G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) B receptor, 1
G00000851 (Mus musculus)

Databases (7)

ENSG00000204681 (Ensembl human gene)
2550 (Entrez Gene)
406 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
GABBR1 (GeneCards)
603540 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:4070 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
Q9UBS5 (UniProt)

Synonyms (2)

  • GPRC3A
  • hGB1a

Literature (74)

Pubmed - other

  • GABA(B) receptor subunit 1 binds to proteins affected in 22q11 deletion syndrome.

    Zunner D, Deschermeier C and Kornau HC

    Center for Molecular Neurobiology, University of Hamburg, Germany.

    GABA(B) receptors mediate slow inhibitory effects of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. They function as heterodimeric G-protein-coupled receptors composed of the seven-transmembrane domain proteins GABA(B1) and GABA(B2), which are linked through a coiled-coil interaction. The ligand-binding subunit GABA(B1) is at first retained in the endoplasmic reticulum and is transported to the cell surface only upon assembly with GABA(B2). Here, we report that GABA(B1), via the coiled-coil domain, can also bind to soluble proteins of unknown function, that are affected in 22q11 deletion/DiGeorge syndrome and are therefore referred to as DiGeorge critical region 6 (DGCR6). In transfected neurons the GABA(B1)-DGCR6 association resulted in a redistribution of both proteins into intracellular clusters. Furthermore, the C-terminus of GABA(B2) interfered with the novel interaction, consistent with heterodimer formation overriding transient DGCR6-binding to GABA(B1). Thus, sequential coiled-coil interactions may direct GABA(B1) into functional receptors.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2010;393;2;185-9

  • Human cord blood-derived hematopoietic and neural-like stem/progenitor cells are attracted by the neurotransmitter GABA.

    Zangiacomi V, Balon N, Maddens S, Tiberghien P, Versaux-Botteri C and Deschaseaux F

    INSERM U872, Equipe 17, Centre des Cordeliers, Paris, France.

    Migration of stem/progenitor cells is a crucial event for homing toward tissue where cells need to be renewed. The neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) has been shown to have a crucial role in migration of neuronal stem/progenitor cells. Since human umbilical cord blood (HUCB) contains stem/progenitor cells able to generate either neuronal or hematopoietic cells, we evaluated the effect of GABA on this type of cells. While whole fraction of mononuclear cells expressed GABA(A) and GABA(B) receptor subunits (GABA-R), only GABA(B)R subunits were found to be expressed on immature CD133+ cells. Functional experiments revealed that both cell fractions of HUCB were attracted by a gradient of GABA concentration and furthermore were blocked by specific antagonists of GABA(A)R and GABA(B)R bicuculline and saclofen, respectively. Moreover, through GABA(B)R activation the migrating fraction was highly enriched by both hematopoietic progenitors and cells able to generate neuron- like cells in culture. Therefore, GABA is a potent chemoattractant of HUCB stem/progenitor cells specifically through GABA(B)R activation.

    Stem cells and development 2009;18;9;1369-78

  • High-density SNP screening of the major histocompatibility complex in systemic lupus erythematosus demonstrates strong evidence for independent susceptibility regions.

    Barcellos LF, May SL, Ramsay PP, Quach HL, Lane JA, Nititham J, Noble JA, Taylor KE, Quach DL, Chung SA, Kelly JA, Moser KL, Behrens TW, Seldin MF, Thomson G, Harley JB, Gaffney PM and Criswell LA

    Division of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, California, USA.

    A substantial genetic contribution to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) risk is conferred by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) gene(s) on chromosome 6p21. Previous studies in SLE have lacked statistical power and genetic resolution to fully define MHC influences. We characterized 1,610 Caucasian SLE cases and 1,470 parents for 1,974 MHC SNPs, the highly polymorphic HLA-DRB1 locus, and a panel of ancestry informative markers. Single-marker analyses revealed strong signals for SNPs within several MHC regions, as well as with HLA-DRB1 (global p = 9.99 x 10(-16)). The most strongly associated DRB1 alleles were: *0301 (odds ratio, OR = 2.21, p = 2.53 x 10(-12)), *1401 (OR = 0.50, p = 0.0002), and *1501 (OR = 1.39, p = 0.0032). The MHC region SNP demonstrating the strongest evidence of association with SLE was rs3117103, with OR = 2.44 and p = 2.80 x 10(-13). Conditional haplotype and stepwise logistic regression analyses identified strong evidence for association between SLE and the extended class I, class I, class III, class II, and the extended class II MHC regions. Sequential removal of SLE-associated DRB1 haplotypes revealed independent effects due to variation within OR2H2 (extended class I, rs362521, p = 0.006), CREBL1 (class III, rs8283, p = 0.01), and DQB2 (class II, rs7769979, p = 0.003, and rs10947345, p = 0.0004). Further, conditional haplotype analyses demonstrated that variation within MICB (class I, rs3828903, p = 0.006) also contributes to SLE risk independent of HLA-DRB1*0301. Our results for the first time delineate with high resolution several MHC regions with independent contributions to SLE risk. We provide a list of candidate variants based on biologic and functional considerations that may be causally related to SLE risk and warrant further investigation.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: M01 RR000079, P20 RR020143, RR20143; NIAID NIH HHS: AI063274, AI24717, AI31584, AI53747, AI62629, N01AI40076, R01 AI024717, R01 AI031584, R01 AI063274, R21 AI053747, R37 AI024717, R56 AI063274, U19 AI062629; NIAMS NIH HHS: AR02175, AR043274, AR052125, AR052300, AR19084, AR22804, AR42460, AR48940, K24 AR002175, N01AR62277, P30 AR053483, P50 AR048940, R01 AR042460, R01 AR043274, R01 AR052125, R01 AR052300; NIDCR NIH HHS: DE15223, R01 DE015223

    PLoS genetics 2009;5;10;e1000696

  • Association and interaction analyses of GABBR1 and GABBR2 with nicotine dependence in European- and African-American populations.

    Li MD, Mangold JE, Seneviratne C, Chen GB, Ma JZ, Lou XY and Payne TJ

    Department of Psychiatry and Neurobehavioral Sciences, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA. Ming_Li@virginia.edu

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the gamma-aminobutyric acid type B (GABA(B)) receptor plays an essential role in modulating neurotransmitter release and regulating the activity of ion channels and adenyl cyclase. However, whether the naturally occurring polymorphisms in the two GABA(B) receptor subunit genes interact with each other to alter susceptibility to nicotine dependence (ND) remains largely unknown. In this study, we genotyped 5 and 33 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for GABA(B) receptor subunit 1 and 2 genes (GABBR1, GABBR2), respectively, in a sample of 2037 individuals from 602 nuclear families of African- American (AA) or European-American (EA) origin. We conducted association analyses to determine (1) the association of each subunit gene with ND at both the individual SNP and haplotype levels and (2) the collective effect(s) of SNPs in both GABA(B) subunits on the development of ND. Several individual SNPs and haplotypes in GABBR2 were significantly associated with ND in both ethnic samples. Two haplotypes in AAs and one haplotype in EAs showed a protective effect against ND, whilst two other haplotypes in AAs and three haplotypes in EAs showed a risk effect for developing ND. Interestingly, these significant haplotypes were confined to two regions of GABBR2 in the AA and EA samples. Additionally, we found two minor haplotypes in GABBR1 to be positively associated with Heaviness of Smoking Index (HSI) in the EA sample. Finally, we demonstrated the presence of epistasis between GABBR1 and GABBR2 for developing ND. The variants of GABBR1 and GABBR2 are significantly associated with ND, and the involvement of GABBR1 is most likely through its interaction with GABBR2, whereas GABBR2 polymorphisms directly alter susceptibility to ND. Future studies are needed with more dense SNP coverage of GABBR1 and GABBR2 to verify the epistatic effects of the two subunit genes.

    Funded by: NIDA NIH HHS: R01 DA012844, R01 DA025095, R01DA012844, R01DA025095

    PloS one 2009;4;9;e7055

  • Identification of new putative susceptibility genes for several psychiatric disorders by association analysis of regulatory and non-synonymous SNPs of 306 genes involved in neurotransmission and neurodevelopment.

    Gratacòs M, Costas J, de Cid R, Bayés M, González JR, Baca-García E, de Diego Y, Fernández-Aranda F, Fernández-Piqueras J, Guitart M, Martín-Santos R, Martorell L, Menchón JM, Roca M, Sáiz-Ruiz J, Sanjuán J, Torrens M, Urretavizcaya M, Valero J, Vilella E, Estivill X, Carracedo A and Psychiatric Genetics Network Group

    CIBER en Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain.

    A fundamental difficulty in human genetics research is the identification of the spectrum of genetic variants that contribute to the susceptibility to common/complex disorders. We tested here the hypothesis that functional genetic variants may confer susceptibility to several related common disorders. We analyzed five main psychiatric diagnostic categories (substance-abuse, anxiety, eating, psychotic, and mood disorders) and two different control groups, representing a total of 3,214 samples, for 748 promoter and non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 306 genes involved in neurotransmission and/or neurodevelopment. We identified strong associations to individual disorders, such as growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) with anxiety disorders, prolactin regulatory element (PREB) with eating disorders, ionotropic kainate glutamate receptor 5 (GRIK5) with bipolar disorder and several SNPs associated to several disorders, that may represent individual and related disease susceptibility factors. Remarkably, a functional SNP, rs945032, located in the promoter region of the bradykinin receptor B2 gene (BDKRB2) was associated to three disorders (panic disorder, substance abuse, and bipolar disorder), and two additional BDKRB2 SNPs to obsessive-compulsive disorder and major depression, providing evidence for common variants of susceptibility to several related psychiatric disorders. The association of BDKRB2 (odd ratios between 1.65 and 3.06) to several psychiatric disorders supports the view that a common genetic variant could confer susceptibility to clinically related phenotypes, and defines a new functional hint in the pathophysiology of psychiatric diseases.

    American journal of medical genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric genetics : the official publication of the International Society of Psychiatric Genetics 2009;150B;6;808-16

  • Genome-wide association study reveals multiple nasopharyngeal carcinoma-associated loci within the HLA region at chromosome 6p21.3.

    Tse KP, Su WH, Chang KP, Tsang NM, Yu CJ, Tang P, See LC, Hsueh C, Yang ML, Hao SP, Li HY, Wang MH, Liao LP, Chen LC, Lin SR, Jorgensen TJ, Chang YS and Shugart YY

    Genomic Medicine Core, Chang Gung Molecular Medicine Research Center, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan.

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a multifactorial malignancy closely associated with genetic factors and Epstein-Barr virus infection. To identify the common genetic variants linked to NPC susceptibility, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in 277 NPC patients and 285 healthy controls within the Taiwanese population, analyzing 480,365 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Twelve statistically significant SNPs were identified and mapped to chromosome 6p21.3. Associations were replicated in two independent sets of case-control samples. Two of the most significant SNPs (rs2517713 and rs2975042; p(combined) = 3.9 x 10(-20) and 1.6 x 10(-19), respectively) were located in the HLA-A gene. Moreover, we detected significant associations between NPC and two genes: specifically, gamma aminobutyric acid b receptor 1 (GABBR1) (rs29232; p(combined) = 8.97 x 10(-17)) and HLA-F (rs3129055 and rs9258122; p(combined) = 7.36 x 10(-11) and 3.33 x 10(-10), respectively). Notably, the association of rs29232 remained significant (residual p < 5 x 10(-4)) after adjustment for age, gender, and HLA-related SNPs. Furthermore, higher GABA(B) receptor 1 expression levels can be found in the tumor cells in comparison to the adjacent epithelial cells (p < 0.001) in NPC biopsies, implying a biological role of GABBR1 in NPC carcinogenesis. To our knowledge, it is the first GWAS report of NPC showing that multiple loci (HLA-A, HLA-F, and GABBR1) within chromosome 6p21.3 are associated with NPC. Although some of these relationships may be attributed to linkage disequilibrium between the loci, the findings clearly provide a fresh direction for the study of NPC development.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R03 CA123620

    American journal of human genetics 2009;85;2;194-203

  • GABA-B(1) receptors are coupled to the ERK1/2 MAP kinase pathway in the absence of GABA-B(2) subunits.

    Richer M, David M, Villeneuve LR, Trieu P, Ethier N, Pétrin D, Mamarbachi AM and Hébert TE

    Département de biochimie and Groupe de recherche universitaire sur le médicament (GRUM), Université de Montréal, Montréal, Québec, Canada.

    In the current model of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) B receptor function, there is a requirement for GABA-B(1/2) heterodimerisation for targetting to the cell surface. However, different lines of evidence suggest that the GABA-B(1) subunit can form a functional receptor in the absence of GABA-B(2). We observed coupling of endogenous GABA-B(1) receptors in the DI-TNC1 glial cell line to the ERK pathway in response to baclofen even though these cells do not express GABA-B(2). GABA-B(1A) receptors were also able to mediate a rapid, transient, and dose-dependent activation of the ERK1/2 MAP kinase pathway when transfected alone into HEK 293 cells. The response was abolished by G(i/o) and MEK inhibition, potentiated by inhibitors of phospholipase C and protein kinase C and did not involve PI-3-kinase activity. Finally, using bioluminescence resonance energy transfer and co-immunoprecipitation, we show the existence of homodimeric GABA-B(1A) receptors in transfected HEK293 cells. Altogether, our observations show that GABA-B(1A) receptors are able to activate the ERK1/2 pathway despite the absence of surface targetting partner GABA-B(2) in both HEK 293 cells and the DI-TNC1 cell line.

    Journal of molecular neuroscience : MN 2009;38;1;67-79

  • Expression of GABA(B) receptors is altered in brains of subjects with autism.

    Fatemi SH, Folsom TD, Reutiman TJ and Thuras PD

    Department of Psychiatry, Division of Neuroscience Research, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA. fatem002@umn.edu

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that is often comorbid with seizures. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in brain. GABA(B) receptors play an important role in maintaining excitatory-inhibitory balance in brain and alterations may lead to seizures. We compared levels of GABA(B) receptor subunits GABA(B) receptor 1 (GABBR1) and GABA(B) receptor 2 (GABBR2) in cerebellum, Brodmann's area 9 (BA9), and BA40 of subjects with autism and matched controls. Levels of GABBR1 were significantly decreased in BA9, BA40, and cerebellum, while GABBR2 was significantly reduced in the cerebellum. The presence of seizure disorder did not have a significant impact on the observed reductions in GABA(B) receptor subunit expression. Decreases in GABA(B) receptor subunits may help explain the presence of seizures that are often comorbid with autism, as well as cognitive difficulties prevalent in autism.

    Funded by: NICHD NIH HHS: 5R01HD052074-01A2, R01 HD052074, R01 HD052074-02; NIMH NIH HHS: R24 MH068855

    Cerebellum (London, England) 2009;8;1;64-9

  • Association between the gamma-aminobutyric acid type B receptor 1 and 2 gene polymorphisms and mesial temporal lobe epilepsy in a Han Chinese population.

    Wang X, Sun W, Zhu X, Li L, Wu X, Lin H, Zhu S, Liu A, Du T, Liu Y, Niu N, Wang Y and Liu Y

    National Laboratory of Medical Molecular Biology, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences; School of Basic Medicine, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, PR China.

    An abnormal gamma-aminobutyric acid B receptor composed of gamma-aminobutyric acid type B receptor 1 (GABBR1) and gamma-aminobutyric acid type B receptor 2 (GABBR2) can provoke seizures. This study was designed to assess the contribution of GABBR1 and GABBR2 in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). Two tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of GABBR1 and four tag SNPs of GABBR2 were selected and genotyped in 318 MTLE patients and 315 non-epileptic individuals. The rs967932 A-allele of GABBR2 increased the risk of MTLE in an additive and a dominant genetic model, respectively (P=0.018, OR=1.305, 95% CI 1.048-1.624 and P=0.003, OR=1.667, 95% CI 1.186-2.343, respectively). rs1999501 and rs944688 of GABBR2, and rs29259 of GABBR1 were thought to be associated with MTLE; however, after a Bonferroni correction, these associations were not observed and only the rs967932 A-allele was found to increase the risk of MTLE in the dominant model (P=0.036). The frequency at which the haplotype G-C-A-C (rs3780428-rs1999501-rs967932-rs944688) occurred in MTLE patients was significantly higher compared to the controls (12.26% vs. 6.51%, P=0.0004) and patients carrying this haplotype exhibited an earlier onset of MTLE (P=0.028). No evidence of significant allelic, genotypic, or haplotypic associations were identified in the tag SNPs of the GABBR1 gene in patients with MTLE, and the polymorphism at G1465A was not observed in our samples. Our results provide the first evidence that common genetic variations in the GABBR2 gene contribute to the risk of MTLE. Moreover, the present results do not support the hypothesis that common variants of GABBR1 contribute substantially to the epileptogenic effect during MTLE in the Han Chinese.

    Epilepsy research 2008;81;2-3;198-203

  • Functional expression of GABAB receptors in airway epithelium.

    Mizuta K, Osawa Y, Mizuta F, Xu D and Emala CW

    Department of Anesthesiology, College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA.

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system and exerts its actions via both ionotropic (GABA(A)) and metabotropic (GABA(B)) receptors. The GABA(B) receptor is a dimer composed of R1 and R2 components and classically couples to the heterotrimeric G(i) protein. In addition to their location on neurons, GABA and functional GABA(B) receptors have been detected in peripheral tissue such as airway smooth muscle. We questioned whether airway epithelium expresses receptors that could respond to GABA. We detected the mRNA encoding multiple-splice variants of the GABA(B)R1 and GABA(B)R2 in total RNA isolated from native human and guinea pig airway epithelium and human airway epithelial cell lines (BEAS-2B and H441). Immunoblots identified the GABA(B)R1 and GABA(B)R2 proteins in both guinea pig airway epithelium and BEAS-2B cells. The expression of GABA(B)R1 protein was immunohistochemically localized to basal mucin-secreting and ciliated columnar epithelial cells in guinea pig trachea. Baclofen inhibited adenylyl cyclase activity, induced ERK phosphorylation and cross-regulated phospholipase C, leading to increased inositol phosphates in BEAS-2B cells in a pertussis toxin-sensitive manner, implicating G(i) protein coupling. Thus, these receptors couple to G(i) and cross-regulate the phospholipase C/inositol phosphate pathway. The second messengers of these pathways, cyclic AMP and calcium, play pivotal roles in airway epithelial cell primary functions of mucus clearance. Furthermore, the enzyme that synthesizes GABA, glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65/67), was also localized to airway epithelium. GABA may modulate an uncharacterized signaling cascade via GABA(B) receptors coupled to G(i) protein in airway epithelium.

    American journal of respiratory cell and molecular biology 2008;39;3;296-304

  • GABABR1 (G1465A) gene variation and temporal lobe epilepsy controversy: new evidence.

    Kauffman MA, Levy EM, Consalvo D, Mordoh J and Kochen S

    Centro de Epilepsia, Hospital Ramos Mejia, Buenos Aires, Argentina. marcelokauffman@gmail.com

    The G1465A polymorphism in the gene of the GABA type B receptor subunit 1 (GABABR1) has been linked to the risk for temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). However, six replication studies did not show significant association between the G1465A GABABR1 gene variant and TLE. The authors examined this association in a sample of 102 patients with mesial TLE with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS) and 71 controls. The genotype distribution varied significantly between patients and controls. Heterozygous carriers of the A-allele had a 10-fold increase in risk for MTLE-HS (OR 10.01; 95% CI 3.98-25.18, p=3.788E-08).

    Seizure 2008;17;6;567-71

  • Analysis of LGI1 promoter sequence, PDYN and GABBR1 polymorphisms in sporadic and familial lateral temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Bovo G, Diani E, Bisulli F, Di Bonaventura C, Striano P, Gambardella A, Ferlazzo E, Egeo G, Mecarelli O, Elia M, Bianchi A, Bortoluzzi S, Vettori A, Aguglia U, Binelli S, De Falco A, Coppola G, Gobbi G, Sofia V, Striano S, Tinuper P, Giallonardo AT, Michelucci R and Nobile C

    CNR-Institute of Neurosciences, Section of Padua, Padova, Italy.

    Autosomal dominant lateral temporal epilepsy (ADTLE) is a genetically transmitted epileptic syndrome characterized by focal seizures with predominant auditory symptoms likely originating from the lateral region of the temporal lobe. Mutations in coding region or exon splice sites of the leucine-rich, glioma-inactivated 1 (LGI1) gene account for about 50% of ADLTE families. De novo LGI1 mutations of the same kind have also been found in about 2.5% of non-familial cases with idiopathic partial epilepsy with auditory features (IPEAF). In both conditions, mutations in the LGI1 promoter region have not been reported. We sequenced the minimal promoter region of LGI1 in the probands of 16 ADLTE families and in 104 sporadic IPEAF patients and no mutations clearly linked to the disease were found. However, two polymorphisms, -500G>A and -507G>A, with potential functional implications were identified and analysed in the cohort of sporadic IPEAF patients but their frequencies did not differ from those found in a control population of similar age, gender and geographic origin. We also analysed in our study population the GABA(B) receptor 1 c.1465G>A and the prodynorphin promoter 68-bp repeat polymorphisms, previously associated with temporal lobe epilepsy. None of these polymorphisms showed a significant association with IPEAF, whereas a tendency towards association with the prodynorphin low expression (L) alleles was found in the small group of ADLTE index cases, in agreement with previous studies suggesting that this polymorphism is a susceptibility factor in familial forms of temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Neuroscience letters 2008;436;1;23-6

  • GABA B receptor is a novel drug target for pancreatic cancer.

    Schuller HM, Al-Wadei HA and Majidi M

    Experimental Oncology Laboratory, Department of Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996, USA. hmsch@utk.edu

    Background: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a leading cause of cancer death. Smoking, diabetes, and pancreatitis are risk factors. It has been shown that the growth of PDAC and pancreatic duct epithelial cells is regulated by beta-adrenoreceptors (beta-ARs). The activity of beta-ARs in the central nervous system is counteracted by gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) via GABA B receptor-mediated inhibition of adenylyl cyclase. The aim of the study was to investigate if GABA B R inhibits beta-AR signaling in PDAC and pancreatic duct epithelial cells, thus blocking driving forces of cancer progression, such as cell proliferation and cell migration.

    Methods: Intracellular cAMP was measured by immunoassays, DNA synthesis by BrdU incorporation assays, activation of ERK1/2 by ERK activation assays, and Western blots and metastatic potential by cell migration assays in the human PDAC cell lines PANC-1 and BXPC-3 and immortalized human pancreatic duct epithelial cells HPDE6-C7. The expression of norepinephrine, PKAR IIalpha, and GABA in PDAC microarrays was assessed by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS.: Stimulation of the GABA B R by GABA or baclofen inhibited isoproterenol-induced cAMP signaling below base levels. ERK1/2 activity in response to isoproterenol was blocked by GABA, an effect enhanced by transient overexpression of the GABA B R and abolished by GABA B R knockdown. DNA synthesis and cell migration were stimulated by isoproterenol, responses blocked by GABA and baclofen. Norepinephrine and PKAR IIalpha were overexpressed while GABA was underexpressed in human PDAC tissue arrays.

    Conclusions: The data suggest the stimulation of GABA B R signaling as a novel target for the treatment and prevention of pancreatic cancer.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R01 CA042829, R01 CA42829

    Cancer 2008;112;4;767-78

  • SNP mapping and candidate gene sequencing in the class I region of the HLA complex: searching for multiple sclerosis susceptibility genes in Tasmanians.

    Burfoot RK, Jensen CJ, Field J, Stankovich J, Varney MD, Johnson LJ, Butzkueven H, Booth D, Bahlo M, Tait BD, Taylor BV, Speed TP, Heard R, Stewart GJ, Foote SJ, Kilpatrick TJ and Rubio JP

    Howard Florey Institute, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

    This study is an extension to previously published work that has linked variation in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I region with susceptibility to multiple sclerosis (MS) in Australians from the Island State of Tasmania. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) mapping was performed on an 865-kb candidate region (D6S1683-D6S265) in 166 Tasmanian MS families, and seven candidate genes [ubiquitin D (UBD), olfactory receptor 2H3 (OR2H3), gamma-aminobutyric acid B receptor 1 (GABBR1), myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG), HLA-F, HLA complex group 4 (HCG4) and HLA-G] were resequenced. SNPs tagging the extended MS susceptibility haplotype were genotyped in an independent sample of 356 Australian MS trios and SNPs in the MOG gene were significantly over-transmitted to MS cases. We identified significant effects on MS susceptibility of HLA-A*2 (OR: 0.51; P = 0.05) and A*3 (OR: 2.85; P = 0.005), and two coding polymorphisms in the MOG gene (V145I: P = 0.01, OR: 2.2; V142L: P = 0.04, OR: 0.45) after full conditioning on HLA-DRB1. We have therefore identified plausible candidates for the causal MS susceptibility allele, and although not conclusive at this stage, our data provide suggestive evidence for multiple class I MS susceptibility genes.

    Tissue antigens 2008;71;1;42-50

  • Complex formation with the Type B gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor affects the expression and signal transduction of the extracellular calcium-sensing receptor. Studies with HEK-293 cells and neurons.

    Chang W, Tu C, Cheng Z, Rodriguez L, Chen TH, Gassmann M, Bettler B, Margeta M, Jan LY and Shoback D

    Endocrine Research Unit, Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, California 94121, USA. Wenhan.Chang@ucsf.edu

    We co-immunoprecipitated the Ca(2+)-sensing receptor (CaR) and type B gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABA-B-R) from human embryonic kidney (HEK)-293 cells expressing these receptors and from brain lysates where both receptors are present. CaRs extensively co-localized with the two subunits of the GABA-B-R (R1 and R2) in HEK-293 cell membranes and intracellular organelles. Coexpressing CaRs and GABA-B-R1s in HEK-293 cells suppressed the total cellular and cell surface expression of CaRs and inhibited phospholipase C activation in response to high extracellular [Ca(2+)] ([Ca(2+)](e)). In contrast, coexpressing CaRs and GABA-B-R2s enhanced CaR expression and signaling responses to raising [Ca(2+)](e). The latter effects of the GABA-B-R2 on the CaR were blunted by coexpressing the GABA-B-R1. Coexpressing the CaR with GABA-B-R1 or R2 enhanced the total cellular and cell surface expression of the GABA-B-R1 or R2, respectively. Studies with truncated CaRs indicated that the N-terminal extracellular domain of the CaR participated in the interaction of the CaR with the GABA-B-R1 and R2. In cultured mouse hippocampal neurons, CaRs co-localized with the GABA-B-R1 and R2. CaRs and GABA-B-R1s also co-immunoprecipitated from brain lysates. The expression of the CaR was increased in lysates from GABA-B-R1 knock-out mouse brains and in cultured hippocampal neurons with their GABA-B-R1 genes deleted in vitro. Thus, CaRs and GABA-B-R subunits can form heteromeric complexes in cells, and their interactions affect cell surface expression and signaling of CaR, which may contribute to extracellular Ca(2+)-dependent receptor activation in target tissues.

    Funded by: NIA NIH HHS: R01 AG21353; NIAMS NIH HHS: R21 AR054441

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2007;282;34;25030-40

  • Systematic study of association of four GABAergic genes: glutamic acid decarboxylase 1 gene, glutamic acid decarboxylase 2 gene, GABA(B) receptor 1 gene and GABA(A) receptor subunit beta2 gene, with schizophrenia using a universal DNA microarray.

    Zhao X, Qin S, Shi Y, Zhang A, Zhang J, Bian L, Wan C, Feng G, N, Zhang G, He G and He L

    Bio-X Life Science Research Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Hao Ran Building, Shanghai 200030, China.

    Several studies have suggested the dysfunction of the GABAergic system as a risk factor in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. In the present study, case-control association analysis was conducted in four GABAergic genes: two glutamic acid decarboxylase genes (GAD1 and GAD2), a GABA(A) receptor subunit beta2 gene (GABRB2) and a GABA(B) receptor 1 gene (GABBR1). Using a universal DNA microarray procedure we genotyped a total of 20 SNPs on the above four genes in a study involving 292 patients and 286 controls of Chinese descent. Statistically significant differences were observed in the allelic frequencies of the rs187269C/T polymorphism in the GABRB2 gene (P=0.0450, chi(2)=12.40, OR=1.65) and the -292A/C polymorphism in the GAD1 gene (P=0.0450, chi(2)=14.64 OR=1.77). In addition, using an electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), we discovered differences in the U251 nuclear protein binding to oligonucleotides representing the -292 SNP on the GAD1 gene, which suggests that the -292C allele has reduced transcription factor binding efficiency compared with the 292A allele. Using the multifactor-dimensionality reduction method (MDR), we found that the interactions among the rs187269C/T polymorphism in the GABRB2 gene, the -243A/G polymorphism in the GAD2 gene and the 27379C/T and 661C/T polymorphisms in the GAD1 gene revealed a significant association with schizophrenia (P<0.001). These findings suggest that the GABRB2 and GAD1 genes alone and the combined effects of the polymorphisms in the four GABAergic system genes may confer susceptibility to the development of schizophrenia in the Chinese population.

    Schizophrenia research 2007;93;1-3;374-84

  • Systematic identification of SH3 domain-mediated human protein-protein interactions by peptide array target screening.

    Wu C, Ma MH, Brown KR, Geisler M, Li L, Tzeng E, Jia CY, Jurisica I and Li SS

    Department of Biochemistry and the Siebens-Drake Research Institute, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada.

    Systematic identification of direct protein-protein interactions is often hampered by difficulties in expressing and purifying the corresponding full-length proteins. By taking advantage of the modular nature of many regulatory proteins, we attempted to simplify protein-protein interactions to the corresponding domain-ligand recognition and employed peptide arrays to identify such binding events. A group of 12 Src homology (SH) 3 domains from eight human proteins (Swiss-Prot ID: SRC, PLCG1, P85A, NCK1, GRB2, FYN, CRK) were used to screen a peptide target array composed of 1536 potential ligands, which led to the identification of 921 binary interactions between these proteins and 284 targets. To assess the efficiency of the peptide array target screening (PATS) method in identifying authentic protein-protein interactions, we examined a set of interactions mediated by the PLCgamma1 SH3 domain by coimmunoprecipitation and/or affinity pull-downs using full-length proteins and achieved a 75% success rate. Furthermore, we characterized a novel interaction between PLCgamma1 and hematopoietic progenitor kinase 1 (HPK1) identified by PATS and demonstrated that the PLCgamma1 SH3 domain negatively regulated HPK1 kinase activity. Compared to protein interactions listed in the online predicted human interaction protein database (OPHID), the majority of interactions identified by PATS are novel, suggesting that, when extended to the large number of peptide interaction domains encoded by the human genome, PATS should aid in the mapping of the human interactome.

    Proteomics 2007;7;11;1775-85

  • Association of GABA(B)R1 receptor gene polymorphism with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

    Bayazit YA, Yilmaz M, Kokturk O, Erdal ME, Ciftci T, Gokdogan T, Kemaloglu Y and Ileri F

    Department of Otolaryngology, Faculty of Medicine, Gazi University, Ankara, Turkey. bayazity@yahoo.com

    Objective: GABA(B)R (gamma-amino butyric acid B receptor)-mediated neurotransmission has been implicated in the pathophysiology of a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders. GABA(B)R1 gene variants were identified by single-strand conformation analysis. The nucleotide exchanges cause a substitution of alanine to valine in exon 1a1 (Ala20Val), a substitution of glycine to serine in exon 7 (Gly489Ser) and a silent C to G nucleotide exchange encoding the amino acid phenylalanine in exon 11 (Phe658Phe). The significance of GABA(B)R1a gene polymorphism in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) as well as the association of these polymorphisms with the polysomnography findings in OSAS patients are not known. In this study, we aimed to assess the significance of 3 different GABA(B)R1 gene polymorphisms (Ala20Val, Gly489Ser and Phe658Phe) in OSAS.

    Methods: Seventy-five patients (23 female and 52 male) with OSAS and 99 healthy volunteers (51 female, 48 male) were included in the study to assess Ala20Val, Gly489Ser and Phe658Phe polymorphisms of the GABA(B)R1 gene.

    Results: For the Ala20Val variants, there was no significant difference between the genotypes and allele frequencies of the patients and controls, nor between both genders (p > 0.05). For Phe658Phe polymorphism, there was no significant difference between genotypes and allele frequencies of the patients and controls (p > 0.05). However, the C/C genotype was overrepresented and the T/C genotype was less frequent in male than female patients (p = 0.03). The C/C genotype was overrepresented and the T/C genotype was less frequent in male patients than male controls (p = 0.01). For GABA(B)R1-Gly489Ser polymorphism, all of the patients and controls had G/G genotype. The apnea arousal index scores of the male patients with C/C genotype were significantly higher than in the patients with C/T genotype (p = 0.01). The percent total sleep time in non-REM 1 scores of the male patients with T/T genotype were significantly higher than in the patients with T/C genotype (p = 0.021). The percent total sleep time in non-REM 2 scores of the female patients with C/C genotype were significantly higher than in the patients with C/T genotype (p = 0.006).

    Conclusion: The Ala20Val polymorphism of the GABA(B)R1 gene may be associated with OSAS, whereas Gly489Ser polymorphism does not seem to be involved in OSAS. The C/C variant of the Phe658Phe polymorphism GABA(B)R1 gene seems associated with the occurrence of OSAS and is also associated with some sleep related parameters (apnea arousal index and percent total sleep time in non-REM) recorded by polysomnography.

    ORL; journal for oto-rhino-laryngology and its related specialties 2007;69;3;190-7

  • Functional expression of the GABAB receptor in human airway smooth muscle.

    Osawa Y, Xu D, Sternberg D, Sonett JR, D'Armiento J, Panettieri RA and Emala CW

    Department of Anesthesiology, College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia University, 630 W. 168th St., P&S Box 46, New York, NY 10032, USA.

    gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system and exerts its actions via both ionotropic (GABA(A)/GABA(C)) and metabotropic (GABA(B)) receptors (R). In addition to their location on neurons, GABA and functional GABA(B) receptors have been detected in nonneuronal cells in peripheral tissue. Although the GABA(B)R has been shown to function as a prejunctional inhibitory receptor on parasympathetic nerves in the lung, the expression and functional coupling of GABA(B) receptors to G(i) in airway smooth muscle itself have never been described. We detected the mRNA encoding multiple-splice variants of the GABA(B)R1 and GABA(B)R2 in total RNA isolated from native human and guinea pig airway smooth muscle and from RNA isolated from cultured human airway smooth muscle (HASM) cells. Immunoblots identified the GABA(B)R1 and GABA(B)R2 proteins in human native and cultured airway smooth muscle. The GABA(B)R1 protein was immunohistochemically localized to airway smooth muscle in guinea pig tracheal rings. Baclofen, a GABA(B)R agonist, elicited a concentration-dependent stimulation of [(35)S]GTPgammaS binding in HASM homogenates that was abrogated by the GABA(B)R antagonist CGP-35348. Baclofen also inhibited adenylyl cyclase activity and induced ERK phosphorylation in HASM. Another GABA(B)R agonist, SKF-97541, mimicked while pertussis toxin blocked baclofen's effect on ERK phosphorylation, implicating G(i) protein coupling. Functional GABA(B) receptors are expressed in HASM. GABA may modulate an uncharacterized signaling cascade via GABA(B) receptors coupled to the G(i) protein in airway smooth muscle.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL-58519

    American journal of physiology. Lung cellular and molecular physiology 2006;291;5;L923-31

  • Coordinated action of NSF and PKC regulates GABAB receptor signaling efficacy.

    Pontier SM, Lahaie N, Ginham R, St-Gelais F, Bonin H, Bell DJ, Flynn H, Trudeau LE, McIlhinney J, White JH and Bouvier M

    Département de Biochimie and Groupe de Recherche Universitaire sur le Médicament, Institut de recherche en immunologie et Cancérologie, Université de Montréal, Montréal, Qc, Canada.

    The obligatory heterodimerization of the GABAB receptor (GBR) raises fundamental questions about molecular mechanisms controlling its signaling efficacy. Here, we show that NEM sensitive fusion (NSF) protein interacts directly with the GBR heterodimer both in rat brain synaptosomes and in CHO cells, forming a ternary complex that can be regulated by agonist stimulation. Inhibition of NSF binding with a peptide derived from GBR2 (TAT-Pep-27) did not affect basal signaling activity but almost completely abolished agonist-promoted GBR desensitization in both CHO cells and hippocampal slices. Taken with the role of PKC in the desensitization process, our observation that TAT-Pep-27 prevented both agonist-promoted recruitment of PKC and receptor phosphorylation suggests that NSF is a priming factor required for GBR desensitization. Given that GBR desensitization does not involve receptor internalization, the NSF/PKC coordinated action revealed herein suggests that NSF can regulate GPCR signalling efficacy independently of its role in membrane trafficking. The functional interaction between three bona fide regulators of neurotransmitter release, such as GBR, NSF and PKC, could shed new light on the modulation of presynaptic GBR action.

    Funded by: Medical Research Council: MRC_MC_U138162357

    The EMBO journal 2006;25;12;2698-709

  • Lack of association between a GABA receptor 1 gene polymorphism and temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Stogmann E, Zimprich A, Baumgartner C, Gleiss A and Zimprich F

    Department of Clinical Neurology, Core Unit of Medical Statistics and Informatics, Medical University of Vienna, Währinger Gürtel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna, Austria. elisabeth.stoegmann@meduniwien.ac.at

    Purpose: Recently a coding nonsynonymous single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP; G1465A) in the GABBR1 gene was reported to be associated with the incidence and severity of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). To clarify the role of this polymorphism in TLE, we attempted to replicate this study.

    Methods: We genotyped 188 unrelated patients with TLE (110 women, 78 men) and 259 controls of middle European descent by a restriction-length polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay.

    Results: Only two (0.5%) patients and none of the controls exhibited the heterozygous A/G genotype, which was previously reported to be overrepresented among patients as compared with controls.

    Conclusions: Although our study was sufficiently powered, we could not replicate the original association. Potential reasons for this failure could lie in subtle genetic differences between the studied populations or differences in the TLE phenotypes.

    Epilepsia 2006;47;2;437-9

  • Diversification of transcriptional modulation: large-scale identification and characterization of putative alternative promoters of human genes.

    Kimura K, Wakamatsu A, Suzuki Y, Ota T, Nishikawa T, Yamashita R, Yamamoto J, Sekine M, Tsuritani K, Wakaguri H, Ishii S, Sugiyama T, Saito K, Isono Y, Irie R, Kushida N, Yoneyama T, Otsuka R, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Kondo H, Wagatsuma M, Murakawa K, Ishida S, Ishibashi T, Takahashi-Fujii A, Tanase T, Nagai K, Kikuchi H, Nakai K, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Life Science Research Laboratory, Central Research Laboratory, Hitachi, Ltd., Kokubunji, Tokyo, 185-8601, Japan.

    By analyzing 1,780,295 5'-end sequences of human full-length cDNAs derived from 164 kinds of oligo-cap cDNA libraries, we identified 269,774 independent positions of transcriptional start sites (TSSs) for 14,628 human RefSeq genes. These TSSs were clustered into 30,964 clusters that were separated from each other by more than 500 bp and thus are very likely to constitute mutually distinct alternative promoters. To our surprise, at least 7674 (52%) human RefSeq genes were subject to regulation by putative alternative promoters (PAPs). On average, there were 3.1 PAPs per gene, with the composition of one CpG-island-containing promoter per 2.6 CpG-less promoters. In 17% of the PAP-containing loci, tissue-specific use of the PAPs was observed. The richest tissue sources of the tissue-specific PAPs were testis and brain. It was also intriguing that the PAP-containing promoters were enriched in the genes encoding signal transduction-related proteins and were rarer in the genes encoding extracellular proteins, possibly reflecting the varied functional requirement for and the restricted expression of those categories of genes, respectively. The patterns of the first exons were highly diverse as well. On average, there were 7.7 different splicing types of first exons per locus partly produced by the PAPs, suggesting that a wide variety of transcripts can be achieved by this mechanism. Our findings suggest that use of alternate promoters and consequent alternative use of first exons should play a pivotal role in generating the complexity required for the highly elaborated molecular systems in humans.

    Genome research 2006;16;1;55-65

  • Assembly-dependent surface targeting of the heterodimeric GABAB Receptor is controlled by COPI but not 14-3-3.

    Brock C, Boudier L, Maurel D, Blahos J and Pin JP

    CNRS UMR5203, Montpellier F-34094 France.

    Cell surface expression of transmembrane proteins is strictly regulated. Mutually exclusive interaction with COPI or 14-3-3 proteins has been proposed as a mechanism underlying such trafficking control of various proteins. In particular, 14-3-3 dimers have been proposed to "sense" correctly assembled oligomers, allowing their surface targeting by preventing COPI-mediated intracellular retention. Here we examined whether such a mechanism is involved in the quality control of the heterodimeric G protein-coupled GABAB receptor. Its GB1 subunit, carrying the retention signal RSR, only reaches the cell surface when associated with the GB2 subunit. We show that COPI and 14-3-3 specifically bind to the GB1 RSR sequence and that COPI is involved in its intracellular retention. However, we demonstrate that the interaction with 14-3-3 is not required for proper function of the GABAB receptor quality control. Accordingly, competition between 14-3-3 and COPI cannot be considered as a general trafficking control mechanism. A possible other role for competition between COPI and 14-3-3 binding is discussed.

    Molecular biology of the cell 2005;16;12;5572-8

  • A human protein-protein interaction network: a resource for annotating the proteome.

    Stelzl U, Worm U, Lalowski M, Haenig C, Brembeck FH, Goehler H, Stroedicke M, Zenkner M, Schoenherr A, Koeppen S, Timm J, Mintzlaff S, Abraham C, Bock N, Kietzmann S, Goedde A, Toksöz E, Droege A, Krobitsch S, Korn B, Birchmeier W, Lehrach H and Wanker EE

    Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine, 13092 Berlin-Buch, Germany.

    Protein-protein interaction maps provide a valuable framework for a better understanding of the functional organization of the proteome. To detect interacting pairs of human proteins systematically, a protein matrix of 4456 baits and 5632 preys was screened by automated yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) interaction mating. We identified 3186 mostly novel interactions among 1705 proteins, resulting in a large, highly connected network. Independent pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation assays validated the overall quality of the Y2H interactions. Using topological and GO criteria, a scoring system was developed to define 911 high-confidence interactions among 401 proteins. Furthermore, the network was searched for interactions linking uncharacterized gene products and human disease proteins to regulatory cellular pathways. Two novel Axin-1 interactions were validated experimentally, characterizing ANP32A and CRMP1 as modulators of Wnt signaling. Systematic human protein interaction screens can lead to a more comprehensive understanding of protein function and cellular processes.

    Cell 2005;122;6;957-68

  • Asymmetric functioning of dimeric metabotropic glutamate receptors disclosed by positive allosteric modulators.

    Goudet C, Kniazeff J, Hlavackova V, Malhaire F, Maurel D, Acher F, Blahos J, Prézeau L and Pin JP

    CNRS UMR5203, INSERM, U661, University Montpellier I, University Montpellier II, Institut de Génomique Fonctionnelle, Département de Pharmacologie Moléculaire, 141 Rue de la Cardonille, Montpellier F-34094 Cedex 5, France.

    The recent discovery of positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) for G-protein-coupled receptors open new possibilities to control a number of physiological and pathological processes. Understanding the mechanism of action of such compounds will provide new information on the activation process of these important receptors. Within the last 10 years, a number of studies indicate that G-protein-coupled receptors can form dimers, but the functional significance of this phenomenon remains elusive. Here we used the metabotropic glutamate receptors as a model, because these receptors, for which PAMs have been identified, are constitutive dimers. We used the quality control system of the GABA(B) receptor to generate metabotropic glutamate receptor dimers in which a single subunit binds a PAM. We show that one PAM/dimer is sufficient to enhance receptor activity. Such a potentiation can still be observed if the subunit unable to bind the PAM is also made unable to activate G-proteins. However, the PAM acts as a non-competitive antagonist when it binds in the subunit that cannot activate G-proteins. These data are consistent with a single heptahelical domain reaching the active state per dimer during receptor activation.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2005;280;26;24380-5

  • GABA receptor 1 polymorphism (G1465A) and temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Salzmann A, Moulard B, Crespel A, Baldy-Moulinier M, Buresi C and Malafosse A

    Division of Neuropsychiatry, University Hospital of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.

    Purpose: To reevaluate the genetic contribution of the polymorphism G1465A of the gene coding for gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)(B) receptor 1 subunit [GABA(B)(1)] in a sample of French patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and to perform an exploratory analysis in other phenotypic subgroups.

    Methods: The 134 patients were genotyped for the polymorphism G1465A. This sample was divided in two groups. The first one had patients with nonlesional TLE, and the second one, with lesional TLE. Then these two groups were compared with a sample of 145 healthy individuals.

    Results: The genotype and allele distributions for the polymorphism G1465A showed no difference between patients and controls.

    Conclusions: The association between the variant G1465A and the sample of patients could not be replicated, so these results exclude a major effect of this polymorphism in the susceptibility to nonlesional TLE. Larger samples should be tested to determine whether the G1465A in exon 7 of the GABA(B)(1) receptor gene is a susceptibility factor for nonlesional TLE.

    Epilepsia 2005;46;6;931-3

  • Changes in hippocampal GABABR1 subunit expression in Alzheimer's patients: association with Braak staging.

    Iwakiri M, Mizukami K, Ikonomovic MD, Ishikawa M, Hidaka S, Abrahamson EE, DeKosky ST and Asada T

    Department of Psychiatry, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, 305-8575, Tsukuba city, Ibaraki, Japan.

    Alterations in the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurotransmitter and receptor systems may contribute to vulnerability of hippocampal pyramidal neurons in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The present study examined the immunohistochemical localization and distribution of GABA(B) receptor R1 protein (GBR1) in the hippocampus of 16 aged subjects with a range of neurofibrillary tangle (NFT) pathology as defined by Braak staging (I-VI). GBR1 immunoreactivity (IR) was localized to the soma and processes of hippocampal pyramidal cells and some non-pyramidal interneurons. In control subjects (Braak I/II), the intensity of neuronal GBR1 immunostaining differed among hippocampal fields, being most prominent in the CA4 and CA3/2 fields, moderate in the CA1 field, and very light in the dentate gyrus. AD cases with moderate NFT pathology (Braak III/IV) were characterized by increased GBR1-IR, particularly in the CA4 and CA3/2 fields. In the CA1 field of the majority of AD cases, the numbers of GBR1-IR neurons were significantly reduced, despite the presence of Nissl-labeled neurons in this region. These data indicate that GBR1 expression changes with the progression of NFT in AD hippocampus. At the onset of hippocampal pathology, increased or stable expression of GBR1 could contribute to neuronal resistance to the disease process. Advanced hippocampal pathology appears to be associated with decreased neuronal GBR1 staining in the CA1 region, which precedes neuronal cell death. Thus, changes in hippocampal GBR1 may reflect alterations in the balance between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitter systems, which likely contributes to dysfunction of hippocampal circuitry in AD.

    Funded by: NIA NIH HHS: AG05133

    Acta neuropathologica 2005;109;5;467-74

  • Is variation in the GABA(B) receptor 1 gene associated with temporal lobe epilepsy?

    Tan NC, Heron SE, Scheffer IE, Berkovic SF and Mulley JC

    Epilepsy Research Centre and Department of Medicine (Neurology), University of Melbourne, Australia.

    Purpose: gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA)-receptor genes are prime candidates for a role in seizure susceptibility. An association between the c.1465G-->A variant in the GABA(B) receptor 1 gene (GABBR1) and susceptibility to temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) has been reported in an Italian cohort. We sought to replicate this association in an independent Australian cohort.

    Methods: The 234 patients with TLE and 164 healthy controls were genotyped for the c.1465G-->A variant, by using inclusion criteria identical to those of the first study.

    Results: The c.1465G-->A variant was found in one TLE patient and one control subject. Genotype and allele frequencies did not differ between groups.

    Conclusions: We did not replicate the reported associations between the c.1465G-->A variant and susceptibility to TLE. We suggest that the initial positive association may be due to undetected population stratification; the importance of genomic control is emphasized. Population-specific effects also may play a role, and we highlight the need to demonstrate an in vitro functional effect to give biologic meaning to any proposed association.

    Epilepsia 2005;46;5;778-80

  • Possible association between the gamma-aminobutyric acid type B receptor 1 (GABBR1) gene and schizophrenia.

    Zai G, King N, Wong GW, Barr CL and Kennedy JL

    Neurogenetics Section, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON, Canada M5T 1R8. gwyneth_zai@camh.net

    Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a severe neuropsychiatric disorder with a genetic component. The major inhibitory GABA-(gamma-aminobutyric acid) ergic system may be involved. The GABA type B receptor 1 (GABBR1) gene has been localized to 6p21.3, a region linked to SCZ. We therefore investigated five polymorphisms (A-7265G, C10497G, Ser-491-Ser-T1473C, Phe-659-Phe-T1977C, and 3'-UTR A33795G substitutions) in the GABBR1 gene in a sample of 101 DSM-IV SCZ probands and their families, 150 unrelated affected individuals matched with 150 healthy controls, using the transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) and case-control analysis. We did not observe biased transmission of alleles in any of the polymorphisms individually and haplotypes within the gene to SCZ probands. However, a weak significant difference was observed in the A-7265G polymorphism between the allelic frequency (chi2 = 4.310, P = 0.038) and a trend was observed between the genotype frequency (chi2 = 4.970, 2 df, P = 0.083) of SCZ individuals and controls. Further investigations of the role of GABBR1 in SCZ are warranted.

    European neuropsychopharmacology : the journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology 2005;15;3;347-52

  • Evidence for the gamma-amino-butyric acid type B receptor 1 (GABBR1) gene as a susceptibility factor in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Zai G, Arnold P, Burroughs E, Barr CL, Richter MA and Kennedy JL

    Neurogenetics Section, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a well-recognized severe neuropsychiatric illness. Genetic factors are believed to be important etiologically. Although historically genetic testing has focused on the serotonergic and dopaminergic systems, there is increasing evidence that the major inhibitory neurotransmitter, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), may also be functionally involved. Furthermore the GABA type B receptor 1 (GABBR1) gene has been localized to chromosome 6p21.3 region, which has shown linkage to OCD. We investigated five polymorphisms (A-7265G substitution; C10497G substitution; A33795G substitution in the 3'-UTR; Ser-491-Ser-T1473C transition; Phe-659-Phe-T1977C transition) in the GABBR1 gene in a sample of 159 DSM-IV OCD probands and their families, using the transmission disequilibrium test (TDT). A trend was observed with an over-transmission of -7265A allele at the A-7265G polymorphism and OCD (chi2 = 3.270, P = 0.071). Moreover, the TDT haplotype analysis using TRANSMIT showed a trend toward association with the haplotype of the five polymorphisms together [ (A-7265G.C10497G.Ser-491-Ser.Phe-659-Phe.A33795G)] with a Chi-square value of 3.418, which corresponds to a P-value of 0.065 (overall chi2 = 6.353, 5 df, P = 0.273). Moreover, a trend was observed for the total Yale-Brown obsessive-compulsive scale score in the A-7265G polymorphism (-7265A: z = 1.934, P = 0.053) using the Family-Based Association Test, considering the diagnosis of OCD and then the clinically relevant quantitative phenotypes. The observed trends suggest that further investigations of the role of the GABBR1 gene in OCD are warranted.

    American journal of medical genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric genetics : the official publication of the International Society of Psychiatric Genetics 2005;134B;1;25-9

  • The GABBR1 locus and the G1465A variant is not associated with temporal lobe epilepsy preceded by febrile seizures.

    Ma S, Abou-Khalil B, Sutcliffe JS, Haines JL and Hedera P

    Department of Neurology, Vanderbilt University, 465 21st Avenue South, 6140 MRB III, Nashville, TN 37232-8552, USA. shaochun.ma@vanderbilt.edu <shaochun.ma@vanderbilt.edu&gt;

    Background: Polymorphism G1465A in the GABBR1 gene has been suggested as a risk factor for non-lesional temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE); however, this genetic association study has not been independently replicated. We attempted to replicate this study in our cohort of patients with TLE. Furthermore, we also analyzed the coding sequence of this gene and searched for disease-causing mutations.

    Methods: We included 120 unrelated individuals with TLE that was preceded by febrile seizures (FS) who did not have any evidence of structural lesions suggesting secondary epilepsy. 66 individuals had positive family history of TLE epilepsy and 54 were sporadic. Each patient was genotyped for the presence of G1465A polymorphism. All exons of the GABBR1 gene were screened by single strand confirmation polymorphism method. Genotypes were compared with two independent matched control groups.

    Results: We detected two A alleles of the G1465A polymorphism in one homozygous control subject (0.87% of all alleles) and one A allele in a patient with TLE (0.45%, not significant). Other detected polymorphisms in coding regions had similar frequencies in epilepsy patients and control groups. No disease causing mutations in the GABBR1 gene were detected in patients with sporadic or familial TLE.

    Conclusion: Our results indicate that TLE preceded by FS is not associated with the polymorphisms or mutations in the GABBR1 gene, including the G1465A polymorphism. The proportion of TLE patients with FS in the original study, reporting this positive association, did not differ between allele A negative and positive cases. Thus, our failure to reproduce this result is likely applicable to all non-lesional TLE epilepsies.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: M01 RR000095, RR00095; NINDS NIH HHS: K08 NS042743, K08NS42743

    BMC medical genetics 2005;6;13

  • Determination of the minimal functional ligand-binding domain of the GABAB1b receptor.

    Deriu D, Gassmann M, Firbank S, Ristig D, Lampert C, Mosbacher J, Froestl W, Kaupmann K, Bettler B and Grütter MG

    Institute of Biochemistry, University of Zürich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Zürich, Switzerland.

    In the mammalian central nervous system, slow inhibitory neurotransmission is largely mediated by metabotropic GABA(B) receptors (where GABA stands for gamma-aminobutyric acid), which belong to the G-protein-coupled receptor gene family. Functional GABA(B) receptors are assembled from two subunits GABA(B1) (GABA(B) receptor subtype 1) and GABA(B2). For the GABA(B1) subunit, which binds the neurotransmitter GABA, two variants GABA(B1a) (GABA(B) receptor subtype 1 variant a) and GABA(B1b) have been identified. They differ at the very N-terminus of their large glycosylated ECD (extracellular domain). To simplify the structural characterization, we designed truncated GABA(B1) receptors to identify the minimal functional domain which still binds a competitive radioligand and leads to a functional, GABA-responding receptor when co-expressed with GABA(B2). We show that it is necessary to include all the portion of the ECD encoded by exon 6 to exon 14. Furthermore, we studied mutant GABA(B1b) receptors, in which single or all potential N-glycosylation sites are removed. The absence of oligosaccharides does not impair receptor function, suggesting that the unglycosylated ECD of GABA(B1) can be used for further functional or structural investigations.

    The Biochemical journal 2005;386;Pt 3;423-31

  • Evidence for a single heptahelical domain being turned on upon activation of a dimeric GPCR.

    Hlavackova V, Goudet C, Kniazeff J, Zikova A, Maurel D, Vol C, Trojanova J, Prézeau L, Pin JP and Blahos J

    Department of Molecular Pharmacology, Institute of Experimental Medicine, Czech Academy of Science, Prague, Czech Republic.

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have been shown to form dimers, but the relevance of this phenomenon in G-protein activation is not known. Among the large GPCR family, metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors are constitutive dimers. Here we examined whether both heptahelical domains (HDs) are turned on upon full receptor activation. To that aim, we measured G-protein coupling efficacy of dimeric mGlu receptors in which one subunit bears specific mutations. We show that a mutation in the third intracellular loop (i3 loop) known to prevent G-protein activation in a single subunit decreases coupling efficacy. However, when a single HD is blocked in its inactive state using an inverse agonist, 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)pyridine (MPEP), no decrease in receptor activity is observed. Interestingly, in a receptor dimer in which the subunit that binds MPEP is mutated in its i3 loop, MPEP enhances agonist-induced activity, reflecting a 'better' activation of the adjacent HD. These data are consistent with a model in which a single HD is turned on upon activation of such homodimeric receptors and raise important issues in deciphering the functional role of GPCR dimer formation for G-protein activation.

    The EMBO journal 2005;24;3;499-509

  • Structural analysis of the complement control protein (CCP) modules of GABA(B) receptor 1a: only one of the two CCP modules is compactly folded.

    Blein S, Ginham R, Uhrin D, Smith BO, Soares DC, Veltel S, McIlhinney RA, White JH and Barlow PN

    Edinburgh Protein Interaction Centre, University of Edinburgh, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JJ, Scotland, United Kingdom.

    The gamma-aminobutyric acid type B (GABA(B)) receptor is a heterodimeric G-protein-coupled receptor. In humans, three splice variants of the GABA(B) receptor 1 (R1) subunit differ in having one, both, or neither of two putative complement control protein (CCP) modules at the extracellular N terminus, prior to the GABA-binding domain. The in vivo function of these predicted modules remains to be discovered, but a likely association with extracellular matrix proteins is intriguing. The portion of the GABA(B) R1a variant encompassing both of its CCP module-like sequences has been expressed, as have the sequences corresponding to each individual module. Each putative CCP module exhibits the expected pattern of disulfide formation. However, the second module (CCP2) is more compactly folded than the first, and the three-dimensional structure of this more C-terminal module (expressed alone) was solved on the basis of NMR-derived nuclear Overhauser effects. This revealed a strong similarity to previously determined CCP module structures in the regulators of complement activation. The N-terminal module (CCP1) displayed conformational heterogeneity under a wide range of conditions whether expressed alone or together with CCP2. Several lines of evidence indicated the presence of native disorder in CCP1, despite the fact that recombinant CCP1 contributes to binding to the extracellular matrix protein fibulin-2. Thus, we have shown that the two CCP modules of GABA(B) R1a have strikingly different structural properties, reflecting their different functions.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2004;279;46;48292-306

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • Human follicular fluid stimulates the sperm acrosome reaction by interacting with the gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors.

    Burrello N, Vicari E, D'Amico L, Satta A, D'Agata R and Calogero AE

    Section of Endocrinology, Andrology and Internal Medicine, Department of Biomedical Sciences, and Master School in Andrological and Human Reproduction Sciences, University of Catania, Catania, Italy.

    Objective: To evaluate whether gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors are involved in human sperm acrosome reaction induced by the follicular fluid (FF).

    Design: Random selection of normal sperm samples.

    Setting: Normal men in an university clinic of andrology.

    Men with normal sperm analysis parameters.


    Acrosome reaction on motile spermatozoa.

    Follicular fluid stimulated the acrosome reaction dose-dependently. The effect of a maximally effective concentration of FF (30%, vol/vol) was significantly suppressed by bicuculline, a GABAA receptor antagonist, and saclofen, a GABAB receptor antagonist, added concomitantly. Each of the two antagonists used alone was devoid of effect. Because the GABAA receptor is linked to the chloride channel, we tested whether picrotoxin, a blocker of this channel, could modulate the effects of the FF. Picrotoxin alone did not have any effect on the acrosome reaction induced by the FF, whereas it had a significant suppressive effect if coincubated with saclofen. The acrosome reaction induced by the FF was also inhibited by picrotoxin plus verapamil, a calcium channel blocker, whereas verapamil alone had no significant effect. This suggested that both chloride and calcium ions mediated the acrosome reaction induced by the FF.

    The simultaneous blockade of GABAA and GABAB receptors suppressed the acrosome reaction induced by the FF. This finding suggested that GABA receptors play a physiologic role in sperm activation and shed further light on the mechanism of FF action on human sperm acrosome reaction.

    Fertility and sterility 2004;82 Suppl 3;1086-90

  • Screening for candidate gene regions in narcolepsy using a microsatellite based approach and pooled DNA.

    Wieczorek S, Jagiello P, Arning L, Dahmen N and Epplen JT

    Department of Human Genetics, Ruhr University, 44780 Bochum, Germany. stefan.wieczorek@rub.de

    Narcolepsy is a complex sleep disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy. Mutations in genes of the hypocretin (orexin) neurotransmitter system cause narcoleptic symptoms in animal models. The absence of hypocretin in the cerebrospinal fluid of human patients is hypothesized to originate from destruction of hypocretinergic cells in the hypothalamus, the cause of which remains unknown. Due to strong HLA association autoimmune models of narcolepsy pathogenesis are still mostly favored. Genetic predisposition factors other than HLA are likely to play a role in causing the disorder. We screened three sets of gene regions ( n=254) for association with narcolepsy using a microsatellite based approach and pooled DNA: genes related to immunity, particularly apoptosis; genes related to regulation of circadian rhythmicity; genes coding for several factors of neurotransmission. In relation to apoptosis an association was found for the BAG1 gene region. Interestingly, microsatellites representing four genomic regions related to neurotransmission revealed association with narcolepsy: COMT, DRD2, GABBR1, and HTR2A. These results, although exploratory and still to be confirmed in independent samples, support a complex pathogenetic model for narcolepsy, including disturbances of neurotransmission rather than involvement of autoimmunity.

    Journal of molecular medicine (Berlin, Germany) 2004;82;10;696-705

  • Hetero-oligomerization between GABAA and GABAB receptors regulates GABAB receptor trafficking.

    Balasubramanian S, Teissére JA, Raju DV and Hall RA

    Department of Pharmacology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA.

    The neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) mediates inhibitory signaling in the brain via stimulation of both GABA(A) receptors (GABA(A)R), which are chloride-permeant ion channels, and GABA(B) receptors (GABA(B)R), which signal through coupling to G proteins. Here we report physical interactions between these two different classes of GABA receptor. Association of the GABA(B) receptor 1 (GABA(B)R1) with the GABA(A) receptor gamma2S subunit robustly promotes cell surface expression of GABA(B)R1 in the absence of GABA(B)R2, a closely related GABA(B) receptor that is usually required for efficient trafficking of GABA(B)R1 to the cell surface. The GABA(B)R1/gamma2S complex is not detectably functional when expressed alone, as assessed in both ERK activation assays and physiological analyses in oocytes. However, the gamma2S subunit associates not only with GABA(B)R1 alone but also with the functional GABA(B)R1/GABA(B)R2 heterodimer to markedly enhance GABA(B) receptor internalization in response to agonist stimulation. These findings reveal that the GABA(B)R1/gamma2S interaction results in the regulation of multiple aspects of GABA(B) receptor trafficking, allowing for cross-talk between these two distinct classes of GABA receptor.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: R01-NS45644

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2004;279;18;18840-50

  • Marlin-1, a novel RNA-binding protein associates with GABA receptors.

    Couve A, Restituito S, Brandon JM, Charles KJ, Bawagan H, Freeman KB, Pangalos MN, Calver AR and Moss SJ

    Department of Pharmacology, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom.

    GABA(B) receptors are heterodimeric G protein-coupled receptors that mediate slow synaptic inhibition in the central nervous system. Whereas heterodimerization between GABA(B) receptor GABA(B)R1 and GABA(B)R2 subunits is essential for functional expression, how neurons coordinate the assembly of these critical receptors remains to be established. Here we have identified Marlin-1, a novel GABA(B) receptor-binding protein that associates specifically with the GABA(B)R1 subunit in yeast, tissue culture cells, and neurons. Marlin-1 is expressed in the brain and exhibits a granular distribution in cultured hippocampal neurons. Marlin-1 binds different RNA species including the 3'-untranslated regions of both the GABA(B)R1 and GABA(B)R2 mRNAs in vitro and also associates with RNA in cultured neurons. Inhibition of Marlin-1 expression via small RNA interference technology results in enhanced intracellular levels of the GABA(B)R2 receptor subunit without affecting the level of GABA(B)R1. Together our results suggest that Marlin-1 functions to regulate the cellular levels of GABA(B) R2 subunits, which may have significant effects on the production of functional GABA(B) receptor heterodimers. Therefore, our observations provide an added level of regulation for the control of GABA(B) receptor expression and for the efficacy of inhibitory synaptic transmission.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2004;279;14;13934-43

  • Phosphorylation and chronic agonist treatment atypically modulate GABAB receptor cell surface stability.

    Fairfax BP, Pitcher JA, Scott MG, Calver AR, Pangalos MN, Moss SJ and Couve A

    Medical Research Council Laboratory of Molecular Cell Biology and Department of Pharmacology, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom.

    GABA(B) receptors are heterodimeric G protein-coupled receptors that mediate slow synaptic inhibition in the central nervous system. The dynamic control of the cell surface stability of GABA(B) receptors is likely to be of fundamental importance in the modulation of receptor signaling. Presently, however, this process is poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that GABA(B) receptors are remarkably stable at the plasma membrane showing little basal endocytosis in cultured cortical and hippocampal neurons. In addition, we show that exposure to baclofen, a well characterized GABA(B) receptor agonist, fails to enhance GABA(B) receptor endocytosis. Lack of receptor internalization in neurons correlates with an absence of agonist-induced phosphorylation and lack of arrestin recruitment in heterologous systems. We also demonstrate that chronic exposure to baclofen selectively promotes endocytosis-independent GABA(B) receptor degradation. The effect of baclofen can be attenuated by activation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase or co-stimulation of beta-adrenergic receptors. Furthermore, we show that increased degradation rates are correlated with reduced receptor phosphorylation at serine 892 in GABA(B)R2. Our results support a model in which GABA(B)R2 phosphorylation specifically stabilizes surface GABA(B) receptors in neurons. We propose that signaling pathways that regulate cAMP levels in neurons may have profound effects on the tonic synaptic inhibition by modulating the availability of GABA(B) receptors.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2004;279;13;12565-73

  • Comparative cellular distribution of GABAA and GABAB receptors in the human basal ganglia: immunohistochemical colocalization of the alpha 1 subunit of the GABAA receptor, and the GABABR1 and GABABR2 receptor subunits.

    Waldvogel HJ, Billinton A, White JH, Emson PC and Faull RL

    Department of Anatomy with Radiology, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland, New Zealand. h.waldvogel@auckland.ac.nz

    The GABA(B) receptor is a G-protein linked metabotropic receptor that is comprised of two major subunits, GABA(B)R1 and GABA(B)R2. In this study, the cellular distribution of the GABA(B)R1 and GABA(B)R2 subunits was investigated in the normal human basal ganglia using single and double immunohistochemical labeling techniques on fixed human brain tissue. The results showed that the GABA(B) receptor subunits GABA(B)R1 and GABA(B)R2 were both found on the same neurons and followed the same distribution patterns. In the striatum, these subunits were found on the five major types of interneurons based on morphology and neurochemical labeling (types 1, 2, 3, 5, 6) and showed weak labeling on the projection neurons (type 4). In the globus pallidus, intense GABA(B)R1 and GABA(B)R2 subunit labeling was found in large pallidal neurons, and in the substantia nigra, both pars compacta and pars reticulata neurons were labeled for both receptor subunits. Studies investigating the colocalization of the GABA(A) alpha(1) subunit and GABA(B) receptor subunits showed that the GABA(A) receptor alpha(1) subunit and the GABA(B)R1 subunit were found together on GABAergic striatal interneurons (type 1 parvalbumin, type 2 calretinin, and type 3 GAD neurons) and on neurons in the globus pallidus and substantia nigra pars reticulata. GABA(B)R1 and GABA(B)R2 were found on substantia nigra pars compacta neurons but the GABA(A) receptor alpha(1) subunit was absent from these neurons. The results of this study provide the morphological basis for GABAergic transmission within the human basal ganglia and provides evidence that GABA acts through both GABA(A) and GABA(B) receptors. That is, GABA acts through GABA(B) receptors, which are located on most of the cell types of the striatum, globus pallidus, and substantia nigra. GABA also acts through GABA(A) receptors containing the alpha(1) subunit on specific striatal GABAergic interneurons and on output neurons of the globus pallidus and substantia nigra pars reticulata.

    The Journal of comparative neurology 2004;470;4;339-56

  • Characterization of GABAB receptor in the human colon.

    Uezono Y, Kaibara M, Hayashi H, Kawakami S, Enjoji A, Kanematsu T and Taniyama K

    Division of Pharmacology, Department of Translational Medical Sciences, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Japan.

    Characterization of the GABA(B) receptor in the human colon was performed by the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). mRNAs for both subunits of the GABA(B) receptor, GABA(B1) and GABA(B2), were detected in the human colon. The GABA(B1(e)) isoform was detected in the human colon, but not in the brain, and the other isoforms, except GABA(B1(d)), were detected in both tissues. Thus, the GABA(B) receptor may be present as a heterodimer with subunits of GABA(B1) and GABA(B2) in the human colon.

    Journal of pharmacological sciences 2004;94;2;211-3

  • An unappreciated role for RNA surveillance.

    Hillman RT, Green RE and Brenner SE

    Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3102, USA.

    Background: Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) is a eukaryotic mRNA surveillance mechanism that detects and degrades mRNAs with premature termination codons (PTC+ mRNAs). In mammals, a termination codon is recognized as premature if it lies more than about 50 nucleotides upstream of the final intron position. More than a third of reliably inferred alternative splicing events in humans have been shown to result in PTC+ mRNA isoforms. As the mechanistic details of NMD have only recently been elucidated, we hypothesized that many PTC+ isoforms may have been cloned, characterized and deposited in the public databases, even though they would be targeted for degradation in vivo.

    Results: We analyzed the human alternative protein isoforms described in the SWISS-PROT database and found that 144 (5.8% of 2,483) isoform sequences amenable to analysis, from 107 (7.9% of 1,363) SWISS-PROT entries, derive from PTC+ mRNA.

    Conclusions: For several of the PTC+ isoforms we identified, existing experimental evidence can be reinterpreted and is consistent with the action of NMD to degrade the transcripts. Several genes with mRNA isoforms that we identified as PTC+--calpain-10, the CDC-like kinases (CLKs) and LARD--show how previous experimental results may be understood in light of NMD.

    Funded by: NHGRI NIH HHS: K22 HG000056, K22 HG00056, T32 HG000047, T32 HG00047

    Genome biology 2004;5;2;R8

  • Increased expression of gamma-aminobutyric acid type B receptors in the hippocampus of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Furtinger S, Pirker S, Czech T, Baumgartner C and Sperk G

    Department of Pharmacology, University of Innsbruck, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria.

    Malfunctioning of the GABA-ergic system has been postulated as a possible cause of epilepsy. We investigated changes in the mRNA expression of the GABA(B) receptor subtypes GABA(B)-R1 and GABA(B)-R2 and of GABA(B) receptor binding in the hippocampus of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) compared with post-mortem controls. In patients with Ammon's horn sclerosis, significant decreases in [3H]CG54626A binding were observed in subfields CA1 and CA3 of the hippocampus proper and the dentate hilus. On the other hand, both GABA(B) receptor mRNAs and receptor binding were enhanced after correction for neuronal loss in dentate granule cells and in the molecular layer, respectively, and the subiculum of patients with and without hippocampal sclerosis. These increases were even more pronounced when correcting the values for cell losses in the respective areas and indicated also increased expression of GABA(B)-R in the dentate hilus. Increased expression of both subtypes of GABA(B) receptors indicates augmented presynaptic inhibition of glutamate release as a possible protective mechanism in TLE.

    Neuroscience letters 2003;352;2;141-5

  • Gamma-hydroxybutyrate reduces mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation via GABA B receptor activation in mouse frontal cortex and hippocampus.

    Ren X and Mody I

    Departments of Neurology and Physiology, The David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California at Los Angeles, 710 Westwood Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.

    gamma-Hydroxybutyrate (GHB) naturally occurs in the brain, but its exogenous administration induces profound effects on the central nervous system in animals and humans. The intracellular signaling mechanisms underlying its actions remain unclear. In the present study, the effects of GHB on the activation (phosphorylation) of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAP kinases), extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), were investigated. Acute administration of GHB (500 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) induced a fast and long lasting inhibition of MAP kinase phosphorylation in both frontal cortex and hippocampus. The reduced MAP kinase phosphorylation was observed in the CA1 and CA3 areas but not in the dentate gyrus. Pretreatment with the specific gamma-aminobutyric acid, type B (GABAB), receptor antagonist CGP56999A (20 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) prevented the action of GHB, and the effect of GHB was mimicked by baclofen, a selective GABAB receptor agonist, whereas the high affinity GHB receptor antagonist NCS-382 (200 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) had no effect on GHB-inhibited MAP kinase phosphorylation. Moreover, the GHB dehydrogenase inhibitor valproate (500 mg/kg, intraperitoneal), which inhibits the conversion of GHB into GABA, failed to block the effect of GHB on MAP kinase phosphorylation. Altogether, these data suggest that GHB, administered in vivo, reduces MAP kinase phosphorylation via a direct activation of GABAB receptors by GHB. In contrast, GHB (10 mm for 15 min) was found ineffective on MAP kinase phosphorylation in brain slices, indicating important differences in the conditions required for the second messenger activating action of GHB.

    Funded by: NIDA NIH HHS: DA 14947

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;43;42006-11

  • The DNA sequence and analysis of human chromosome 6.

    Mungall AJ, Palmer SA, Sims SK, Edwards CA, Ashurst JL, Wilming L, Jones MC, Horton R, Hunt SE, Scott CE, Gilbert JG, Clamp ME, Bethel G, Milne S, Ainscough R, Almeida JP, Ambrose KD, Andrews TD, Ashwell RI, Babbage AK, Bagguley CL, Bailey J, Banerjee R, Barker DJ, Barlow KF, Bates K, Beare DM, Beasley H, Beasley O, Bird CP, Blakey S, Bray-Allen S, Brook J, Brown AJ, Brown JY, Burford DC, Burrill W, Burton J, Carder C, Carter NP, Chapman JC, Clark SY, Clark G, Clee CM, Clegg S, Cobley V, Collier RE, Collins JE, Colman LK, Corby NR, Coville GJ, Culley KM, Dhami P, Davies J, Dunn M, Earthrowl ME, Ellington AE, Evans KA, Faulkner L, Francis MD, Frankish A, Frankland J, French L, Garner P, Garnett J, Ghori MJ, Gilby LM, Gillson CJ, Glithero RJ, Grafham DV, Grant M, Gribble S, Griffiths C, Griffiths M, Hall R, Halls KS, Hammond S, Harley JL, Hart EA, Heath PD, Heathcott R, Holmes SJ, Howden PJ, Howe KL, Howell GR, Huckle E, Humphray SJ, Humphries MD, Hunt AR, Johnson CM, Joy AA, Kay M, Keenan SJ, Kimberley AM, King A, Laird GK, Langford C, Lawlor S, Leongamornlert DA, Leversha M, Lloyd CR, Lloyd DM, Loveland JE, Lovell J, Martin S, Mashreghi-Mohammadi M, Maslen GL, Matthews L, McCann OT, McLaren SJ, McLay K, McMurray A, Moore MJ, Mullikin JC, Niblett D, Nickerson T, Novik KL, Oliver K, Overton-Larty EK, Parker A, Patel R, Pearce AV, Peck AI, Phillimore B, Phillips S, Plumb RW, Porter KM, Ramsey Y, Ranby SA, Rice CM, Ross MT, Searle SM, Sehra HK, Sheridan E, Skuce CD, Smith S, Smith M, Spraggon L, Squares SL, Steward CA, Sycamore N, Tamlyn-Hall G, Tester J, Theaker AJ, Thomas DW, Thorpe A, Tracey A, Tromans A, Tubby B, Wall M, Wallis JM, West AP, White SS, Whitehead SL, Whittaker H, Wild A, Willey DJ, Wilmer TE, Wood JM, Wray PW, Wyatt JC, Young L, Younger RM, Bentley DR, Coulson A, Durbin R, Hubbard T, Sulston JE, Dunham I, Rogers J and Beck S

    The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SA, UK. ajm@sanger.ac.uk

    Chromosome 6 is a metacentric chromosome that constitutes about 6% of the human genome. The finished sequence comprises 166,880,988 base pairs, representing the largest chromosome sequenced so far. The entire sequence has been subjected to high-quality manual annotation, resulting in the evidence-supported identification of 1,557 genes and 633 pseudogenes. Here we report that at least 96% of the protein-coding genes have been identified, as assessed by multi-species comparative sequence analysis, and provide evidence for the presence of further, otherwise unsupported exons/genes. Among these are genes directly implicated in cancer, schizophrenia, autoimmunity and many other diseases. Chromosome 6 harbours the largest transfer RNA gene cluster in the genome; we show that this cluster co-localizes with a region of high transcriptional activity. Within the essential immune loci of the major histocompatibility complex, we find HLA-B to be the most polymorphic gene on chromosome 6 and in the human genome.

    Nature 2003;425;6960;805-11

  • The gene encoding GABBR1 is not associated with childhood absence epilepsy in the Chinese Han population.

    Lu J, Chen Y, Pan H, Zhang Y, Wu H, Xu K, Liu X, Jiang Y, Bao X, Shen Y and Wu X

    Department of Pediatrics, Peking University First Hospital, No. 8 Xishiku Street, Beijing 100034, PR China.

    Childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) is considered to be a genetic disease, but the genes responsible for it have not yet been identified. To investigate whether or not the GABBR1 gene is a susceptibility gene for CAE in the Chinese Han population, we systematically screened all the 22 exons and nearby intron regions of the gene and found 12 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Using four SNPs as markers, we conducted a case-control study in 96 CAE patients and 96 normal controls. There were no significant discrepancies between the cases and controls in allele and phenotype frequencies of the four SNPs. There were still no significant differences in haplotype distributions between the cases and controls. We postulate that the GABBR1 gene might not be a susceptibility gene for CAE at least in the Chinese population.

    Neuroscience letters 2003;343;3;151-4

  • GABA(B) receptor 1 polymorphism (G1465A) is associated with temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Gambardella A, Manna I, Labate A, Chifari R, La Russa A, Serra P, Cittadella R, Bonavita S, Andreoli V, LePiane E, Sasanelli F, Di Costanzo A, Zappia M, Tedeschi G, Aguglia U and Quattrone A

    Institute of Neurology, School of Medicine, Catanzaro, Italy.

    Background: Dysfunction of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) (B) receptors has been implicated in the pathogenesis of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE).

    Objective: To evaluate the genetic contribution of cloned human GABA(B) receptors to TLE.

    Methods: The authors genotyped 141 patients (78 women and 63 men; mean age = 49.1 +/- 18.0 years) with nonlesional TLE and 372 age- and sex-matched normal individuals for the known polymorphism G1465A in the human GABA(B) receptor 1 [GABA(B[1])] gene.

    Results: There was a highly significant overrepresentation of the G1465A heterozygote in patients with TLE compared with controls. The A/G genotype was found in 17% of the 141 patients with TLE and in only 0.5% of the 372 controls (p < 0.0001). The authors also found that patients carrying the A allele had a significantly higher risk (p = 0.003, OR = 6.47, 95% CI = 2.02 to 20.76) of developing drug-resistant TLE. Furthermore, the age at onset of seizures tended to be lower in patients with A/G genotype, but the difference was not significant.

    Conclusions: The results of this study indicate that the GABA(B[1]) polymorphism (G1465A) confers a highly increased susceptibility to TLE. Moreover, it seems to influence the severity of this common epileptic disorder.

    Neurology 2003;60;4;560-3

  • Association of EEG coherence and an exonic GABA(B)R1 gene polymorphism.

    Winterer G, Smolka M, Samochowiec J, Ziller M, Mahlberg R, Gallinat J, Rommelspacher HP, Herrmann WM and Sander T

    Department of Psychiatry, University Hospital Benjamin Franklin, Free University of Berlin, Berlin, Germany. wintereg@intra.nimh.nih.gov

    The GABA(B) receptor 1 gene is mapped to chromosome 6p21.3 within the HLA class I region close to the HLA-F gene. Susceptibility loci for epilepsy and schizophrenia have been mapped in this region. Based on pharmacological evidence, it has been suggested that GABA(B) receptors may play a crucial role in the synchronization of EEG oscillations, which in turn can be abnormal in neuropsychiatric disorders. In the present study, the hypothesis was tested, whether three exonic variants of the gene encoding the human GABA(B) receptor (GABA(B)R1) modify cortical synchronization measured as scalp-recorded EEG-coherence. Two principal components of EEG coherence (frontal coherence, parietotemporal coherence) were investigated in 104 healthy subjects during three conditions: resting EEG, activated EEG, and event-related EEG. No significant associations were found between the frontal coherence component and any polymorphism or between the parietotemporal coherence component and the exon 1a1 polymorphism. However, parietotemporal coherence showed statistically highly significant associations across all three experimental conditions with exon 7 and trend associations with exon 11. The results provide evidence that the translated polymorphism of exon 7 may be functionally meaningful and impact cortical EEG oscillations. Since variations of EEG coherence have been described for several neuropsychiatric disorders, the present association should be tested in clinical samples using EEG coherence as an intermediate phenotype.

    American journal of medical genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric genetics : the official publication of the International Society of Psychiatric Genetics 2003;117B;1;51-6

  • Association analysis of exonic variants of the GABA(B)-receptor gene and alpha electroencephalogram voltage in normal subjects and alcohol-dependent patients.

    Winterer G, Mahlberg R, Smolka MN, Samochowiec J, Ziller M, Rommelspacher HP, Herrmann WM, Schmidt LG and Sander T

    Department of Psychiatry, Benjamin Franklin University Hospital, Free University of Berlin, Berlin, Germany. wintereg@intra.nimh.nih.gov

    Based on pharmacologic evidence, it has been suggested that GABA(B) receptors may play a crucial role in the generation of alpha-electroencephalogram (EEG) oscillations. We tested whether three exonic variants of the gene encoding the human GABA(B) receptor (GABA(B)R1) modify scalp-recorded alpha-EEG voltage. One hundred twenty-eight patients suffering from alcoholism and 114 normal subjects were investigated. Alcohol-dependent patients were included because evidence exists that the frequently observed alpha low voltage in these subjects is at least partly a trait variable. Logistic regression analyses revealed no associations between alpha-EEG voltage and polymorphic variations in exon 1a1 or exon 11. A significant interaction was observed for an exon 7 substitution polymorphism and diagnosis (P = 0.009). Post hoc analyses showed an association between EEG phenotype and exon 7 genotype in normal subjects only. It is concluded that this particular association may only be observable under physiologic conditions and that alpha low voltage in alcohol-dependent subjects is under the control of either different genes or that it is related to the disease process.

    Behavior genetics 2003;33;1;7-15

  • GABA(B1a), GABA(B1b) AND GABA(B2) mRNA variants expression in hippocampus resected from patients with temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Princivalle AP, Duncan JS, Thom M and Bowery NG

    Department of Pharmacology, Medical School, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK. a.princiavalle.1@bham.ac.uk

    The aim of this study was to investigate the mRNA expression of the two GABA(B1) receptor isoforms and the GABA(B2) subunit, in human postmortem control hippocampal sections and in sections resected from epilepsy patients using quantitative in situ hybridisation autoradiography. Utilising human control hippocampal sections it was shown that the oligonucleotides employed were specific to the receptor. Hippocampal slices from surgical specimens obtained from patients with hippocampal sclerosis and temporal lobe epilepsy were compared with neurologically normal postmortem control subjects for neuropathology and GABA(B) mRNA expression. Neuronal loss was observed in most of the hippocampal subregions, but in the subiculum no significant difference was detected. The localisation of GABA(B1a) and GABA(B1b) isoform mRNAs in human control hippocampal sections supported and extended earlier studies using the GABA(B1) pan probe, which does not distinguish between the two GABA(B1) isoforms. Moreover, the GABA(B2) mRNA location confirmed the heterodimerisation of the receptor. Thus, although there was an apparent correlation between GABA(B1b) and GABA(B2), GABA(B1a) exhibited no such relationship. GABA(B1b) and GABA(B2) showed a similar intensity of expression whilst GABA(B1a) displayed a lower hybridisation signal. Comparison of the expression of the three mRNAs between control and epileptic subjects showed significant decreases or increases in different hippocampal subregions.GABA(B) isoforms and subunit mRNA expression per remaining neuron was significantly increased in the hilus and dentate gyrus. These results demonstrate that altered GABA(B) receptor mRNA expression occurs in human TLE; possibly the observed changes may also serve to counteract ongoing hyperexcitability.

    Neuroscience 2003;122;4;975-84

  • The intracellular loops of the GB2 subunit are crucial for G-protein coupling of the heteromeric gamma-aminobutyrate B receptor.

    Havlickova M, Prezeau L, Duthey B, Bettler B, Pin JP and Blahos J

    Department of Molecular Pharmacology, Institute of Experimental Medicine, Czech Academy of Science, Prague, Czech Republic.

    The gamma-aminobutyrate B (GABA(B)) receptor is the first discovered G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that needs two subunits, GB1 and GB2, to form a functional receptor. The GB1 extracellular domain (ECD) binds GABA, and GB2 contains enough molecular determinants for G-protein activation. The precise role of the two subunits in G-protein coupling is investigated. GB1 and GB2 are structurally related to the metabotropic glutamate, Ca(2+)-sensing and other family 3 GPCRs in which the second (i2) as well as the third (i3) intracellular loop play important roles in G-protein coupling. Here, the role of the i2 loops of GB1 and GB2 in the GABA(B) receptor ability to activate G(alpha)-proteins is investigated. To that aim, the i2 loops were swapped between GB1 and GB2 heptahelical domains (HDs), either in the wild-type subunits or in the chimeric subunits GB1/2 that contain the ECD of GB1 and the HD of GB2. The effect of an additional mutation within the i3 loop of GB2 that prevents coupling of the heteromeric receptor was also examined. Combinations of interest were found to be correctly addressed at the cell surface and to assemble into heteromers. Taken together our data revealed the following new information on the G-protein coupling of the heteromeric GABA(B) receptor: 1) the i2 loop of GB2 within the GB2 HD is required for the heteromeric GABA(B) receptor to couple to G-proteins, whereas the i2 loop of GB1 is not; 2) the presence of the i2 loop of GB2 within the GB1 HD is not sufficient to allow coupling of GB1; 3) the GB2 HD activates the Gqi9 protein whether it is associated with the GB2 or GB1 ECD; 4) in the combination with two GB2 HDs, each is able to couple to G-proteins; and finally, 5) the use of mutations in i2, i3, or both within the GB2 HD brings evidence for the absence of domain swapping enabling the exchange of region including i2 and i3 between the subunits.

    Molecular pharmacology 2002;62;2;343-50

  • GABABR1 receptor protein expression in human mesial temporal cortex: changes in temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Muñoz A, Arellano JI and DeFelipe J

    Instituto Cajal, CSIC, Ave. Dr. Arce 37, 28002 Madrid, Spain.

    Immunocytochemistry was used to examine gamma-aminobutyric acid beta (GABA)(B)R1a-b protein expression in the human hippocampal formation (including dentate gyrus, hippocampus proper, subicular complex, and entorhinal cortex) and perirhinal cortex. Overall, GABA(B)R1a-b immunostaining was intense and widespread but showed differential areal and laminar distributions of labeled cells. GABA(B)R1a-b-immunoreactive (-ir) neurons were found in the three main layers of the dentate gyrus, the most intense labeling being present in the polymorphic layer, whereas the granule cells were moderately immunoreactive. Except for slight variations, similar distribution patterns of GABA(B)R1a-b immunostaining were found along the different subfields of the Ammon's horn (CA1-CA4). The highest density of GABA(B)R1a-b-ir neurons was localized in the stratum pyramidale, where virtually every pyramidal cell was intensely immunoreactive, including the proximal part of the apical dendrites. Within the subicular complex, a more intense GABA(B)R1a-b immunostaining was found in the subiculum than in the presubiculum or parasubiculum, especially in the pyramidal and polymorphic cell layers. In the entorhinal cortex, distribution of GABA(B)R1a-b immunoreactivity was localized mainly in both pyramidal and nonpyramidal cells of layers II, III, and VI and in the superficial part of layer V, with layers I, IV, and deep layer V being less intensely stained. In the perirhinal cortex, the most intense GABA(B)R1a-b immunoreactivity was located in the deep part of layer III and in layer V and was mainly confined to medium-sized and large pyramidal cells. Thus, the differential expression, but widespread distribution, of GABA(B)R1a-b protein found in the present study suggests the involvement of GABA(B) receptors in many circuits of the human hippocampal formation and adjacent cortical structures. Interestingly, the hippocampal formation of epileptic patients (n = 8) with hippocampal sclerosis showed similar intensity of GABA(B)R1a-b immunostaining in the surviving neurons located within or adjacent to those regions presenting neuronal loss than in the controls. However, surviving neurons in the granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus displayed a significant reduction in immunostaining in 7 of 8 patients. Therefore, alterations in inhibitory synaptic transmission through GABA(B) receptors appears to affect differentially certain hippocampal circuits in a population of epileptic patients. This reduction in GABA(B)R1a-b expression could contribute to the pathophysiology of temporal lobe epilepsy.

    The Journal of comparative neurology 2002;449;2;166-79

  • Linkage disequilibrium of HLA-A11 and A1 with one of the polymorphisms of the gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor type B.

    Anaya M, Romero T, Sofia RD and Yunis EJ

    Department of Cancer Immunology and AIDS, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachussetts 02115, USA.

    The gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor type B 1 (GABA(B) R1) is located approximately at 200 kb telomeric to HLA-A on chromosome 6. It has 11 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We studied the most common of its SNPs (T1974C) in a panel of 118 normal Caucasians from New England and 161 epileptic patients of Caucasian ancestry residing in USA. The frequency of the polymorphism did not differ between patients and controls. Here, we report that the allele C of this SNP in the GABA(B) R1 gene is in linkage disequilibrium with HLA-A11 (P<0.00001) and to a lesser extent with HLA-A1 (P<0.01).

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL-29582; NIAID NIH HHS: U24AI49213

    Tissue antigens 2001;58;5;324-8

  • Association of GABA(B) receptors and members of the 14-3-3 family of signaling proteins.

    Couve A, Kittler JT, Uren JM, Calver AR, Pangalos MN, Walsh FS and Moss SJ

    Medical Research Council Laboratory of Molecular Cell Biology and Department of Pharmacology, University College London, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom.

    Two GABA(B) receptors, GABA(B)R1 and GABA(B)R2, have been cloned recently. Unlike other G protein-coupled receptors, the formation of a heterodimer between GABA(B)R1 and GABA(B)R2 is required for functional expression. We have used the yeast two hybrid system to identify proteins that interact with the C-terminus of GABA(B)R1. We report a direct association between GABA(B) receptors and two members of the 14-3-3 protein family, 14-3-3eta and 14-3-3zeta. We demonstrate that the C-terminus of GABA(B)R1 associates with 14-3-3zeta in rat brain preparations and tissue cultured cells, that they codistribute after rat brain fractionation, colocalize in neurons, and that the binding site overlaps partially with the coiled-coil domain of GABA(B)R1. Furthermore we show a reduced interaction between the C-terminal domains of GABA(B)R1 and GABA(B)R2 in the presence of 14-3-3. The results strongly suggest that GABA(B)R1 and 14-3-3 associate in the nervous system and begin to reveal the signaling complexities of the GABA(B)R1/GABA(B)R2 receptor heterodimer.

    Molecular and cellular neurosciences 2001;17;2;317-28

  • The GABAB receptor interacts directly with the related transcription factors CREB2 and ATFx.

    White JH, McIllhinney RA, Wise A, Ciruela F, Chan WY, Emson PC, Billinton A and Marshall FH

    Receptor Systems, Molecular Pharmacology Department, Glaxo Wellcome Medicines Research Centre, Gunnels Wood Road, Stevenage, Hertfordshire, SG1 2NY, United Kingdom. Jw6155@glaxowellcome.co.uk

    gamma-Aminobutyric acid type B (GABA(B)) receptors mediate the metabotropic actions of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA. These seven-transmembrane receptors are known to signal primarily through activation of G proteins to modulate the action of ion channels or second messengers. The functional GABA(B) receptor is made up of a heterodimer consisting of two subunits, GABA(B)-R1 and GABA(B)-R2, which interact via coiled-coil domains in their C-terminal tails. By using a yeast two-hybrid approach, we have identified direct interactions between the C-terminal tails of GABA(B)-R1 and GABA(B)-R2 with two related transcription factors, CREB2 (ATF4) and ATFx. In primary neuronal cultures as well in recombinant Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing GABA(B) receptors, CREB2 is localized within the cytoplasm as well as the nucleus. Activation of the GABA(B) receptor by the specific agonist baclofen leads to a marked translocation and accumulation of CREB2 from the cytoplasm into the nucleus. We demonstrate that receptor stimulation results in activation of transcription from a CREB2 responsive reporter gene. Such a signaling mechanism is unique among Family C G protein-coupled receptors and, in the case of the GABA(B) receptor and CREB2, may play a role in long-term changes in the nervous system.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2000;97;25;13967-72

  • A multivariate analysis of 59 candidate genes in personality traits: the temperament and character inventory.

    Comings DE, Gade-Andavolu R, Gonzalez N, Wu S, Muhleman D, Blake H, Mann MB, Dietz G, Saucier G and MacMurray JP

    Department of Medical Genetics, City of Hope Medical Center, Duarte, CA 91010, USA.

    Cloninger (Cloninger CR. Neurogenetic adaptive mechanisms in alcoholism. Science 1987: 236: 410-416) proposed three basic personality dimensions for temperament: novelty seeking, harm avoidance, and reward dependence. He suggested that novelty seeking primarily utilized dopamine pathways, harm avoidance utilized serotonin pathways, and reward dependence utilized norepinephrine pathways. Subsequently, one additional temperament dimension (persistence) and three character dimensions (cooperativeness, self-directedness, and self-transcendence) were added to form the temperament and character inventory (TCI). We have utilized a previously described multivariate analysis technique (Comings DE, Gade-Andavolu R, Gonzalez N et al. Comparison of the role of dopamine, serotonin, and noradrenergic genes in ADHD, ODD and conduct disorder. Multivariate regression analysis of 20 genes. Clin Genet 2000: 57: 178-196; Comings DD, Gade-Andavolu R, Gonzalez N et al. Multivariate analysis of associations of 42 genes in ADHD, ODD and conduct disorder. Clin Genet 2000: in press) to examine the relative role of 59 candidate genes in the seven TCI traits and test the hypothesis that specific personality traits were associated with specific genes. While there was some tendency for this to be true, a more important trend was the involvement of different ratios of functionally related groups of genes, and of different genotypes of the same genes, for different traits.

    Funded by: NIDA NIH HHS: R01-DA08417

    Clinical genetics 2000;58;5;375-85

  • Characterization of gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor GABAB(1e), a GABAB(1) splice variant encoding a truncated receptor.

    Schwarz DA, Barry G, Eliasof SD, Petroski RE, Conlon PJ and Maki RA

    Neurocrine Biosciences, Inc., San Diego, California 92121-1102, USA. dschwarz@neurocrine.com

    We have identified a splice variant encoding only the extracellular ligand-binding domain of the gamma-aminobutyric acid B (GABA(B)) receptor subunit GABA(B(1a)). This isoform, which we have named GABA(B(1e)), is detected in both rats and humans. While GABA(B(1e)) is a minor component of the total pool of GABA(B(1)) transcripts detected in the central nervous system, it is the primary isoform found in all peripheral tissues examined. When expressed in a heterologous system, the truncated receptor is both secreted and membrane associated. However, GABA(B(1e)) lacks the ability to bind the radiolabeled antagonist [(3)H]CGP 54626A, activate G-protein coupled inwardly rectifying potassium channels, or inhibit forskolin-induced cAMP production when it is expressed alone or together with GABA(B(2)). Interestingly, when co-expressed with GABA(B(2)), not only does the truncated receptor heterodimerize with GABA(B(2)), the association is of sufficient avidity to disrupt the normal GABA(B(1a))/GABA(B(2)) association. Despite this strong interaction, GABA(B(1e)) fails to disrupt G-protein coupled inwardly rectifying potassium activation by the full-length heterodimer pair of GABA(B(1a))/GABA(B(2)).

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2000;275;41;32174-81

  • Coexpression of full-length gamma-aminobutyric acid(B) (GABA(B)) receptors with truncated receptors and metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 supports the GABA(B) heterodimer as the functional receptor.

    Sullivan R, Chateauneuf A, Coulombe N, Kolakowski LF, Johnson MP, Hebert TE, Ethier N, Belley M, Metters K, Abramovitz M, O'Neill GP and Ng GY

    Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Chemistry, Merck Frosst Center for Therapeutic Research, Kirkland, Quebec, Canada.

    Direct evidence is lacking to show whether the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)(B) gb1-gb2 heterodimer is the signaling form of the receptor. In this study, we tested whether gb1a or gb2 subunits when coexpressed with truncated receptors or metabotropic glutamate receptor mGluR4 could form functional GABA receptors. Coexpression of the ligand binding N-terminal domain of gb1a or the C-terminal portion of gb1a composing the seven-transmembrane segments and intracellular loops with gb2 could not reconstitute functional receptors. We next examined whether mGluR4, which forms homodimers and is structurally related to GABA(B), could act as a surrogate coreceptor for gb1 or gb2. The coexpression of mGluR4 and gb1a led to the expression of gb1a monomers on cell surface membranes as determined by immunoblot analysis and flow cytometry. However, mGluR4-gb1a heterodimers were not formed, and membrane-expressed gb1a monomers were not functionally coupled to adenylyl cyclase in human embryonic kidney 293 cells or activated inwardly rectifying potassium (Kir) channels in Xenopus oocytes. Similarly, the coexpression of mGluR4 and gb2 led to nonfunctional GABA receptors. GABA-activated distal signaling events resulted only after the coexpression and heterodimerization of gb1 and gb2. Taken together with the truncated receptor studies, the data suggest that a high degree of structural specificity is required to form the functional GABA(B) receptor that is a gb1-gb2 heterodimer.

    The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics 2000;293;2;460-7

  • Calcium sensing properties of the GABA(B) receptor.

    Wise A, Green A, Main MJ, Wilson R, Fraser N and Marshall FH

    Receptor Systems, Molecular Pharmacology Unit, Glaxo Wellcome Medicines Research Centre, Stevenage, Hertfordshire, UK.

    The GABA(B) receptor has been shown to consist of a heterodimer of two related 7-transmembrane receptors GABAB-R1 and GABA(B)-R2. These receptors share close homology to the Ca2+-sensing receptor and also to the metabotropic glutamate receptors, which have also been shown to respond to extracellular calcium. We show here that the GABA(B) receptor also has Ca2+ sensing properties. Ca2+ (0.001-1 mM) potentiated the GABA stimulation of [35S]GTPgammaS binding in membranes prepared from CHO cells stably expressing the GABA(B)-R1/R2 heterodimer. The GABA EC50 was reduced from 72 to 7.7 microM by addition of 1 mM Ca2+, with no change in the maximum response. A similar effect was observed in membranes from rat brain cortex. Ca2+ also potentiated GABA inhibition of forskolin-stimulated cAMP levels in the CHO cells and enhanced coupling to GIRK K+ channels in Xenopus oocytes. Other divalent cations were ineffective. The effects of Ca2+ were found to be agonist dependent with baclofen having a reduced sensitivity compared to GABA. Calcium appears to act allosterically to enhance GABA responses at the GABA(B) receptor, however, unlike the Ca2+-sensing receptor and some of the mGluR family, Ca2+ does not act as a ligand in its own right.

    Neuropharmacology 1999;38;11;1647-56

  • Association analysis of exonic variants of the gene encoding the GABAB receptor and idiopathic generalized epilepsy.

    Sander T, Peters C, Kämmer G, Samochowiec J, Zirra M, Mischke D, Ziegler A, Kaupmann K, Bettler B, Epplen JT and Riess O

    Department of Neurology, University Hospital Charité, Campus Virchow Clinic, Humboldt University of Berlin, Berlin, Germany. Sanderth@aol.com

    The gene encoding the GABAB receptor (GABABR1) maps close to the HLA-F locus on chromosome 6p21.3 in the same region to which a major susceptibility locus for common subtypes of idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE), designated as EJM1, has been localized. Moreover, animal models suggest that the GABAB receptor plays a critical role in the epileptogenesis of absence seizures. Accordingly, the present association study tested the candidate gene hypothesis that genetic variants of the human GABABR1 gene confer susceptibility to common subtypes of IGE. Three DNA sequence variants in exons 1a1, 7, and 11 of the GABABR1 gene were assessed by PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphisms in 248 unrelated probands of German descent, comprising 72 patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME), 46 patients with idiopathic absence epilepsy (IAE), and 130 control subjects without a history of epileptic seizures and lack of generalized spike-wave discharges in their electroencephalogram. The results revealed no evidence for an allelic association of any of the GABABR1 sequence variants with either JME or IAE (P > 0.18). Thus, we failed to demonstrate that any of the three exonic GABABR1 variants themselves, or other so-far unidentified mutations, which are in strong linkage disequilibrium with the investigated variants, are involved in the pathogenesis of common IGE subtypes.

    American journal of medical genetics 1999;88;4;305-10

  • Identification of a GABAB receptor subunit, gb2, required for functional GABAB receptor activity.

    Ng GY, Clark J, Coulombe N, Ethier N, Hebert TE, Sullivan R, Kargman S, Chateauneuf A, Tsukamoto N, McDonald T, Whiting P, Mezey E, Johnson MP, Liu Q, Kolakowski LF, Evans JF, Bonner TI and O'Neill GP

    Merck Frosst Center for Therapeutic Research, Kirkland, Quebec H9H 3L1, Canada. gordon_ng@merck.com

    G protein-coupled receptors are commonly thought to bind their cognate ligands and elicit functional responses primarily as monomeric receptors. In studying the recombinant gamma-aminobutyric acid, type B (GABAB) receptor (gb1a) and a GABAB-like orphan receptor (gb2), we observed that both receptors are functionally inactive when expressed individually in multiple heterologous systems. Characterization of the tissue distribution of each of the receptors by in situ hybridization histochemistry in rat brain revealed co-localization of gb1 and gb2 transcripts in many brain regions, suggesting the hypothesis that gb1 and gb2 may interact in vivo. In three established functional systems (inwardly rectifying K+ channel currents in Xenopus oocytes, melanophore pigment aggregation, and direct cAMP measurements in HEK-293 cells), GABA mediated a functional response in cells coexpressing gb1a and gb2 but not in cells expressing either receptor individually. This GABA activity could be blocked with the GABAB receptor antagonist CGP71872. In COS-7 cells coexpressing gb1a and gb2 receptors, co-immunoprecipitation of gb1a and gb2 receptors was demonstrated, indicating that gb1a and gb2 act as subunits in the formation of a functional GABAB receptor.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1999;274;12;7607-10

  • Molecular cloning of human GABABR1 and its tissue distribution.

    Makoff A

    Departments of Psychological Medicine and Neuroscience, Institute of Psychiatry, Denmark Hill, London, SE7 8AF, UK. a.makoff@iop.bpmf.ac.uk

    GABABR1 clones were isolated from a human cerebellum library. The human sequence is very similar to rat GABABR1 with the cDNAs sharing 91.3% sequence identity and the receptors sharing 98.6% amino acid sequence identity. Northern blotting has shown that the receptor is brain-specific with a widespread distribution throughout the brain but none detected in the spinal cord.

    Brain research. Molecular brain research 1999;64;1;137-40

  • Role of heteromer formation in GABAB receptor function.

    Kuner R, Köhr G, Grünewald S, Eisenhardt G, Bach A and Kornau HC

    BASF-LYNX Bioscience AG, Department of Neuroscience, Im Neuenheimer Feld 515, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.

    Recently, GBR1, a seven-transmembrane domain protein with high affinity for gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)B receptor antagonists, was identified. Here, a GBR1-related protein, GBR2, was shown to be coexpressed with GBR1 in many brain regions and to interact with it through a short domain in the carboxyl-terminal cytoplasmic tail. Heterologously expressed GBR2 mediated inhibition of adenylyl cyclase; however, inwardly rectifying potassium channels were activated by GABAB receptor agonists only upon coexpression with GBR1 and GBR2. Thus, the interaction of these receptors appears to be crucial for important physiological effects of GABA and provides a mechanism in receptor signaling pathways that involve a heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein.

    Science (New York, N.Y.) 1999;283;5398;74-7

  • Heterodimerization is required for the formation of a functional GABA(B) receptor.

    White JH, Wise A, Main MJ, Green A, Fraser NJ, Disney GH, Barnes AA, Emson P, Foord SM and Marshall FH

    Receptor Systems, Molecular Pharmacology Unit, GlaxoWellcome, Medicines Research Centre, Stevenage, Hertfordshire, UK.

    GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system, where it exerts its effects through ionotropic (GABA(A/C)) receptors to produce fast synaptic inhibition and metabotropic (GABA(B)) receptors to produce slow, prolonged inhibitory signals. The gene encoding a GABA(B) receptor (GABA(B)R1) has been cloned; however, when expressed in mammalian cells this receptor is retained as an immature glycoprotein on intracellular membranes and exhibits low affinity for agonists compared with the endogenous receptor on brain membranes. Here we report the cloning of a complementary DNA encoding a new subtype of the GABAB receptor (GABA(B)R2), which we identified by mining expressed-sequence-tag databases. Yeast two-hybrid screening showed that this new GABA(B)R2-receptor subtype forms heterodimers with GABA(B)R1 through an interaction at their intracellular carboxy-terminal tails. Upon expression with GABA(B)R2 in HEK293T cells, GABA(B)R1 is terminally glycosylated and expressed at the cell surface. Co-expression of the two receptors produces a fully functional GABA(B) receptor at the cell surface; this receptor binds GABA with a high affinity equivalent to that of the endogenous brain receptor. These results indicate that, in vivo, functional brain GABA(B) receptors may be heterodimers composed of GABA(B)R1 and GABA(B)R2.

    Nature 1998;396;6712;679-82

  • Human gamma-aminobutyric acid type B receptors are differentially expressed and regulate inwardly rectifying K+ channels.

    Kaupmann K, Schuler V, Mosbacher J, Bischoff S, Bittiger H, Heid J, Froestl W, Leonhard S, Pfaff T, Karschin A and Bettler B

    Novartis Pharma AG, TA Nervous System, CH-4002 Basel, Switzerland.

    gamma-Aminobutyric acid type B receptors (GABABRs) are involved in the fine tuning of inhibitory synaptic transmission. Presynaptic GABABRs inhibit neurotransmitter release by down-regulating high-voltage activated Ca2+ channels, whereas postsynaptic GABABRs decrease neuronal excitability by activating a prominent inwardly rectifying K+ (Kir) conductance that underlies the late inhibitory postsynaptic potentials. Here we report the cloning and functional characterization of two human GABABRs, hGABABR1a (hR1a) and hGABABR1b (hR1b). These receptors closely match the pharmacological properties and molecular weights of the most abundant native GABABRs. We show that in transfected mammalian cells hR1a and hR1b can modulate heteromeric Kir3.1/3.2 and Kir3.1/3.4 channels. Heterologous expression therefore supports the notion that Kir3 channels are the postsynaptic effectors of GABABRs. Our data further demonstrate that in principle either of the cloned receptors could mediate inhibitory postsynaptic potentials. We find that in the cerebellum hR1a and hR1b transcripts are largely confined to granule and Purkinje cells, respectively. This finding supports a selective association of hR1b, and not hR1a, with postsynaptic Kir3 channels. The mapping of the GABABR1 gene to human chromosome 6p21.3, in the vicinity of a susceptibility locus (EJM1) for idiopathic generalized epilepsies, identifies a candidate gene for inherited forms of epilepsy.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1998;95;25;14991-6

  • Mapping, genomic structure, and polymorphisms of the human GABABR1 receptor gene: evaluation of its involvement in idiopathic generalized epilepsy.

    Peters HC, Kämmer G, Volz A, Kaupmann K, Ziegler A, Bettler B, Epplen JT, Sander T and Riess O

    Molecular Human Genetics, Ruhr-University, D-44780 Bochum, Germany.

    Neurophysiological and pharmacological studies suggest a major role of the GABAB receptor in the epileptogenesis of absence seizures. The gene encoding the human GABABR1 receptor (GABABR1) has recently been mapped to human chromosome 6p21.3 by in situ hybridization, a region that harbors a susceptibility locus (EJM1) for idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE). We investigated the hypothesis that the GABABR1 gene (GABBR1) represents a candidate gene for EJM1 by: (1) defining the precise localization approximately 130 kilobases telomeric to the HLA-F locus, (2) by characterizing its genomic organization, and (3) by mutation screening of the entire coding region of GABBR1 in 18 German patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) who were derived from families with evidence for linkage to chromosome 6p21.3 (cumulative lod score Z=3.17 at HLA-DQ). The GABAB receptor gene consists of 22 translated exons. The two alternative transcripts, GABABR1a and GABABR1b, are derived from the same locus but they differ in their alternative 5'-exons. Mutation analyses in JME revealed several DNA sequence polymorphisms, two of which result in amino acid changes occurring in all IGE-affected members of two families. However, clinically unaffected relatives did carry the same variations, excluding these amino acid substitutions as the cause for IGE in these families.

    Neurogenetics 1998;2;1;47-54

  • Human gamma-aminobutyric acid B receptor gene: complementary DNA cloning, expression, chromosomal location, and genomic organization.

    Goei VL, Choi J, Ahn J, Bowlus CL, Raha-Chowdhury R and Gruen JR

    Department of Pediatrics, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06517, USA.

    Background: The 6p21.3 region of human chromosome 6 is a genetic locus for schizophrenia, juvenile myoclonic epilepsy, and dyslexia.

    Methods: Due to our interest in these disorders we performed complementary DNA (cDNA) hybridization selection on genomic DNA clones spanning this region to identify potential positional-candidate genes.

    Results: We identified a full-length cDNA with an open reading frame of 2883 bp corresponding to a predicted protein of 961 amino acids that shares greater than 95% homology with the rat gamma-aminobutyric acid B (GABAB) receptor. Northern blot hybridization identified a 4.4-kb transcript in human brain. The human gene mapped to two sites on 6p21.3 separated by 2 Mb. Sequence analysis of both sites showed that the centromeric gene is transcribed, whereas the telomeric site is likely a pseudogene. The transcribed gene is distributed over 22 exons spanning 18 kb of genomic DNA.

    Conclusions: The genomic location, tissue expression, and function of the human GABAB receptor gene suggest that it is an important positional-candidate for the neurobehavioral disorders with a genetic locus on 6p21.3. In addition, delineation of the genomic organization will now permit it to be integrated as part of pharmacogenetic studies in trials of anxiolytic, narcotic, antiepileptic, and fluoxetine therapies.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: 5K08DK02398, 5K11DK02294, 5R29DK45819

    Biological psychiatry 1998;44;8;659-66

  • GABA (gamma-amino-butyric acid) neurotransmission: identification and fine mapping of the human GABAB receptor gene.

    Grifa A, Totaro A, Rommens JM, Carella M, Roetto A, Borgato L, Zelante L and Gasparini P

    Servizio di Genetica Medica, IRCCS-Ospedale CSS San Giovanni Rotondo, Italy.

    GABA (gamma-amino-butyric acid) receptors are a family of proteins involved in the GABAergic neurotransmission of the mammalian central nervous system (CNS). They have physiological importance and clinical relevance in several diseases. We report the identification, cloning, and fine mapping of the human cDNA for GABAB receptor. A 4.2-Kb cDNA containing an open reading frame for a predicted protein of 960 aa was isolated from a fetal brain cDNA library. It had a strong identity (91.5%) with the rat GABAB receptor (rGB1A) nucleotide sequence, that corresponded to 98.6% identity at the amino acid level. Expression of the GABAB at the transcription level was detected by Northern analysis in all brain areas examined. The GABAB receptor has been mapped to human chromosome 6p21.3 within the HLA class I region close to the HLA-F gene. Susceptibility loci for multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, and schizophrenia have been suggested to map in this region.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 1998;250;2;240-5

  • Construction and characterization of a full length-enriched and a 5'-end-enriched cDNA library.

    Suzuki Y, Yoshitomo-Nakagawa K, Maruyama K, Suyama A and Sugano S

    International and Interdisciplinary Studies, The University of Tokyo, Japan.

    Using 'oligo-capped' mRNA [Maruyama, K., Sugano, S., 1994. Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with oligoribonucleotides. Gene 138, 171-174], whose cap structure was replaced by a synthetic oligonucleotide, we constructed two types of cDNA library. One is a 'full length-enriched cDNA library' which has a high content of full-length cDNA clones and the other is a '5'-end-enriched cDNA library', which has a high content of cDNA clones with their mRNA start sites. The 5'-end-enriched library was constructed especially for isolating the mRNA start sites of long mRNAs. In order to characterize these libraries, we performed one-pass sequencing of randomly selected cDNA clones from both libraries (84 clones for the full length-enriched cDNA library and 159 clones for the 5'-end-enriched cDNA library). The cDNA clones of the polypeptide chain elongation factor 1 alpha were most frequently (nine clones) isolated, and more than 80% of them (eight clones) contained the mRNA start site of the gene. Furthermore, about 80% of the cDNA clones of both libraries whose sequence matched with known genes had the known 5' ends or sequences upstream of the known 5' ends (28 out of 35 for the full length-enriched library and 51 out of 62 for the 5'-end-enriched library). The longest full-length clone of the full length-enriched cDNA library was about 3300 bp (among 28 clones). In contrast, seven clones (out of the 51 clones with the mRNA start sites) from the 5'-end-enriched cDNA library came from mRNAs whose length is more than 3500 bp. These cDNA libraries may be useful for generating 5' ESTs with the information of the mRNA start sites that are now scarce in the EST database.

    Gene 1997;200;1-2;149-56

  • Expression cloning of GABA(B) receptors uncovers similarity to metabotropic glutamate receptors.

    Kaupmann K, Huggel K, Heid J, Flor PJ, Bischoff S, Mickel SJ, McMaster G, Angst C, Bittiger H, Froestl W and Bettler B

    Novartis Pharma Inc., Research Department, Therapeutic Area Nervous System, Basel, Switzerland.

    GABA (gamma-amino-butyric acid), the principal inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain, signals through ionotropic (GABA(A)/ GABA(c)) and metabotropic (GABA(B)) receptor systems. Here we report the cloning of GABA(B) receptors. Photoaffinity labelling experiments suggest that the cloned receptors correspond to two highly conserved GABA(B) receptor forms present in the vertebrate nervous system. The cloned receptors negatively couple to adenylyl cyclase and show sequence similarity to the metabotropic receptors for the excitatory neurotransmitter L-glutamate.

    Nature 1997;386;6622;239-46

  • Astrocytic GABA receptors.

    Fraser DD, Mudrick-Donnon LA and MacVicar BA

    Neuroscience Research Group, University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

    GABA receptors are distributed widely throughout the central nervous system on a variety of cell types. It has become increasingly clear that astrocytes, both in cell culture and tissue slices, express abundant GABAA receptors. In astrocytes, GABA activates Cl(-)-specific channels that are modulated by barbiturates and benzodiazepines; however, the neuronal inverse agonist methyl-4-ethyl-6, 7-dimethoxy-beta-carboline-3-carboxylate enhances the current in a subpopulation of astrocytes. The properties of astrocytic GABAA receptors, therefore, are remarkably similar to their neuronal counterparts, with only a few pharmacological exceptions. In stellate glial cells of the pituitary pars intermedia, GABA released from neuronal terminals activates postsynaptic potentials directly. The physiological significance of astrocytic GABAA-receptor activation remains unknown, but it may be involved in extracellular ion homeostasis and pH regulation. At present, there is considerably less evidence for the presence of GABAB receptors on astrocytes. The data that have emerged, however, indicate a prominent role for second-messenger regulation by this receptor.

    Glia 1994;11;2;83-93

  • Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with oligoribonucleotides.

    Maruyama K and Sugano S

    Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Japan.

    We have devised a method to replace the cap structure of a mRNA with an oligoribonucleotide (r-oligo) to label the 5' end of eukaryotic mRNAs. The method consists of removing the cap with tobacco acid pyrophosphatase (TAP) and ligating r-oligos to decapped mRNAs with T4 RNA ligase. This reaction was made cap-specific by removing 5'-phosphates of non-capped RNAs with alkaline phosphatase prior to TAP treatment. Unlike the conventional methods that label the 5' end of cDNAs, this method specifically labels the capped end of the mRNAs with a synthetic r-oligo prior to first-strand cDNA synthesis. The 5' end of the mRNA was identified quite simply by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).

    Gene 1994;138;1-2;171-4

Gene lists (5)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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