G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
tubulin, beta 2C
G00000812 (Mus musculus)

Databases (8)

Curated Gene
OTTHUMG00000131783 (Vega human gene)
ENSG00000188229 (Ensembl human gene)
10383 (Entrez Gene)
1232 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
TUBB2C (GeneCards)
602660 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:20771 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
P68371 (UniProt)

Synonyms (1)

  • TUBB2

Literature (32)

Pubmed - other

  • Proteomic comparison of nasopharyngeal cancer cell lines C666-1 and NP69 identifies down-regulation of annexin II and beta2-tubulin for nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    Chan CM, Wong SC, Lam MY, Hui EP, Chan JK, Lo ES, Cheuk W, Wong MC, Tsao SW and Chan AT

    Department of Clinical Oncology, Sir Y. K. Pao Centre for Cancer, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China.

    Context: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), common in southern China and North Africa, has a complex etiology involving interplay between viral, environmental, and hereditary factors and is almost constantly associated with the Epstein-Barr virus. Since the prognosis of locally advanced and metastatic diseases is poor, increased understanding of the pathogenesis of NPC would be important for discovering novel markers for patients' management.

    Objectives: To compare the proteomic expression profile between an Epstein-Barr virus-associated NPC cell line (C666-1) and a normal NP cell line (NP69). The proteins with differential expression were analyzed in 40 undifferentiated NPC paraffin-embedded specimens.

    Design: Differentially expressed proteins discovered between the two cell lines were identified by mass spectrometry. After confirmation by immunocytochemical staining, their expression in patient samples was measured using 40 pairs of undifferentiated NPCs together with their adjacent normal epithelia.

    Results: Proteomic findings indicated that adenosine triphosphate synthase alpha chain was up-regulated, whereas annexin II, annexin V, beta(2)-tubulin, and profilin 1 were down-regulated. After confirming the results in agar-processed cell lines, annexin II and beta(2)-tubulin expression were found to be lower in tumor cells than in adjacent normal epithelial cells in 100% and 90% of the patients' specimens, respectively. Finally, annexin II down-regulation was positively associated with lymph node metastasis, suggesting that it may be a prognostic factor in NPC.

    Conclusions: The results suggest that annexin II and beta(2)-tubulin down-regulation is important in NPC formation and may represent potential targets for further investigations.

    Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine 2008;132;4;675-83

  • Systematic analysis of the protein interaction network for the human transcription machinery reveals the identity of the 7SK capping enzyme.

    Jeronimo C, Forget D, Bouchard A, Li Q, Chua G, Poitras C, Thérien C, Bergeron D, Bourassa S, Greenblatt J, Chabot B, Poirier GG, Hughes TR, Blanchette M, Price DH and Coulombe B

    Laboratory of Gene Transcription and Proteomics Discovery Platform, Institut de Recherches Cliniques de Montréal, Montréal, QC, Canada.

    We have performed a survey of soluble human protein complexes containing components of the transcription and RNA processing machineries using protein affinity purification coupled to mass spectrometry. Thirty-two tagged polypeptides yielded a network of 805 high-confidence interactions. Remarkably, the network is significantly enriched in proteins that regulate the formation of protein complexes, including a number of previously uncharacterized proteins for which we have inferred functions. The RNA polymerase II (RNAP II)-associated proteins (RPAPs) are physically and functionally associated with RNAP II, forming an interface between the enzyme and chaperone/scaffolding proteins. BCDIN3 is the 7SK snRNA methylphosphate capping enzyme (MePCE) present in an snRNP complex containing both RNA processing and transcription factors, including the elongation factor P-TEFb. Our results define a high-density protein interaction network for the mammalian transcription machinery and uncover multiple regulatory factors that target the transcription machinery.

    Funded by: Canadian Institutes of Health Research: 14309-3, 82851-1

    Molecular cell 2007;27;2;262-74

  • Global, in vivo, and site-specific phosphorylation dynamics in signaling networks.

    Olsen JV, Blagoev B, Gnad F, Macek B, Kumar C, Mortensen P and Mann M

    Center for Experimental BioInformatics, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5230 Odense, Denmark.

    Cell signaling mechanisms often transmit information via posttranslational protein modifications, most importantly reversible protein phosphorylation. Here we develop and apply a general mass spectrometric technology for identification and quantitation of phosphorylation sites as a function of stimulus, time, and subcellular location. We have detected 6,600 phosphorylation sites on 2,244 proteins and have determined their temporal dynamics after stimulating HeLa cells with epidermal growth factor (EGF) and recorded them in the Phosida database. Fourteen percent of phosphorylation sites are modulated at least 2-fold by EGF, and these were classified by their temporal profiles. Surprisingly, a majority of proteins contain multiple phosphorylation sites showing different kinetics, suggesting that they serve as platforms for integrating signals. In addition to protein kinase cascades, the targets of reversible phosphorylation include ubiquitin ligases, guanine nucleotide exchange factors, and at least 46 different transcriptional regulators. The dynamic phosphoproteome provides a missing link in a global, integrative view of cellular regulation.

    Cell 2006;127;3;635-48

  • The PITSLRE/CDK11p58 protein kinase promotes centrosome maturation and bipolar spindle formation.

    Petretti C, Savoian M, Montembault E, Glover DM, Prigent C and Giet R

    CNRS UMR 6061 Université de Rennes I, Equipe Labellisée Ligue Nationale Contre le Cancer, IFR140 GFAS, Faculté de Médecine, France.

    The CDK11 (cyclin-dependent kinase 11) gene has an internal ribosome entry site (IRES), allowing the expression of two protein kinases. The longer 110-kDa isoform is expressed at constant levels during the cell cycle and the shorter 58-kDa isoform is expressed only during G2 and M phases. By means of RNA interference (RNAi), we show that the CDK11 gene is required for mitotic spindle formation. CDK11 RNAi leads to mitotic checkpoint activation. Mitotic cells are arrested with short or monopolar spindles. gamma-Tubulin as well as Plk1 and Aurora A protein kinase levels are greatly reduced at centrosomes, resulting in microtubule nucleation defects. We show that the mitotic CDK11(p58) isoform, but not the CDK11(p110) isoform, associates with mitotic centrosomes and rescues the phenotypes resulting from CDK11 RNAi. This work demonstrates for the first time the role of CDK11(p58) in centrosome maturation and bipolar spindle morphogenesis.

    EMBO reports 2006;7;4;418-24

  • Modifications in the human T cell proteome induced by intracellular HIV-1 Tat protein expression.

    Coiras M, Camafeita E, Ureña T, López JA, Caballero F, Fernández B, López-Huertas MR, Pérez-Olmeda M and Alcamí J

    AIDS Immunopathology Unit, National Centre of Microbiology, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Majadahonda, Madrid, Spain.

    The effects of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Tat protein on cellular gene expression were analysed using a Jurkat cell line that was stably transfected with tat gene in a doxycycline-repressible expression system. Expressed Tat protein (aa 1-101) was proved to present basically a nuclear localisation, and to be fully functional to induce HIV LTR transactivation. Tat expression also resulted in protection from Tunicamycin-induced apoptosis as determined by DNA staining and TUNEL assays. We applied proteomics methods to investigate changes in differential protein expression in the transfected Jurkat-Tat cells. Protein identification was performed using 2-D DIGE followed by MS analysis. We identified the down-regulation of several cytoskeletal proteins such as actin, beta-tubulin, annexin II, as well as gelsolin, cofilin and the Rac/Rho-GDI complex. Down-expression of these proteins could be involved in the survival of long-term reservoirs of HIV-infected CD4+ T cells responsible for continuous viral production. In conclusion, in addition to its role in viral mRNA elongation, the proteomic approach has provided insight into the way that Tat modifies host cell gene expression.

    Proteomics 2006;6 Suppl 1;S63-73

  • Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network.

    Rual JF, Venkatesan K, Hao T, Hirozane-Kishikawa T, Dricot A, Li N, Berriz GF, Gibbons FD, Dreze M, Ayivi-Guedehoussou N, Klitgord N, Simon C, Boxem M, Milstein S, Rosenberg J, Goldberg DS, Zhang LV, Wong SL, Franklin G, Li S, Albala JS, Lim J, Fraughton C, Llamosas E, Cevik S, Bex C, Lamesch P, Sikorski RS, Vandenhaute J, Zoghbi HY, Smolyar A, Bosak S, Sequerra R, Doucette-Stamm L, Cusick ME, Hill DE, Roth FP and Vidal M

    Center for Cancer Systems Biology and Department of Cancer Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, 44 Binney Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    Systematic mapping of protein-protein interactions, or 'interactome' mapping, was initiated in model organisms, starting with defined biological processes and then expanding to the scale of the proteome. Although far from complete, such maps have revealed global topological and dynamic features of interactome networks that relate to known biological properties, suggesting that a human interactome map will provide insight into development and disease mechanisms at a systems level. Here we describe an initial version of a proteome-scale map of human binary protein-protein interactions. Using a stringent, high-throughput yeast two-hybrid system, we tested pairwise interactions among the products of approximately 8,100 currently available Gateway-cloned open reading frames and detected approximately 2,800 interactions. This data set, called CCSB-HI1, has a verification rate of approximately 78% as revealed by an independent co-affinity purification assay, and correlates significantly with other biological attributes. The CCSB-HI1 data set increases by approximately 70% the set of available binary interactions within the tested space and reveals more than 300 new connections to over 100 disease-associated proteins. This work represents an important step towards a systematic and comprehensive human interactome project.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R33 CA132073; NHGRI NIH HHS: P50 HG004233, R01 HG001715, RC4 HG006066, U01 HG001715; NHLBI NIH HHS: U01 HL098166

    Nature 2005;437;7062;1173-8

  • Proteomics of human umbilical vein endothelial cells applied to etoposide-induced apoptosis.

    Bruneel A, Labas V, Mailloux A, Sharma S, Royer N, Vinh J, Pernet P, Vaubourdolle M and Baudin B

    Service de Biochimie A, Hôpital Saint-Antoine, AP-HP, Paris, France. arnaud.bruneel@sat.ap-hop-paris.fr

    We have undertaken to continue the proteomic study of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) using the combination of 2-DE, automated trypsin digestion, and PMF analysis after MALDI-TOF MS and peptide sequencing using nano LC-ESI-MS/MS. The overall functional characterization of the 162 identified proteins from primary cultures of HUVECs confirms the metabolic capabilities of endothelium and illustrates various cellular functions more related to cell motility and angiogenesis, protein folding, anti-oxidant defenses, signal transduction, proteasome pathway and resistance to apoptosis. In comparison with controls cells, the differential proteomic analysis of HUVECs treated by the pro-apoptotic topoisomerase inhibitor etoposide further revealed the variation of eight proteins, namely, GRP78, GRP94, valosin-containing protein, proteinase inhibitor 9, cofilin, 37-kDa laminin receptor protein, bovine apolipoprotein, and tropomyosin. These data suggest that etoposide-induced apoptosis of human vascular endothelial cells results from the intricate involvement of multiple apoptosis processes including at least the mitochondrial and the ER stress pathways. The presented 2-D pattern and protein database, as well as the data related to apoptosis of HUVECs, are available at http://www.huvec.com.

    Proteomics 2005;5;15;3876-84

  • A human protein-protein interaction network: a resource for annotating the proteome.

    Stelzl U, Worm U, Lalowski M, Haenig C, Brembeck FH, Goehler H, Stroedicke M, Zenkner M, Schoenherr A, Koeppen S, Timm J, Mintzlaff S, Abraham C, Bock N, Kietzmann S, Goedde A, Toksöz E, Droege A, Krobitsch S, Korn B, Birchmeier W, Lehrach H and Wanker EE

    Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine, 13092 Berlin-Buch, Germany.

    Protein-protein interaction maps provide a valuable framework for a better understanding of the functional organization of the proteome. To detect interacting pairs of human proteins systematically, a protein matrix of 4456 baits and 5632 preys was screened by automated yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) interaction mating. We identified 3186 mostly novel interactions among 1705 proteins, resulting in a large, highly connected network. Independent pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation assays validated the overall quality of the Y2H interactions. Using topological and GO criteria, a scoring system was developed to define 911 high-confidence interactions among 401 proteins. Furthermore, the network was searched for interactions linking uncharacterized gene products and human disease proteins to regulatory cellular pathways. Two novel Axin-1 interactions were validated experimentally, characterizing ANP32A and CRMP1 as modulators of Wnt signaling. Systematic human protein interaction screens can lead to a more comprehensive understanding of protein function and cellular processes.

    Cell 2005;122;6;957-68

  • Protein profiling of human pancreatic islets by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry.

    Ahmed M, Forsberg J and Bergsten P

    Department of Medical Cell Biology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden. meftun.khandker@drl.ox.ac.uk

    Completion of the human genome sequence has provided scientists with powerful resources with which to explore the molecular events associated with disease states such as diabetes. Understanding the relative levels of expression of gene products, especially of proteins, and their post-translational modifications will be critical. However, though the pancreatic islets play a key role in glucose homeostasis, global protein expression data in human are decidedly lacking. We here report the two-dimensional protein map and database of human pancreatic islets. A high level of reproducibility was obtained among the gels and a total of 744 protein spots were detected. We have successfully identified 130 spots corresponding to 66 different protein entries and generated a reference map of human islets. The functionally characterized proteins include enzymes, chaperones, cellular structural proteins, cellular defense proteins, signaling molecules, and transport proteins. A number of proteins identified in this study (e.g., annexin A2, elongation factor 1-alpha 2, histone H2B.a/g/k, heat shock protein 90 beta, heat shock 27 kDa protein, cyclophilin B, peroxiredoxin 4, cytokeratins 7, 18, and 19) have not been previously described in the database of mouse pancreatic islets. In addition, altered expression of several proteins, like GRP78, GRP94, PDI, calreticulin, annexin, cytokeratins, profilin, heat shock proteins, and ORP150 have been associated with the development of diabetes. The data presented in this study provides a first-draft reference map of the human islet proteome, that will pave the way for further proteome analysis of pancreatic islets in both healthy and diabetic individuals, generating insights into the pathophysiology of this condition.

    Journal of proteome research 2005;4;3;931-40

  • HIV-1 Tat, apoptosis and the mitochondria: a tubulin link?

    Giacca M

    Molecular Medicine Laboratory, International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Trieste, Italy. giacca@icgeb.org

    The Tat protein of HIV-1 is a powerful activator of viral gene expression. Besides this essential function at the HIV-1 promoter, the protein also exerts a remarkable number of other biological activities, among which the induction of cellular apoptosis. Two papers now published in Retrovirology provide possible molecular mechanisms for the pro-apoptotic effect of Tat, which involve the cell's microtubular network and the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis.

    Retrovirology 2005;2;7

  • HIV-1 Tat protein enhances microtubule polymerization.

    de Mareuil J, Carre M, Barbier P, Campbell GR, Lancelot S, Opi S, Esquieu D, Watkins JD, Prevot C, Braguer D, Peyrot V and Loret EP

    UMR Univ, Med,/CNRS FRE 2737, Faculté de Pharmacie, Université de la Méditerranée, 27 Bd Jean Moulin, 13385 Marseille, France. jean.boulademareuil@pharmacie.univ-mrs.fr

    Background: HIV infection and progression to AIDS is characterized by the depletion of T cells, which could be due, in part, to apoptosis mediated by the extra-cellular HIV-encoded Tat protein as a consequence of Tat binding to tubulin. Microtubules are tubulin polymers that are essential for cell structure and division. Molecules that target microtubules induce apoptosis and are potent anti-cancer drugs. We studied the effect on tubulin polymerization of three Tat variants: Tat HxB2 and Tat Eli from patients who are rapid progressors (RP) and Tat Oyi from highly exposed but persistently seronegative (HEPS) patients. We compared the effect on tubulin polymerization of these Tat variants and peptides corresponding to different parts of the Tat sequence, with paclitaxel, an anti-cancer drug that targets microtubules.

    Results: We show that Tat, and specifically, residues 38-72, directly enhance tubulin polymerization. We demonstrate that Tat could also directly trigger the mitochondrial pathway to induce T cell apoptosis, as shown in vitro by the release of cytochrome c from isolated mitochondria.

    Conclusions: These results show that Tat directly acts on microtubule polymerization and provide insights into the mechanism of T cell apoptosis mediated by extra-cellular Tat.

    Retrovirology 2005;2;5

  • Nucleolar proteome dynamics.

    Andersen JS, Lam YW, Leung AK, Ong SE, Lyon CE, Lamond AI and Mann M

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Campusvej 55, DK-5230 Odense M, Denmark.

    The nucleolus is a key organelle that coordinates the synthesis and assembly of ribosomal subunits and forms in the nucleus around the repeated ribosomal gene clusters. Because the production of ribosomes is a major metabolic activity, the function of the nucleolus is tightly linked to cell growth and proliferation, and recent data suggest that the nucleolus also plays an important role in cell-cycle regulation, senescence and stress responses. Here, using mass-spectrometry-based organellar proteomics and stable isotope labelling, we perform a quantitative analysis of the proteome of human nucleoli. In vivo fluorescent imaging techniques are directly compared to endogenous protein changes measured by proteomics. We characterize the flux of 489 endogenous nucleolar proteins in response to three different metabolic inhibitors that each affect nucleolar morphology. Proteins that are stably associated, such as RNA polymerase I subunits and small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle complexes, exit from or accumulate in the nucleolus with similar kinetics, whereas protein components of the large and small ribosomal subunits leave the nucleolus with markedly different kinetics. The data establish a quantitative proteomic approach for the temporal characterization of protein flux through cellular organelles and demonstrate that the nucleolar proteome changes significantly over time in response to changes in cellular growth conditions.

    Funded by: Wellcome Trust: 073980

    Nature 2005;433;7021;77-83

  • The glutamine-rich region of the HIV-1 Tat protein is involved in T-cell apoptosis.

    Campbell GR, Pasquier E, Watkins J, Bourgarel-Rey V, Peyrot V, Esquieu D, Barbier P, de Mareuil J, Braguer D, Kaleebu P, Yirrell DL and Loret EP

    CNRS Formation de Recherche en Evolution 2737, Faculté de Pharmacie, Université de la Méditerranée, 27, Boulevard Jean Moulin, 13385 Marseille, France.

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and the progression to AIDS are characterized by the depletion of CD4(+) T-cells. HIV-1 infection leads to apoptosis of uninfected bystander cells and the direct killing of HIV-infected cells. This is mediated, in part, by the HIV-1 Tat protein, which is secreted by virally infected cells and taken up by uninfected cells. We chemically synthesized two 86-residue subtype D Tat proteins, Ug05RP and Ug11LTS, from two Ugandan patients who were clinically categorized as either rapid progressor or long-term survivor, with non-conservative mutations located essentially in the glutamine-rich region. Structural heterogeneities were revealed by CD, which translate into differing trans-activational and apoptotic effects. CD data analysis and molecular modeling indicated that the short alpha-helix observed in subtype D Tat proteins from rapid progressor patients such as Tat Mal and Tat Ug05RP is not present in Ug11LTS. We show that Tat Ug05RP is more efficient than Tat Ug11LTS in its trans-activational role and in inducing apoptosis in binding tubulin via the mitochondrial pathway. The glutamine-rich region of Tat appears to be involved in the Tat-mediated apoptosis of T-cells.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2004;279;46;48197-204

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • MARK4 is a novel microtubule-associated proteins/microtubule affinity-regulating kinase that binds to the cellular microtubule network and to centrosomes.

    Trinczek B, Brajenovic M, Ebneth A and Drewes G

    Department of Medicinal Chemistry, University of Kansas, Malott Hall, Lawrence, Kansas 66045, USA.

    The MARK protein kinases were originally identified by their ability to phosphorylate a serine motif in the microtubule-binding domain of tau that is critical for microtubule binding. Here, we report the cloning and expression of a novel human paralog, MARK4, which shares 75% overall homology with MARK1-3 and is predominantly expressed in brain. Homology is most pronounced in the catalytic domain (90%), and MARK4 readily phosphorylates tau and the related microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) and MAP4. In contrast to the three paralogs that all exhibit uniform cytoplasmic localization, MARK4 colocalizes with the centrosome and with microtubules in cultured cells. Overexpression of MARK4 causes thinning out of the microtubule network, concomitant with a reorganization of microtubules into bundles. In line with these findings, we show that a tandem affinity-purified MARK4 protein complex contains alpha-, beta-, and gamma-tubulin. In differentiated neuroblastoma cells, MARK4 is localized prominently at the tips of neurite-like processes. We suggest that although the four MARK/PAR-1 kinases might play multiple cellular roles in concert with different targets, MARK4 is likely to be directly involved in microtubule organization in neuronal cells and may contribute to the pathological phosphorylation of tau in Alzheimer's disease.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2004;279;7;5915-23

  • Proteomic identification of brain proteins that interact with dynein light chain LC8.

    Navarro-Lérida I, Martínez Moreno M, Roncal F, Gavilanes F, Albar JP and Rodríguez-Crespo I

    Departamento de Bioquímicay Biología Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain. nacho@bbml.ucm.es

    Cytoplasmic dynein is a large minus end-directed microtubule motor that translocates cargos towards the minus end of microtubules. Light chain 8 of the dynein machinery (LC8) has been reported to interact with a large variety of proteins that possess K/RSTQT or GIQVD motifs in their sequence, hence permitting their transport in a retrograde manner. Yeast two-hybrid analysis has revealed that in brain, LC8 associates directly with several proteins such as neuronal nitric oxide synthase, guanylate kinase domain-associated protein and gephyrin. In this work, we report the identification of over 40 polypeptides, by means of a proteomic approach, that interact with LC8 either directly or indirectly. Many of the neuronal proteins that we identified cluster at the post-synaptic terminal, and some of them such as phosphofructokinase, lactate dehydrogenase or aldolase are directly involved in glutamate metabolism. Other pool of proteins identified displayed the LC8 consensus binding motif. Finally, recombinant LC8 was produced and a library of overlapping dodecapeptides (pepscan) was employed to map the LC8 binding site of some of the proteins that were previously identified using the proteomic approach, hence confirming binding to the consensus binding sites.

    Proteomics 2004;4;2;339-46

  • Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.

    Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, Otsuki T, Sugiyama T, Irie R, Wakamatsu A, Hayashi K, Sato H, Nagai K, Kimura K, Makita H, Sekine M, Obayashi M, Nishi T, Shibahara T, Tanaka T, Ishii S, Yamamoto J, Saito K, Kawai Y, Isono Y, Nakamura Y, Nagahari K, Murakami K, Yasuda T, Iwayanagi T, Wagatsuma M, Shiratori A, Sudo H, Hosoiri T, Kaku Y, Kodaira H, Kondo H, Sugawara M, Takahashi M, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Furuya T, Kikkawa E, Omura Y, Abe K, Kamihara K, Katsuta N, Sato K, Tanikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ninomiya K, Ishibashi T, Yamashita H, Murakawa K, Fujimori K, Tanai H, Kimata M, Watanabe M, Hiraoka S, Chiba Y, Ishida S, Ono Y, Takiguchi S, Watanabe S, Yosida M, Hotuta T, Kusano J, Kanehori K, Takahashi-Fujii A, Hara H, Tanase TO, Nomura Y, Togiya S, Komai F, Hara R, Takeuchi K, Arita M, Imose N, Musashino K, Yuuki H, Oshima A, Sasaki N, Aotsuka S, Yoshikawa Y, Matsunawa H, Ichihara T, Shiohata N, Sano S, Moriya S, Momiyama H, Satoh N, Takami S, Terashima Y, Suzuki O, Nakagawa S, Senoh A, Mizoguchi H, Goto Y, Shimizu F, Wakebe H, Hishigaki H, Watanabe T, Sugiyama A, Takemoto M, Kawakami B, Yamazaki M, Watanabe K, Kumagai A, Itakura S, Fukuzumi Y, Fujimori Y, Komiyama M, Tashiro H, Tanigami A, Fujiwara T, Ono T, Yamada K, Fujii Y, Ozaki K, Hirao M, Ohmori Y, Kawabata A, Hikiji T, Kobatake N, Inagaki H, Ikema Y, Okamoto S, Okitani R, Kawakami T, Noguchi S, Itoh T, Shigeta K, Senba T, Matsumura K, Nakajima Y, Mizuno T, Morinaga M, Sasaki M, Togashi T, Oyama M, Hata H, Watanabe M, Komatsu T, Mizushima-Sugano J, Satoh T, Shirai Y, Takahashi Y, Nakagawa K, Okumura K, Nagase T, Nomura N, Kikuchi H, Masuho Y, Yamashita R, Nakai K, Yada T, Nakamura Y, Ohara O, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Helix Research Institute, 1532-3 Yana, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0812, Japan.

    As a base for human transcriptome and functional genomics, we created the "full-length long Japan" (FLJ) collection of sequenced human cDNAs. We determined the entire sequence of 21,243 selected clones and found that 14,490 cDNAs (10,897 clusters) were unique to the FLJ collection. About half of them (5,416) seemed to be protein-coding. Of those, 1,999 clusters had not been predicted by computational methods. The distribution of GC content of nonpredicted cDNAs had a peak at approximately 58% compared with a peak at approximately 42%for predicted cDNAs. Thus, there seems to be a slight bias against GC-rich transcripts in current gene prediction procedures. The rest of the cDNAs unique to the FLJ collection (5,481) contained no obvious open reading frames (ORFs) and thus are candidate noncoding RNAs. About one-fourth of them (1,378) showed a clear pattern of splicing. The distribution of GC content of noncoding cDNAs was narrow and had a peak at approximately 42%, relatively low compared with that of protein-coding cDNAs.

    Nature genetics 2004;36;1;40-5

  • Polo-like kinase 1 regulates Nlp, a centrosome protein involved in microtubule nucleation.

    Casenghi M, Meraldi P, Weinhart U, Duncan PI, Körner R and Nigg EA

    Department of Cell Biology, Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry, Am Klopferspitz 18a, D-82152, Martinsried, Germany.

    In animal cells, most microtubules are nucleated at centrosomes. At the onset of mitosis, centrosomes undergo a structural reorganization, termed maturation, which leads to increased microtubule nucleation activity. Centrosome maturation is regulated by several kinases, including Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1). Here, we identify a centrosomal Plk1 substrate, termed Nlp (ninein-like protein), whose properties suggest an important role in microtubule organization. Nlp interacts with two components of the gamma-tubulin ring complex and stimulates microtubule nucleation. Plk1 phosphorylates Nlp and disrupts both its centrosome association and its gamma-tubulin interaction. Overexpression of an Nlp mutant lacking Plk1 phosphorylation sites severely disturbs mitotic spindle formation. We propose that Nlp plays an important role in microtubule organization during interphase, and that the activation of Plk1 at the onset of mitosis triggers the displacement of Nlp from the centrosome, allowing the establishment of a mitotic scaffold with enhanced microtubule nucleation activity.

    Developmental cell 2003;5;1;113-25

  • Beta class II tubulin predominates in normal and tumor breast tissues.

    Dozier JH, Hiser L, Davis JA, Thomas NS, Tucci MA, Benghuzzi HA, Frankfurter A, Correia JJ and Lobert S

    School of Medicine, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, Mississippi, USA.

    Background: Antimitotic chemotherapeutic agents target tubulin, the major protein in mitotic spindles. Tubulin isotype composition is thought to be both diagnostic of tumor progression and a determinant of the cellular response to chemotherapy. This implies that there is a difference in isotype composition between normal and tumor tissues.

    Methods: To determine whether such a difference occurs in breast tissues, total tubulin was fractionated from lysates of paired normal and tumor breast tissues, and the amounts of beta-tubulin classes I + IV, II, and III were measured by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Only primary tumor tissues, before chemotherapy, were examined. Her2/neu protein amplification occurs in about 30% of breast tumors and is considered a marker for poor prognosis. To gain insight into whether tubulin isotype levels might be correlated with prognosis, ELISAs were used to quantify Her2/neu protein levels in these tissues.

    Results: Beta-tubulin isotype distributions in normal and tumor breast tissues were similar. The most abundant beta-tubulin isotypes in these tissues were beta-tubulin classes II and I + IV. Her2/neu levels in tumor tissues were 5-30-fold those in normal tissues, although there was no correlation between the Her2/neu biomarker and tubulin isotype levels.

    Conclusion: These results suggest that tubulin isotype levels, alone or in combination with Her2/neu protein levels, might not be diagnostic of tumorigenesis in breast cancer. However, the presence of a broad distribution of these tubulin isotypes (for example, 40-75% beta-tubulin class II) in breast tissue, in conjunction with other factors, might still be relevant to disease progression and cellular response to antimitotic drugs.

    Funded by: NINR NIH HHS: NR04780

    Breast cancer research : BCR 2003;5;5;R157-69

  • HIV-1 Tat targets microtubules to induce apoptosis, a process promoted by the pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 relative Bim.

    Chen D, Wang M, Zhou S and Zhou Q

    Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-3206, USA.

    Depletion of CD4(+) T cells is the hallmark of HIV infection and AIDS progression. In addition to the direct killing of the viral-infected cells, HIV infection also leads to increased apoptosis of predominantly uninfected bystander cells. This is mediated in part through the HIV-1 Tat protein, which is secreted by the infected cells and taken up by uninfected cells. Using an affinity-purification approach, a specific and direct interaction of Tat with tubulin and polymerized microtubules has been detected. This interaction does not affect the secretion and uptake of Tat, but is critical for Tat to induce apoptosis. Tat binds tubulin/microtubules through a four-amino-acid subdomain of its conserved core region, leading to the alteration of microtubule dynamics and activation of a mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathway. Bim, a pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 relative and a transducer of death signals initiated by perturbation of microtubule dynamics, facilitates the Tat-induced apoptosis. Our findings reveal a strategy by which Tat induces apoptosis by targeting the microtubule network. Thus HIV-1 Tat joins a growing list of pathogen-derived proteins that target the cytoskeleton of host cells.

    Funded by: NIAID NIH HHS: AI-41757, R01 AI041757; NICHD NIH HHS: K12 HD000850, K12-HD00850-17

    The EMBO journal 2002;21;24;6801-10

  • Centrosomal proteins CG-NAP and kendrin provide microtubule nucleation sites by anchoring gamma-tubulin ring complex.

    Takahashi M, Yamagiwa A, Nishimura T, Mukai H and Ono Y

    Biosignal Research Center, Kobe University, Japan.

    Microtubule assembly is initiated by the gamma-tubulin ring complex (gamma-TuRC). In yeast, the microtubule is nucleated from gamma-TuRC anchored to the amino-terminus of the spindle pole body component Spc110p, which interacts with calmodulin (Cmd1p) at the carboxy-terminus. However, mammalian protein that anchors gamma-TuRC remains to be elucidated. A giant coiled-coil protein, CG-NAP (centrosome and Golgi localized PKN-associated protein), was localized to the centrosome via the carboxyl-terminal region. This region was found to interact with calmodulin by yeast two-hybrid screening, and it shares high homology with the carboxyl-terminal region of another centrosomal coiled-coil protein, kendrin. The amino-terminal region of either CG-NAP or kendrin indirectly associated with gamma-tubulin through binding with gamma-tubulin complex protein 2 (GCP2) and/or GCP3. Furthermore, endogenous CG-NAP and kendrin were coimmunoprecipitated with each other and with endogenous GCP2 and gamma-tubulin, suggesting that CG-NAP and kendrin form complexes and interact with gamma-TuRC in vivo. These proteins were localized to the center of microtubule asters nucleated from isolated centrosomes. Pretreatment of the centrosomes by antibody to CG-NAP or kendrin moderately inhibited the microtubule nucleation; moreover, the combination of these antibodies resulted in stronger inhibition. These results imply that CG-NAP and kendrin provide sites for microtubule nucleation in the mammalian centrosome by anchoring gamma-TuRC.

    Molecular biology of the cell 2002;13;9;3235-45

  • SOCS-6 binds to insulin receptor substrate 4, and mice lacking the SOCS-6 gene exhibit mild growth retardation.

    Krebs DL, Uren RT, Metcalf D, Rakar S, Zhang JG, Starr R, De Souza DP, Hanzinikolas K, Eyles J, Connolly LM, Simpson RJ, Nicola NA, Nicholson SE, Baca M, Hilton DJ and Alexander WS

    The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research and the Cooperative Research Centre for Cellular Growth Factors, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Victoria 3050, Australia. krebs@wehi.edu.au

    SOCS-6 is a member of the suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) family of proteins (SOCS-1 to SOCS-7 and CIS) which each contain a central SH2 domain and a carboxyl-terminal SOCS box. SOCS-1, SOCS-2, SOCS-3, and CIS act to negatively regulate cytokine-induced signaling pathways; however, the actions of SOCS-4, SOCS-5, SOCS-6, and SOCS-7 remain less clear. Here we have used both biochemical and genetic approaches to examine the action of SOCS-6. We found that SOCS-6 and SOCS-7 are expressed ubiquitously in murine tissues. Like other SOCS family members, SOCS-6 binds to elongins B and C through its SOCS box, suggesting that it might act as an E3 ubiquitin ligase that targets proteins bound to its SH2 domain for ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. We investigated the binding specificity of the SOCS-6 and SOCS-7 SH2 domains and found that they preferentially bound to phosphopeptides containing a valine in the phosphotyrosine (pY) +1 position and a hydrophobic residue in the pY +2 and pY +3 positions. In addition, these SH2 domains interacted with a protein complex consisting of insulin receptor substrate 4 (IRS-4), IRS-2, and the p85 regulatory subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. To investigate the physiological role of SOCS-6, we generated mice lacking the SOCS-6 gene. SOCS-6(-/-) mice were born in a normal Mendelian ratio, were fertile, developed normally, and did not exhibit defects in hematopoiesis or glucose homeostasis. However, both male and female SOCS-6(-/-) mice weighed approximately 10% less than wild-type littermates.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA22556, R01 CA022556, R37 CA022556

    Molecular and cellular biology 2002;22;13;4567-78

  • Occurrence of nuclear beta(II)-tubulin in cultured cells.

    Walss-Bass C, Xu K, David S, Fellous A and Ludueña RF

    Department of Biochemistry, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX 78284-7760, USA.

    Microtubules are cylindrical organelles that play critical roles in cell division. Their subunit protein, tubulin, is a target for various antitumor drugs. Tubulin exists as various forms, known as isotypes. In most normal cells, tubulin occurs only in the cytosol and not in the nucleus. However, we have recently reported the finding of the beta(II) isotype of tubulin in the nuclei of cultured rat kidney mesangial cells. Mesangial cells, unlike most normal cell lines, have the ability to proliferate rapidly in culture. In efforts to determine whether nuclear beta(II)-tubulin occurred in other cell lines, we examined the distribution of the beta(I), beta(II), and beta(IV) mammalian tubulin isotypes in a variety of normal and cancer human cell lines by immunofluorescence microscopy. We have found that, in the normal cell lines, all three isotypes are present only in the cytoplasm. However, the beta(II) isotype of tubulin is located not only in the cytoplasm, but also in the nuclei of the following cell lines: LNCaP prostate carcinoma, MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-435, and Calc18 breast carcinoma, C6 and T98G glioma, and HeLa cells. In contrast, the beta(I) and beta(IV) isotypes, which are also synthesized in cancer cells, are not localized to the nucleus but are restricted to the cytoplasm. We have also seen beta(II) in breast cancer excisions. In most of these cells, beta(II) appears to be concentrated in the nucleoli. These results suggest that transformation may lead to localization of beta(II)-tubulin in cell nuclei, serving an as yet unknown function, and that nuclear beta(II) may be a useful marker for detection of tumor cells.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA26376, P30 CA54174

    Cell and tissue research 2002;308;2;215-23

  • Associations of PKC isoforms with the cytoskeleton of B16F10 melanoma cells.

    Szalay J, Bruno P, Bhati R, Adjodha J, Schueler D, Summerville V and Vazeos R

    Queens College, Department of Biology, Flushing, New York 11367, USA. Jeanne_Szalay@qc.edu

    Although PKC plays a major role in regulating the morphology and function of the cytoskeleton, little is known about in situ associations of specific isoforms with the cytoskeleton. We demonstrate that seven PKC isoforms are expressed in B16F10 melanoma cells and show different levels of induction by serum. Using cell cytoskeleton preparations (CSKs), confocal microscopy, and immunocytochemistry, all isoforms show specific patterns of localization to focal contact-like structures (alpha, delta), very small cytoplasmic granules/vesicles (all isoforms), dense ordered arrays of small granules in the perinuclear region (alpha, delta), granules/vesicles associated with a homogeneous framework in the cytoplasm adjacent to the nucleus (gamma), or irregular-shaped patches of granules at or near the nuclear perimeter (eta, theta). In addition, several isoforms are present as cytoplasmic granules/ vesicles in linear or curvilinear arrays (alpha, delta, epsilon, theta). When isoform localization is examined using 3.7% formaldehyde or methanol:acetone, the patterns of localization in CSKs are often difficult or impossible to detect, and many are described here for the first time. Double-labeling experiments with CSK demonstrate that PKC actin co-localizes with punctate alpha-rich particles above the nucleus, granules of epsilon throughout the cytoplasm, and with theta in irregular-shaped aggregates associated with the nucleus. Vimentin co-localizes with perinuclear granules of delta and beta(2), and alpha-tubulin co-localizes with theta in structures at or near the nuclear surface and in microtubules associated with the microtubule organizing center (MTOC). In summary, the present study demonstrates that seven PKC isoforms are endogenously expressed in B16F10 melanoma cells. These isoforms show various levels of induction by serum and specific patterns of association with various components of the detergent-resistant cell cytoskeleton.

    The journal of histochemistry and cytochemistry : official journal of the Histochemistry Society 2001;49;1;49-66

  • HLA-B2702 (77-83/83-77) peptide binds to beta-tubulin on human NK cells and blocks their cytotoxic capacity.

    Tarazona R, López-Lluch G, Galiani MD, Aguado E, Barahona F, Solana R and Peña J

    Department of Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Hospital Reina Sofía, University of Córdoba, Córdoba, Spain.

    It has been described that peptides derived from a highly conserved region of the alpha1 helix of the first domain of HLA class I Ags exhibit immunomodulatory capacity blocking both T and NK cell cytotoxicity. In vivo treatment with these peptides prolongs survival of MHC-mismatched allografts. However, the molecular bases of these effects are still unclear. In this study, we further analyze the mechanisms by which the dimeric peptide HLA-B2702 (77-83/83-77) induces suppression of NK cell cytotoxicity. This peptide inhibits natural and redirected lysis mediated by NK cells without significantly affecting effector-target cell binding. We have also isolated and sequenced a protein that binds this inhibitory peptide, which structurally corresponds to beta-tubulin. Tubulin is the major protein of microtubules and is involved in target cell killing. Furthermore, B2702 peptide promotes GTP-independent tubulin assembly, producing aggregates that cannot be depolymerized by cold. Treatment of NK cells with Taxol or demecolcine, which interfere with microtubule organization, also prevents NK cell cytotoxicity. Taken together, these results support the hypothesis that the peptide B2702 (77-83/83-77) exerts its inhibitory effect on NK cell cytotoxicity by inducing polymerization of microtubules and interfering with their normal assembly/disassembly dynamics.

    Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 2000;165;12;6776-82

  • The centrosomal protein C-Nap1 is required for cell cycle-regulated centrosome cohesion.

    Mayor T, Stierhof YD, Tanaka K, Fry AM and Nigg EA

    Department of Molecular Biology, Sciences II, University of Geneva, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland.

    Duplicating centrosomes are paired during interphase, but are separated at the onset of mitosis. Although the mechanisms controlling centrosome cohesion and separation are important for centrosome function throughout the cell cycle, they remain poorly understood. Recently, we have proposed that C-Nap1, a novel centrosomal protein, is part of a structure linking parental centrioles in a cell cycle-regulated manner. To test this model, we have performed a detailed structure-function analysis on C-Nap1. We demonstrate that antibody-mediated interference with C-Nap1 function causes centrosome splitting, regardless of the cell cycle phase. Splitting occurs between parental centrioles and is not dependent on the presence of an intact microtubule or microfilament network. Centrosome splitting can also be induced by overexpression of truncated C-Nap1 mutants, but not full-length protein. Antibodies raised against different domains of C-Nap1 prove that this protein dissociates from spindle poles during mitosis, but reaccumulates at centrosomes at the end of cell division. Use of the same antibodies in immunoelectron microscopy shows that C-Nap1 is confined to the proximal end domains of centrioles, indicating that a putative linker structure must contain additional proteins. We conclude that C-Nap1 is a key component of a dynamic, cell cycle-regulated structure that mediates centriole-centriole cohesion.

    The Journal of cell biology 2000;151;4;837-46

  • HIV-1 rev depolymerizes microtubules to form stable bilayered rings.

    Watts NR, Sackett DL, Ward RD, Miller MW, Wingfield PT, Stahl SS and Steven AC

    Laboratory of Structural Biology Research, National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, Bethesda, MD, USA.

    We describe a novel interaction between HIV-1 Rev and microtubules (MTs) that results in the formation of bilayered rings that are 44-49 nm in external diameter, 3.4-4.2 MD (megadaltons) in mass, and have 28-, 30-, or 32-fold symmetry. Ring formation is not sensitive to taxol, colchicine, or microtubule-associated proteins, but requires Mg(2+) and is inhibited by maytansine. The interaction involves the NH(2)-terminal domain of Rev and the face of tubulin exposed on the exterior of the MTs. The NH(2)-terminal half of Rev has unexpected sequence similarity to the tubulin-binding portion of the catalytic/motor domains of the microtubule-destabilizing Kin I kinesins. We propose a model wherein binding of Rev dimers to MTs at their ends causes segments of two neighboring protofilaments to peel off and close into rings, circumferentially containing 14, 15, or 16 tubulin heterodimers, with Rev bound on the inside. Rev has a strong inhibitory effect on aster formation in Xenopus egg extracts, demonstrating that it can interact with tubulin in the presence of normal levels of cellular constituents. These results suggest that Rev may interact with MTs to induce their destabilization, a proposition consistent with the previously described disruption of MTs after HIV-1 infection.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: P41 RR001777, P41RR01777

    The Journal of cell biology 2000;150;2;349-60

  • Cell cycle regulation of the activity and subcellular localization of Plk1, a human protein kinase implicated in mitotic spindle function.

    Golsteyn RM, Mundt KE, Fry AM and Nigg EA

    Swiss Institute for Experimental Cancer Research (ISREC), Epalinges.

    Correct assembly and function of the mitotic spindle during cell division is essential for the accurate partitioning of the duplicated genome to daughter cells. Protein phosphorylation has long been implicated in controlling spindle function and chromosome segregation, and genetic studies have identified several protein kinases and phosphatases that are likely to regulate these processes. In particular, mutations in the serine/threonine-specific Drosophila kinase polo, and the structurally related kinase Cdc5p of Saccharomyces cerevisae, result in abnormal mitotic and meiotic divisions. Here, we describe a detailed analysis of the cell cycle-dependent activity and subcellular localization of Plk1, a recently identified human protein kinase with extensive sequence similarity to both Drosophila polo and S. cerevisiae Cdc5p. With the aid of recombinant baculoviruses, we have established a reliable in vitro assay for Plk1 kinase activity. We show that the activity of human Plk1 is cell cycle regulated, Plk1 activity being low during interphase but high during mitosis. We further show, by immunofluorescent confocal laser scanning microscopy, that human Plk1 binds to components of the mitotic spindle at all stages of mitosis, but undergoes a striking redistribution as cells progress from metaphase to anaphase. Specifically, Plk1 associates with spindle poles up to metaphase, but relocalizes to the equatorial plane, where spindle microtubules overlap (the midzone), as cells go through anaphase. These results indicate that the association of Plk1 with the spindle is highly dynamic and that Plk1 may function at multiple stages of mitotic progression. Taken together, our data strengthen the notion that human Plk1 may represent a functional homolog of polo and Cdc5p, and they suggest that this kinase plays an important role in the dynamic function of the mitotic spindle during chromosome segregation.

    The Journal of cell biology 1995;129;6;1617-28

  • Differential distribution of beta-tubulin isotypes in cerebellum.

    Burgoyne RD, Cambray-Deakin MA, Lewis SA, Sarkar S and Cowan NJ

    Physiological Laboratory, University of Liverpool, UK.

    We describe the structure and expression of a mammalian beta-tubulin isotype (M beta 6) that is weakly expressed in testis but is abundant in developing brain, with transcripts declining to lower levels in the adult brain. The expression of M beta 6 was undetectable in any other mouse tissue examined. A serum specific for this isotype was prepared using a cloned fusion protein as immunogen. M beta 6 is one of five known beta-tubulin isotypes expressed in brain, and using the anti-M beta 6 serum along with sera, anti-M beta 2, anti-M beta 3/4 and anti-M beta 5, previously characterized, we have examined the pattern of expression of beta-tubulin isotypes in rat cerebellum. The isotypes each have characteristic cell-type specific patterns of localization in cerebellum. M beta 2, M beta 3/4 and M beta 5 are present in both neuronal and non-neuronal cells, but in contrast M beta 6 was only detectable in neurons in tissue sections and in dissociated cerebellar cell culture. The majority of sequence differences among the beta-tubulin isotypes lie at the carboxy terminus, the region of beta-tubulin involved in MAP binding. In the case of M beta 2 and M beta 6, the patterns of expression are similar or identical to the patterns of expression of MAP3 and MAP1A respectively. These results suggest that beta-tubulin isotypes may contribute to the determination of the specific association of MAPs with microtubules of diverse function. However, the strict subcellular segregation of other MAPs in brain may be determined by other factors.

    Funded by: Wellcome Trust

    The EMBO journal 1988;7;8;2311-9

  • The mammalian beta-tubulin repertoire: hematopoietic expression of a novel, heterologous beta-tubulin isotype.

    Wang D, Villasante A, Lewis SA and Cowan NJ

    We describe the structure of a novel and unusually heterologous beta-tubulin isotype (M beta 1) isolated from a mouse bone marrow cDNA library, and a second isotype (M beta 3) isolated from a mouse testis cDNA library. Comparison of M beta 1 and M beta 3 with the completed (M beta 4, M beta 5) or extended (M beta 2) sequence of three previously described beta-tubulin isotypes shows that each includes a distinctive carboxy-terminal region, in addition to multiple amino acid substitutions throughout the polypeptide chain. In every case where a mammalian interspecies comparison can be made, both the carboxy-terminal and internal amino acid substitutions that distinguish one isotype from another are absolutely conserved. We conclude that these characteristic differences are important in determining functional distinctions between different kinds of microtubule. The amino acid homologies between M beta 2, M beta 3, M beta 4, and M beta 5 are in the range of 95-97%; however the homology between M beta 1 and all the other isotypes is very much less (78%). The dramatic divergence in M beta 1 is due to multiple changes that occur throughout the polypeptide chain. The overall level of expression of M beta 1 is low, and is restricted to those tissues (bone marrow, spleen, developing liver and lung) that are active in hematopoiesis in the mouse. We predict that the M beta 1 isotype is functionally specialized for assembly into the mammalian marginal band.

    The Journal of cell biology 1986;103;5;1903-10

  • Three expressed sequences within the human beta-tubulin multigene family each define a distinct isotype.

    Lewis SA, Gilmartin ME, Hall JL and Cowan NJ

    This paper describes the isolation and complete sequence of a novel expressed human beta-tubulin gene (beta 2). The sequence is compared with that of two other expressed human beta-tubulin genes (M40 and 5 beta). All are encoded by four exons. Though the boundaries of each exon are absolutely conserved among the three genes, the intervening sequences differ considerably in size and sequence content. Two of the genes (M40 and 5 beta) contain one (M40) or ten (5 beta) members of the middle repetitive Alu family sequences within one of their intervening sequences. Comparison of the amino acid sequences encoded by each gene reveals a high level of homology overall, though there is significant divergence between the carboxy termini of two of the genes. The pattern of expression of each beta-tubulin gene has been studied in several different human cell lines using unique non-crosshybridizing probes derived from the 3' untranslated regions. Two of the genes, M40 and beta 2, are expressed at varying levels in all of the cell lines examined, though the level of expression of one of these genes parallels the other in most cases. The third gene, 5 beta, is detectably expressed only in cells of neural origin. Thus, distinct human beta-tubulin isotypes are encoded by genes whose exon size and number has been conserved evolutionarily, but whose pattern of expression may be regulated either co-ordinately or uniquely. Of the approximately 15 sequences contained in the human beta-tubulin multigene family, nine have now been sequenced fully. The overall composition of the multigene family and the evolutionary relationships among its various members are discussed.

    Journal of molecular biology 1985;182;1;11-20

Gene lists (6)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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