G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
G00002042
Gene symbol
NEBL (HGNC)
Species
Homo sapiens
Description
nebulette
Orthologue
G00000793 (Mus musculus)

Databases (7)

Gene
ENSG00000078114 (Ensembl human gene)
10529 (Entrez Gene)
1215 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
NEBL (GeneCards)
Literature
605491 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:16932 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
O76041 (UniProt)

Literature (20)

Pubmed - other

  • The nebulette repeat domain is necessary for proper maintenance of tropomyosin with the cardiac sarcomere.

    Bonzo JR, Norris AA, Esham M and Moncman CL

    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, University of Kentucky, 741 S. Limestone, Lexington, KY 40536, USA.

    Nebulette is a cardiac-specific isoform of the giant actin-binding protein nebulin. Nebulette, having a mass of approximately 100 kDa, is only predicted to extend 150 nm from the edge of the Z-lines. Overexpression of the nebulette C-terminal linker and/or SH3 domains in chicken cardiomyocytes results in a loss of endogenous nebulette with a concomitant loss of tropomyosin (TPM) and troponin, as well as a shortening of the thin filaments. These data suggest that nebulette's position in the sarcomere is important for the maintenance of TPM, troponin and thin filament length. To evaluate this hypothesis, N-terminal nested truncations tagged with GFP were expressed in chicken cardiomyocytes and the cells were analyzed for the distribution of myofilament proteins. Minimal effects on the myofilaments were observed with N-terminal deletions of up to 10 modules; however, deletion of 15 modules replicated the phenotype observed with expression of the C-terminal fragments. Expression of internal deletions of nebulette verifies that a site between module 10 and 15 is important for TPM maintenance within the sarcomeric lattice. We have additionally isolated TPM cDNAs from a yeast two hybrid (Y2H) analysis. These data indicate the importance of the nebulette-TPM interactions in the maintenance and stability of the thin filaments.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: R01 HL073089

    Experimental cell research 2008;314;19;3519-30

  • Ectopic expression of LIM-nebulette (LASP2) reveals roles in cell migration and spreading.

    Deng XA, Norris A, Panaviene Z and Moncman CL

    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40536, USA.

    LIM-nebulette (LASP2) is a small focal adhesion protein and a member of the nebulin family of actin binding proteins. This recently identified splice variant of the nebulette locus is widely expressed and highly enriched in neuronal tissue. Other than that LIM-nebulette is a focal adhesion protein and interacts with zyxin, nothing is known about its function. Given that LIM-nebulette has an identical modular organization and overlapping tissue distributions to that of LASP1, we have analyzed the role of LIM-nebulette in comparison with that of LASP1. We find that LIM-nebulette is a dynamic focal adhesion protein that increases the rate of attachment and spreading of fibroblasts on fibronectin coated surfaces. Additionally, LIM-nebulette is recruited from the cortical cytoskeleton in non-motile cells to focal adhesions at the leading edge of stimulated cells. In confluent cultures of HeLa and NIH3T3 cells, LIM-nebulette co-localizes with alpha-catenin in putative adherens junctions, whereas LASP1 is devoid of these areas. Interestingly, overexpression of LIM-nebulette in PC6 cells inhibits neurite outgrowth in response to growth factors. Collectively, our data indicate that LIM-nebulette and LASP1 have distinct roles in the actin cytoskeleton.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: R01 HL073089, R01 HL073089-04

    Cell motility and the cytoskeleton 2008;65;10;827-40

  • The LIM and SH3 domain protein family: structural proteins or signal transducers or both?

    Grunewald TG and Butt E

    Department of Pediatrics, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Pediatric Oncology Center, Kölner Platz 1, D-80804 Munich, Germany. Thgruenewald@web.de

    LIM and SH3 Protein 1 (LASP-1) was initially identified from a cDNA library of metastatic axillary lymph nodes (MLN) more than a decade ago. It was found to be overexpressed in human breast and ovarian cancer and became the first member of a newly defined LIM-protein subfamily of the nebulin group characterized by the combined presence of LIM and SH3 domains. LASP2, a novel LASP1-related gene was first identified and characterized in silico. Subsequently it proved to be a splice variant of the Nebulin gene and therefore was also termed LIM/nebulette. LASP-1 and -2 are highly conserved in their LIM, nebulin-like and SH3 domains but differ significantly at their linker regions. Both proteins are ubiquitously expressed and involved in cytoskeletal architecture, especially in the organization of focal adhesions. Here we present the first systematic review to summarize all relevant data concerning their domain organization, expression profiles, regulating factors and function. We compile evidence that both, LASP-1 and LASP-2, are important during early embryo- and fetogenesis and are highly expressed in the central nervous system of the adult. However, only LASP-1 seems to participate significantly in neuronal differentiation and plays an important functional role in migration and proliferation of certain cancer cells while the role of LASP-2 is more structural. The increased expression of LASP-1 in breast tumours correlates with high rates of nodal-metastasis and refers to a possible relevance as a prognostic marker.

    Molecular cancer 2008;7;31

  • Nebulette interacts with filamin C.

    Holmes WB and Moncman CL

    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, Kentucky 40536, USA.

    The actin-binding proteins, nebulette, and nebulin, are comprised of a four-domain layout containing an acidic N-terminal region, a repeat domain, a serine-rich-linker region, and a Src homology-3 domain. Both proteins contain homologous N-terminal regions that are predicted to be in different environments within the sarcomere. The nebulin acidic N-terminal region is found at the distal ends of the thin filaments. Nebulette, however, is predicted to extend 150 nm from the center of the Z-line. To dissect out the functions of the N-terminal domain of nebulette, we have performed a yeast two-hybrid screen using nebulette residues 1-86 as bait. We have identified filamin-C, ZASP-1, and tropomyosin-1 as binding partners. Characterization of the nebulette-filamin interaction indicates that filamin-C predominantly interacts with the modules. These data suggest that filamin-C, a known component of striated muscle Z-lines, interacts with nebulette modules.

    Cell motility and the cytoskeleton 2008;65;2;130-42

  • Linker region of nebulin family members plays an important role in targeting these molecules to cellular structures.

    Panaviene Z and Moncman CL

    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, KY 40536, USA.

    The nebulin family of actin-binding proteins plays an essential role in cytoskeletal dynamics and actin filament stability. All of the family members are modular proteins with their key defining structural feature being the presence of the 35-residue nebulin modules. The family members now include nebulin, nebulette, N-RAP, LASP-1, and LIM-nebulette. Nebulin and nebulette are associated with the thin filament/Z-line junction of striated muscle. LASP-1 and LIM-nebulette are found within focal adhesions, and N-RAP is associated with muscle cellular junctions. Although much investigation has focused on the role of the interactions between nebulin modules and actin, each of these proteins contains other domains that are essential for their cellular targeting and functions. The serine-rich linker region of nebulette has previously been shown to serve just such a purpose by targeting the association of the nebulin modules to the cardiac Z-line in cultured cardiomyocytes. In this report, we analyze the targeting functions of the homologous regions of LASP-1 and LIM-nebulette in their incorporation into focal adhesions. We have found that the linker region of LASP-1 is indeed important for its cellular localization and that the shortened linker region of LIM-nebulette drives the association of nebulin modules to focal adhesions.

    Cell and tissue research 2007;327;2;353-69

  • Identification of genes related to Parkinson's disease using expressed sequence tags.

    Kim JM, Lee KH, Jeon YJ, Oh JH, Jeong SY, Song IS, Kim JM, Lee DS and Kim NS

    Laboratory of Human Genomics, Genome Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology (KRIBB) Daejeon, Korea.

    In a search for novel target genes related to Parkinson's disease (PD), two full-length cDNA libraries were constructed from a human normal substantia nigra (SN) and a PD patient's SN. An analysis of the gene expression profiles between them was done using the expressed sequence tags (ESTs) frequency. Data for the differently expressed genes were verified by quantitative real-time RT-PCR, immunohistochemical analysis and a cell death assay. Among the 76 genes identified with a significant difference (P > 0.9), 21 upregulated genes and 13 downregulated genes were confirmed to be differentially expressed in human PD tissues and/or in an MPTP-treated mice model by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Among those genes, an immunohistochemical analysis using an MPTP mice model for alpha-tubulin including TUBA3 and TUBA6 showed that the protein levels are downregulated, as well as the RNA levels. In addition, MBP, PBP and GNAS were confirmed to accelerate cell death activity, whereas SPP1 and TUBA3 to retard this process. Using an analysis of ESTs frequency, it was possible to identify a large number of genes related to human PD. These new genes, MBP, PBP, GNAS, SPP1 and TUBA3 in particular, represent potential biomarkers for PD and could serve as useful targets for elucidating the molecular mechanisms associated with PD.

    DNA research : an international journal for rapid publication of reports on genes and genomes 2006;13;6;275-86

  • A scan of chromosome 10 identifies a novel locus showing strong association with late-onset Alzheimer disease.

    Grupe A, Li Y, Rowland C, Nowotny P, Hinrichs AL, Smemo S, Kauwe JS, Maxwell TJ, Cherny S, Doil L, Tacey K, van Luchene R, Myers A, Wavrant-De Vrièze F, Kaleem M, Hollingworth P, Jehu L, Foy C, Archer N, Hamilton G, Holmans P, Morris CM, Catanese J, Sninsky J, White TJ, Powell J, Hardy J, O'Donovan M, Lovestone S, Jones L, Morris JC, Thal L, Owen M, Williams J and Goate A

    Celera Diagnostics, Alameda, CA, USA.

    Strong evidence of linkage to late-onset Alzheimer disease (LOAD) has been observed on chromosome 10, which implicates a wide region and at least one disease-susceptibility locus. Although significant associations with several biological candidate genes on chromosome 10 have been reported, these findings have not been consistently replicated, and they remain controversial. We performed a chromosome 10-specific association study with 1,412 gene-based single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), to identify susceptibility genes for developing LOAD. The scan included SNPs in 677 of 1,270 known or predicted genes; each gene contained one or more markers, about half (48%) of which represented putative functional mutations. In general, the initial testing was performed in a white case-control sample from the St. Louis area, with 419 LOAD cases and 377 age-matched controls. Markers that showed significant association in the exploratory analysis were followed up in several other white case-control sample sets to confirm the initial association. Of the 1,397 markers tested in the exploratory sample, 69 reached significance (P < .05). Five of these markers replicated at P < .05 in the validation sample sets. One marker, rs498055, located in a gene homologous to RPS3A (LOC439999), was significantly associated with Alzheimer disease in four of six case-control series, with an allelic P value of .0001 for a meta-analysis of all six samples. One of the case-control samples with significant association to rs498055 was derived from the linkage sample (P = .0165). These results indicate that variants in the RPS3A homologue are associated with LOAD and implicate this gene, adjacent genes, or other functional variants (e.g., noncoding RNAs) in the pathogenesis of this disorder.

    Funded by: Intramural NIH HHS; Medical Research Council: G0300429, G0701075, G9810900; NHGRI NIH HHS: T32 HG000045; NIA NIH HHS: AG 05146, AG05128, P01 AG003991, P01 AG03991, P50 AG005128, P50 AG005131, P50 AG005146, P50 AG005681, P50 AG008671, P50 AG016570, P50 AG05131, P50 AG05681, P50 AG16570, P50-AG08671, R01 AG016208, R01 AG16208, U24 AG021886; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM065509, P50 GM065509; NIMH NIH HHS: MH60451, P50 MH060451, U01 MH046281, U01 MH046290, U01 MH046373; NINDS NIH HHS: NS39764, P50 NS039764

    American journal of human genetics 2006;78;1;78-88

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • The DNA sequence and comparative analysis of human chromosome 10.

    Deloukas P, Earthrowl ME, Grafham DV, Rubenfield M, French L, Steward CA, Sims SK, Jones MC, Searle S, Scott C, Howe K, Hunt SE, Andrews TD, Gilbert JG, Swarbreck D, Ashurst JL, Taylor A, Battles J, Bird CP, Ainscough R, Almeida JP, Ashwell RI, Ambrose KD, Babbage AK, Bagguley CL, Bailey J, Banerjee R, Bates K, Beasley H, Bray-Allen S, Brown AJ, Brown JY, Burford DC, Burrill W, Burton J, Cahill P, Camire D, Carter NP, Chapman JC, Clark SY, Clarke G, Clee CM, Clegg S, Corby N, Coulson A, Dhami P, Dutta I, Dunn M, Faulkner L, Frankish A, Frankland JA, Garner P, Garnett J, Gribble S, Griffiths C, Grocock R, Gustafson E, Hammond S, Harley JL, Hart E, Heath PD, Ho TP, Hopkins B, Horne J, Howden PJ, Huckle E, Hynds C, Johnson C, Johnson D, Kana A, Kay M, Kimberley AM, Kershaw JK, Kokkinaki M, Laird GK, Lawlor S, Lee HM, Leongamornlert DA, Laird G, Lloyd C, Lloyd DM, Loveland J, Lovell J, McLaren S, McLay KE, McMurray A, Mashreghi-Mohammadi M, Matthews L, Milne S, Nickerson T, Nguyen M, Overton-Larty E, Palmer SA, Pearce AV, Peck AI, Pelan S, Phillimore B, Porter K, Rice CM, Rogosin A, Ross MT, Sarafidou T, Sehra HK, Shownkeen R, Skuce CD, Smith M, Standring L, Sycamore N, Tester J, Thorpe A, Torcasso W, Tracey A, Tromans A, Tsolas J, Wall M, Walsh J, Wang H, Weinstock K, West AP, Willey DL, Whitehead SL, Wilming L, Wray PW, Young L, Chen Y, Lovering RC, Moschonas NK, Siebert R, Fechtel K, Bentley D, Durbin R, Hubbard T, Doucette-Stamm L, Beck S, Smith DR and Rogers J

    The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton CB10 1SA, UK. panos@sanger.ac.uk

    The finished sequence of human chromosome 10 comprises a total of 131,666,441 base pairs. It represents 99.4% of the euchromatic DNA and includes one megabase of heterochromatic sequence within the pericentromeric region of the short and long arm of the chromosome. Sequence annotation revealed 1,357 genes, of which 816 are protein coding, and 430 are pseudogenes. We observed widespread occurrence of overlapping coding genes (either strand) and identified 67 antisense transcripts. Our analysis suggests that both inter- and intrachromosomal segmental duplications have impacted on the gene count on chromosome 10. Multispecies comparative analysis indicated that we can readily annotate the protein-coding genes with current resources. We estimate that over 95% of all coding exons were identified in this study. Assessment of single base changes between the human chromosome 10 and chimpanzee sequence revealed nonsense mutations in only 21 coding genes with respect to the human sequence.

    Nature 2004;429;6990;375-81

  • Zyxin interacts with the SH3 domains of the cytoskeletal proteins LIM-nebulette and Lasp-1.

    Li B, Zhuang L and Trueb B

    ITI Research Institute, University of Bern, P. O. Box 54, CH-3010 Bern, Switzerland.

    Zyxin is a versatile component of focal adhesions in eukaryotic cells. Here we describe a novel binding partner of zyxin, which we have named LIM-nebulette. LIM-nebulette is an alternative splice variant of the sarcomeric protein nebulette, which, in contrast to nebulette, is expressed in non-muscle cells. It displays a modular structure with an N-terminal LIM domain, three nebulin-like repeats, and a C-terminal SH3 domain and shows high similarity to another cytoskeletal protein, Lasp-1 (LIM and SH3 protein-1). Co-precipitation studies and results obtained with the two-hybrid system demonstrate that LIM-nebulette and Lasp-1 interact specifically with zyxin. Moreover, the SH3 domain from LIM-nebulette is both necessary and sufficient for zyxin binding. The SH3 domains from Lasp-1 and nebulin can also interact with zyxin, but the SH3 domains from more distantly related proteins such as vinexin and sorting nexin 9 do not. On the other hand, the binding site in zyxin is situated at the extreme N terminus as shown by site-directed mutagenesis. LIM-nebulette and Lasp-1 use the same linear binding motif. This motif shows some similarity to a class II binding site but does not contain the classical PXXP sequence. LIM-nebulette reveals a subcellular distribution at focal adhesions similar to Lasp-1. Thus, LIM-nebulette, Lasp-1, and zyxin may play an important role in the organization of focal adhesions.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2004;279;19;20401-10

  • Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.

    Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, Otsuki T, Sugiyama T, Irie R, Wakamatsu A, Hayashi K, Sato H, Nagai K, Kimura K, Makita H, Sekine M, Obayashi M, Nishi T, Shibahara T, Tanaka T, Ishii S, Yamamoto J, Saito K, Kawai Y, Isono Y, Nakamura Y, Nagahari K, Murakami K, Yasuda T, Iwayanagi T, Wagatsuma M, Shiratori A, Sudo H, Hosoiri T, Kaku Y, Kodaira H, Kondo H, Sugawara M, Takahashi M, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Furuya T, Kikkawa E, Omura Y, Abe K, Kamihara K, Katsuta N, Sato K, Tanikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ninomiya K, Ishibashi T, Yamashita H, Murakawa K, Fujimori K, Tanai H, Kimata M, Watanabe M, Hiraoka S, Chiba Y, Ishida S, Ono Y, Takiguchi S, Watanabe S, Yosida M, Hotuta T, Kusano J, Kanehori K, Takahashi-Fujii A, Hara H, Tanase TO, Nomura Y, Togiya S, Komai F, Hara R, Takeuchi K, Arita M, Imose N, Musashino K, Yuuki H, Oshima A, Sasaki N, Aotsuka S, Yoshikawa Y, Matsunawa H, Ichihara T, Shiohata N, Sano S, Moriya S, Momiyama H, Satoh N, Takami S, Terashima Y, Suzuki O, Nakagawa S, Senoh A, Mizoguchi H, Goto Y, Shimizu F, Wakebe H, Hishigaki H, Watanabe T, Sugiyama A, Takemoto M, Kawakami B, Yamazaki M, Watanabe K, Kumagai A, Itakura S, Fukuzumi Y, Fujimori Y, Komiyama M, Tashiro H, Tanigami A, Fujiwara T, Ono T, Yamada K, Fujii Y, Ozaki K, Hirao M, Ohmori Y, Kawabata A, Hikiji T, Kobatake N, Inagaki H, Ikema Y, Okamoto S, Okitani R, Kawakami T, Noguchi S, Itoh T, Shigeta K, Senba T, Matsumura K, Nakajima Y, Mizuno T, Morinaga M, Sasaki M, Togashi T, Oyama M, Hata H, Watanabe M, Komatsu T, Mizushima-Sugano J, Satoh T, Shirai Y, Takahashi Y, Nakagawa K, Okumura K, Nagase T, Nomura N, Kikuchi H, Masuho Y, Yamashita R, Nakai K, Yada T, Nakamura Y, Ohara O, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Helix Research Institute, 1532-3 Yana, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0812, Japan.

    As a base for human transcriptome and functional genomics, we created the "full-length long Japan" (FLJ) collection of sequenced human cDNAs. We determined the entire sequence of 21,243 selected clones and found that 14,490 cDNAs (10,897 clusters) were unique to the FLJ collection. About half of them (5,416) seemed to be protein-coding. Of those, 1,999 clusters had not been predicted by computational methods. The distribution of GC content of nonpredicted cDNAs had a peak at approximately 58% compared with a peak at approximately 42%for predicted cDNAs. Thus, there seems to be a slight bias against GC-rich transcripts in current gene prediction procedures. The rest of the cDNAs unique to the FLJ collection (5,481) contained no obvious open reading frames (ORFs) and thus are candidate noncoding RNAs. About one-fourth of them (1,378) showed a clear pattern of splicing. The distribution of GC content of noncoding cDNAs was narrow and had a peak at approximately 42%, relatively low compared with that of protein-coding cDNAs.

    Nature genetics 2004;36;1;40-5

  • Identification and characterization of LASP2 gene in silico.

    Katoh M and Katoh M

    M&M Medical BioInformatics, Narashino 275-0022, Japan.

    LASP1 (also known as MLN50) gene, located centromeric to the PPP1R1B-ERBB2-GRB7 locus on human chromosome 17q12, is amplified and over-expressed in breast cancer. Here, we identified and characterized a novel LASP1-related gene, LASP2, by using bioinformatics. Nucleotide sequence of human LASP2 cDNA was determined in silico by assembling EST BF699808 and 5'-truncated FLJ39221 cDNA. Nucleotide sequence of mouse Lasp2 cDNA was derived from 1200007O21Rik cDNA. Human LASP2 (270 aa) showed 97.4% and 63.7% total-amino-acid identity with mouse Lasp2 and human LASP1, respectively. LASP2 and LASP1 were the LASP family proteins consisting of LIM domain, Nebulin repeat, and SH3 domain. LASP2 and NEBL mRNAs were transcribed from the LASP2/NEBL gene on human chromosome 10p12 due to alternative splicing. LASP2 mRNA consists of exons 1a-4a, 24, 27, and 28 of the LASP2/NEBL gene, while NEBL mRNA consists of exons 1-28. Exon 1a-4a of the LASP2/NEBL gene were more homologous to exon 1-4 of the LASP1 gene on human chromosome 17q12, while exon 1-28 of the LASP2/NEBL gene were more homologous to exons of NEB gene on human chromosome 2q23. Some part of the LASP2/ NEBL-TEM7L-ARL8-CACNB2 locus on 10p12 was paralogous to the LASP1-TEM7-CACNB1 locus on 17q12, while the other part of the LASP2/NEBL-TEM7L-ARL8-CACNB2 locus was paralogous to the NEB-ARL5-CACNB4 locus on 2q23. These facts indicate that the LASP2/NEBL-TEM7L-ARL8-CACNB2 is a chimeric locus, which might be generated through the homologous recombination between the ancestral lasp2-tem7l-cacnb2 locus and the ancestral nebl-arl8 locus. Therefore, gene fusion during evolution is one of the mechanisms to generate alternative splicing.

    International journal of molecular medicine 2003;12;3;405-10

  • Genetic and comparative mapping of genes dysregulated in mouse hearts lacking the Hand2 transcription factor gene.

    Villanueva MP, Aiyer AR, Muller S, Pletcher MT, Liu X, Emanuel B, Srivastava D and Reeves RH

    Department of Physiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA.

    The helix-loop-helix transcription factor HAND2 plays a vital role in the development of the heart, limb, facies, and other neural crest-derived structures. We used differential display analysis to identify 33 putative HAND2-regulated ESTs that are differentially expressed in Hand2(-/-) vs wild-type mice. We determined the positions on mouse and human genetic maps of 29 of these by using the T31 mouse Radiation Hybrid panel, comparison to human genomic sequence, and comparative mapping. We examined the conserved chromosomal locations for phenotypes that involve development of heart, face, and limb structures that are affected by HAND2. One EST mapped to a region of conserved synteny between mouse chromosome 2 and human chromosome 10p. RACE analysis extended the sequence and identified this cDNA as the mouse ortholog of human nebulette, an actin-binding protein expressed in fetal heart. Nebulette was shown to be deleted in DiGeorge Syndrome 2 patients with the proximal deletion of human 10p13-p14 that is associated with cardiac and craniofacial abnormalities.

    Funded by: NICHD NIH HHS: HD26979; NIDCD NIH HHS: DC02027

    Genomics 2002;80;6;593-600

  • Targeted disruption of nebulette protein expression alters cardiac myofibril assembly and function.

    Moncman CL and Wang K

    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712, USA.

    To evaluate nebulette's role in cardiac myofibrils, cardiomyocytes expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP)-nebulette constructs were monitored for their ability to contract and myofilament protein distribution was analyzed. Cells expressing full-length GFP-nebulette appear unaffected and exhibit normal beating frequencies. Expression of the GFP linker and SH3 results in loss of the endogenous nebulette and tropomyosin; however, Z-line and thick filaments are undisturbed. Cells expressing either of these domains have dramatically reduced beating frequencies, consistent with the loss of thin filament proteins. This loss was inhibited by the addition of protease inhibitors during culturing. The GFP repeat domain disrupts both myofibrillogenesis and contraction in spreading cardiomyocytes, whereas introduction of this protein into well-spread cardiomyocytes results in localization at the Z-line and a 50% reduction in beating frequency. Ultimately, these cells form bundles containing the GFP repeat and many myofilament proteins. Interestingly, butanedione monoxime inhibition of contraction inhibited the formation of these bundles. These results show that the GFP-nebulette domains have a dominant-negative effect on the distribution and function of the sarcomeric proteins. Taken together with the observation that nebulette colocalizes with alpha-actinin in the pre-, nascent, and mature myofibrils, our data demonstrate the importance of this cardiac-specific nebulin isoform in myofibril organization and function.

    Funded by: NIAMS NIH HHS: AR 43541

    Experimental cell research 2002;273;2;204-18

  • Myopalladin, a novel 145-kilodalton sarcomeric protein with multiple roles in Z-disc and I-band protein assemblies.

    Bang ML, Mudry RE, McElhinny AS, Trombitás K, Geach AJ, Yamasaki R, Sorimachi H, Granzier H, Gregorio CC and Labeit S

    European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Heidelberg 69117, Germany.

    We describe here a novel sarcomeric 145-kD protein, myopalladin, which tethers together the COOH-terminal Src homology 3 domains of nebulin and nebulette with the EF hand motifs of alpha-actinin in vertebrate Z-lines. Myopalladin's nebulin/nebulette and alpha-actinin-binding sites are contained in two distinct regions within its COOH-terminal 90-kD domain. Both sites are highly homologous with those found in palladin, a protein described recently required for actin cytoskeletal assembly (Parast, M.M., and C.A. Otey. 2000. J. Cell Biol. 150:643-656). This suggests that palladin and myopalladin may have conserved roles in stress fiber and Z-line assembly. The NH(2)-terminal region of myopalladin specifically binds to the cardiac ankyrin repeat protein (CARP), a nuclear protein involved in control of muscle gene expression. Immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy studies revealed that myopalladin also colocalized with CARP in the central I-band of striated muscle sarcomeres. Overexpression of myopalladin's NH(2)-terminal CARP-binding region in live cardiac myocytes resulted in severe disruption of all sarcomeric components studied, suggesting that the myopalladin-CARP complex in the central I-band may have an important regulatory role in maintaining sarcomeric integrity. Our data also suggest that myopalladin may link regulatory mechanisms involved in Z-line structure (via alpha-actinin and nebulin/nebulette) to those involved in muscle gene expression (via CARP).

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL03985, HL57461, HL61497, HL62881, R01 HL057461, R01 HL061497, R01 HL062881, R29 HL057461, T32 HL007249

    The Journal of cell biology 2001;153;2;413-27

  • Characterization of the human nebulette gene: a polymorphism in an actin-binding motif is associated with nonfamilial idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy.

    Arimura T, Nakamura T, Hiroi S, Satoh M, Takahashi M, Ohbuchi N, Ueda K, Nouchi T, Yamaguchi N, Akai J, Matsumori A, Sasayama S and Kimura A

    Department of Molecular Pathogenesis, Medical Research Institute, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Japan.

    Idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDC) is characterized by a thin-walled heart with systolic dysfunction of unknown etiology. Because abnormalities in genes for cytoskeletal proteins related to Z-disc function have recently been reported to cause IDC, genomic organization of the gene for nebulette, a novel actin-binding Z-disc protein, was determined and its sequence variations were searched for in Japanese patients with IDC and healthy controls. The nebulette gene consists of 28 exons, and four sequence variations leading to amino acid replacement (Gln187His, Met351Val, Asn654Lys, and Thr728Ala) were identified in the patients. These variations were also found in the healthy controls and hence they were polymorphisms and not disease-specific mutations. Frequencies of Gln187His, Met351Val, and Thr728Ala variants were similar in the patients and controls. However, the frequency of homozygotes for Lys at codon 654, a variant at a relatively conserved residue in an actinbinding motif, was significantly increased in nonfamilial IDC patients (n=106) as compared with healthy control subjects (n=331) (7.54% vs 1.21%, OR=6.25, P=0.002, 95% CI=1.92-20.29), while this association was not found in familial IDC patients (n=24). These observations suggest that the nebulette polymorphism in the actin-binding motif was a novel genetic marker of susceptibility to nonfamilial IDC.

    Human genetics 2000;107;5;440-51

  • Functional dissection of nebulette demonstrates actin binding of nebulin-like repeats and Z-line targeting of SH3 and linker domains.

    Moncman CL and Wang K

    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, USA.

    Nebulette, a 107 kDa protein associated with the I-Z-I complex of cardiac myofibrils, may play an important role in the assembly of the Z-line. Determination of the complete primary structure of 1011 residue human fetal nebulette reveals a four-domain layout similar to skeletal muscle nebulin: a short N-terminal domain, followed by 22 nebulin-like repeats that are linked to a C-terminal Src homology 3 (SH3) domain via a short linker domain. To elucidate the mechanisms of assembly for nebulette in the Z-line, the complete coding sequence or fusions of nebulette domains with green fluorescent protein (GFP) were expressed in cardiomyocytes and fibroblasts. The complete protein localized to Z-lines in cardiac cells and to dense bodies in nonmuscle cells. The GFP-repeat domain forms bundles that are associated with actin filaments in both cell types and disrupts the microfilament network. In contrast, the GFP-repeat plus linker shows limited interaction with dense bodies in nonmuscle cells and the Z-lines of cardiomyocytes. Interestingly, the tagged linker or SH3 is diffusely distributed in nonmuscle cells, but localizes to the Z-lines in cardiomyocytes. Supporting the cellular localization work, recombinant nebulette fragments bind to actin, tropomyosin, and alpha-actinin in in vitro binding assays. These results suggest the repeat domain contains actin binding functions and that the linker domain may target this interaction to Z-lines and dense bodies. Our data also indicate that the linker and SH3 domains can distinguish between dense bodies and Z-lines, suggesting that the ligands for their interactions are specific to these muscular substructures.

    Funded by: Unspecified: AR43514

    Cell motility and the cytoskeleton 1999;44;1;1-22

  • Characterization of nebulette and nebulin and emerging concepts of their roles for vertebrate Z-discs.

    Millevoi S, Trombitas K, Kolmerer B, Kostin S, Schaper J, Pelin K, Granzier H and Labeit S

    Department of Structural Biology, Meyerhofstr. 1, EMBL Heidelberg, 69012, Germany. stefania.Millevoi.EMBL-Heidelberg.de

    Nebulin is an 800 kDa large actin-binding protein specific to skeletal muscle and thought to act as a molecular template that regulates the length of thin filaments. Recently, a 100 kDa nebulin-like protein has been described in the avian cardiac muscle and referred to as nebulette. We have determined the full-length (8 kb) cDNA sequence of the human nebulette. Its open reading frame (3044 bp) encodes a 109 kDa protein that shares extensive similarity with the C-terminal region of human nebulin. The C-terminal regions of nebulin and nebulette are identical in domain organization and share a family of highly related C-terminal repeats, a serine-rich domain with potential phosphorylation sites, and an SH3 domain. Immunoelectron-microscopy suggests that the C-terminal 30 kDa of nebulin and nebulette filaments integrate into the Z-disc lattice, whereas their N termini appear to project into the I-band. Gene mapping studies assign the human nebulette gene to chromosome 10p12, whereas the nebulin gene has been previously assigned to 2q21. Evolutionary constraints appear to have maintained identical modular arrangements in these two independent genes. Comparison of nebulin and nebulette cDNAs demonstrates that a subgroup of repeats within the C-terminal regions is regulated tissue-specifically and stage-dependently during development of both molecules. This leads to a substantial diversity of nebulin and nebulette isoforms. Their further study is likely to provide insights into how they contribute to the molecular diversity of Z-discs from different muscle tissues and fiber types.

    Journal of molecular biology 1998;282;1;111-23

  • Nebulette: a 107 kD nebulin-like protein in cardiac muscle.

    Moncman CL and Wang K

    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Texas, Austin 78712, USA.

    A 107-kD protein has been identified in primary cultures of chicken embryonic cardiomyocytes by immunoprecipitations with certain anti-nebulin monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). These mAbs, prepared against a fragment of human skeletal muscle nebulin located near the carboxyl terminus, detect a 107-kD protein in extracts of adult chicken heart, adult mouse heart, and adult rabbit heart by immunoblot analysis. A partial cDNA corresponding to this protein has been isolated by immunological screening of a chicken heart cDNA expression vector library. The partial cDNA encodes a 380-amino acid open reading frame composed entirely of nebulin-like 35-residue modules marked by the highly conserved sequence motifs: SXXXYK and TPD. The open reading frame exhibits 60-85% homology with skeletal muscle nebulins from a variety of species. This cDNA recognizes an approximately 8-kb transcript in cardiac RNA and does not hybridize to skeletal muscle RNAs by northern analysis. Immunofluorescence localization of this nebulin-like protein in primary cultures of chicken cardiomyocytes and embryonic chicken cardiac myofibrils indicates that the protein is localized to the I-Z-I complex of the myofibrils, extending approximately 25% of the thin filament length. Comparisons of the distribution of this protein relative to actin, myosin, and titin in spreading cardiomyocytes suggest that the cardiac nebulin-like protein becomes aligned with the nascent myofibrils early during myofibrillogenesis. To distinguish this petite nebulin-like protein from the 600-900 kD skeletal muscle nebulin, we have named it nebulette.

    Funded by: NIAMS NIH HHS: AR43514

    Cell motility and the cytoskeleton 1995;32;3;205-25

Gene lists (5)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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