G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
G protein-coupled receptor 158
G00000834 (Mus musculus)

Databases (7)

Curated Gene
OTTHUMG00000017832 (Vega human gene)
ENSG00000151025 (Ensembl human gene)
57512 (Entrez Gene)
1277 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
GPR158 (GeneCards)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:23689 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
Q5T848 (UniProt)

Synonyms (1)

  • KIAA1136

Literature (8)

Pubmed - other

  • Replication of a genome-wide case-control study of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Ng D, Hu N, Hu Y, Wang C, Giffen C, Tang ZZ, Han XY, Yang HH, Lee MP, Goldstein AM and Taylor PR

    Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, 6120 Executive Boulevard, Rm 7112, Bethesda, MD 20892-7236, USA. davidng@mail.nih.gov

    In a previous pilot case-control study of individuals diagnosed with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and matched controls from a high-risk area in China, we identified 38 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with ESCC located in or near one of 33 genes. In our study, we attempted to replicate the results of these 38 gene-related SNPs in a new sample of 300 ESCC cases and 300 matched controls from the same study conducted in Shanxi Province, China. Among 36 evaluable SNPs, 4 were significant in one or more analyses, including SNPs located in EPHB1, PGLYRP2, PIK3C3 and SLC9A9, although the odds ratios (ORs) for these genotypes were modest. Associations were found with EPHB1/rs1515366 (OR 0.92, 95% CI 0.86-0.99; p = 0.019), PIK3C3/rs52911 (OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.88-0.99; p = 0.02) and PGLYRP2/rs959117 (OR 0.93, 95% CI, 0.86-1.01; p = 0.061) in general linear models (additive mode); and the genotype distribution differed between cases and controls for SLC9A9/rs956062 (p = 0.024). To examine these 4 genes in more detail, 40 HapMap-based tag SNPs from these 4 genes were evaluated in the same subjects and 7 additional SNPs associated with ESCC were identified. Further confirmation of these findings in other populations and other studies are needed to determine if the signals from these SNPs are indirectly associated due to linkage disequilibrium, or are directly related to biologic function and the development of ESCC.

    Funded by: Intramural NIH HHS: Z99 HG999999

    International journal of cancer 2008;123;7;1610-5

  • Proteomic analysis of ubiquitinated proteins in normal hepatocyte cell line Chang liver cells.

    Tan F, Lu L, Cai Y, Wang J, Xie Y, Wang L, Gong Y, Xu BE, Wu J, Luo Y, Qiang B, Yuan J, Sun X and Peng X

    The National Laboratory of Medical Molecular Biology, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, China.

    Post-translational modification by ubiquitin (Ub) and Ub-like modifiers is one of the most important mechanisms regulating a wide range of cellular processes in eukaryotes. Through mediating 26S proteasome-dependent degradation of substrates, the covalent modification of proteins by multiple Ub (ubiquitination) can regulate many different cellular functions such as transcription, antigen processing, signal transduction and cell cycle. To better understand ubiquitination and its functions, proteomic approaches have been developed to purify and identify more protein substrates. The S5a subunit of the 26S proteasome binds to poly-Ub chains containing four or more Ub. In this study, immobilized GST-S5a fusion protein was used to affinity-purify ubiquitinated proteins from Chang liver cells. The purified proteins were then identified with multi-dimensional LC combined with MS/MS. Eighty-three potential ubiquitination substrates were identified. From these proteins, 19 potential ubiquitination sites on 17 potential substrates were determined. These potential ubiquitination substrates are mainly related to important cellular functions including metabolism, translation and transcription. Our results provide helpful information for further understanding of the relationship between ubiquitination machinery and different cell functions.

    Proteomics 2008;8;14;2885-96

  • A scan of chromosome 10 identifies a novel locus showing strong association with late-onset Alzheimer disease.

    Grupe A, Li Y, Rowland C, Nowotny P, Hinrichs AL, Smemo S, Kauwe JS, Maxwell TJ, Cherny S, Doil L, Tacey K, van Luchene R, Myers A, Wavrant-De Vrièze F, Kaleem M, Hollingworth P, Jehu L, Foy C, Archer N, Hamilton G, Holmans P, Morris CM, Catanese J, Sninsky J, White TJ, Powell J, Hardy J, O'Donovan M, Lovestone S, Jones L, Morris JC, Thal L, Owen M, Williams J and Goate A

    Celera Diagnostics, Alameda, CA, USA.

    Strong evidence of linkage to late-onset Alzheimer disease (LOAD) has been observed on chromosome 10, which implicates a wide region and at least one disease-susceptibility locus. Although significant associations with several biological candidate genes on chromosome 10 have been reported, these findings have not been consistently replicated, and they remain controversial. We performed a chromosome 10-specific association study with 1,412 gene-based single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), to identify susceptibility genes for developing LOAD. The scan included SNPs in 677 of 1,270 known or predicted genes; each gene contained one or more markers, about half (48%) of which represented putative functional mutations. In general, the initial testing was performed in a white case-control sample from the St. Louis area, with 419 LOAD cases and 377 age-matched controls. Markers that showed significant association in the exploratory analysis were followed up in several other white case-control sample sets to confirm the initial association. Of the 1,397 markers tested in the exploratory sample, 69 reached significance (P < .05). Five of these markers replicated at P < .05 in the validation sample sets. One marker, rs498055, located in a gene homologous to RPS3A (LOC439999), was significantly associated with Alzheimer disease in four of six case-control series, with an allelic P value of .0001 for a meta-analysis of all six samples. One of the case-control samples with significant association to rs498055 was derived from the linkage sample (P = .0165). These results indicate that variants in the RPS3A homologue are associated with LOAD and implicate this gene, adjacent genes, or other functional variants (e.g., noncoding RNAs) in the pathogenesis of this disorder.

    Funded by: Intramural NIH HHS; Medical Research Council: MRC_G0300429, MRC_G0701075, MRC_G9810900; NHGRI NIH HHS: T32 HG000045; NIA NIH HHS: AG 05146, AG05128, P01 AG003991, P01 AG03991, P50 AG005128, P50 AG005131, P50 AG005146, P50 AG005681, P50 AG008671, P50 AG016570, P50 AG05131, P50 AG05681, P50 AG16570, P50-AG08671, R01 AG016208, R01 AG16208, U24 AG021886; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM065509, P50 GM065509; NIMH NIH HHS: MH60451, P50 MH060451, U01 MH046281, U01 MH046290, U01 MH046373; NINDS NIH HHS: NS39764, P50 NS039764

    American journal of human genetics 2006;78;1;78-88

  • The gene repertoire and the common evolutionary history of glutamate, pheromone (V2R), taste(1) and other related G protein-coupled receptors.

    Bjarnadóttir TK, Fredriksson R and Schiöth HB

    Department of Neuroscience, Uppsala University, BMC, Box 593, 751 24, Uppsala, Sweden.

    Glutamate receptors (also known as clan C) are one of the main groups of GPCRs with many subgroup linked through complex evolutionary relationships. We performed thorough searches for genes coding for proteins belonging to this family in the human, mouse, Fugu, and zebrafish genomes, as well as in four invertebrate species. We assembled over 70 new full-length sequences from protein predictions excluding pseudogenes. This resulted in a total of 22 full-length sequences from the human genome, 79 from the mouse genome, 30 from the Fugu genome, and 32 from the zebrafish genome (pseudogenes are not included in these numbers). We show that the vertebrate Glutamate GPCRs form four main phylogenetic groups with a total of eight subgroups (Group I: V2R, TAS1R, GPRC6A, and CASR, Group II: GRM, Group III: GABA together with previously unpublished GPR158 and GPR158L and Group IV: GPRC5). All eight receptor subgroups are present both in mammals and fish, except for GPRC5 and GPR158. The pheromone (V2R), GPRC6, and sweet taste (TAS1) receptors were not found in invertebrates while GRM, GABA, and CASR were found in both C. elegans and C. intestinalis. The pheromone receptors are found in high numbers in mouse, zebrafish and Fugu but are only found as pseudogenes in the human genome. This report provides a comprehensive overview of the expansion/deletions of the groups within the Glutamate receptor family.

    Gene 2005;362;70-84

  • The DNA sequence and comparative analysis of human chromosome 10.

    Deloukas P, Earthrowl ME, Grafham DV, Rubenfield M, French L, Steward CA, Sims SK, Jones MC, Searle S, Scott C, Howe K, Hunt SE, Andrews TD, Gilbert JG, Swarbreck D, Ashurst JL, Taylor A, Battles J, Bird CP, Ainscough R, Almeida JP, Ashwell RI, Ambrose KD, Babbage AK, Bagguley CL, Bailey J, Banerjee R, Bates K, Beasley H, Bray-Allen S, Brown AJ, Brown JY, Burford DC, Burrill W, Burton J, Cahill P, Camire D, Carter NP, Chapman JC, Clark SY, Clarke G, Clee CM, Clegg S, Corby N, Coulson A, Dhami P, Dutta I, Dunn M, Faulkner L, Frankish A, Frankland JA, Garner P, Garnett J, Gribble S, Griffiths C, Grocock R, Gustafson E, Hammond S, Harley JL, Hart E, Heath PD, Ho TP, Hopkins B, Horne J, Howden PJ, Huckle E, Hynds C, Johnson C, Johnson D, Kana A, Kay M, Kimberley AM, Kershaw JK, Kokkinaki M, Laird GK, Lawlor S, Lee HM, Leongamornlert DA, Laird G, Lloyd C, Lloyd DM, Loveland J, Lovell J, McLaren S, McLay KE, McMurray A, Mashreghi-Mohammadi M, Matthews L, Milne S, Nickerson T, Nguyen M, Overton-Larty E, Palmer SA, Pearce AV, Peck AI, Pelan S, Phillimore B, Porter K, Rice CM, Rogosin A, Ross MT, Sarafidou T, Sehra HK, Shownkeen R, Skuce CD, Smith M, Standring L, Sycamore N, Tester J, Thorpe A, Torcasso W, Tracey A, Tromans A, Tsolas J, Wall M, Walsh J, Wang H, Weinstock K, West AP, Willey DL, Whitehead SL, Wilming L, Wray PW, Young L, Chen Y, Lovering RC, Moschonas NK, Siebert R, Fechtel K, Bentley D, Durbin R, Hubbard T, Doucette-Stamm L, Beck S, Smith DR and Rogers J

    The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton CB10 1SA, UK. panos@sanger.ac.uk

    The finished sequence of human chromosome 10 comprises a total of 131,666,441 base pairs. It represents 99.4% of the euchromatic DNA and includes one megabase of heterochromatic sequence within the pericentromeric region of the short and long arm of the chromosome. Sequence annotation revealed 1,357 genes, of which 816 are protein coding, and 430 are pseudogenes. We observed widespread occurrence of overlapping coding genes (either strand) and identified 67 antisense transcripts. Our analysis suggests that both inter- and intrachromosomal segmental duplications have impacted on the gene count on chromosome 10. Multispecies comparative analysis indicated that we can readily annotate the protein-coding genes with current resources. We estimate that over 95% of all coding exons were identified in this study. Assessment of single base changes between the human chromosome 10 and chimpanzee sequence revealed nonsense mutations in only 21 coding genes with respect to the human sequence.

    Nature 2004;429;6990;375-81

  • Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.

    Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, Otsuki T, Sugiyama T, Irie R, Wakamatsu A, Hayashi K, Sato H, Nagai K, Kimura K, Makita H, Sekine M, Obayashi M, Nishi T, Shibahara T, Tanaka T, Ishii S, Yamamoto J, Saito K, Kawai Y, Isono Y, Nakamura Y, Nagahari K, Murakami K, Yasuda T, Iwayanagi T, Wagatsuma M, Shiratori A, Sudo H, Hosoiri T, Kaku Y, Kodaira H, Kondo H, Sugawara M, Takahashi M, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Furuya T, Kikkawa E, Omura Y, Abe K, Kamihara K, Katsuta N, Sato K, Tanikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ninomiya K, Ishibashi T, Yamashita H, Murakawa K, Fujimori K, Tanai H, Kimata M, Watanabe M, Hiraoka S, Chiba Y, Ishida S, Ono Y, Takiguchi S, Watanabe S, Yosida M, Hotuta T, Kusano J, Kanehori K, Takahashi-Fujii A, Hara H, Tanase TO, Nomura Y, Togiya S, Komai F, Hara R, Takeuchi K, Arita M, Imose N, Musashino K, Yuuki H, Oshima A, Sasaki N, Aotsuka S, Yoshikawa Y, Matsunawa H, Ichihara T, Shiohata N, Sano S, Moriya S, Momiyama H, Satoh N, Takami S, Terashima Y, Suzuki O, Nakagawa S, Senoh A, Mizoguchi H, Goto Y, Shimizu F, Wakebe H, Hishigaki H, Watanabe T, Sugiyama A, Takemoto M, Kawakami B, Yamazaki M, Watanabe K, Kumagai A, Itakura S, Fukuzumi Y, Fujimori Y, Komiyama M, Tashiro H, Tanigami A, Fujiwara T, Ono T, Yamada K, Fujii Y, Ozaki K, Hirao M, Ohmori Y, Kawabata A, Hikiji T, Kobatake N, Inagaki H, Ikema Y, Okamoto S, Okitani R, Kawakami T, Noguchi S, Itoh T, Shigeta K, Senba T, Matsumura K, Nakajima Y, Mizuno T, Morinaga M, Sasaki M, Togashi T, Oyama M, Hata H, Watanabe M, Komatsu T, Mizushima-Sugano J, Satoh T, Shirai Y, Takahashi Y, Nakagawa K, Okumura K, Nagase T, Nomura N, Kikuchi H, Masuho Y, Yamashita R, Nakai K, Yada T, Nakamura Y, Ohara O, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Helix Research Institute, 1532-3 Yana, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0812, Japan.

    As a base for human transcriptome and functional genomics, we created the "full-length long Japan" (FLJ) collection of sequenced human cDNAs. We determined the entire sequence of 21,243 selected clones and found that 14,490 cDNAs (10,897 clusters) were unique to the FLJ collection. About half of them (5,416) seemed to be protein-coding. Of those, 1,999 clusters had not been predicted by computational methods. The distribution of GC content of nonpredicted cDNAs had a peak at approximately 58% compared with a peak at approximately 42%for predicted cDNAs. Thus, there seems to be a slight bias against GC-rich transcripts in current gene prediction procedures. The rest of the cDNAs unique to the FLJ collection (5,481) contained no obvious open reading frames (ORFs) and thus are candidate noncoding RNAs. About one-fourth of them (1,378) showed a clear pattern of splicing. The distribution of GC content of noncoding cDNAs was narrow and had a peak at approximately 42%, relatively low compared with that of protein-coding cDNAs.

    Nature genetics 2004;36;1;40-5

  • Construction of expression-ready cDNA clones for KIAA genes: manual curation of 330 KIAA cDNA clones.

    Nakajima D, Okazaki N, Yamakawa H, Kikuno R, Ohara O and Nagase T

    Kazusa DNA Research Institute, Kisarazu, Chiba, Japan.

    We have accumulated information on protein-coding sequences of uncharacterized human genes, which are known as KIAA genes, through cDNA sequencing. For comprehensive functional analysis of the KIAA genes, it is necessary to prepare a set of cDNA clones which direct the synthesis of functional KIAA gene products. However, since the KIAA cDNAs were derived from long mRNAs (> 4 kb), it was not expected that all of them were full-length. Thus, as the first step toward preparing these clones, we evaluated the integrity of protein-coding sequences of KIAA cDNA clones through comparison with homologous protein entries in the public database. As a result, 1141 KIAA cDNAs had at least one homologous entry in the database, and 619 of them (54%) were found to be truncated at the 5' and/or 3' ends. In this study, 290 KIAA cDNA clones were tailored to be full-length or have considerably longer sequences than the original clones by isolating additional cDNA clones and/or connected parts of additional cDNAs or PCR products of the missing portion to the original cDNA clone. Consequently, 265, 8, and 17 predicted CDSs of KIAA cDNA clones were increased in the amino-, carboxy-, and both terminal sequences, respectively. In addition, 40 cDNA clones were modified to remove spurious interruption of protein-coding sequences. The total length of the resultant extensions at amino- and carboxy-terminals of KIAA gene products reached 97,000 and 7,216 amino acid residues, respectively, and various protein domains were found in these extended portions.

    DNA research : an international journal for rapid publication of reports on genes and genomes 2002;9;3;99-106

  • Characterization of cDNA clones selected by the GeneMark analysis from size-fractionated cDNA libraries from human brain.

    Hirosawa M, Nagase T, Ishikawa K, Kikuno R, Nomura N and Ohara O

    Kazusa DNA Research Institute, Kisarazu, Chiba, Japan.

    We have conducted a sequencing project of human cDNAs which encode large proteins in brain. For selection of cDNA clones to be sequenced in this project, cDNA clones have been experimentally examined by in vitro transcription/translation prior to sequencing. In this study, we tested an alternative approach for picking up cDNA clones having a high probability of carrying protein coding region. This approach exploited 5'-end single-pass sequence data and the GeneMark program for assessing protein-coding potential, and allowed us to select 74 clones out of 14,804 redundant cDNA clones. The complete sequence data of these 74 clones revealed that 45% of them encoded proteins consisting of more than 500 amino acid residues while all the clones thus selected carried possible protein coding sequences as expected. The results indicated that the GeneMark analysis of 5'-end sequences of cDNAs offered us a simple and effective means to select cDNA clones with protein-coding potential although the sizes of the encoded proteins could not be predicted.

    DNA research : an international journal for rapid publication of reports on genes and genomes 1999;6;5;329-36

Gene lists (6)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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