somatostatin receptor interacting protein is characterized by a novel domain structure, consisting of six N-terminal ankyrin repeats followed by SH3 and PDZ domains, several proline-rich regions, and a C-terminal sterile alpha motif. It consists of 2185 amino acid residues encoded by a 9-kilobase pair mRNA; several splice variants have been detected in human and rat cDNA libraries. Sequence comparison suggests that the novel multidomain protein, together with cortactin-binding protein, forms a family of cytoskeletal anchoring proteins. Fractionation of rat brain membranes indicated that somatostatin receptor interacting protein is enriched in the postsynaptic density fraction. The interaction of somatostatin receptor subtype 2 with its interacting protein was verified by overlay assays and coimmunoprecipitation experiments from transfected human embryonic kidney cells. Somatostatin receptor subtype 2 and the interacting protein display a striking overlap of their expression patterns in the rat brain. Interestingly, in the hippocampus the mRNA for somatostatin receptor interacting protein was not confined to the cell bodies but was also observed in the molecular layer, suggesting a dendritic localization of this mRNA.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1999;274;46;32997-3001

  • Coupling of mGluR/Homer and PSD-95 complexes by the Shank family of postsynaptic density proteins.

    Tu JC, Xiao B, Naisbitt S, Yuan JP, Petralia RS, Brakeman P, Doan A, Aakalu VK, Lanahan AA, Sheng M and Worley PF

    Department of Neuroscience, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA.

    Shank is a recently described family of postsynaptic proteins that function as part of the NMDA receptor-associated PSD-95 complex (Naisbitt et al., 1999 [this issue of Neuron]). Here, we report that Shank proteins also bind to Homer. Homer proteins form multivalent complexes that bind proline-rich motifs in group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptors and inositol trisphosphate receptors, thereby coupling these receptors in a signaling complex. A single Homer-binding site is identified in Shank, and Shank and Homer coimmunoprecipitate from brain and colocalize at postsynaptic densities. Moreover, Shank clusters mGluR5 in heterologous cells in the presence of Homer and mediates the coclustering of Homer with PSD-95/GKAP. Thus, Shank may cross-link Homer and PSD-95 complexes in the PSD and play a role in the signaling mechanisms of both mGluRs and NMDA receptors.

    Funded by: NIDA NIH HHS: DA10309, DA11742; NIMH NIH HHS: KO2 MH01152; ...

    Neuron 1999;23;3;583-92

  • Shank, a novel family of postsynaptic density proteins that binds to the NMDA receptor/PSD-95/GKAP complex and cortactin.

    Naisbitt S, Kim E, Tu JC, Xiao B, Sala C, Valtschanoff J, Weinberg RJ, Worley PF and Sheng M

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Neurobiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston 02114, USA.

    NMDA receptors are linked to intracellular cytoskeletal and signaling molecules via the PSD-95 protein complex. We report a novel family of postsynaptic density (PSD) proteins, termed Shank, that binds via its PDZ domain to the C terminus of PSD-95-associated protein GKAP. A ternary complex of Shank/GKAP/PSD-95 assembles in heterologous cells and can be coimmunoprecipitated from rat brain. Synaptic localization of Shank in neurons is inhibited by a GKAP splice variant that lacks the Shank-binding C terminus. In addition to its PDZ domain, Shank contains a proline-rich region that binds to cortactin and a SAM domain that mediates multimerization. Shank may function as a scaffold protein in the PSD, potentially cross-linking NMDA receptor/PSD-95 complexes and coupling them to regulators of the actin cytoskeleton.

    Funded by: NIDA NIH HHS: DA103009; NINDS NIH HHS: NS29879, NS35050; ...

    Neuron 1999;23;3;569-82

Gene lists (9)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000013 G2C Homo sapiens Human mGluR5 Human orthologues of mouse mGluR5 complex adapted from Collins et al (2006) 52
L00000015 G2C Homo sapiens Human NRC Human orthologues of mouse NRC adapted from Collins et al (2006) 186
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000038 G2C Homo sapiens Pocklington H7 Human orthologues of cluster 7 (mouse) from Pocklington et al (2006) 4
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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