G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
latrophilin 1
G00000852 (Mus musculus)

Databases (7)

Curated Gene
OTTHUMG00000071389 (Vega human gene)
ENSG00000072071 (Ensembl human gene)
22859 (Entrez Gene)
403 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
LPHN1 (GeneCards)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:20973 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
O94910 (UniProt)

Synonyms (3)

  • CIRL1
  • KIAA0821
  • LEC2

Literature (10)

Pubmed - other

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • The human and mouse repertoire of the adhesion family of G-protein-coupled receptors.

    Bjarnadóttir TK, Fredriksson R, Höglund PJ, Gloriam DE, Lagerström MC and Schiöth HB

    Department of Neuroscience, Uppsala University, BMC, Box 593, 751 24, Uppsala, Sweden.

    The adhesion G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) (also termed LN-7TM or EGF-7TM receptors) are membrane-bound proteins with long N-termini containing multiple domains. Here, 2 new human adhesion-GPCRs, termed GPR133 and GPR144, have been found by searches done in the human genome databases. Both GPR133 and GPR144 have a GPS domain in their N-termini, while GPR144 also has a pentraxin domain. The phylogenetic analyses of the 2 new human receptors show that they group together without close relationship to the other adhesion-GPCRs. In addition to the human genes, mouse orthologues to those 2 and 15 other mouse orthologues to human were identified (GPR110, GPR111, GPR112, GPR113, GPR114, GPR115, GPR116, GPR123, GPR124, GPR125, GPR126, GPR128, LEC1, LEC2, and LEC3). Currently the total number of human adhesion-GPCRs is 33. The mouse and human sequences show a clear one-to-one relationship, with the exception of EMR2 and EMR3, which do not seem to have orthologues in mouse. EST expression charts for the entire repertoire of adhesion-GPCRs in human and mouse were established. Over 1600 ESTs were found for these receptors, showing widespread distribution in both central and peripheral tissues. The expression patterns are highly variable between different receptors, indicating that they participate in a number of physiological processes.

    Genomics 2004;84;1;23-33

  • Robust phosphoproteomic profiling of tyrosine phosphorylation sites from human T cells using immobilized metal affinity chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry.

    Brill LM, Salomon AR, Ficarro SB, Mukherji M, Stettler-Gill M and Peters EC

    Genomics Institute of the Novartis Research Foundation, 10675 John Jay Hopkins Drive, San Diego, California 92121, USA. lbrill@gnf.org

    Protein tyrosine phosphorylation cascades are difficult to analyze and are critical for cell signaling in higher eukaryotes. Methodology for profiling tyrosine phosphorylation, considered herein as the assignment of multiple protein tyrosine phosphorylation sites in single analyses, was reported recently (Salomon, A. R.; Ficarro, S. B.; Brill, L. M.; Brinker, A.; Phung, Q. T.; Ericson, C.; Sauer, K.; Brock, A.; Horn, D. M.; Schultz, P. G.; Peters, E. C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2003, 100, 443-448). The technology platform included the use of immunoprecipitation, immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC), liquid chromatography, and tandem mass spectrometry. In the present report, we show that when using complex mixtures of peptides from human cells, methylation improved the selectivity of IMAC for phosphopeptides and eliminated the acidic bias that occurred with unmethylated peptides. The IMAC procedure was significantly improved by desalting methylated peptides, followed by gradient elution of the peptides to a larger IMAC column. These improvements resulted in assignment of approximately 3-fold more tyrosine phosphorylation sites, from human cell lysates, than the previous methodology. Nearly 70 tyrosine-phosphorylated peptides from proteins in human T cells were assigned in single analyses. These proteins had unknown functions or were associated with a plethora of fundamental cellular processes. This robust technology platform should be broadly applicable to profiling the dynamics of tyrosine phosphorylation.

    Analytical chemistry 2004;76;10;2763-72

  • The multiple actions of black widow spider toxins and their selective use in neurosecretion studies.

    Ushkaryov YA, Volynski KE and Ashton AC

    Department of Biological Sciences, Imperial College, London, SW7 2AY, UK. y.ushkaryov@imperial.ac.uk

    The black widow spider venom contains several large protein toxins--latrotoxins--that are selectively targeted against different classes of animals: vertebrates, insects, and crustaceans. These toxins are synthesised as large precursors that undergo proteolytic processing and activation in the lumen of the venom gland. The mature latrotoxins demonstrate strong functional structure conservation and contain multiple ankyrin repeats, which mediate toxin oligomerisation. The three-dimensional structure has been determined for alpha-latrotoxin (alphaLTX), a representative venom component toxic to vertebrates. This reconstruction explains the mechanism of alphaLTX pore formation by showing that it forms tetrameric complexes, harbouring a central channel, and that it is able to insert into lipid membranes. All latrotoxins cause massive release of neurotransmitters from nerve terminals of respective animals after binding to specific neuronal receptors. A G protein-coupled receptor latrophilin and a single-transmembrane receptor neurexin have been identified as major high-affinity receptors for alphaLTX. Latrotoxins act by several Ca(2+)-dependent and -independent mechanisms based on pore formation and activation of receptors. Mutant recombinant alphaLTX that does not form pores has been used to dissect the multiple actions of this toxin. As a result, important insights have been gained into the receptor signalling and the role of intracellular Ca(2+) stores in the effect of alphaLTX.

    Funded by: Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council: B14085; Wellcome Trust: 074359

    Toxicon : official journal of the International Society on Toxinology 2004;43;5;527-42

  • Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.

    Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, Otsuki T, Sugiyama T, Irie R, Wakamatsu A, Hayashi K, Sato H, Nagai K, Kimura K, Makita H, Sekine M, Obayashi M, Nishi T, Shibahara T, Tanaka T, Ishii S, Yamamoto J, Saito K, Kawai Y, Isono Y, Nakamura Y, Nagahari K, Murakami K, Yasuda T, Iwayanagi T, Wagatsuma M, Shiratori A, Sudo H, Hosoiri T, Kaku Y, Kodaira H, Kondo H, Sugawara M, Takahashi M, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Furuya T, Kikkawa E, Omura Y, Abe K, Kamihara K, Katsuta N, Sato K, Tanikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ninomiya K, Ishibashi T, Yamashita H, Murakawa K, Fujimori K, Tanai H, Kimata M, Watanabe M, Hiraoka S, Chiba Y, Ishida S, Ono Y, Takiguchi S, Watanabe S, Yosida M, Hotuta T, Kusano J, Kanehori K, Takahashi-Fujii A, Hara H, Tanase TO, Nomura Y, Togiya S, Komai F, Hara R, Takeuchi K, Arita M, Imose N, Musashino K, Yuuki H, Oshima A, Sasaki N, Aotsuka S, Yoshikawa Y, Matsunawa H, Ichihara T, Shiohata N, Sano S, Moriya S, Momiyama H, Satoh N, Takami S, Terashima Y, Suzuki O, Nakagawa S, Senoh A, Mizoguchi H, Goto Y, Shimizu F, Wakebe H, Hishigaki H, Watanabe T, Sugiyama A, Takemoto M, Kawakami B, Yamazaki M, Watanabe K, Kumagai A, Itakura S, Fukuzumi Y, Fujimori Y, Komiyama M, Tashiro H, Tanigami A, Fujiwara T, Ono T, Yamada K, Fujii Y, Ozaki K, Hirao M, Ohmori Y, Kawabata A, Hikiji T, Kobatake N, Inagaki H, Ikema Y, Okamoto S, Okitani R, Kawakami T, Noguchi S, Itoh T, Shigeta K, Senba T, Matsumura K, Nakajima Y, Mizuno T, Morinaga M, Sasaki M, Togashi T, Oyama M, Hata H, Watanabe M, Komatsu T, Mizushima-Sugano J, Satoh T, Shirai Y, Takahashi Y, Nakagawa K, Okumura K, Nagase T, Nomura N, Kikuchi H, Masuho Y, Yamashita R, Nakai K, Yada T, Nakamura Y, Ohara O, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Helix Research Institute, 1532-3 Yana, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0812, Japan.

    As a base for human transcriptome and functional genomics, we created the "full-length long Japan" (FLJ) collection of sequenced human cDNAs. We determined the entire sequence of 21,243 selected clones and found that 14,490 cDNAs (10,897 clusters) were unique to the FLJ collection. About half of them (5,416) seemed to be protein-coding. Of those, 1,999 clusters had not been predicted by computational methods. The distribution of GC content of nonpredicted cDNAs had a peak at approximately 58% compared with a peak at approximately 42%for predicted cDNAs. Thus, there seems to be a slight bias against GC-rich transcripts in current gene prediction procedures. The rest of the cDNAs unique to the FLJ collection (5,481) contained no obvious open reading frames (ORFs) and thus are candidate noncoding RNAs. About one-fourth of them (1,378) showed a clear pattern of splicing. The distribution of GC content of noncoding cDNAs was narrow and had a peak at approximately 42%, relatively low compared with that of protein-coding cDNAs.

    Nature genetics 2004;36;1;40-5

  • alpha-Latrotoxin and its receptors: neurexins and CIRL/latrophilins.

    Südhof TC

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Center for Basic Neuroscience, and the Department of Molecular Genetics, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Texas 75390-9111, USA. Thomas.Sudhof@UTSouthwestern.edu

    alpha-Latrotoxin, a potent neurotoxin from black widow spider venom, triggers synaptic vesicle exocytosis from presynaptic nerve terminals. alpha-Latrotoxin is a large protein toxin (120 kDa) that contains 22 ankyrin repeats. In stimulating exocytosis, alpha-latrotoxin binds to two distinct families of neuronal cell-surface receptors, neurexins and CLs (Cirl/latrophilins), which probably have a physiological function in synaptic cell adhesion. Binding of alpha-latrotoxin to these receptors does not in itself trigger exocytosis but serves to recruit the toxin to the synapse. Receptor-bound alpha-latrotoxin then inserts into the presynaptic plasma membrane to stimulate exocytosis by two distinct transmitter-specific mechanisms. Exocytosis of classical neurotransmitters (glutamate, GABA, acetylcholine) is induced in a calcium-independent manner by a direct intracellular action of alpha-latrotoxin, while exocytosis of catecholamines requires extracellular calcium. Elucidation of precisely how alpha-latrotoxin works is likely to provide major insight into how synaptic vesicle exocytosis is regulated, and how the release machineries of classical and catecholaminergic neurotransmitters differ.

    Funded by: NIMH NIH HHS: R37-MH52804-06

    Annual review of neuroscience 2001;24;933-62

  • The G protein-coupled receptor CL1 interacts directly with proteins of the Shank family.

    Tobaben S, Südhof TC and Stahl B

    Max Planck-Institute for Experimental Medicine, 37075 Göttingen, Germany.

    PDZ domains play a pivotal role in the synaptic localization of ion channels, receptors, signaling enzymes, and cell adhesion molecules. These domains mediate protein-protein interactions via the recognition of a conserved sequence motif at the extreme C terminus of their target proteins. By means of a yeast two-hybrid screen using the C terminus of the G protein-coupled alpha-latrotoxin receptor CL1 as bait, three PDZ domain proteins of the Shank family were identified. These proteins belong to a single protein family characterized by a common domain organization. The PDZ domain is highly conserved among the family members, significantly different from other known PDZ domains, and specifically binds to the C terminus of CL1. Shank1 and CL1 are expressed primarily in brain, and both proteins co-enrich in the postsynaptic density. Furthermore, Shank1 induces a clustering of CL1 in transfected cells, strongly supporting an interaction of both proteins in vivo.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2000;275;46;36204-10

  • The calcium-independent receptor for alpha-latrotoxin from human and rodent brains interacts with members of the ProSAP/SSTRIP/Shank family of multidomain proteins.

    Kreienkamp HJ, Zitzer H, Gundelfinger ED, Richter D and Bockers TM

    Institut für Zellbiochemie und Klinische Neurobiologie, Universität Hamburg, Martinistrasse 52, 20246 Hamburg, Germany.

    Subtypes of the calcium-independent receptors for alpha-latrotoxin (CIRL1-3) define a distinct subgroup within the large family of the seven-transmembrane region cell surface receptors. The physiological function of CIRLs is unknown because neither extracellular ligands nor intracellular coupling proteins (G-proteins) have been identified. Using yeast two-hybrid screening, we identified a novel interaction between the C termini of CIRL1 and -2 and the PSD-95/discs large/ZO-1 (PDZ) domain of a recently discovered multidomain protein family (ProSAP/SSTRIP/Shank) present in human and rat brain. In vitro, CIRL1 and CIRL2 interacted strongly with the PDZ domain of ProSAP1. The specificity of this interaction has been verified by in vivo experiments using solubilized rat brain membrane fractions and ProSAP1 antibodies; only CIRL1, but not CIRL2, was co-immunoprecipitated with ProSAP1. In situ hybridization revealed that ProSAP1 and CIRL1 are co-expressed in the cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum. Colocalization was also observed at the subcellular level, as both CIRL1 and ProSAP1 are enriched in the postsynaptic density fraction from rat brain. Expression of all three CIRL isoforms is highly regulated during postnatal brain development, with CIRL3 exhibiting its highest expression levels immediately after birth, followed by CIRL2 and finally CIRL1 in aged rats.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2000;275;42;32387-90

  • A family of heptahelical receptors with adhesion-like domains: a marriage between two super families.

    Hayflick JS

    ICOS Corporation, Bothell, WA 98021, USA. jhayflick@icos.com

    Some G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are regulators of cell adhesion via inside-out effector signaling pathways. Such is the case with leukocyte chemokine receptors which stimulate intracellular second messenger pathways resulting in upregulation of integrin adhesion to ligands present in the extracellular matrix or on opposing cells resulting in chemotaxis and extravasation during immune surveillance. Remarkably, a family of GPCRs has recently been discovered that may themselves be triggered by cell-cell or cell-matrix interactions. Along with a canonical heptahelical membrane-spanning region, these intriguing proteins contain putative cell adhesion-like modules. The evidence to date suggests that they are involved in lymphocyte activation, macrophage biology, synaptic exocytosis and planar polarization during organogenesis.

    Journal of receptor and signal transduction research 2000;20;2-3;119-31

  • Prediction of the coding sequences of unidentified human genes. XII. The complete sequences of 100 new cDNA clones from brain which code for large proteins in vitro.

    Nagase T, Ishikawa K, Suyama M, Kikuno R, Hirosawa M, Miyajima N, Tanaka A, Kotani H, Nomura N and Ohara O

    Kazusa DNA Research Institute, Kisarazu, Chiba, Japan.

    In this paper, we report the sequences of 100 cDNA clones newly determined from a set of size-fractionated human brain cDNA libraries and predict the coding sequences of the corresponding genes, named KIAA0819 to KIAA0918. These cDNA clones were selected on the basis of their coding potentials of large proteins (50 kDa and more) by using in vitro transcription/translation assays. The sequence data showed that the average sizes of the inserts and corresponding open reading frames are 4.4 kb and 2.5 kb (831 amino acid residues), respectively. Homology and motif/domain searches against the public databases indicated that the predicted coding sequences of 83 genes were similar to those of known genes, 59% of which (49 genes) were categorized as coding for proteins functionally related to cell signaling/communication, cell structure/motility and nucleic acid management. The chromosomal locations and the expression profiles of all the genes were also examined. For 54 clones including brain-specific ones, the mRNA levels were further examined among 8 brain regions (amygdala, corpus callosum, cerebellum, caudate nucleus, hippocampus, substantia nigra, subthalamic nucleus, and thalamus), spinal cord, and fetal brain.

    DNA research : an international journal for rapid publication of reports on genes and genomes 1998;5;6;355-64

Gene lists (6)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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