G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
G00002048
Gene symbol
CEND1 (HGNC)
Species
Homo sapiens
Description
cell cycle exit and neuronal differentiation 1
Orthologue
G00000799 (Mus musculus)

Databases (7)

Gene
ENSG00000184524 (Ensembl human gene)
51286 (Entrez Gene)
1217 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
CEND1 (GeneCards)
Literature
608213 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:24153 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
Q8N111 (UniProt)

Synonyms (2)

  • BM88
  • FLJ90066

Literature (8)

Pubmed - other

  • BM88/Cend1 expression levels are critical for proliferation and differentiation of subventricular zone-derived neural precursor cells.

    Katsimpardi L, Gaitanou M, Malnou CE, Lledo PM, Charneau P, Matsas R and Thomaidou D

    Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology, Hellenic Pasteur Institute, 127 Vassilissis Sofias Avenue, Athens 115 21, Greece.

    Neural stem cells remain in two areas of the adult mammalian brain, the subventricular zone (SVZ) and the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Ongoing neurogenesis via the SVZ-rostral migratory stream pathway maintains neuronal replacement in the olfactory bulb (OB) throughout life. The mechanisms determining how neurogenesis is restricted to only a few regions in the adult, in contrast to its more widespread location during embryogenesis, largely depend on controlling the balance between precursor cell proliferation and differentiation. BM88/Cend1 is a neuronal lineage-specific regulator implicated in cell cycle exit and differentiation of precursor cells in the embryonic neural tube. Here we investigated its role in postnatal neurogenesis. Study of in vivo BM88/Cend1 distribution revealed that it is expressed in low levels in neuronal precursors of the adult SVZ and in high levels in postmitotic OB interneurons. To assess the functional significance of BM88/Cend1 in neuronal lineage progression postnatally, we challenged its expression levels by gain- and loss-of-function approaches using lentiviral gene transfer in SVZ-derived neurospheres. We found that BM88/Cend1 overexpression decreases proliferation and favors neuronal differentiation, whereas its downregulation using new-generation RNA interference vectors yields an opposite phenotype. Our results demonstrate that BM88/Cend1 participates in cell cycle control and neuronal differentiation mechanisms during neonatal SVZ neurogenesis and becomes crucial for the transition from neuroblasts to mature neurons when reaching high levels.

    Stem cells (Dayton, Ohio) 2008;26;7;1796-807

  • A protein-protein interaction network for human inherited ataxias and disorders of Purkinje cell degeneration.

    Lim J, Hao T, Shaw C, Patel AJ, Szabó G, Rual JF, Fisk CJ, Li N, Smolyar A, Hill DE, Barabási AL, Vidal M and Zoghbi HY

    Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

    Many human inherited neurodegenerative disorders are characterized by loss of balance due to cerebellar Purkinje cell (PC) degeneration. Although the disease-causing mutations have been identified for a number of these disorders, the normal functions of the proteins involved remain, in many cases, unknown. To gain insight into the function of proteins involved in PC degeneration, we developed an interaction network for 54 proteins involved in 23 inherited ataxias and expanded the network by incorporating literature-curated and evolutionarily conserved interactions. We identified 770 mostly novel protein-protein interactions using a stringent yeast two-hybrid screen; of 75 pairs tested, 83% of the interactions were verified in mammalian cells. Many ataxia-causing proteins share interacting partners, a subset of which have been found to modify neurodegeneration in animal models. This interactome thus provides a tool for understanding pathogenic mechanisms common for this class of neurodegenerative disorders and for identifying candidate genes for inherited ataxias.

    Funded by: NICHD NIH HHS: HD24064; NINDS NIH HHS: NS27699

    Cell 2006;125;4;801-14

  • Diversification of transcriptional modulation: large-scale identification and characterization of putative alternative promoters of human genes.

    Kimura K, Wakamatsu A, Ota T, Nishikawa T, Yamashita R, Yamamoto J, Sekine M, Tsuritani K, Wakaguri H, Ishii S, Sugiyama T, Saito K, Isono Y, Irie R, Kushida N, Yoneyama T 5a8 , Otsuka R, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Kondo H, Wagatsuma M, Murakawa K, Ishida S, Ishibashi T, Takahashi-Fujii A, Tanase T, Nagai K, Kikuchi H, Nakai K, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Life Science Research Laboratory, Central Research Laboratory, Hitachi, Ltd., Kokubunji, Tokyo, 185-8601, Japan.

    By analyzing 1,780,295 5'-end sequences of human full-length cDNAs derived from 164 kinds of oligo-cap cDNA libraries, we identified 269,774 independent positions of transcriptional start sites (TSSs) for 14,628 human RefSeq genes. These TSSs were clustered into 30,964 clusters that were separated from each other by more than 500 bp and thus are very likely to constitute mutually distinct alternative promoters. To our surprise, at least 7674 (52%) human RefSeq genes were subject to regulation by putative alternative promoters (PAPs). On average, there were 3.1 PAPs per gene, with the composition of one CpG-island-containing promoter per 2.6 CpG-less promoters. In 17% of the PAP-containing loci, tissue-specific use of the PAPs was observed. The richest tissue sources of the tissue-specific PAPs were testis and brain. It was also intriguing that the PAP-containing promoters were enriched in the genes encoding signal transduction-related proteins and were rarer in the genes encoding extracellular proteins, possibly reflecting the varied functional requirement for and the restricted expression of those categories of genes, respectively. The patterns of the first exons were highly diverse as well. On average, there were 7.7 different splicing types of first exons per locus partly produced by the PAPs, suggesting that a wide variety of transcripts can be achieved by this mechanism. Our findings suggest that use of alternate promoters and consequent alternative use of first exons should play a pivotal role in generating the complexity required for the highly elaborated molecular systems in humans.

    Genome research 2006;16;1;55-65

  • Characterization of the BM88 promoter and identification of an 88 bp fragment sufficient to drive neurone-specific expression.

    Papadodima O, Sergaki M, Hurel C, Mamalaki A and Matsas R

    Department of Biochemistry, Hellenic Pasteur Institute, 11521 Athens, Greece.

    BM88 is a neurone-specific protein implicated in cell cycle exit and differentiation of neuronal precursors. It is widely expressed in terminally differentiated neurones but also in neuronal progenitors, albeit in lower levels. Thus BM88 expression shows a tight correlation with the progression of progenitor cells towards neuronal differentiation. Here we report the genomic organization and proximal promoter characterization of the human and mouse BM88 genes. Both promoters lie in a CpG island, are TATA-less and have multiple transcription start sites. Deletion analysis performed on the human BM88 gene revealed an 88 bp minimal promoter fragment that is preferentially active in neural cells. Importantly, this minimal promoter is sufficient to confer specific transcriptional activity in primary neurones, but not in glial cells. Within the promoter region there are four functional Sp1-binding sites. Simultaneous mutations to all four Sp1 sites results in complete loss of promoter activity. Transactivation experiments revealed that Sp1 directly activates the BM88 promoter while activation also occurs in the presence of neurogenin-1. Characterization of the promoter elements that control neurone-specific and developmental expression of BM88 should contribute to the elucidation of the transcriptional networks that regulate the transition from a proliferative neural progenitor to a post-mitotic neurone.

    Journal of neurochemistry 2005;95;1;146-59

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.

    Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, Otsuki T, Sugiyama T, Irie R, Wakamatsu A, Hayashi K, Sato H, Nagai K, Kimura K, Makita H, Sekine M, Obayashi M, Nishi T, Shibahara T, Tanaka T, Ishii S, Yamamoto J, Saito K, Kawai Y, Isono Y, Nakamura Y, Nagahari K, Murakami K, Yasuda T, Iwayanagi T, Wagatsuma M, Shiratori A, Sudo H, Hosoiri T, Kaku Y, Kodaira H, Kondo H, Sugawara M, Takahashi M, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Furuya T, Kikkawa E, Omura Y, Abe K, Kamihara K, Katsuta N, Sato K, Tanikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ninomiya K, Ishibashi T, Yamashita H, Murakawa K, Fujimori K, Tanai H, Kimata M, Watanabe M, Hiraoka S, Chiba Y, Ishida S, Ono Y, Takiguchi S, Watanabe S, Yosida M, Hotuta T, Kusano J, Kanehori K, Takahashi-Fujii A, Hara H, Tanase TO, Nomura Y, Togiya S, Komai F, Hara R, Takeuchi K, Arita M, Imose N, Musashino K, Yuuki H, Oshima A, Sasaki N, Aotsuka S, Yoshikawa Y, Matsunawa H, Ichihara T, Shiohata N, Sano S, Moriya S, Momiyama H, Satoh N, Takami S, Terashima Y, Suzuki O, Nakagawa S, Senoh A, Mizoguchi H, Goto Y, Shimizu F, Wakebe H, Hishigaki H, Watanabe T, Sugiyama A, Takemoto M, Kawakami B, Yamazaki M, Watanabe K, Kumagai A, Itakura S, Fukuzumi Y, Fujimori Y, Komiyama M, Tashiro H, Tanigami A, Fujiwara T, Ono T, Yamada K, Fujii Y, Ozaki K, Hirao M, Ohmori Y, Kawabata A, Hikiji T, Kobatake N, Inagaki H, Ikema Y, Okamoto S, Okitani R, Kawakami T, Noguchi S, Itoh T, Shigeta K, Senba T, Matsumura K, Nakajima Y, Mizuno T, Morinaga M, Sasaki M, Togashi T, Oyama M, Hata H, Watanabe M, Komatsu T, Mizushima-Sugano J, Satoh T, Shirai Y, Takahashi Y, Nakagawa K, Okumura K, Nagase T, Nomura N, Kikuchi H, Masuho Y, Yamashita R, Nakai K, Yada T, Nakamura Y, Ohara O, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Helix Research Institute, 1532-3 Yana, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0812, Japan.

    As a base for human transcriptome and functional genomics, we created the "full-length long Japan" (FLJ) collection of sequenced human cDNAs. We determined the entire sequence of 21,243 selected clones and found that 14,490 cDNAs (10,897 clusters) were unique to the FLJ collection. About half of them (5,416) seemed to be protein-coding. Of those, 1,999 clusters had not been predicted by computational methods. The distribution of GC content of nonpredicted cDNAs had a peak at approximately 58% compared with a peak at approximately 42%for predicted cDNAs. Thus, there seems to be a slight bias against GC-rich transcripts in current gene prediction procedures. The rest of the cDNAs unique to the FLJ collection (5,481) contained no obvious open reading frames (ORFs) and thus are candidate noncoding RNAs. About one-fourth of them (1,378) showed a clear pattern of splicing. The distribution of GC content of noncoding cDNAs was narrow and had a peak at approximately 42%, relatively low compared with that of protein-coding cDNAs.

    Nature genetics 2004;36;1;40-5

  • Cloning, expression and localization of human BM88 shows that it maps to chromosome 11p15.5, a region implicated in Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome and tumorigenesis.

    Gaitanou M, Buanne P, Pappa C, Georgopoulou N, Mamalaki A, Tirone F and Matsas R

    Department of Biochemistry, Hellenic Pasteur Institute, 127 Vassilissis Sofias Avenue, 115 21 Athens, Greece.

    Porcine BM88 is a neuron-specific protein that enhances neuroblastoma cell differentiation in vitro and may be involved in neuronal differentiation in vivo. Here we report the identification, by Western blotting, of homologous proteins in human and mouse brain and the isolation of their respective cDNAs. Several human and mouse clones were identified in the EST database using porcine BM88 cDNA as a query. A human and a mouse EST clone were chosen for sequencing and were found both to predict a protein of 149 amino acids, with 79.9% reciprocal identity, and 76.4% and 70.7% identities to the porcine protein, respectively. This indicated that the clones corresponded to the human and mouse BM88 homologues. In vitro expression in a cell-free system as well as transient expression in COS7 cells yielded polypeptide products that were recognized by anti-BM88 antibodies and were identical in size to the native BM88 protein. Northern-blot analysis showed a wide distribution of the gene in human brain whereas immunohistochemistry on human brain sections demonstrated that the expression of BM88 is confined to neurons. The initial mapping assignment of human BM88 to chromosome 11p15.5, a region implicated in Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome and tumorigenesis, was retrieved from the UniGene database maintained at the National Centre for Biotechnology Information (NCBI, Bethesda, MD, U.S.A.). We confirmed this localization by performing fluorescence in situ hybridization on BM88-positive cosmid clones isolated from a human genomic library. These results suggest that BM88 may be a candidate gene for genetic disorders associated with alterations at 11p15.5.

    The Biochemical journal 2001;355;Pt 3;715-24

Gene lists (6)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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