G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
G00000771 (Mus musculus)

Databases (9)

Curated Gene
OTTHUMG00000017744 (Vega human gene)
ENSG00000026025 (Ensembl human gene)
7431 (Entrez Gene)
1209 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
VIM (GeneCards)
193060 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:12692 (HGNC)
Protein Expression
80 (human protein atlas)
Protein Sequence
P08670 (UniProt)

Literature (172)

Pubmed - other

  • Akt isoforms regulate intermediate filament protein levels in epithelial carcinoma cells.

    Fortier AM, Van Themsche C, Asselin E and Cadrin M

    Department of Chemistry-Biology, University of Quebec at Trois-Rivieres, Trois-Rivieres, Quebec, Canada G9A 5H7.

    Keratin 8 and 18 are simple epithelial intermediate filament (IF) proteins, whose expression is differentiation- and tissue-specific, and is maintained during tumorigenesis. Vimentin IF is often co-expressed with keratins in cancer cells. Recently, IF have been proposed to be involved in signaling pathways regulating cell growth, death and motility. The PI3K/Akt pathway plays a pivotal role in these processes. Thus, we investigated the role of Akt (1 and 2) in regulating IF expression in different epithelial cancer cell lines. Over-expression of Akt1 increases K8/18 proteins. Akt2 up-regulates K18 and vimentin expression by an increased mRNA stability. To our knowledge, these results represent the first indication that Akt isoforms regulate IF expression and support the hypothesis that IFs are involved in PI3K/Akt pathway.

    FEBS letters 2010;584;5;984-8

  • Filamin A is required for vimentin-mediated cell adhesion and spreading.

    Kim H, Nakamura F, Lee W, Shifrin Y, Arora P and McCulloch CA

    Canadian Institutes of Health Group in Matrix Dynamics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 3E2, Canada. hugh.kim@utoronto.ca

    Cell adhesion and spreading are regulated by complex interactions involving the cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix proteins. We examined the interaction of the intermediate filament protein vimentin with the actin cross-linking protein filamin A in regulation of spreading in HEK-293 and 3T3 cells. Filamin A and vimentin-expressing cells were well spread on collagen and exhibited numerous cell extensions enriched with filamin A and vimentin. By contrast, cells treated with small interfering RNA (siRNA) to knock down filamin A or vimentin were poorly spread; both of these cell populations exhibited >50% reductions of cell adhesion, cell surface beta1 integrin expression, and beta1 integrin activation. Knockdown of filamin A reduced vimentin phosphorylation and blocked recruitment of vimentin to cell extensions, whereas knockdown of filamin and/or vimentin inhibited the formation of cell extensions. Reduced vimentin phosphorylation, cell spreading, and beta1 integrin surface expression, and activation were phenocopied in cells treated with the protein kinase C inhibitor bisindolylmaleimide; cell spreading was also reduced by siRNA knockdown of protein kinase C-epsilon. By immunoprecipitation of cell lysates and by pull-down assays using purified proteins, we found an association between filamin A and vimentin. Filamin A also associated with protein kinase C-epsilon, which was enriched in cell extensions. These data indicate that filamin A associates with vimentin and to protein kinase C-epsilon, thereby enabling vimentin phosphorylation, which is important for beta1 integrin activation and cell spreading on collagen.

    Funded by: Canadian Institutes of Health Research: MGP-37783, STP-53877

    American journal of physiology. Cell physiology 2010;298;2;C221-36

  • Down regulation of the PEDF gene in human lens epithelium cells changed the expression of proteins vimentin and alphaB-crystallin.

    Yang J, Luo L, Liu X, Rosenblatt MI, Qu B, Liu Y and Liu Y

    State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

    Purpose: To study the relationship of pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) expression with the expression of vimentin and alphaB-crystallin by lens epithelial cells.

    Methods: Lens epithelial cells adhering to anterior capsules taken from young donor eyes aged from 20 to 35 years were cultured and passaged. We designed small interfering RNA (siRNA) constructs to specifically downregulate the expression of PEDF by these primary lens epithelial cells. Quantitative PCR was used to confirm the downregulation of PEDF RNA expression following infection of lens epithelial cells. To determine whether altering the expression of PEDF would effect the expression of vimentin or alphaB-crystallin, we performed western blotting 48 h after expression of the PEDF-directed siRNA.

    Results: PEDF RNA expression in the human lens epithelial cells was strongly downregulated by the three separate siRNA constructs. Western blotting revealed that the downregulation of PEDF expression resulted in a concomitant decrease in expression of vimentin and an increase in alphaB-crystallin protein.

    Conclusions: Decreased expression of PEDF in primary human lens epithelial cells resulted in a decrease in the expression of vimentin and the increase of alphaB-crystallin expression, two proteins critical for maintaining lens clarity.

    Molecular vision 2010;16;105-12

  • The intermediate filament vimentin regulates chondrogenesis of adult human bone marrow-derived multipotent progenitor cells.

    Bobick BE, Tuan RS and Chen FH

    Cartilage Biology and Orthopaedics Branch, National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.

    Cytoskeletal proteins play important regulatory roles in a variety of cellular processes, including proliferation, migration, and differentiation. However, whereas actin and tubulin have established roles regulating developmental chondrogenesis, there is no evidence supporting a function for the intermediate filament vimentin in embryonic cartilage formation. We hypothesized that vimentin may regulate the chondrogenic differentiation of adult multipotent progenitor cells (MPCs), such as those involved in cartilage formation during bone fracture repair. As our model of adult progenitor cell chondrogenesis, we employed high-density pellet cultures of human bone marrow-derived MPCs. siRNA-mediated knockdown of vimentin mRNA and protein triggered a reduction in the extent of MPC cartilage formation, as evidenced by depressed accumulation of mRNAs for the cartilage-specific marker genes aggrecan and collagen type II, as well as reduced levels of Alcian blue-stainable proteoglycan and collagen II protein in the extracellular matrix. Moreover, mRNA and protein levels for the chondro-regulatory transcription factors SOX5, SOX6, and SOX9 were diminished by vimentin knockdown. Depleted cellular vimentin also induced a drastic reduction in PKA phosphorylation levels but did not affect the phosphorylation of multiple other chondro-regulatory kinases and transcription factors, including ERK1/2, p38, Smad2, and Smad1/5/8. Importantly, siRNA-mediated knockdown of PKA C-alpha mRNA and protein mimicked the reduction in chondrogenesis caused by diminished cellular vimentin. Finally, overexpression of vimentin in MPCs significantly enhanced the activity of a transfected collagen II promoter-luciferase reporter gene. In conclusion, we describe a novel role for the intermediate filament vimentin as a positive regulator of adult human bone marrow-derived MPC chondrogenesis.

    Funded by: NIAMS NIH HHS: Z01 AR41131

    Journal of cellular biochemistry 2010;109;1;265-76

  • Adding the p16(INK4a) marker to the traditional 3-marker (ER/Vim/CEA) panel engenders no supplemental benefit in distinguishing between primary endocervical and endometrial adenocarcinomas in a tissue microarray study.

    Han CP, Lee MY, Kok LF, Ruan A, Wu TS, Cheng YW, Tyan YS and Lin CY

    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan, Republic of China. hanhaly@gmail.com

    Endocervical adenocarcinomas (ECAs) and endometrial adenocarcinomas (EMAs) are malignancies that affect the uterus; however, their biologic behaviors are quite different. This distinction has clinical significance, because the appropriate therapy may depend on the site of tumor origin. In this study, we not only compare the individual expression status of 4 immunomarkers [estrogen receptor (ER), vimentin (Vim), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), and p16], but also evaluate whether p16 adds value to the ER/Vim/CEA panel characteristics and performance in distinguishing between primary ECA and EMA. A tissue microarray (TMA) was constructed using paraffin-embedded, formalin-fixed tissues from 38 hysterectomy specimens, including 14 ECAs and 24 EMAs. Tissue microarray sections were immunostained with 4 antibodies, by the avidin-biotin complex method for antigen visualization. The staining intensity and area extent of the immunohistochemical reactions were evaluated using the semiquantitative scoring system. The 3 markers (ER, Vim, CEA) and their respective panel expressions showed statistically significant (P<0.05) frequency differences in ECA and EMA tumors. The p16 marker also revealed a significant frequency difference (P<0.05) between ECA and EMA, but did not demonstrate any supplementary benefit to the traditional 3-marker panel. In conclusion, when histomorphologic and clinical doubt exist as to the primary site of origin, we suggest that the conventional 3-marker (ER/Vim/CEA) panel is appropriate. Ancillary p16-marker testing does not add value to the 3-marker panel in distinguishing between primary ECA and EMA.

    International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists 2009;28;5;489-96

  • Does vimentin help to delineate the so-called 'basal type breast cancer'?

    Kusinska RU, Kordek R, Pluciennik E, Bednarek AK, Piekarski JH and Potemski P

    Department of Pathology, Medical University of Lodz, Copernicus Memorial Hospital, Lodz, Poland. renata.kusinska@gmail.com

    Background: Vimentin is one of the cytoplasmic intermediate filament proteins which are the major component of the cytoskeleton. In our study we checked the usefulness of vimentin expression in identifying cases of breast cancer with poorer prognosis, by adding vimentin to the immunopanel consisting of basal type cytokeratins, estrogen, progesterone, and HER2 receptors.

    Methods: 179 tissue specimens of invasive operable ductal breast cancer were assessed by the use of immunohistochemistry. The median follow-up period for censored cases was 90 months.

    Results: 38 cases (21.2%) were identified as being vimentin-positive. Vimentin-positive tumours affected younger women (p = 0.024), usually lacked estrogen and progesterone receptor (p < 0.001), more often expressed basal cytokeratins (<0.001), and were high-grade cancers (p < 0.001). Survival analysis showed that vimentin did not help to delineate basal type phenotype in a triple negative (ER, PgR, HER2-negative) group. For patients with 'vimentin or CK5/6, 14, 17-positive' tumours, 5-year estimated survival rate was 78.6%, whereas for patients with 'vimentin, or CK5/6, 14, 17-negative' tumours it was 58.3% (log-rank p = 0.227).

    Conclusion: We were not able to better delineate an immunohistochemical definition of basal type of breast cancer by adding vimentin to the immunopanel consisted of ER, PgR, HER2, CK5/6, 14 and 17 markers, when overall survival was a primary end-point.

    Journal of experimental & clinical cancer research : CR 2009;28;118

  • Stool methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction assay for the detection of colorectal neoplasia in Korean patients.

    Baek YH, Chang E, Kim YJ, Kim BK, Sohn JH and Park DI

    Department of Internal Medicine, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of detecting hypermethylation in stool samples as a noninvasive screening tool for colorectal cancer and precancerous lesions, we evaluated the hypermethylation of three genes in the stool samples of patients with colorectal cancer, patients with colorectal adenomas, and healthy control subjects.

    Methods: Stool samples were obtained from 37 endoscopically diagnosed healthy controls, 52 patients with adenomas, and 60 patients with colorectal cancer. The methylation status of the methylguanine DNA methyltransferase, human Mut L homolog-1, and vimentin promoter in bisulfite-modified DNA was investigated in a blinded manner by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction with primer pairs designed to amplify specifically the methylated or unmethylated alleles.

    Results: The methylated methylguanine DNA methyltransferase, human Mut L homolog-1, and vimentin were detected in 51.7%, 30.0%, and 38.3% of colorectal cancer, and in 36.5%, 11.%, and 15.4% of colorectal adenomas, respectively. The sensitivities of the combined study, using three markers for the detection of colorectal cancer and colorectal adenomas, were 75.0% and 59.6%. The specificity was 86.5%.

    Conclusion: Our results have demonstrated that the promoter hypermethylation for methylguanine DNA methyltransferase, human Mut L homolog-1, and vimentin in stool samples is a feasible epigenetic marker that is a sensitive, specific, and noninvasive alternative for colorectal cancer screening. This method of screening for colorectal cancer may be useful for patients that decline screening because of fear or inconvenience.

    Diseases of the colon and rectum 2009;52;8;1452-9; discussion 1459-63

  • Vimentin coil 1A-A molecular switch involved in the initiation of filament elongation.

    Meier M, Padilla GP, Herrmann H, Wedig T, Hergt M, Patel TR, Stetefeld J, Aebi U and Burkhard P

    Department of Chemistry, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada. meier@cc.umanitoba.ca

    Interestingly, our previously published structure of the coil 1A fragment of the human intermediate filament protein vimentin turned out to be a monomeric alpha-helical coil instead of the expected dimeric coiled coil. However, the 39-amino-acid-long helix had an intrinsic curvature compatible with a coiled coil. We have now designed four mutants of vimentin coil 1A, modifying key a and d positions in the heptad repeat pattern, with the aim of investigating the molecular criteria that are needed to stabilize a dimeric coiled-coil structure. We have analysed the biophysical properties of the mutants by circular dichroism spectroscopy, analytical ultracentrifugation and X-ray crystallography. All four mutants exhibited an increased stability over the wild type as indicated by a rise in the melting temperature (T(m)). At a concentration of 0.1 mg/ml, the T(m) of the peptide with the single point mutation Y117L increased dramatically by 46 degrees C compared with the wild-type peptide. In general, the introduction of a single stabilizing point mutation at an a or a d position did induce the formation of a stable dimer as demonstrated by sedimentation equilibrium experiments. The dimeric oligomerisation state of the Y117L peptide was furthermore confirmed by X-ray crystallography, which yielded a structure with a genuine coiled-coil geometry. Most notably, when this mutation was introduced into full-length vimentin, filament assembly was completely arrested at the unit-length filament (ULF) level, both in vitro and in cDNA-transfected cultured cells. Therefore, the low propensity of the wild-type coil 1A to form a stable two-stranded coiled coil is most likely a prerequisite for the end-to-end annealing of ULFs into filaments. Accordingly, the coil 1A domains might "switch" from a dimeric alpha-helical coiled coil into a more open structure, thus mediating, within the ULFs, the conformational rearrangements of the tetrameric subunits that are needed for the intermediate filament elongation reaction.

    Journal of molecular biology 2009;390;2;245-61

  • Onset of human cytomegalovirus replication in fibroblasts requires the presence of an intact vimentin cytoskeleton.

    Miller MS and Hertel L

    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Health Sciences Addition HSA 320, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada.

    Like all viruses, herpesviruses extensively interact with the host cytoskeleton during entry. While microtubules and microfilaments appear to facilitate viral capsid transport toward the nucleus, evidence for a role of intermediate filaments in herpesvirus entry is lacking. Here, we examined the function of vimentin intermediate filaments in fibroblasts during the initial phase of infection of two genotypically distinct strains of human cytomegalovirus (CMV), one with narrow (AD169) and one with broad (TB40/E) cell tropism. Chemical disruption of the vimentin network with acrylamide, intermediate filament bundling in cells from a patient with giant axonal neuropathy, and absence of vimentin in fibroblasts from vimentin(-/-) mice severely reduced entry of either strain. In vimentin null cells, viral particles remained in the cytoplasm longer than in vimentin(+/+) cells. TB40/E infection was consistently slower than that of AD169 and was more negatively affected by the disruption or absence of vimentin. These findings demonstrate that an intact vimentin network is required for CMV infection onset, that intermediate filaments may function during viral entry to facilitate capsid trafficking and/or docking to the nuclear envelope, and that maintenance of a broader cell tropism is associated with a higher degree of dependence on the vimentin cytoskeleton.

    Journal of virology 2009;83;14;7015-28

  • Frequent methylation of Vimentin in well-differentiated gastric carcinoma.

    Kitamura YH, Shirahata A, Sakata M, Goto T, Mizukami H, Saito M, Ishibashi K, Kigawa G, Nemoto H, Sanada Y and Hibi K

    Department of Surgery, Showa University Fujigaoka Hospital, Aoba-ku, Yokohama 227-8501, Japan.

    Background: Recently, it was shown that the vimentin gene, usually activated in mesenchymal cells, was highly methylated in colorectal carcinoma.

    The methylation status of the vimentin gene was examined in primary carcinomas and the corresponding normal tissues derived from 37 patients with gastric carcinoma using quantitative methylation-specific PCR (qMSP) and the correlation between the methylation status and the clinicopathological findings was evaluated.

    Results: Aberrant methylation of the vimentin gene was detected in 14 out of 37 (38%) primary gastric carcinomas. This result suggested that the aberrant methylation of the vimentin gene was frequent in gastric carcinomas. Subsequently, clinicopathological data were correlated with the methylation score. A significant difference was observed in histology (p=0.0429). In addition, a trend was shown toward advancement of gastric carcinomas with vimentin methylation (p=0.0588).

    Conclusion: In gastric carcinomas, well-differentiated adenocarcinoma was significantly methylated compared to poorly differentiated.

    Anticancer research 2009;29;6;2227-9

  • Vimentin regulates scribble activity by protecting it from proteasomal degradation.

    Phua DC, Humbert PO and Hunziker W

    Epithelial Cell Biology Laboratory, Cancer and Developmental Cell Biology Division, Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, Agency for Science, Technology and Research, Singapore 138673, Republic of Singapore.

    Scribble (Scrib), Discs large, and Lethal giant larvae form a protein complex that regulates different aspects of cell polarization, including apical-basal asymmetry in epithelial cells and anterior-posterior polarity in migrating cells. Here, we show that Scrib interacts with the intermediate filament cytoskeleton in epithelial Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells and endothelial human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Scrib binds vimentin via its postsynaptic density 95/disc-large/zona occludens domains and in MDCK cells redistributes from filaments to the plasma membrane during the establishment of cell-cell contacts. RNA interference-mediated silencing of Scrib, vimentin, or both in MDCK cells results in defects in the polarization of the Golgi apparatus during cell migration. Concomitantly, wound healing is delayed due to the loss of directional movement. Furthermore, cell aggregation is dependent on both Scrib and vimentin. The similar phenotypes observed after silencing either Scrib or vimentin support a coordinated role for the two proteins in cell migration and aggregation. Interestingly, silencing of vimentin leads to an increased proteasomal degradation of Scrib. Thus, the upregulation of vimentin expression during epithelial to mesenchymal transitions may stabilize Scrib to promote directed cell migration.

    Molecular biology of the cell 2009;20;12;2841-55

  • Progesterone receptor does not improve the performance and test effectiveness of the conventional 3-marker panel, consisting of estrogen receptor, vimentin and carcinoembryonic antigen in distinguishing between primary endocervical and endometrial adenocarcinomas in a tissue microarray extension study.

    Liao CL, Lee MY, Tyan YS, Kok LF, Wu TS, Koo CL, Wang PH, Chao KC and Han CP

    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Chung-Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan. cvs156@hotmail.com

    Objective: Endocervical adenocarcinomas (ECA) and endometrial adenocarcinomas (EMA) are uterine malignancies that have differing biological behaviors. The choice of an appropriate therapeutic plan rests on the tumor's site of origin. In this study, we propose to evaluate whether PR adds value to the performance and test effectiveness of the conventional 3-marker (ER/Vim/CEA) panel in distinguishing between primary ECA and EMA.

    Methods: A tissue microarray was constructed using paraffin-embedded, formalin-fixed tissues from 38 hysterectomy specimens, including 14 ECA and 24 EMA. Tissue microarray (TMA) sections were immunostained with 4 antibodies, using the avidin-biotin complex (ABC) method for antigen visualization. The staining intensity and extent of the immunohistochemical (IHC) reactions were appraised using a semi-quantitative scoring system.

    Results: The three markers (ER, Vim and CEA) and their respective panel expressions showed statistically significant (p < 0.05) frequency differences between ECA and EMA tumors. Although the additional ancillary PR-marker also revealed a significant frequency difference (p < 0.05) between ECA and EMA tumors, it did not demonstrate any supplementary benefit to the 3-marker panel.

    Conclusion: According to our data, when histomorphological and clinical doubt exists as to the primary site of origin, we recommend that the conventional 3-marker (ER/Vim/CEA) panel is easier, sufficient and appropriate to use in distinguishing between primary ECA and EMA. Although the 4-marker panel containing PR also reveals statistically significant results, the PR-marker offers no supplemental benefit to the pre-existing 3-marker (ER/Vim/CEA) panel in the diagnostic distinction between ECA and EMA.

    Journal of translational medicine 2009;7;37

  • Nuclear factor-kappaB-mediated transforming growth factor-beta-induced expression of vimentin is an independent predictor of biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy.

    Zhang Q, Helfand BT, Jang TL, Zhu LJ, Chen L, Yang XJ, Kozlowski J, Smith N, Kundu SD, Yang G, Raji AA, Javonovic B, Pins M, Lindholm P, Guo Y, Catalona WJ and Lee C

    Department of Urology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL 60611, USA. q-zhang2@northwestern.edu .

    Purpose: Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta)-mediated epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been shown to occur in some cancers; however, the pathway remains controversial and varies with different cancers. In addition, the mechanisms by which TGF-beta and the EMT contribute to prostate cancer recurrence are largely unknown. In this study, we elucidated TGF-beta-mediated EMT as a predictor of disease recurrence after therapy for prostate cancer, which has not been reported before.

    We analyzed TGF-beta-induced EMT using nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) as an intermediate mediator in prostate cancer cell lines. A total of 287 radical prostatectomy specimens were evaluated using immunohistochemistry in a high-throughput tissue microarray analysis. Levels of TGF-beta signaling components and EMT-related factors were analyzed using specific antibodies. Results were expressed as the percentage of cancer cells that stained positive for a given antibody and were correlated with disease recurrence rates at a mean of 7 years following radical prostatectomy.

    Results: In prostate cancer cell lines, TGF-beta-induced EMT was mediated by NF-kappaB signaling. Blockade of NF-kappaB or TGF-beta signaling resulted in abrogation of vimentin expression and inhibition of the invasive capability of these cells. There was high risk of biochemical recurrence associated with tumors that displayed high levels of expression of TGF-beta1, vimentin, and NF-kappaB and low level of cytokeratin 18. This was particularly true for vimentin, which is independent of patients' Gleason score.

    Conclusions: The detection of NF-kappaB-mediated TGF-beta-induced EMT in primary tumors predicts disease recurrence in prostate cancer patients following radical prostatectomy. The changes in TGF-beta signaling and EMT-related factors provide novel molecular markers that may predict prostate cancer outcomes following treatment.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA107186, CA114810, CA90386

    Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research 2009;15;10;3557-67

  • Recruitment of vimentin to the cell surface by beta3 integrin and plectin mediates adhesion strength.

    Bhattacharya R, Gonzalez AM, Debiase PJ, Trejo HE, Goldman RD, Flitney FW and Jones JC

    Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Northwestern University Medical School, Chicago, IL 60611, USA.

    Much effort has been expended on analyzing how microfilament and microtubule cytoskeletons dictate the interaction of cells with matrix at adhesive sites called focal adhesions (FAs). However, vimentin intermediate filaments (IFs) also associate with the cell surface at FAs in endothelial cells. Here, we show that IF recruitment to FAs in endothelial cells requires beta3 integrin, plectin and the microtubule cytoskeleton, and is dependent on microtubule motors. In CHO cells, which lack beta3 integrin but contain vimentin, IFs appear to be collapsed around the nucleus, whereas in CHO cells expressing beta3 integrin (CHOwtbeta3), vimentin IFs extend to FAs at the cell periphery. This recruitment is regulated by tyrosine residues in the beta3 integrin cytoplasmic tail. Moreover, CHOwtbeta3 cells exhibit significantly greater adhesive strength than CHO or CHO cells expressing mutated beta3 integrin proteins. These differences require an intact vimentin network. Therefore, vimentin IF recruitment to the cell surface is tightly regulated and modulates the strength of adhesion of cells to their substrate.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL067016, R01 HL092963, R01 HL092963-02; NIAMS NIH HHS: AR054184, R01 AR054184, R01 AR054184-18

    Journal of cell science 2009;122;Pt 9;1390-400

  • Differential expression of immunohistochemical markers in bladder smooth muscle and myofibroblasts, and the potential utility of desmin, smoothelin, and vimentin in staging of bladder carcinoma.

    Council L and Hameed O

    Division of Anatomic Pathology, Department of Pathology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294-6823, USA.

    Distinguishing bladder muscularis propria from muscularis mucosae can be problematic especially in transurethral resection specimens performed for bladder carcinoma. Moreover, bladder carcinoma can be associated with a proliferative/desmoplastic myofibroblastic response that can resemble smooth muscle and potentially lead to overdiagnosis of muscularis propria invasion. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential role of immunohistochemistry in staging bladder carcinoma by evaluating the expression of different markers in myofibroblasts and nonvascular smooth muscle cells in 15 cases of invasive bladder carcinoma. Reactive myofibroblasts were consistently positive for vimentin and smooth muscle actin, consistently negative for caldesmon, desmin, and smoothelin, and had variable expression of actin and CD10. Nonvascular smooth muscle cells of the bladder were consistently positive for smooth muscle actin, actin, desmin, and caldesmon, and consistently negative for CD10. In contrast to smooth muscle cells of the muscularis propria, which displayed strong smoothelin expression in all 15 cases, the smooth muscle cells of the muscularis mucosae displayed moderate smoothelin expression in only 1 (9%) of 11 cases (P=10(-7)). Surprisingly, although strongly highlighting endothelial and endomysial cells, the smooth muscle cells of the muscularis propria weakly expressed vimentin in only 1 (7%) of 15 cases, whereas smooth muscle cells of the muscularis mucosae had moderate or strong expression in 9 (82%) of 11 cases (P=0.00016). The sensitivity and specificity of desmin or caldesmon expression for smooth muscle cells were 100%. The sensitivity and specificity of strong smoothelin expression for muscularis propria were 100%, whereas those of absent vimentin expression were 93 and 82%, respectively. Although morphology remains the gold standard, the findings suggest that immunohistochemistry, using a panel composed of desmin, smoothelin, and vimentin, may be potentially useful for staging of bladder carcinoma. Confirmatory larger-scale studies, especially on transurethral resection specimens, are warranted.

    Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc 2009;22;5;639-50

  • Gigaxonin controls vimentin organization through a tubulin chaperone-independent pathway.

    Cleveland DW, Yamanaka K and Bomont P

    Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA.

    Gigaxonin mutations cause the fatal human neurodegenerative disorder giant axonal neuropathy (GAN). Broad deterioration of the nervous system in GAN patients is accompanied by massive disorganization of intermediate filaments (IFs) both in neurons and many non-neuronal cells. With newly developed antibodies, gigaxonin is now shown to be expressed at extremely low levels throughout the nervous system. In lymphoblast cell lines derived from severe and mild forms of GAN, mutations in gigaxonin are shown to yield highly unstable proteins, thereby permitting a rapid diagnostic test for the spectrum of GAN mutations as an alternative to invasive nerve biopsy or systematic sequencing of the GAN gene. Gigaxonin has been proposed as a substrate adaptor for an E3 ubiquitin ligase, which affects proteasome-dependent degradation of microtubule-related proteins including MAP1B, MAP8 and the tubulin folding chaperone TBCB. We demonstrate that, unlike its counterpart TBCE, TBCB only moderately destabilizes microtubules. Neither TBCB abundance nor microtubule organization or densities are altered in GAN mutant fibroblasts, thus demonstrating that altered TBCB levels are not primary determinants of IF disorganization in GAN. Characteristic GAN mutant-induced ovoid aggregates of vimentin are not produced in normal fibroblasts after disrupting microtubule assembly, either by TBCE overexpression or depolymerizing drugs. Thus, IF disorganization in GAN fibroblasts is independent of TBCB and microtubule loss and must be regulated by a yet unidentified mechanism.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM27036

    Human molecular genetics 2009;18;8;1384-94

  • Prefrontal cortex shotgun proteome analysis reveals altered calcium homeostasis and immune system imbalance in schizophrenia.

    Martins-de-Souza D, Gattaz WF, Schmitt A, Rewerts C, Maccarrone G, Dias-Neto E and Turck CW

    Laboratório de Neurociências, Instituto de Psiquiatria, Universidade de São Paulo, Rua. Dr. Ovidio Pires de Campos, no 785, Consolação, São Paulo, SP 05403-010, Brazil.

    Schizophrenia is a complex disease, likely to be caused by a combination of serial alterations in a number of genes and environmental factors. The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (Brodmann's Area 46) is involved in schizophrenia and executes high-level functions such as working memory, differentiation of conflicting thoughts, determination of right and wrong concepts and attitudes, correct social behavior and personality expression. Global proteomic analysis of post-mortem dorsolateral prefrontal cortex samples from schizophrenia patients and non-schizophrenic individuals was performed using stable isotope labeling and shotgun proteomics. The analysis resulted in the identification of 1,261 proteins, 84 of which showed statistically significant differential expression, reinforcing previous data supporting the involvement of the immune system, calcium homeostasis, cytoskeleton assembly, and energy metabolism in schizophrenia. In addition a number of new potential markers were found that may contribute to the understanding of the pathogenesis of this complex disease.

    European archives of psychiatry and clinical neuroscience 2009;259;3;151-63

  • Dominant cataract formation in association with a vimentin assembly disrupting mutation.

    Müller M, Bhattacharya SS, Moore T, Prescott Q, Wedig T, Herrmann H and Magin TM

    Institut für Biochemie und Molekularbiologie, Abteilung für Zellbiochemie und LIMES, Universität Bonn, Bonn, Germany.

    Cataracts are characterized by an opacification of the eye lens, often caused by protein misfolding and aggregation. The intermediate filament protein vimentin, which is highly expressed in lens fiber cells and in mesenchymal tissues, is a main structural determinant in these cells forming a membrane-connected cytoskeleton. Additional functions of vimentin remain to be identified. Here, we demonstrate that a mutation in VIM causes a dominant, pulverulent cataract. We sequenced the complete human VIM gene in 90 individuals suffering from congenital cataract and found a G596A change in exon 1 in a single individual, causing the missense mutation E151K in coil 1B of vimentin. The mutant vimentin formed an aberrant vimentin cytoskeleton and increased the proteasome activity in transfected cells. Furthermore, this mutation causes a severe kinetic defect in vimentin assembly both in vitro and in vivo. Hence, in conjunction with available mouse and cell culture models, our results reveal for the first time an important functional role for vimentin in the maintenance of lens integrity. Finally, this invites novel therapy approaches for cataracts.

    Human molecular genetics 2009;18;6;1052-7

  • Head and rod 1 interactions in vimentin: identification of contact sites, structure, and changes with phosphorylation using site-directed spin labeling and electron paramagnetic resonance.

    Aziz A, Hess JF, Budamagunta MS, FitzGerald PG and Voss JC

    Department of Cell Biology and Human Anatomy, School of Medicine, University of California, Davis, California 95616, USA.

    We have used site-directed spin labeling (SDSL) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) to identify residues 17 and 137 as sites of interaction between the head domain and rod domain 1A of the intermediate filament protein vimentin. This interaction was maximal when compared with the spin labels placed at up- and downstream positions in both head and rod regions, indicating that residues 17 and 137 were the closest point of interaction in this region. SDSL EPR characterization of residues 120-145, which includes the site of head contact with rod 1A, reveals that this region exhibits the heptad repeat pattern indicative of alpha-helical coiled-coil structure, but that this heptad repeat pattern begins to decay near residue 139, suggesting a transition out of coiled-coil structure. By monitoring the spectra of spin labels placed at the 17 and 137 residues during in vitro assembly, we show that 17-137 interaction occurs early in the assembly process. We also explored the effect of phosphorylation on the 17-137 interaction and found that phosphorylation-induced changes affected the head-head interaction (17-17) in the dimer, without significantly influencing the rod-rod (137-137) and head-rod (17-137) interactions in the dimer. These data provide the first direct evidence for, and location of, head-rod interactions in assembled intermediate filaments, as well as direct evidence of coiled-coil structure in rod 1A. Finally, the data identify changes in the structure in this region following in vitro phosphorylation.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: C06 RR-12088-01; NEI NIH HHS: EY017575, P30 EY012576; NIA NIH HHS: AG029246

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2009;284;11;7330-8

  • Endosomal lipid accumulation in NPC1 leads to inhibition of PKC, hypophosphorylation of vimentin and Rab9 entrapment.

    Walter M, Chen FW, Tamari F, Wang R and Ioannou YA

    Department of Genetics and Genomic Sciences, The Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029, USA.

    Within the group of lysosomal storage diseases, NPC1 [NPC (Niemann-Pick type C) 1] disease is a lipidosis characterized by excessive accumulation of free cholesterol as well as gangliosides, glycosphingolipids and fatty acids in the late E/L (endosomal/lysosomal) system (Chen et al., 2005) due to a defect in late endosome lipid egress. We have previously demonstrated that expression of the small GTPase Rab9 in NPC1 cells can rescue the lipid transport block phenotype (Walter et al., 2003), albeit by an undefined mechanism.

    Results: To investigate further the mechanism by which Rab9 facilitates lipid movement from late endosomes we sought to identify novel Rab9 binding/interacting proteins. In the present study, we report that Rab9 interacts with the intermediate filament phosphoprotein vimentin and this interaction is altered by lipid accumulation in late endosomes, which results in inhibition of PKC (protein kinase C) and hypophosphorylation of vimentin, leading to late endosome dysfunction. Intermediate filament hypophosphorylation, aggregation and entrapment of Rab9 ultimately leads to transport defects and inhibition of lipid egress from late endosomes.

    Conclusions: These results reveal a previously unappreciated interaction between Rab proteins and intermediate filaments in regulating intracellular lipid transport.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK-065793, DK-54736

    Biology of the cell / under the auspices of the European Cell Biology Organization 2009;101;3;141-52

  • Cellular vimentin content regulates the protein level of hepatitis C virus core protein and the hepatitis C virus production in cultured cells.

    Nitahara-Kasahara Y, Fukasawa M, Shinkai-Ouchi F, Sato S, Suzuki T, Murakami K, Wakita T, Hanada K, Miyamura T and Nishijima M

    Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Toyama, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, Japan.

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) core protein is essential for virus particle formation. Using HCV core-expressing and non-expressing Huh7 cell lines, Uc39-6 and Uc321, respectively, we performed comparative proteomic studies of proteins in the 0.5% Triton X-100-insoluble fractions of cells, and found that core-expressing Uc39-6 cells had much lower vimentin content than Uc321 cells. In experiments using vimentin-overexpressing and vimentin-knocked-down cells, we demonstrated that core protein levels were affected by cellular vimentin content. When vimentin expression was knocked-down, there was no difference in mRNA level of core protein; but proteasome-dependent degradation of the core protein was strongly reduced. These findings suggest that the turnover rate of core protein is regulated by cellular vimentin content. HCV production was also affected by cellular vimentin content. Our findings together suggest that modulation of hepatic vimentin expression might enable the control of HCV production.

    Virology 2009;383;2;319-27

  • Cytokeratin and vimentin expression in breast cancer.

    Vora HH, Patel NA, Rajvik KN, Mehta SV, Brahmbhatt BV, Shah MJ, Shukla SN and Shah PM

    Division of Immunohistochemistry and Flow Cytometry, The Gujarat Cancer and Research Institute, Asarwa, Ahmedabad, India. ihcgcri@hotmail.com

    Background: The transition from epithelial keratin to mesenchymal vimentin expression marks an important step in the malignant progression of breast cancer. This study analyzed the clinical significance of cytokeratin and vimentin in patients with breast cancer.

    Expression of cytokeratin and vimentin was evaluated by immunohistochemistry on paraffin-embedded tissue sections of patients with breast cancer.

    Results: Loss of cytokeratin was seen in 11% of the patients. A clearer trend towards loss of cytokeratin was observed in patients with stage IV disease and PR negativity. Weak cytokeratin expression was present in patients who developed recurrence or metastatic disease. Loss of cytokeratin was associated with reduced overall survival in univariate and multivariate analysis, gain of vimentin expression was seen in 57% of breast carcinoma patients. It was higher in patients with lymph node positivity, advanced stage, HER2 positivity, and disease recurrence or metastasis. Multivariate survival analysis indicated that gain of vimentin expression was associated with reduced relapse-free survival.

    Conclusion: Loss of cytokeratin and gain of vimentin expression are indicators of biologically aggressive breast carcinoma.

    The International journal of biological markers 2009;24;1;38-46

  • Vimentin methylation as a marker for advanced colorectal carcinoma.

    Shirahata A, Sakata M, Sakuraba K, Goto T, Mizukami H, Saito M, Ishibashi K, Kigawa G, Nemoto H, Sanada Y and Hibi K

    Department of Surgery, Showa University Fujigaoka Hospital, Aoba-ku, Yokohama 227-8501, Japan.

    Background: Recently, it was shown that the Vimentin gene, usually activated in mesenchymal cells, was highly methylated in colorectal carcinoma. Moreover, Vimentin methylation can be applied for the screening or as a diagnostic tool of colorectal carcinomas in the fecal DNA test.

    The methylation status of the Vimentin gene was examined in primary carcinomas and the corresponding normal tissues derived from 48 patients with colorectal cancer using quantitative methylation-specific PCR (qMSP) and the correlation between the methylation status and the clinicopathological findings was evaluated.

    Results: Aberrant methylation of the Vimentin gene was detected in 31 out of 48 (65%) primary colorectal carcinomas. This result suggested that the aberrant methylation of the Vimentin gene was frequent in colorectal carcinomas. Subsequently, clinicopathological data were correlated with the methylation score. A significant difference was observed in age and Dukes' stage (p = 0.001 and p = 0.034, respectively). Moreover, a trend was shown toward preferentially developing liver metastasis and peritoneal dissemination in colorectal carcinomas with Vimentin methylation (p = 0.052 and p = 0.080, respectively).

    Conclusion: Vimentin was frequently methylated in advanced colorectal carcinoma.

    Anticancer research 2009;29;1;279-81

  • The cellular distribution of serotonin transporter is impeded on serotonin-altered vimentin network.

    Ahmed BA, Bukhari IA, Jeffus BC, Harney JT, Thyparambil S, Ziu E, Fraer M, Rusch NJ, Zimniak P, Lupashin V, Tang D and Kilic F

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Medicine, The University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas, United States of America.

    Background: The C-terminus of the serotonin transporter (SERT) contains binding domains for different proteins and is critical for its functional expression. In endogenous and heterologous expression systems, our proteomic and biochemical analysis demonstrated that an intermediate filament, vimentin, binds to the C-terminus of SERT. It has been reported that 5HT-stimulation of cells leads to disassembly and spatial reorientation of vimentin filaments.

    We tested the impact of 5HT-stimulation on vimentin-SERT association and found that 5HT-stimulation accelerates the translocation of SERT from the plasma membrane via enhancing the level of association between phosphovimentin and SERT. Furthermore a progressive truncation of the C-terminus of SERT was performed to map the vimentin-SERT association domain. Deletion of up to 20, but not 14 amino acids arrested the transporters at intracellular locations. Although, truncation of the last 14 amino acids, did not alter 5HT uptake rates of transporter but abolished its association with vimentin. To understand the involvement of 5HT in phosphovimentin-SERT association from the plasma membrane, we further investigated the six amino acids between Delta14 and Delta20, i.e., the SITPET sequence of SERT. While the triple mutation on the possible kinase action sites, S(611), T(613), and T(616) arrested the transporter at intracellular locations, replacing the residues with aspartic acid one at a time altered neither the 5HT uptake rates nor the vimentin association of these mutants. However, replacing the three target sites with alanine, either simultaneously or one at a time, had no significant effect on 5HT uptake rates or the vimentin association with transporter.

    Based on our findings, we propose that phosphate modification of the SITPET sequence differentially, one at a time exposes the vimentin binding domain on the C-terminus of SERT. Conversely, following 5HT stimulation, the association between vimentin-SERT is enhanced which changes the cellular distribution of SERT on an altered vimentin network.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: R01 HL091196; NICHD NIH HHS: HD053477, R03 HD053477; NIGMS NIH HHS: R01 GM083144

    PloS one 2009;4;3;e4730

  • Hierarchical structure controls nanomechanical properties of vimentin intermediate filaments.

    Qin Z, Kreplak L and Buehler MJ

    Laboratory for Atomistic and Molecular Mechanics, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America.

    Intermediate filaments (IFs), in addition to microtubules and microfilaments, are one of the three major components of the cytoskeleton in eukaryotic cells, playing a vital role in mechanotransduction and in providing mechanical stability to cells. Despite the importance of IF mechanics for cell biology and cell mechanics, the structural basis for their mechanical properties remains unknown. Specifically, our understanding of fundamental filament properties, such as the basis for their great extensibility, stiffening properties, and their exceptional mechanical resilience remains limited. This has prevented us from answering fundamental structure-function relationship questions related to the biomechanical role of intermediate filaments, which is crucial to link structure and function in the protein material's biological context. Here we utilize an atomistic-level model of the human vimentin dimer and tetramer to study their response to mechanical tensile stress, and describe a detailed analysis of the mechanical properties and associated deformation mechanisms. We observe a transition from alpha-helices to beta-sheets with subsequent interdimer sliding under mechanical deformation, which has been inferred previously from experimental results. By upscaling our results we report, for the first time, a quantitative comparison to experimental results of IF nanomechanics, showing good agreement. Through the identification of links between structures and deformation mechanisms at distinct hierarchical levels, we show that the multi-scale structure of IFs is crucial for their characteristic mechanical properties, in particular their ability to undergo severe deformation of approximately 300% strain without breaking, facilitated by a cascaded activation of a distinct deformation mechanisms operating at different levels. This process enables IFs to combine disparate properties such as mechanosensitivity, strength and deformability. Our results enable a new paradigm in studying biological and mechanical properties of IFs from an atomistic perspective, and lay the foundation to understanding how properties of individual protein molecules can have profound effects at larger length-scales.

    PloS one 2009;4;10;e7294

  • Oxidative stress, telomere length and biomarkers of physical aging in a cohort aged 79 years from the 1932 Scottish Mental Survey.

    Starr JM, Shiels PG, Harris SE, Pattie A, Pearce MS, Relton CL and Deary IJ

    MRC Centre for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology, University of Edinburgh, Royal Victoria Hospital, Edinburgh EH4 2DN, UK. jstarr@staffmail.ed.ac.uk

    Telomere shortening is a biomarker of cellular senescence and is associated with a wide range of age-related disease. Oxidative stress is also associated with physiological aging and several age-related diseases. Non-human studies suggest that variants in oxidative stress genes may contribute to both telomere shortening and biological aging. We sought to test whether oxidative stress-related gene polymorphisms contribute to variance in both telomere length and physical biomarkers of aging in humans. Telomere lengths were calculated for 190 (82 men, 108 women) participants aged 79 years and associations with 384 SNPs, from 141 oxidative stress genes, identified 9 significant SNPS, of which those from 5 genes (GSTZ1, MSRA, NDUFA3, NDUFA8, VIM) had robust associations with physical aging biomarkers, respiratory function or grip strength. Replication of associations in a sample of 318 (120 males, 198 females) participants aged 50 years confirmed significant associations for two of the five SNPs (MSRA rs4841322, p=0.008; NDUFA8 rs6822, p=0.048) on telomere length. These data indicate that oxidative stress genes may be involved in pathways that lead to both telomere shortening and physiological aging in humans. Oxidative stress may explain, at least in part, associations between telomere shortening and physiological aging.

    Funded by: Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council: S18386; Chief Scientist Office: CZB/4/505, ETM/55; Medical Research Council; Wellcome Trust

    Mechanisms of ageing and development 2008;129;12;745-51

  • Solitary fibrous tumor of the liver expressing CD34 and vimentin: a case report.

    Korkolis DP, Apostolaki K, Aggeli C, Plataniotis G, Gontikakis E, Volanaki D, Sebastiadou M, Dimitroulopoulos D, Xinopoulos D, Zografos GN and Vassilopoulos PP

    Department of Surgical Oncology, Hellenic Anticancer Institute, "Saint Savvas" Hospital, 22 Socratous Street, 1st Floor, Kifissia, 14561 Athens, Greece. dkorkolis_2000@yahoo.com

    A case of a successfully treated solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) of the liver is reported. An 82-year-old female presented with left upper abdominal discomfort, a firm mass on palpation, and imaging studies revealed a large tumor, 15 cm in diameter, arising from the left lobe of the liver. A formal left hepatectomy was performed. Microscopic evaluation showed spindle and fibroblast-like cells within the collagenous stroma. Immunohistochemistry disclosed diffuse CD34 and positive vimentin, supporting the diagnosis of a benign SFT. The patient remained well 21 months after surgery. SFT of the liver is a very rare neoplasm of mesenchymal origin. In most cases it is a benign lesion, although some may have malignant histological features and recur locally or metastasize. With less than 30 reported cases in the literature, little can be said regarding its natural history or the benefits of adjuvant radiochemotherapy. Complete surgical resection remains the cornerstone of its treatment.

    World journal of gastroenterology : WJG 2008;14;40;6261-4

  • A mitotic GlcNAcylation/phosphorylation signaling complex alters the posttranslational state of the cytoskeletal protein vimentin.

    Slawson C, Lakshmanan T, Knapp S and Hart GW

    Department of Biological Chemistry, The Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA.

    O-linked beta-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) is a highly dynamic intracellular protein modification responsive to stress, hormones, nutrients, and cell cycle stage. Alterations in O-GlcNAc addition or removal (cycling) impair cell cycle progression and cytokinesis, but the mechanisms are not well understood. Here, we demonstrate that the enzymes responsible for O-GlcNAc cycling, O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) and O-GlcNAcase (OGA) are in a transient complex at M phase with the mitotic kinase Aurora B and protein phosphatase 1. OGT colocalized to the midbody during telophase with Aurora B. Furthermore, these proteins coprecipitated with each other in a late mitotic extract. The complex was stable under Aurora inhibition; however, the total cellular levels of O-GlcNAc were increased and the localization of OGT was decreased at the midbody after Aurora inhibition. Vimentin, an intermediate filament protein, is an M phase substrate for both Aurora B and OGT. Overexpression of OGT or OGA led to defects in mitotic phosphorylation on multiple sites, whereas OGT overexpression increased mitotic GlcNAcylation of vimentin. OGA inhibition caused a decrease in vimentin late mitotic phosphorylation but increased GlcNAcylation. Together, these data demonstrate that the O-GlcNAc cycling enzymes associate with kinases and phosphatases at M phase to regulate the posttranslational status of vimentin.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA42496; NICHD NIH HHS: HD13563, R37 HD013563

    Molecular biology of the cell 2008;19;10;4130-40

  • Keratin down-regulation in vimentin-positive cancer cells is reversible by vimentin RNA interference, which inhibits growth and motility.

    Paccione RJ, Miyazaki H, Patel V, Waseem A, Gutkind JS, Zehner ZE and Yeudall WA

    Philips Institute, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia, USA.

    At later stages of tumor progression, epithelial carcinogenesis is associated with transition to a mesenchymal phenotype, which may contribute to the more aggressive properties of cancer cells and may be stimulated by growth factors such as epidermal growth factor and transforming growth factor-beta. Previously, we found that cells derived from a nodal metastatic squamous cell carcinoma are highly proliferative and motile in vitro and tumorigenic in vivo. In the current study, we have investigated the role of vimentin in proliferation and motility. Cells derived from nodal metastasis express high levels of vimentin, which is undetectable in tumor cells derived from a synchronous primary lesion of tongue. Vimentin expression was enhanced by epidermal growth factor and transforming growth factor-beta both independently and in combination. Use of RNA interference resulted in the generation of stable cell lines that express constitutively low levels of vimentin. RNA interference-mediated vimentin knockdown reduced cellular proliferation, migration, and invasion through a basement membrane substitute by 3-fold compared with nontargeting controls. In addition, cells with reduced vimentin reexpressed differentiation-specific keratins K13, K14, and K15 as a result of increased gene transcription as judged by quantitative PCR and promoter-reporter assays. Furthermore, cells in which vimentin expression was reduced showed a greatly decreased tumorigenic potential, as tumors developing from these cells were 70% smaller than those from control cells. The data suggest that reversal of the mesenchymal phenotype by inhibiting vimentin expression results in reexpression of epithelial characteristics and reduced tumor aggressiveness.

    Funded by: Medical Research Council: COSB1A1R

    Molecular cancer therapeutics 2008;7;9;2894-903

  • Vimentin affects the mobility and invasiveness of prostate cancer cells.

    Zhao Y, Yan Q, Long X, Chen X and Wang Y

    Key Laboratory for Oral Biomedical Engineering, Ministry of Education, School & Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430079, P.R. China.

    A significant proportion of prostate cancer patients treated with curative intent go on to develop advanced disease. At a fundamental biological level, very little is known about what makes the disease aggressive and metastatic. Observational pathology reports and experimental data suggest that epithelial-mesenchymal transition is involved in prostate cancer invasiveness. Here, we investigated vimentin expression of prostate cancer cells, and explored the potential mechanism of vimentin promoting prostate cancer cells invasion. Vimentin expression was not detected in well differentiated tumors or in moderately differentiated tumors, but the majority of poorly differentiated cancers (5/11 with negative bone scan, 11/14 bone with positive scan) and bone metastases (8/8) had high vimentin expression in tumor cells. Downregulation of vimentin expression in PC-3 cells by transfection with antisense-vimentin led to a significant decrease in tumor cells motility and invasive activity. Furthermore, the expression of E-cadherin was inversely associated with expression of vimentin. Our results suggest that vimentin affects prostate cancer cells motility and invasiveness.

    Cell biochemistry and function 2008;26;5;571-7

  • Vimentin filaments support extension of tubulin-based microtentacles in detached breast tumor cells.

    Whipple RA, Balzer EM, Cho EH, Matrone MA, Yoon JR and Martin SS

    University of Maryland School of Medicine, Marlene and Stewart Greenebaum Cancer Center, Department of Physiology, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

    Solid tumor metastasis often involves detachment of epithelial carcinoma cells into the vasculature or lymphatics. However, most studies of cytoskeletal rearrangement in solid tumors focus on attached cells. In this study, we report for the first time that human breast tumor cells produce unique tubulin-based protrusions when detached from extracellular matrix. Tumor cell lines of high metastatic potential show significantly increased extension and frequency of microtubule protrusions, which we have termed tubulin microtentacles. Our previous studies in nontumorigenic mammary epithelial cells showed that such detachment-induced microtentacles are enriched in detyrosinated alpha-tubulin. However, amounts of detyrosinated tubulin were similar in breast tumor cell lines despite varying microtentacle levels. Because detyrosinated alpha-tubulin associates strongly with intermediate filament proteins, we examined the contribution of cytokeratin and vimentin filaments to tumor cell microtentacles. Increased microtentacle frequency and extension correlated strongly with loss of cytokeratin expression and up-regulation of vimentin, as is often observed during tumor progression. Moreover, vimentin filaments coaligned with microtentacles, whereas cytokeratin did not. Disruption of vimentin with PP1/PP2A-specific inhibitors significantly reduced microtentacles and inhibited cell reattachment to extracellular matrix. Furthermore, expression of a dominant-negative vimentin mutant disrupted endogenous vimentin filaments and significantly reduced microtentacles, providing specific genetic evidence that vimentin supports microtentacles. Our results define a novel model in which coordination of vimentin and detyrosinated microtubules provides structural support for the extensive microtentacles observed in detached tumor cells and a possible mechanism to promote successful metastatic spread.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: 1R01CA124704-01, K01 CA096555, K01-CA096555, P30 CA134274, R01 CA124704, R01 CA124704-02

    Cancer research 2008;68;14;5678-88

  • Vimentin isoform expression in the human retina characterized with the monoclonal antibody 3CB2.

    Pérez-Alvarez MJ, Isiegas C, Santano C, Salazar JJ, Ramírez AI, Triviño A, Ramírez JM, Albar JP, de la Rosa EJ and Prada C

    Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Universidad Complutense, Madrid, Spain.

    The antigen recognized by the monoclonal antibody 3CB2 (3CB2-Ag and 3CB2 mAb) is expressed by radial glia and astrocytes in the developing and adult vertebrate central nervous system (CNS) of vertebrates as well as in neural stem cells. Here we identified the 3CB2-Ag as vimentin by proteomic analysis of human glial cell line U-87 extracts (derived from a malignant astrocytoma). Indeed, the 3CB2 mAb recognized three vimentin isoforms in glial cell lines. In the human retina, 3CB2-Ag was expressed in Müller cells, astrocytes, some blood vessels, and cells in the horizontal cell layer, as determined by immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence. Three populations of astrocytes were distinguishable by double-labeling immunohistochemistry: vimentin+/GFAP+, vimentin-/GFAP+, and vimentin+/GFAP-. Hence, we conclude that 1) the 3CB2-Ag is vimentin; 2) vimentin isoforms are differentially expressed in normal and transformed astrocytes; 3) human retinal astrocytes display molecular heterogeneity; and 4) the 3CB2 mAb is a valuable tool to study vimentin expression and its function in the human retina.

    Journal of neuroscience research 2008;86;8;1871-83

  • Interaction of surfactant protein A with the intermediate filaments desmin and vimentin.

    Garcia-Verdugo I, Synguelakis M, Degrouard J, Franco CA, Valot B, Zivy M, Chaby R and Tanfin Z

    Institut de Biochimie et Biophysique Moléculaire et Cellulaire, UMR-8619 du CNRS, Université de Paris-Sud, 91400 Orsay, France. ignaciogarciaverdugo@yahoo.com

    Surfactant protein A (SP-A), a member of the collectin family that modulates innate immunity, has recently been involved in the physiology of reproduction. Consistent with the activation of ERK-1/2 and COX-2 induced by SP-A in myometrial cells, we reported previously the presence of two major proteins recognized by SP-A in these cells. Here we identify by mass spectrometry one of these SP-A targets as the intermediate filament (IF) desmin. In myometrial preparations derived from desmin-deficient mice, the absence of binding of SP-A to any 50 kDa protein confirmed the identity of this SP-A-binding site as desmin. Our data based on partial chymotrypsin digestion of pure desmin suggested that SP-A recognizes especially its rod domain, which is known to play an important role during the assembly of desmin into filaments. In line with that, electron microscopy experiments showed that SP-A inhibits in vitro the polymerization of desmin filaments. SP-A also recognized in vitro polymerized filaments in a calcium-dependent manner at a physiological ionic strength but not the C1q receptor gC1qR. Furthermore, Texas Red-labeled SP-A colocalized with desmin filaments in myometrial cells. Interestingly, vimentin, the IF characteristic of leukocytes, is one of the major proteins recognized by SP-A in protein extracts of U937 cells after PMA-induced differentiation of this monocytic cell line. Interaction of SP-A with vimentin was further confirmed using recombinant vimentin in solid-phase binding assays. The ability of SP-A to interact with desmin and vimentin, and to prevent polymerization of desmin monomers, shed light on unexpected and wider biological roles of this collectin.

    Biochemistry 2008;47;18;5127-38

  • Up-regulation of vimentin expression in low-density malignant glioma cells as immediate and late effects under irradiation and temozolomide treatment.

    Trog D, Yeghiazaryan K, Schild HH and Golubnitschaja O

    Department of Radiology, Friedrich-Wilhelms-University of Bonn, 53105 Bonn, Germany.

    Nervous system tumors are one of the leading causes of cancer related death. Specific mechanisms facilitating the invasive behavior of gliomas remain obscure. Advanced simulation models of the in vivo response to therapy conditions should potentially improve malignant glioma treatment. Expressional profiling of vimentin--one of reliable pro-invasive tumor makers--in those simulation models was the goal of this study, in order to estimate a pro-invasive response of surviving malignant glioma cells under clinically relevant therapeutic conditions. Human U87-MG malignant glioma cells were used. These cells are characterized by the wild p53-phenotype, which is relevant for the majority of primary malignant glioblastomas. Experimental design foresaw the cells to undergo either irradiation or chemo-treatment with temozolomide alone, or combined treatment. Expression profiling of vimentin was performed by quantitative "Real-Time"-PCR under all treatment conditions simulating diverse tumor regions. Here we demonstrated that vimentin expression patterns in human malignant glioma cells strongly depend on cellular density, algorithms of drug delivery and chemo/radio treatment. Substantial differences were recognized between immediate and late therapy effects. Significant increase in vimentin expression levels was detected particularly in low-density cell cultures under durable treatment with constant concentration levels of temezolomide. Simulation of variable intratumoral regional conditions (central intratumoral regions vs. disseminated malignant cells in peripheral regions) demonstrated differential response of vimentin expression in malignant glioma cell cultures treated under clinically relevant conditions. Slight ebbing of expression levels as late effects of the treatment in confluent cultures may correspond to necrotic processes clinically observed in central intratumoral regions. Contrary, in disseminated malignant cells of peripheral regions therapy resulted in vimentin-inducing effects. This is in agreement with the clinical observations of an increased aggressiveness and malignancy grade of post-operatively chemo/radio-treated malignant gliomas.

    Amino acids 2008;34;4;539-45

  • Toward a confocal subcellular atlas of the human proteome.

    Barbe L, Lundberg E, Oksvold P, Stenius A, Lewin E, Björling E, Asplund A, Pontén F, Brismar H, Uhlén M and Andersson-Svahn H

    Department of Biotechnology, AlbaNova University Center, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.

    Information on protein localization on the subcellular level is important to map and characterize the proteome and to better understand cellular functions of proteins. Here we report on a pilot study of 466 proteins in three human cell lines aimed to allow large scale confocal microscopy analysis using protein-specific antibodies. Approximately 3000 high resolution images were generated, and more than 80% of the analyzed proteins could be classified in one or multiple subcellular compartment(s). The localizations of the proteins showed, in many cases, good agreement with the Gene Ontology localization prediction model. This is the first large scale antibody-based study to localize proteins into subcellular compartments using antibodies and confocal microscopy. The results suggest that this approach might be a valuable tool in conjunction with predictive models for protein localization.

    Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 2008;7;3;499-508

  • Differential Notch and TGFbeta signaling in primary colorectal tumors and their corresponding metastases.

    Veenendaal LM, Kranenburg O, Smakman N, Klomp A, Borel Rinkes IH and van Diest PJ

    Department of Surgery, University Medical Center Utrecht, The Netherlands.

    Background: Loss of epithelial morphology and the acquisition of mesenchymal characteristics may contribute to metastasis formation during colorectal tumorigenesis. The Wnt, Notch and TGFbeta signaling pathways control tissue homeostasis and tumor development in the gut. The relationship between the activity of these pathways and the expression of epithelial and mesenchymal markers was investigated in a series of primary colorectal tumors and their corresponding metastases.

    Methods: Tissue samples of primary colorectal tumors, normal colonic mucosa, and regional and systemic metastases were processed for immunohistochemistry in a tissue microarray format. The expression of mesenchymal (vimentin, fibronectin) and epithelial (E-cadherin) markers was related to markers of Wnt (beta-catenin), Notch (HES1) and TGFbeta (phospho-SMAD2) signalling. In addition, the KRAS mutation status was assessed.

    Results: When compared to normal mucosa, primary colorectal tumors showed a marked increase in the levels of cytoplasmic vimentin and nuclear beta-catenin, phospho-SMAD2 and HES1. Increased vimentin expression correlated with the presence of oncogenic KRAS and with nuclear beta-catenin. The corresponding liver, lymph node, brain and lung metastases did not express vimentin and displayed significantly lower levels of nuclear phospho-SMAD2 and HES1, while retaining nuclear beta-catenin.

    Conclusions: Primary colorectal carcinomas display aberrant expression of vimentin, and have activated Notch and TGFbeta signaling pathways. Surprisingly, many regional and distant metastases have lost nuclear HES1 and pSMAD2, suggesting that the activity of the Notch and TGFbeta pathways is reduced in secondary colorectal tumors.

    Cellular oncology : the official journal of the International Society for Cellular Oncology 2008;30;1;1-11

  • Histological, immunohistochemical and biological data in assessing interstitial fibrosis in patients with chronic glomerulonephritis.

    Bob FR, Gluhovschi G, Herman D, Potencz E, Gluhovschi C, Trandafirescu V, Schiller A, Petrica L, Velciov S, Bozdog G and Vernic C

    Department of Nephrology, University of Medicine and Pharmacy Victor Babes Timisoara, Romania. frbob@upcnet.ro

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between histological, immunohistochemical (IHC) and biological data in the assessment of interstitial fibrosis in patients with glomerular diseases. A group of 41 patients with primary and secondary glomerulonephritis was studied. In order to quantify the histological changes and to assess the extent of active-inflammatory and chronic-sclerotic/fibrotic interstitial lesions, we adapted a scoring system, initially used for lupus nephritis, and ANCA-associated vasculitis. IHC labeling procedures with monoclonal antibodies anti-smooth muscle actin (SMA), anti-vimentin and anti-transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) were assessed using a semi-quantitative score, correlated with the histological and biological data. Our results showed that interstitial labeling of SMA correlated with scores for sclerotic/fibrotic lesions (chronicity index) and with active-inflammatory lesions (interstitial infiltrate, activity index). Interstitial vimentin correlated with the score for interstitial infiltrate. Both interstitial vimentin and TGFbeta immunopositivity correlated with sclerotic/fibrotic lesions (interstitial fibrosis, tubular atrophies, vascular hyalinosis/fibrosis, chronicity index), and negatively with glomerular filtration rate. An important correlation was found between the interstitial labeling of the two IHC markers of myofibroblasts (SMA and vimentin). We conclude that IHC studies related to clinico-biological and histological data can have an important role in the evaluation of the glomerular diseases, but the classical histological investigation assessed through quantification has still not lost its importance.

    Acta histochemica 2008;110;3;196-203

  • Vimentin is required for dengue virus serotype 2 infection but microtubules are not necessary for this process.

    Chen W, Gao N, Wang JL, Tian YP, Chen ZT and An J

    Department of Microbiology, Third Military Medical University, 400038 Chongqing, People's Republic of China.

    The present study investigated the effect of microtubules (MTs) and vimentin during dengue virus serotype 2 (DV2) infection. Immunostaining showed that DV2 infection induced MT and vimentin reorganization. Colocalization of DV2 antigens with MTs or vimentin were often observed in ECV304 cells. MT-disrupting agents could enhance DV2 release but did not affect other steps of virus replication. In contrast, disruption of vimentin inhibited DV2 infection. Our results suggest that an MT-dependent mechanism may not be necessary for DV2 infection, and MT disruption may promote DV2 release. However, vimentin is required for DV2 infection.

    Archives of virology 2008;153;9;1777-81

  • Study of protein targets for covalent modification by the antitumoral and anti-inflammatory prostaglandin PGA1: focus on vimentin.

    Gharbi S, Garzón B, Gayarre J, Timms J and Pérez-Sala D

    Cancer Proteomics Group, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, London, and Department of Gynaecological Oncology, University College London, UK.

    Prostaglandins with cyclopentenone structure (cyPG) display potent antiproliferative actions that have elicited their study as potential anticancer agents. Several natural and synthetic analogs of the cyPG prostaglandin A(1) (PGA(1)) have proven antitumoral efficacy in cancer cell lines and animal models. In addition, PGA(1) has been used as an inhibitor of transcription factor NF-kappaB-mediated processes, including inflammatory gene expression and viral replication. An important determinant for these effects is the ability of cyPG to form Michael adducts with free thiol groups. The chemical nature of this interaction implies that PGA(1) could covalently modify cysteine residues in a large number of cellular proteins potentially involved in its beneficial effects. However, only a few targets of PGA(1) have been identified. In previous work, we have observed that a biotinylated analog of PGA(1) that retains the cyclopentenone moiety (PGA(1)-B) binds to multiple targets in fibroblasts. Here, we have addressed the identification of these targets through a proteomic approach. Cell fractionation followed by avidin affinity chromatography yielded a fraction enriched in proteins modified by PGA(1)-B. Analysis of this fraction by SDS-PAGE and LC-MS/MS allowed the identification of the chaperone Hsp90, elongation and initiation factors for protein synthesis and cytoskeletal proteins including actin, tubulin and vimentin. Furthermore, we have characterized the modification of vimentin both in vitro and in intact cells. Our observations indicate that cysteine 328 is the main site for PGA(1) addition. These results may contribute to a better understanding of the mechanism of action of PGA(1) and the potential of cyPG-based therapeutic strategies.

    Journal of mass spectrometry : JMS 2007;42;11;1474-84

  • Promoter-independent regulation of vimentin expression in mammary epithelial cells by val(12)ras and TGFbeta.

    Yates B, Zetterberg C, Rajeev V, Reiss M and Rittling SR

    The Forsyth Institute, 140 The Fenway, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

    The 1,029 series of mammary epithelial cell lines (D6, GP+E, r3 and r3T) are progressively more transformed: the latter two by val(12)ras. These cell lines respond to TGFbeta by undergoing early events of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), including morphological changes and redistribution of E-cadherin. Tumors formed by r3T cells in the choroid of the eye express vimentin, a late marker of EMT, possibly in response to TGFbeta. In vitro, vimentin expression is induced in all the cell lines by TGFbeta treatment, whereas cytokeratin expression is only slightly affected. Surprisingly, ras transformation results in a 10-fold suppression of vimentin expression. Neither suppression of vimentin by ras transformation nor induction by TGFbeta is mediated by the vimentin promoter in r3T cells. In transient transfection assays, several human vimentin promoter constructs are more active in the low-expressing r3T cell line than in the vimentin-expressing mesenchymal cell line NIH3T3. In the r3T cells, there is no effect of TGFbeta treatment for 9 days on the activity of either promoter. Azacytidine treatment does not affect vimentin expression in either NIH3T3 or r3T, suggesting that promoter methylation is not the mechanism of suppression by ras. Finally, the half-life of the vimentin mRNA is similar in both the r3T cells and NIH3T3 cells. We conclude that the suppression of vimentin expression by ras, and the relief of this suppression by TGFbeta, occurs in a promoter-independent fashion, possibly through sequences in the first or second intron.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK067685, R01 DK067685-02, R01 DK067685-03, R01 DK067685-04

    Experimental cell research 2007;313;17;3718-28

  • Down-regulation of vimentin expression inhibits carcinoma cell migration and adhesion.

    McInroy L and Määttä A

    Centre for Stem Cell Research and Regenerative Medicine, School of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, University of Durham, DH1 3LE Durham, UK.

    Vimentin is a type III Intermediate filament protein that is expressed frequently in epithelial carcinomas correlating with invasiveness and poor prognosis. We have analysed migration and adhesion to collagenous matrix of a panel of carcinoma cell lines. In vitro invasiveness was highest in vimentin-positive SW480 colon cancer and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells and the role of vimentin in these cell lines was investigated by RNA interference. Down-regulation of vimentin expression resulted in impaired migration in both scratch-wound experiments and in invasion assays through cell culture inserts coated with collagen gel. Compromised migration was observed in both cell lines, whereas cell attachment assays revealed impaired adhesion to fibrillar collagen in MDA-MB-231 cells while the adhesion of vimentin-ablated SW480 cells, that express both vimentin and keratin intermediate filaments was not affected. In conclusion, ablation of vimentin expression inhibits migration and invasion of colon and breast cancer cell lines.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2007;360;1;109-14

  • Clonal analysis of nestin(-) vimentin(+) multipotent fibroblasts isolated from human dermis.

    Chen FG, Zhang WJ, Bi D, Liu W, Wei X, Chen FF, Zhu L, Cui L and Cao Y

    Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Shanghai 9th People's Hospital, Shanghai Stem Cell Institute, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Tissue Engineering, Shanghai 200011, China.

    Although several studies have shown that dermal fibroblasts possess adipogenic, osteogenic or chondrogenic differentiation potential, no study has characterized this cell population in detail, and there is as yet no evidence that a single dermal fibroblast can differentiate into all these types of cells. In this study, dermal fibroblasts were isolated from human foreskin using a regular dermal fibroblast culture system. These cells could be expended in adherent culture for over 40 cell doublings. In addition, dermal fibroblasts exhibited adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic phenotypes when they were cultured in the presence of certain inducers. Importantly, clonal analysis showed that 6.4% (3/47) of the single-cell-derived clones were tripotent, 19.1% (9/47) of the clones were bipotent, and 10.6% (5/47) of the clones were unipotent. Furthermore, one of the three tested tripotent clones exhibited neurogenic and hepatogenic differentiation potential. Phenotypic analyses showed that the tripotent fibroblasts were nestin(-) vimentin(+), which is different from the dermis-derived stem cells reported by others. These results indicate that dermal fibroblasts are a heterogeneous population containing progenitors with various levels of differentiation potential, and the nestin(-) vimentin(+) fibroblasts may represent a novel type of multipotent adult stem cells in human dermis.

    Journal of cell science 2007;120;Pt 16;2875-83

  • The zinc finger repressor, ZBP-89, recruits histone deacetylase 1 to repress vimentin gene expression.

    Wu Y, Zhang X, Salmon M and Zehner ZE

    The Department of Biochemistry and the Massey Cancer Center, Medical College of Virginia Campus of Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298-0614, USA.

    Vimentin, a member of the intermediate filament (IF) protein family, exhibits a complex pattern of tissue- and developmental-specific expression. Although vimentin is widely expressed in the embryo, its expression becomes restricted during terminal differentiation. Moreover, it is often expressed in tissue culture cells despite their embryological origin and is a marker for the metastatic tumor cell. Previously, the vimentin promoter has been shown to contain several positive- and negative-acting cis-elements. The negative elements bind the transcription factor ZBP-89. Interestingly, ZBP-89 can be either an activator or a repressor of gene expression. For instance, ZBP-89 has been shown to activate p21(waf1/cip1) expression by recruiting p300 to the p21 promoter. Here, we have investigated the mechanism of ZBP-89 repression. The histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor TSA enhances vimentin gene expression requiring the proximal promoter region including GC-box 1, a known Sp1/Sp3 binding site. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays document an increase in the acetylation status of histone H3 on the endogenous vimentin gene concomitant with TSA treatment. However, EMSAs, DNA precipitation, co-immunoprecipitation and ChIP data show that it is not Sp1, but rather ZBP-89, which recruits HDAC1. From these studies we conclude that ZBP-89 functions as a repressor by recruiting HDAC1 to the vimentin promoter.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL-45422

    Genes to cells : devoted to molecular & cellular mechanisms 2007;12;8;905-18

  • A genetic association analysis of cognitive ability and cognitive ageing using 325 markers for 109 genes associated with oxidative stress or cognition.

    Harris SE, Fox H, Wright AF, Hayward C, Starr JM, Whalley LJ and Deary IJ

    Department of Psychology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK. Sarah.Harris@hgu.mrc.ac.uk <Sarah.Harris@hgu.mrc.ac.uk&gt;

    Background: Non-pathological cognitive ageing is a distressing condition affecting an increasing number of people in our 'ageing society'. Oxidative stress is hypothesised to have a major role in cellular ageing, including brain ageing.

    Results: Associations between cognitive ageing and 325 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), located in 109 genes implicated in oxidative stress and/or cognition, were examined in a unique cohort of relatively healthy older people, on whom we have cognitive ability scores at ages 11 and 79 years (LBC1921). SNPs showing a significant positive association were then genotyped in a second cohort for whom we have cognitive ability scores at the ages of 11 and 64 years (ABC1936). An intronic SNP in the APP gene (rs2830102) was significantly associated with cognitive ageing in both LBC1921 and a combined LBC1921/ABC1936 analysis (p < 0.01), but not in ABC1936 alone.

    Conclusion: This study suggests a possible role for APP in normal cognitive ageing, in addition to its role in Alzheimer's disease.

    Funded by: Medical Research Council: MC_U127561128

    BMC genetics 2007;8;43

  • A quantitative kinetic model for the in vitro assembly of intermediate filaments from tetrameric vimentin.

    Kirmse R, Portet S, Mücke N, Aebi U, Herrmann H and Langowski J

    Division of Biophysics of Macromolecules, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg, Germany.

    In vitro assembly of intermediate filament proteins is a very rapid process. It starts without significant delay by lateral association of tetramer complexes into unit-length filaments (ULFs) after raising the ionic strength from low salt to physiological conditions (100 mM KCl). We employed electron and scanning force microscopy complemented by mathematical modeling to investigate the kinetics of in vitro assembly of human recombinant vimentin. From the average length distributions of the resulting filaments measured at increasing assembly times we simulated filament assembly and estimated specific reaction rate parameters. We modeled eight different potential pathways for vimentin filament elongation. Comparing the numerical with the experimental data we conclude that a two-step mechanism involving rapid formation of ULFs followed by ULF and filament annealing is the most robust scenario for vimentin assembly. These findings agree with the first two steps of the previously proposed three-step assembly model (Herrmann, H., and Aebi, U. (1998) Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol. 8, 177-185). In particular, our modeling clearly demonstrates that end-to-end annealing of ULFs and filaments is obligatory for forming long filaments, whereas tetramer addition to filament ends does not contribute significantly to filament elongation.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2007;282;25;18563-72

  • Dissecting the 3-D structure of vimentin intermediate filaments by cryo-electron tomography.

    Goldie KN, Wedig T, Mitra AK, Aebi U, Herrmann H and Hoenger A

    Structural and Computational Biology Unit, European Molecular Biology Lab, Meyerhofstrasse 1, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany.

    Vimentin polymerizes via complex lateral interactions of coiled-coil dimers into long, flexible filaments referred to as intermediate filaments (IFs). Intermediate in diameter between microtubules and microfilaments, IFs constitute the third cytoskeletal filament system of metazoan cells. Here we investigated the molecular basis of the 3-D architecture of vimentin IFs by cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) as well as cryo-electron tomography (Cryo-ET) 3-D reconstruction. We demonstrate that vimentin filaments in cross-section exhibit predominantly a four-stranded protofibrilar organization with a right-handed supertwist with a helical pitch of about 96 nm. Compact filaments imaged by cryo-EM appear surprisingly straight and hence appear very stiff. In addition, IFs exhibited an increased flexibility at sites of partial unraveling. This is in strong contrast to chemically fixed, negatively stained preparations of vimentin filaments that generally exhibit smooth bending without untwisting. At some point along the filament unraveling may be triggered and propagates in a cooperative manner so that long stretches of filaments appear to have unraveled rapidly in a coordinated fashion.

    Journal of structural biology 2007;158;3;378-85

  • HDM2-binding partners: interaction with translation elongation factor EF1alpha.

    Frum R, Busby SA, Ramamoorthy M, Deb S, Shabanowitz J, Hunt DF and Deb SP

    Department of Biochemistry and the Massey Cancer Center, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298, USA.

    To understand the cellular functions of HDM2, we attempted to identify novel HDM2-interacting proteins by proteomic analysis. Along with previously identified interactions with the ribosomal proteins, our analysis reveals interactions of HDM2 with the ribosomal translation elongation factor EF1alpha, 40S ribosomal protein S20, tubulins, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and a proteolysis-inducing factor dermicidin in the absence of tumor suppressor p53. Because a CTCL tumor antigen HD-CL-08 has high degree of homology with EF1alpha, we confirmed interaction of HDM2 with EF1alpha by immunoprecipitation and Western blot analysis in transformed as well as near normal diploid cells. Endogenous HDM2- EF1alpha complex was detected in cancer cells overexpressing HDM2, suggesting a possible role of this interaction in HDM2-mediated oncogenesis. Consistent with their interaction, colocalization of HDM2 and EF1alpha can be detected in the cytoplasm of normal or transformed cells. Amino acid residues 1-58 and 221-325 of HDM2 were found to be essential for its interaction with EF1alpha, suggesting that the interaction is independent of its other ribosomal interacting proteins L5, L11, and L23. Overexpression of HDM2 did not affect translation. Because EF1alpha has been implicated in DNA replication and severing of microtubules, interaction of HDM2 with EF1alpha may signify a p53-independent cell growth regulatory role of HDM2.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA70712, CA74172; NIGMS NIH HHS: R01 GM037537

    Journal of proteome research 2007;6;4;1410-7

  • Arterial vimentin is a transglutaminase substrate: a link between vasomotor activity and remodeling?

    Gupta M, Greenberg CS, Eckman DM and Sane DC

    Department of Internal Medicine/Cardiology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC 27157-1045, USA.

    The transglutaminases (TG2 and factor XIIIa) may contribute to the stability of arteries by cross-linking a variety of substrates, including extracellular matrix proteins and protease inhibitors. The preferred substrates have never been determined, however.

    Methods: We used an amine donor, 5-biotinamidopentylamine, that is covalently linked to acceptor glutamine residues, to determine transglutaminase substrates in carotid endarterectomy tissue.

    Results: The incorporation of 5-biotinamidopentylamine was calcium dependent, resulting in the labeling of several proteins that were detected by streptavidin-peroxidase and purified over a monomeric avidin affinity column. A major band of 42 kDa that was eluted from the column was sequenced along with 2 additional bands (80 and 65 kDa), revealing an internal fragment of vimentin, transferrin and albumin, respectively. Vimentin dimers were detected in 5 out of 5 carotid plaque homogenates.

    Conclusions: Vimentin is a major arterial substrate for transglutaminases. It has previously been shown that TG2 activity and vimentin contribute to vasomotor activity of arteries. Furthermore, transglutaminases (both TG2 and factor XIIIa), as well as vimentin, regulate structural alterations (inward remodeling) that occur in response to low flow states. Transglutaminase-mediated vimentin dimerization produces a novel unifying pathway by which vasodilatory and remodeling responses may be regulated.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: R01 HL072184, R01 HL072184-01A1, R01 HL072184-02, R01 HL072184-03, R01 HL072184-04

    Journal of vascular research 2007;44;5;339-44

  • Describing the structure and assembly of protein filaments by EPR spectroscopy of spin-labeled side chains.

    Budamagunta M, Hess J, Fitzgerald P and Voss J

    Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Medicine, University of California Davis, Davis, CA 95616, USA.

    In this review we summarize our approach to the study of Intermediate Filament (IF) structure and assembly by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy of site-directed spin labels. Using vimentin, a homopolymeric type III IF protein, we demonstrate that this approach serves as a general paradigm for studying protein filament structure and assembly. These strategies will be useful in exploring the structure and assembly properties of other filamentous or aggregation-prone systems.

    Cell biochemistry and biophysics 2007;48;1;45-53

  • Immunohistochemical expression of vimentin, calponin and HHF-35 in salivary gland tumors.

    Cavalcante RB, Lopes FF, Ferreira AS, Freitas Rde A and de Souza LB

    Department of Oral Pathology, School of Dentistry, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, RN, Brazil.

    Myoepithelial cells present a complex immunophenotype, with the expression of proteins varying according to the stage of normal or neoplastic differentiation of the cell. In order to evaluate the immunohistochemical markers expressed by these cells, a panel of antibodies composed of vimentin, calponin and HHF-35 was applied to 28 salivary gland tumors. The results demonstrated a higher percent sensitivity of vimentin and calponin compared to HHF-35. However, calponin and HHF-35 presented a focal labeling pattern in contrast with the diffuse distribution of vimentin. The cells predominantly stained by all tested antibodies included nonluminal cells in duct-like and tubular structures, such as those seen in pleomorphic adenomas and adenoid cystic carcinomas, as well as cells in the cords and nests of polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinomas and peripheral cells of sheets and nests of myoepitheliomas. In conclusion, the combination of calponin and vimentin is suggested for the identification of myoepithelial cells in salivary gland tumors.

    Brazilian dental journal 2007;18;3;192-7

  • Identification of a surface protein on human brain microvascular endothelial cells as vimentin interacting with Escherichia coli invasion protein IbeA.

    Zou Y, He L and Huang SH

    The Saban Research Institute, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, University of Southern California, CA 90027, USA. yzou@chla.usc.edu

    Escherichia coli K1 is the most common gram-negative bacteria that cause meningitis during the neonatal period. The ibeA gene product in E. coli K1 has been characterized as a virulence factor that contributes to the binding to and invasion of brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMEC). Here, we identified a surface protein on human BMEC, vimentin, that interacts with the E. coli invasion protein IbeA. The binding sites of the IbeA-vimentin interaction are located in the 271-370 residue region of IbeA and the vimentin head domain. The regulatory protease factor Xa is able to cleave IbeA between R297 and K298 residues, and this cleavage abolishes the IbeA-vimentin interaction.

    Funded by: NIAID NIH HHS: R01AI040635

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2006;351;3;625-30

  • A specific cadherin phenotype may characterise the disseminating yet non-metastatic behaviour of pseudomyxoma peritonei.

    Bibi R, Pranesh N, Saunders MP, Wilson MS, O'dwyer ST, Stern PL and Renehan AG

    Cancer Research UK Immunology Group, Paterson Institute for Cancer Research, Manchester, UK.

    Pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP) is a rare neoplasm of mainly appendiceal origin, characterised by excess intra-abdominal mucin production leading to high morbidity and mortality. While histological features are frequently indolent, this tumour disseminates aggressively throughout the abdominal cavity, yet seldom metastasises. This study determined the expression of several markers of colorectal differentiation (carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), cytokeratins (CK20 and CK7), epithelial membrane antigen), mucin production (MUC-2, interleukin-9 (IL-9), IL-9 receptor (IL-9Ralpha)), and cell adhesion (N- and E-cadherin, vimentin) in PMP tissue (n=26) compared with expressions in normal colonic mucosa (n=19) and colorectal adenocarcinoma (n=26). Expressions of CEA and cytokeratins were similar for PMP as those in colorectal adenocarcinomas with the exception that the CK20-/CK7- pattern was rare in PMP (Fisher's exact test: P=0.001). Similarly, expressions of mucin-related proteins were comparable for adenocarcinoma and PMP, with the exception that IL-9 expression was uncommon in adenocarcinoma (P=0.009). Pseudomyxoma peritonei demonstrated a specific pattern of adhesion-related protein expressions of increased N-cadherin, reduced E-cadherin, and increased vimentin (P=0.004), a phenotype suggesting a possible epithelial-mesenchymal transition state. Primary PMP cell cultures were successfully maintained and demonstrated marker expressions similar to those seen in in vivo tissues. These early characterisation studies demonstrate similarities between PMP and colorectal adenocarcinoma, but also reveal a specific cadherin phenotype that may characterise the distinct non-metastasising behaviour of PMP, and form the basis for future mechanistic and therapy-targeting research.

    British journal of cancer 2006;95;9;1258-64

  • Global, in vivo, and site-specific phosphorylation dynamics in signaling networks.

    Olsen JV, Blagoev B, Gnad F, Macek B, Kumar C, Mortensen P and Mann M

    Center for Experimental BioInformatics, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5230 Odense, Denmark.

    Cell signaling mechanisms often transmit information via posttranslational protein modifications, most importantly reversible protein phosphorylation. Here we develop and apply a general mass spectrometric technology for identification and quantitation of phosphorylation sites as a function of stimulus, time, and subcellular location. We have detected 6,600 phosphorylation sites on 2,244 proteins and have determined their temporal dynamics after stimulating HeLa cells with epidermal growth factor (EGF) and recorded them in the Phosida database. Fourteen percent of phosphorylation sites are modulated at least 2-fold by EGF, and these were classified by their temporal profiles. Surprisingly, a majority of proteins contain multiple phosphorylation sites showing different kinetics, suggesting that they serve as platforms for integrating signals. In addition to protein kinase cascades, the targets of reversible phosphorylation include ubiquitin ligases, guanine nucleotide exchange factors, and at least 46 different transcriptional regulators. The dynamic phosphoproteome provides a missing link in a global, integrative view of cellular regulation.

    Cell 2006;127;3;635-48

  • Vimentin expressed on Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected human monocytes is involved in binding to the NKp46 receptor.

    Garg A, Barnes PF, Porgador A, Roy S, Wu S, Nanda JS, Griffith DE, Girard WM, Rawal N, Shetty S and Vankayalapati R

    Center for Pulmonary and Infectious Disease Control, University of Texas Health Center, 11937 U.S. Highway 271, Tyler, TX 75708, USA.

    We previously showed that human NK cells used the NKp46 receptor to lyse Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra-infected monocytes. To identify ligands on H37Ra-infected human mononuclear phagocytes, we used anti-NKp46 to immunoprecipitate NKp46 from NK cells bound to its ligand(s) on H37Ra-infected monocytes. Mass spectrometry analysis identified a 57-kDa molecule, vimentin, as a putative ligand for NKp46. Vimentin expression was significantly up-regulated on the surface of infected monocytes, compared with uninfected cells, and this was confirmed by fluorescence microscopy. Anti-vimentin antiserum inhibited NK cell lysis of infected monocytes, whereas antiserum to actin, another filamentous protein, did not. CHO-K1 cells transfected with a vimentin construct were lysed much more efficiently by NK cells than cells transfected with a control plasmid. This lysis was inhibited by mAb-mediated masking of NKp46 (on NK cells) or vimentin (on infected monocytes). ELISA and Far Western blotting showed that recombinant vimentin bound to a NKp46 fusion protein. These results indicate that vimentin is involved in binding of NKp46 to M. tuberculosis H37Ra-infected mononuclear phagocytes.

    Funded by: NIAID NIH HHS: AI 044935, AI 054629, AI 063514

    Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 2006;177;9;6192-8

  • Monitoring intermediate filament assembly by small-angle x-ray scattering reveals the molecular architecture of assembly intermediates.

    Sokolova AV, Kreplak L, Wedig T, Mücke N, Svergun DI, Herrmann H, Aebi U and Strelkov SV

    Shemyakin-Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry and Institute of Crystallography, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 119991, Russia.

    Intermediate filaments (IFs), along with microtubules, microfilaments, and associated cross-bridging proteins, constitute the cytoskeleton of metazoan cells. While crystallographic data on the dimer representing the elementary IF "building block" have recently become available, little structural detail is known about both the mature IF architecture and its assembly pathway. Here, we have applied solution small-angle x-ray scattering to investigate the in vitro assembly of a 53-kDa human IF protein vimentin at pH 8.4 by systematically varying the ionic strength conditions, and complemented these experiments by electron microscopy and analytical ultracentrifugation. While a vimentin solution in 5 mM Tris.HCl (pH 8.4) contains predominantly tetramers, addition of 20 mM NaCl induces further lateral assembly evidenced by the shift of the sedimentation coefficient and yields a distinct octameric intermediate. Four octamers eventually associate into unit-length filaments (ULFs) that anneal longitudinally. Based on the small-angle x-ray scattering experiments supplemented by crystallographic data and additional structural constraints, 3D molecular models of the vimentin tetramer, octamer, and ULF were constructed. Within each of the three oligomers, the adjacent dimers are aligned exclusively in an approximately half-staggered antiparallel A(11) mode with a distance of 3.2-3.4 nm between their axes. The ULF appears to be a dynamic and a relatively loosely packed structure with a roughly even mass distribution over its cross-section.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2006;103;44;16206-11

  • A direct interaction between actin and vimentin filaments mediated by the tail domain of vimentin.

    Esue O, Carson AA, Tseng Y and Wirtz D

    Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218, USA.

    The assembly and organization of the three major eukaryotic cytoskeleton proteins, actin, microtubules, and intermediate filaments, are highly interdependent. Through evolution, cells have developed specialized multifunctional proteins that mediate the cross-linking of these cytoskeleton filament networks. Here we test the hypothesis that two of these filamentous proteins, F-actin and vimentin filament, can interact directly, i.e. in the absence of auxiliary proteins. Through quantitative rheological studies, we find that a mixture of vimentin/actin filament network features a significantly higher stiffness than that of networks containing only actin filaments or only vimentin filaments. Maximum inter-filament interaction occurs at a vimentin/actin molar ratio of 3 to 1. Mixed networks of actin and tailless vimentin filaments show low mechanical stiffness and much weaker inter-filament interactions. Together with the fact that cells featuring prominent vimentin and actin networks are much stiffer than their counterparts lacking an organized actin or vimentin network, these results suggest that actin and vimentin filaments can interact directly through the tail domain of vimentin and that these inter-filament interactions may contribute to the overall mechanical integrity of cells and mediate cytoskeletal cross-talk.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM075305

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2006;281;41;30393-9

  • A probability-based approach for high-throughput protein phosphorylation analysis and site localization.

    Beausoleil SA, Villén J, Gerber SA, Rush J and Gygi SP

    Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, 240 Longwood Ave., Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    Data analysis and interpretation remain major logistical challenges when attempting to identify large numbers of protein phosphorylation sites by nanoscale reverse-phase liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) (Supplementary Figure 1 online). In this report we address challenges that are often only addressable by laborious manual validation, including data set error, data set sensitivity and phosphorylation site localization. We provide a large-scale phosphorylation data set with a measured error rate as determined by the target-decoy approach, we demonstrate an approach to maximize data set sensitivity by efficiently distracting incorrect peptide spectral matches (PSMs), and we present a probability-based score, the Ascore, that measures the probability of correct phosphorylation site localization based on the presence and intensity of site-determining ions in MS/MS spectra. We applied our methods in a fully automated fashion to nocodazole-arrested HeLa cell lysate where we identified 1,761 nonredundant phosphorylation sites from 491 proteins with a peptide false-positive rate of 1.3%.

    Funded by: NHGRI NIH HHS: HG03456; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM67945

    Nature biotechnology 2006;24;10;1285-92

  • Architecture of the vimentin cytoskeleton is modified by perturbation of the GTPase ARF1.

    Styers ML, Kowalczyk AP and Faundez V

    Graduate Program in Biochemistry, Cell, and Developmental Biology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA.

    Intermediate filaments are required for proper membrane protein trafficking. However, it remains unclear whether perturbations in vesicular membrane transport result in changes in the architecture of the vimentin cytoskeleton. We find that treatment of cells with Brefeldin A, an inhibitor of specific stages of membrane transport, causes changes in the organization of vimentin filaments. These changes arise from movement of pre-existing filaments. Brefeldin A treatment also leads to alterations in the microtubule cytoskeleton. However, this effect is not observed in cells lacking intermediate filaments, indicating that microtubule bundling is downstream of perturbations in the vimentin cytoskeleton. Brefeldin A-induced changes in vimentin architecture are probably mediated through its effects on ADP-ribosylation factor 1 (ARF1). Expression of a dominant-negative mutant of ARF1 induces BFA-like modifications in vimentin morphology. The BFA-dependent changes in vimentin architecture occurred concurrently with the release of the ARF1-regulated adaptor complexes AP-3 and AP-1 from membranes and adaptor redistribution to vimentin networks. These observations indicate that perturbation of the vesicular membrane transport machinery lead to reciprocal changes in the architecture of vimentin networks.

    Funded by: NIAMS NIH HHS: 2T32AR007587-11, 5P30AR042687-090044; NINDS NIH HHS: R01 NS42599

    Journal of cell science 2006;119;Pt 17;3643-54

  • Regulation of vimentin by SIP1 in human epithelial breast tumor cells.

    Bindels S, Mestdagt M, Vandewalle C, Jacobs N, Volders L, Noël A, van Roy F, Berx G, Foidart JM and Gilles C

    Laboratory of Tumor and Developmental Biology, Center for Biomedical Integrated Genoproteomics, University of Liège, CHU Sart-Tilman, Liège, Belgium.

    The expression of Smad interacting protein-1 (SIP1; ZEB2) and the de novo expression of vimentin are frequently involved in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transitions (EMTs) under both normal and pathological conditions. In the present study, we investigated the potential role of SIP1 in the regulation of vimentin during the EMT associated with breast tumor cell migration and invasion. Examining several breast tumor cell lines displaying various degrees of invasiveness, we found SIP1 and vimentin expression only in invasive cell lines. Also, using a model of cell migration with human mammary MCF10A cells, we showed that SIP1 is induced specifically in vimentin-positive migratory cells. Furthermore, transfection of SIP1 cDNA in MCF10A cells increased their vimentin expression both at the mRNA and protein levels and enhanced their migratory abilities in Boyden Chamber assays. Inversely, inhibition of SIP1 expression by RNAi strategies in BT-549 cells and MCF10A cells decreased vimentin expression. We also showed that SIP1 transfection did not activate the TOP-FLASH reporter system, suggesting that the beta-catenin/TCF pathway is not implicated in the regulation of vimentin by SIP1. Our results therefore implicate SIP1 in the regulation of vimentin observed in the EMT associated with breast tumor cell migration, a pathway that may contribute to the metastatic progression of breast cancer.

    Oncogene 2006;25;36;4975-85

  • Protein phosphatase 6 subunit with conserved Sit4-associated protein domain targets IkappaBepsilon.

    Stefansson B and Brautigan DL

    Center for Cell Signaling, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908, USA.

    Protein Ser/Thr phosphatases compose a PPP family that includes type-2 PP2A, PP4, and PP6, each with essential functions. The human PP6 gene rescues sit4(ts) mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Sit4 phosphatase function depends on multiple Sit4-associated protein (SAP) subunits. We report here finding a SAPS sequence domain encoded in only a single gene each in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Caenorhabditis elegans, and Drosophila but in three distinct open reading frames in Xenopus, Mus musculus, and Homo sapiens. The SAPS proteins are more divergent in sequence than PP6. Northern hybridization showed differential distribution of the human SAPS-related mRNA in multiple human tissues, named as PP6R1, PP6R2, and PP6R3. Antibodies were generated, distribution of endogenous PP6, PP6R1, PP6R2, and PP6R3 proteins was examined by immunoblotting, and the abundance of mRNA and protein in various tissues did not match. FLAG-tagged PP6R1 and PP6R2 expressed in HEK293 cells co-precipitated endogenous PP6, but not PP2A or PP4, showing specificity for recognition of phosphatases. The SAPS domain of PP6R1 alone was sufficient for association with PP6, and this predicts that conserved sequence motifs in the SAPS domain accounts for the specificity. FLAG-PP6R1 and FLAG-PP6R2 co-precipitated HA-IkappaBepsilon. Knockdown of PP6 or PP6R1 but not PP6R3 with siRNA significantly enhanced degradation of endogenous IkappaBepsilon in response to tumor necrosis factor-alpha. The results show SAPS domain subunits recruit substrates such as IkappaBepsilon as one way to determine specific functions for PP6.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA-77584

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2006;281;32;22624-34

  • Group A streptococcal myonecrosis: increased vimentin expression after skeletal-muscle injury mediates the binding of Streptococcus pyogenes.

    Bryant AE, Bayer CR, Huntington JD and Stevens DL

    Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Boise, Idaho 83702, USA. amy.bryant@mindspring.com

    Necrotizing fasciitis and myonecrosis caused by invasive infection with group A streptococci (GAS) are life-threatening conditions that have reemerged worldwide. Half of all GAS myonecrosis cases have no known portal of entry; yet, for unknown reasons, infection becomes established precisely at the site of a prior, nonpenetrating minor injury, such as a muscle strain. We hypothesized that GAS establishes infection by binding to surface molecules that are up-regulated on injured skeletal-muscle cells. Here, we isolated and identified vimentin as the major skeletal-muscle GAS-binding protein. Furthermore, we found that vimentin expression was up-regulated on injured skeletal-muscle cells in vitro and was expressed in muscle tissues from a patient with GAS myonecrosis who died of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. These findings provide a molecular mechanism to explain the development of severe GAS soft-tissue infections at the sites of prior minor muscle trauma. This understanding may provide a basis for novel preventive strategies or therapies for patients with this devastating infection.

    The Journal of infectious diseases 2006;193;12;1685-92

  • Interaction partners for human ZNF384/CIZ/NMP4--zyxin as a mediator for p130CAS signaling?

    Janssen H and Marynen P

    Human Genome Laboratory, Department of Human Genetics, University of Leuven, Flanders Interuniversity Institute for Biotechnology (VIB), VIB4, Campus Gasthuisberg O&N 06, Herestraat 49 Box 602, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium.

    Transcription factor ZNF384/CIZ/NMP4 was first cloned in rat as a p130Cas-binding protein and has a role in bone metabolism and spermatogenesis. It is recurrently involved in translocations in acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Translocations t(12;17) and t(12;22) fuse ZNF384 to RNA-binding proteins TAF15 and EWSR1, while a translocation t(12;19) generates an E2A/ZNF384 fusion. We screened for ZNF384 interacting proteins using yeast two-hybrid technology. In contrast to its rat homolog, human ZNF384 does not interact with p130CAS. Zyxin, PCBP1, and vimentin, however, were identified as ZNF384-binding partners. Given the interaction between human zyxin and p130CAS, these results suggest that zyxin indirectly enables the interaction of ZNF384 with p130CAS which is described in rat.

    Experimental cell research 2006;312;7;1194-204

  • Phosphoproteome analysis of the human mitotic spindle.

    Nousiainen M, Silljé HH, Sauer G, Nigg EA and Körner R

    Department of Cell Biology, Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry, Am Klopferspitz 18, D-82152 Martinsried, Germany.

    During cell division, the mitotic spindle segregates the sister chromatids into two nascent cells, such that each daughter cell inherits one complete set of chromosomes. Errors in spindle formation can result in both chromosome missegregation and cytokinesis defects and hence lead to genomic instability. To ensure the correct function of the spindle, the activity and localization of spindle associated proteins has to be tightly regulated in time and space. Reversible phosphorylation has been shown to be one of the key regulatory mechanisms for the organization of the mitotic spindle. The relatively low number of identified in vivo phosphorylation sites of spindle components, however, has hampered functional analysis of regulatory spindle networks. A more complete inventory of the phosphorylation sites of spindle-associated proteins would therefore constitute an important advance. Here, we describe the mass spectrometry-based identification of in vivo phosphorylation sites from purified human mitotic spindles. In total, 736 phosphorylation sites were identified, of which 312 could be attributed to known spindle proteins. Among these are phosphorylation sites that were previously shown to be important for the regulation of spindle-associated proteins. Importantly, this data set also comprises 279 novel phosphorylation sites of known spindle proteins for future functional studies. This inventory of spindle phosphorylation sites should thus make an important contribution to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms that regulate the formation, function, and integrity of the mitotic spindle.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2006;103;14;5391-6

  • Cell surface expression of intermediate filament proteins vimentin and lamin B1 in human neutrophil spontaneous apoptosis.

    Moisan E and Girard D

    INRS-Institut Armand-Frappier, Université du Québec, Canada.

    Neutrophils represent an important source of autoantigens for antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody associated with vasculitis. To date, two cytoskeletal proteins, vinculin and vimentin, have been reported to be expressed on the cell surfaces of activated macrophages, platelets, and apoptotic T lymphocytes. However, such cell surface expression has never been studied in human neutrophils. As we recently demonstrated that different cytoskeletal proteins were cleaved in apoptotic neutrophils, we hypothesized that some of these were expressed on the cell surface of apoptotic neutrophils. Herein, we found that among vinculin, paxillin, gelsolin, vimentin, lamin B1, alpha-tubulin, and beta-tubulin, only the two intermediate filament (INFIL) proteins, vimentin and lamin B1, are expressed on the cell surface of 24-h aged neutrophils [spontaneous apoptosis (SA)]. By monitoring intracellular expression of vimentin and lamin B1 during SA, we found that these two proteins were cleaved and that such cleavage was reversed by the pan caspase inhibitor N-benzyloxy-carbonyl-V-A-D-O-methylfluoromethyl ketone (z-VAD-fmk). When neutrophil apoptosis was delayed or suppressed by lipopolysaccharide or the cytokines granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), granulocyte macrophage (GM)-CSF, or interleukin-4, the loss of intracellular expression of vimentin and lamin B1 was prevented. The INFIL proteins were absent from the cell surface when neutrophil apoptosis was delayed. Addition of z-VAD-fmk significantly decreased the cell surface expression of vimentin and lamin B1 during SA. This study provides the first evidence that apoptotic neutrophils express cytoskeletal proteins on their surface, opening the possibility that these cells may participate in the development of autoantibodies directed against cytoskeletal proteins, a condition frequently reported in several inflammatory diseases.

    Journal of leukocyte biology 2006;79;3;489-98

  • Fibroblastic polyp of the colon: clinicopathological analysis of 10 cases with emphasis on its common association with serrated crypts.

    Groisman GM, Polak-Charcon S and Appelman HD

    Department of Pathology, Hillel Yaffe Medical Centre, Hadera, Israel. groisman@hillel-yaffe.health.gov.il

    Aims: To describe the clinical and pathological features of 10 further cases of fibroblastic polyps (FP), a recently described, distinctive type of colorectal mucosal polyp.

    The patients were seven women and three men with ages ranging from 44 to 63 years. The lesions ranged in size from 2 to 4 mm. Eight of the polyps were located in the sigmoid colon. Five cases were associated with hyperplastic polyps. Histologically, FP displayed bland, plump spindle cells with oval nuclei arranged as bundles parallel to the surface or as haphazardly orientated sheets with a focal periglandular or perivascular concentric arrangement. Eight polyps represented mixed fibroblastic/hyperplastic polyps as they contained serrated (hyperplastic) crypts. Immunohistochemically, all cases were positive for vimentin and negative for desmin, smooth-muscle actin, h-caldesmon, S100 protein, c-Kit, epithelial membrane antigen, cytokeratin AE1/3, CD34, CD68, COX-2, and factor XIIIa. Ultrastructural examination supported the fibroblastic nature of the tumour cells.

    Conclusions: FP is a distinctive type of benign mucosal colorectal polyp characterized by its distal location, small size, frequent association with hyperplastic polyps, distinct morphological appearance and typical immunonegativity for markers of specific differentiation. FP with serrated crypts (mixed fibroblastic/hyperplastic polyp) represents a frequent variant of this lesion. Pathologists should recognize FP and discriminate it from other types of colorectal polyps.

    Histopathology 2006;48;4;431-7

  • PKCepsilon-mediated phosphorylation of vimentin controls integrin recycling and motility.

    Ivaska J, Vuoriluoto K, Huovinen T, Izawa I, Inagaki M and Parker PJ

    VTT Technical Research Centre for Finland, Medical Biotechnology and University of Turku Centre for Biotechnology, Turku, Finland.

    PKCepsilon controls the transport of endocytosed beta1-integrins to the plasma membrane regulating directional cell motility. Vimentin, an intermediate filament protein upregulated upon epithelial cell transformation, is shown here to be a proximal PKCepsilon target within the recycling integrin compartment. On inhibition of PKC and vimentin phosphorylation, integrins become trapped in vesicles and directional cell motility towards matrix is severely attenuated. In vitro reconstitution assays showed that PKCepsilon dissociates from integrin containing endocytic vesicles in a selectively phosphorylated vimentin containing complex. Mutagenesis of PKC (controlled) sites on vimentin and ectopic expression of the variant leads to the accumulation of intracellular PKCepsilon/integrin positive vesicles. Finally, introduction of ectopic wild-type vimentin is shown to promote cell motility in a PKCepsilon-dependent manner; alanine substitutions in PKC (controlled) sites on vimentin abolishes the ability of vimentin to induce cell migration, whereas the substitution of these sites with acidic residues enables vimentin to rescue motility of PKCepsilon null cells. Our results indicate that PKC-mediated phosphorylation of vimentin is a key process in integrin traffic through the cell.

    The EMBO journal 2005;24;22;3834-45

  • Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network.

    Rual JF, Venkatesan K, Hao T, Hirozane-Kishikawa T, Dricot A, Li N, Berriz GF, Gibbons FD, Dreze M, Ayivi-Guedehoussou N, Klitgord N, Simon C, Boxem M, Milstein S, Rosenberg J, Goldberg DS, Zhang LV, Wong SL, Franklin G, Li S, Albala JS, Lim J, Fraughton C, Llamosas E, Cevik S, Bex C, Lamesch P, Sikorski RS, Vandenhaute J, Zoghbi HY, Smolyar A, Bosak S, Sequerra R, Doucette-Stamm L, Cusick ME, Hill DE, Roth FP and Vidal M

    Center for Cancer Systems Biology and Department of Cancer Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, 44 Binney Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    Systematic mapping of protein-protein interactions, or 'interactome' mapping, was initiated in model organisms, starting with defined biological processes and then expanding to the scale of the proteome. Although far from complete, such maps have revealed global topological and dynamic features of interactome networks that relate to known biological properties, suggesting that a human interactome map will provide insight into development and disease mechanisms at a systems level. Here we describe an initial version of a proteome-scale map of human binary protein-protein interactions. Using a stringent, high-throughput yeast two-hybrid system, we tested pairwise interactions among the products of approximately 8,100 currently available Gateway-cloned open reading frames and detected approximately 2,800 interactions. This data set, called CCSB-HI1, has a verification rate of approximately 78% as revealed by an independent co-affinity purification assay, and correlates significantly with other biological attributes. The CCSB-HI1 data set increases by approximately 70% the set of available binary interactions within the tested space and reveals more than 300 new connections to over 100 disease-associated proteins. This work represents an important step towards a systematic and comprehensive human interactome project.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R33 CA132073; NHGRI NIH HHS: P50 HG004233, R01 HG001715, RC4 HG006066, U01 HG001715; NHLBI NIH HHS: U01 HL098166

    Nature 2005;437;7062;1173-8

  • Anti-vimentin antibody detection in recipients of heart-beating and non-heart beating donor kidneys.

    Mi H, Carter V, Gupta A, Asher J, Shenton BK, Stamp S, Wong YT, Gok MA and Talbot D

    Renal/Liver Transplant Unit, The Freeman Hospital, High Heaton, Newcastle Upon Tyne NE7 7DN, UK.

    Alternative donor sources include non-heart-beating donors (NHBDs). There donors have been exposed to significant ischemia, so that it is common to utilize machine perfusion to either improve the organs or at least assess their viability. Both prolonged warm ischemia and machine perfusion can potentially damage the vascular endothelium, thereby exposing vimentin to antigenic recognition. The aim of this study was to determine whether anti-vimentin antibodies could be detected in the blood of renal transplant recipients at specific time points after transplant and whether they could be related to the donor source. Fifty-one recipients of NHBD kidneys were compared to 52 recipients of heart-beating donor (HBD) kidneys. All recipients had similar anti-vimentin levels pretransplant. However, at 1 month those kidneys from Maastricht category II NHB donors showed significantly higher levels. At 6 months both Maastricht category II and category III NHB donor recipients displayed significantly higher levels than recipients of HBD kidneys.

    Transplantation proceedings 2005;37;8;3269-71

  • Proteomics of human umbilical vein endothelial cells applied to etoposide-induced apoptosis.

    Bruneel A, Labas V, Mailloux A, Sharma S, Royer N, Vinh J, Pernet P, Vaubourdolle M and Baudin B

    Service de Biochimie A, Hôpital Saint-Antoine, AP-HP, Paris, France. arnaud.bruneel@sat.ap-hop-paris.fr

    We have undertaken to continue the proteomic study of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) using the combination of 2-DE, automated trypsin digestion, and PMF analysis after MALDI-TOF MS and peptide sequencing using nano LC-ESI-MS/MS. The overall functional characterization of the 162 identified proteins from primary cultures of HUVECs confirms the metabolic capabilities of endothelium and illustrates various cellular functions more related to cell motility and angiogenesis, protein folding, anti-oxidant defenses, signal transduction, proteasome pathway and resistance to apoptosis. In comparison with controls cells, the differential proteomic analysis of HUVECs treated by the pro-apoptotic topoisomerase inhibitor etoposide further revealed the variation of eight proteins, namely, GRP78, GRP94, valosin-containing protein, proteinase inhibitor 9, cofilin, 37-kDa laminin receptor protein, bovine apolipoprotein, and tropomyosin. These data suggest that etoposide-induced apoptosis of human vascular endothelial cells results from the intricate involvement of multiple apoptosis processes including at least the mitochondrial and the ER stress pathways. The presented 2-D pattern and protein database, as well as the data related to apoptosis of HUVECs, are available at http://www.huvec.com.

    Proteomics 2005;5;15;3876-84

  • A human protein-protein interaction network: a resource for annotating the proteome.

    Stelzl U, Worm U, Lalowski M, Haenig C, Brembeck FH, Goehler H, Stroedicke M, Zenkner M, Schoenherr A, Koeppen S, Timm J, Mintzlaff S, Abraham C, Bock N, Kietzmann S, Goedde A, Toksöz E, Droege A, Krobitsch S, Korn B, Birchmeier W, Lehrach H and Wanker EE

    Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine, 13092 Berlin-Buch, Germany.

    Protein-protein interaction maps provide a valuable framework for a better understanding of the functional organization of the proteome. To detect interacting pairs of human proteins systematically, a protein matrix of 4456 baits and 5632 preys was screened by automated yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) interaction mating. We identified 3186 mostly novel interactions among 1705 proteins, resulting in a large, highly connected network. Independent pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation assays validated the overall quality of the Y2H interactions. Using topological and GO criteria, a scoring system was developed to define 911 high-confidence interactions among 401 proteins. Furthermore, the network was searched for interactions linking uncharacterized gene products and human disease proteins to regulatory cellular pathways. Two novel Axin-1 interactions were validated experimentally, characterizing ANP32A and CRMP1 as modulators of Wnt signaling. Systematic human protein interaction screens can lead to a more comprehensive understanding of protein function and cellular processes.

    Cell 2005;122;6;957-68

  • Proteomic profiling of cellular proteins interacting with the hepatitis C virus core protein.

    Kang SM, Shin MJ, Kim JH and Oh JW

    Department of Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea.

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a causative agent of chronic hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The core protein of HCV packages the viral RNA genome to form a nucleocapsid. In addition to its function as a structural protein, core protein is involved in regulation of cellular transcription, virus-induced transformation, and pathogenesis. To gain insights into cellular functions of the core protein by identification of cellular proteins interacting with the core protein, we employed a proteomic approach. Hepatocytes soluble cytoplasmic proteins were applied to the core proteins immobilized on Ni-nitrilotriacetic resin and total bound cellular proteins were resolved by 2-DE. Analyses of interacting proteins by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry allowed identification of 14 cellular proteins binding to the core protein. These proteins include DEAD-box polypeptide 5, similar in function to a known protein identified previously by yeast two-hybrid screening and 13 newly identified cellular proteins. Interestingly, nine protein spots were identified as intermediate microfilament proteins, including cytokeratins (five spots for cytokeratin 8, two for cytokeratin 19, and one for cytokeratin 18) and vimentin. Cytokeratin 8 and vimentin, which were previously shown to be involved in the infection processes of other viruses, were further analyzed to confirm their in vivo interactions with the core protein by immunoblotting and immunofluorescence microscopy. We discuss the functional implications of the interactions of the core protein with newly identified cellular proteins in HCV infection and pathogenesis.

    Proteomics 2005;5;8;2227-37

  • The intermediate filament protein vimentin binds specifically to a recombinant integrin alpha2/beta1 cytoplasmic tail complex and co-localizes with native alpha2/beta1 in endothelial cell focal adhesions.

    Kreis S, Schönfeld HJ, Melchior C, Steiner B and Kieffer N

    LBPI: Laboratoire de Biologie et Physiologie Intégrée (CNRS/GDRE-ITI), Université du Luxembourg, 162A, avenue de la Faiencerie, L-1511 Luxembourg.

    Integrin receptors are crucial players in cell adhesion and migration. Identification and characterization of cellular proteins that interact with their short alpha and beta cytoplasmic tails will help to elucidate the molecular mechanisms by which integrins mediate bi-directional signaling across the plasma membrane. Integrin alpha2beta1 is a major collagen receptor but to date, only few proteins have been shown to interact with the alpha2 cytoplasmic tail or with the alpha2beta1 complex. In order to identify novel binding partners of a alpha2beta1cytoplasmic domain complex, we have generated recombinant GST-fusion proteins, incorporating the leucine zipper heterodimerization cassettes of Jun and Fos. To ascertain proper functionality of the recombinant proteins, interaction with natural binding partners was tested. GST-alpha2 and GST-Jun alpha2 bound His-tagged calreticulin while GST-beta1 and GST-Fos beta1 proteins bound talin. In screening assays for novel binding partners, the immobilized GST-Jun alpha2/GST-Fos beta1 heterodimeric complex, but not the single subunits, interacted specifically with endothelial cell-derived vimentin. Vimentin, an abundant intermediate filament protein, has previously been shown to co-localize with alphavbeta3-positive focal contacts. Here, we provide evidence that this interaction also occurs with alpha2beta1-enriched focal adhesions and we further show that this association is lost after prolonged adhesion of endothelial cells to collagen.

    Experimental cell research 2005;305;1;110-21

  • Characterization of structural changes in vimentin bearing an epidermolysis bullosa simplex-like mutation using site-directed spin labeling and electron paramagnetic resonance.

    Hess JF, Budamagunta MS, FitzGerald PG and Voss JC

    Department of Cell Biology and Human Anatomy, School of Medicine, University of California, Davis, California 95616, USA.

    Mutations in intermediate filament protein genes are responsible for a number of inherited genetic diseases including skin blistering diseases, corneal opacities, and neurological degenerations. Mutation of the arginine (Arg) residue of the highly conserved LNDR motif has been shown to be causative in inherited disorders in at least four different intermediate filament (IF) proteins found in skin, cornea, and the central nervous system. Thus this residue appears to be broadly important to IF assembly and/or function. While the genetic basis for these diseases has been clearly defined, the inability to determine crystal structure for IFs has precluded a determination of how these mutations affect assembly/structure/function of IFs. To investigate the impact of mutation at this site in IFs, we have mutated the LNDR to LNDS in vimentin, a Type III intermediate filament protein, and have examined the impact of this change on assembly using electron paramagnetic resonance. Compared with wild type vimentin, the mutant shows normal formation of the coiled coil dimer, with a slight reduction in the stability of the dimer in rod domain 1. Probing the dimer-dimer interactions shows the formation of normal dimer centered on residue 191 but a failure of dimerization at residue 348 in rod domain 2. These data point toward a specific stage of assembly at which a common disease-causing mutation in IF proteins interrupts assembly.

    Funded by: NEI NIH HHS: R01 EY015560-02, R01 NEI EY08747

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2005;280;3;2141-6

  • Immunoaffinity profiling of tyrosine phosphorylation in cancer cells.

    Rush J, Moritz A, Lee KA, Guo A, Goss VL, Spek EJ, Zhang H, Zha XM, Polakiewicz RD and Comb MJ

    Cell Signaling Technology Inc., 166B Cummings Center, Beverly, Massachusetts 01915, USA.

    Tyrosine kinases play a prominent role in human cancer, yet the oncogenic signaling pathways driving cell proliferation and survival have been difficult to identify, in part because of the complexity of the pathways and in part because of low cellular levels of tyrosine phosphorylation. In general, global phosphoproteomic approaches reveal small numbers of peptides containing phosphotyrosine. We have developed a strategy that emphasizes the phosphotyrosine component of the phosphoproteome and identifies large numbers of tyrosine phosphorylation sites. Peptides containing phosphotyrosine are isolated directly from protease-digested cellular protein extracts with a phosphotyrosine-specific antibody and are identified by tandem mass spectrometry. Applying this approach to several cell systems, including cancer cell lines, shows it can be used to identify activated protein kinases and their phosphorylated substrates without prior knowledge of the signaling networks that are activated, a first step in profiling normal and oncogenic signaling networks.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: 1R43CA101106

    Nature biotechnology 2005;23;1;94-101

  • Proteomics-based identification of proteins interacting with Smad3: SREBP-2 forms a complex with Smad3 and inhibits its transcriptional activity.

    Grimsby S, Jaensson H, Dubrovska A, Lomnytska M, Hellman U and Souchelnytskyi S

    Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Box 595, BMC, SE-751 24, Uppsala, Sweden.

    Smad3 is an important component of transforming growth factor-beta (TGFbeta) intracellular signalling. To identify novel interacting proteins of Smad3, we performed pull-down assays with Smad3 constructs fused to glutathione-S-transferase. Proteins which formed complexes with these constructs were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. We identified 14 proteins interacting with the Smad3 construct lacking the N-terminal Mad homology domain 1 (MH1), and 12 proteins interacting with the construct lacking the C-terminal MH2 domain. Proteins involved in signalling processes, in metabolism regulation, novel proteins, and components of cytoskeleton form four groups of interacting proteins. Interactions of AGP7, sex-determining region Y protein, actin beta and sterol regulatory element binding protein-2 (SREBP-2) proteins with Smad3 constructs were confirmed by immunoblotting with specific antibodies. Interaction of Smad3 with SREBP-2 was also confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation of myc-Smad3 and Flag-SREBP-2 upon expression in mammalian cells. We found that SREBP-2 inhibited the transcriptional activity of Smad3 in luciferase reporter assays.

    FEBS letters 2004;577;1-2;93-100

  • Phosphoproteomic analysis of the developing mouse brain.

    Ballif BA, Villén J, Beausoleil SA, Schwartz D and Gygi SP

    Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

    Proper development of the mammalian brain requires the precise integration of numerous temporally and spatially regulated stimuli. Many of these signals transduce their cues via the reversible phosphorylation of downstream effector molecules. Neuronal stimuli acting in concert have the potential of generating enormous arrays of regulatory phosphoproteins. Toward the global profiling of phosphoproteins in the developing brain, we report here the use of a mass spectrometry-based methodology permitting the first proteomic-scale phosphorylation site analysis of primary animal tissue, identifying over 500 protein phosphorylation sites in the developing mouse brain.

    Funded by: NHGRI NIH HHS: HG00041

    Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 2004;3;11;1093-101

  • Structural characterization of human vimentin rod 1 and the sequencing of assembly steps in intermediate filament formation in vitro using site-directed spin labeling and electron paramagnetic resonance.

    Hess JF, Budamagunta MS, Voss JC and FitzGerald PG

    Department of Cell Biology and Human Anatomy, School of Medicine, University of California, Davis 95616, USA.

    We have previously established the utility of site-directed spin labeling and electron paramagnetic resonance to determine structural relationships among proteins in intact intermediate filaments. Using this same approach we have introduced spin labels at 21 residues between amino acids 169 and 193 in rod domain 1 of human vimentin. The electron paramagnetic resonance spectra provide direct evidence for the coiled coil nature of the vimentin dimer in this region. This finding is consistent with predictions but has never been demonstrated previously. In a previous study we identified residue 348 in the rod domain 2 as one point of overlap between adjacent dimers in intact filaments. In the present study we defined residue 191 in the rod domain 1 as a second point of overlap and established that the dimers are arranged in an anti-parallel and staggered orientation at this site. Finally, by isolating spin-labeled samples at successive stages during the dialysis that lead to filament assembly in vitro, we have been able to establish a sequence of interactions that occurs during in vitro assembly, starting with the alpha helix and loose coiled coil dimer formation, then the formation of tetrameric species centered on residue 191, followed by interactions centered on residue 348 suggestive of octamer or higher order multimer formation. A continuation of this strategy revealed that both 191-191 and 348-348 interactions are present in low ionic strength Tris buffers when vimentin is maintained at the "protofilament" stage of assembly.

    Funded by: NEI NIH HHS: R01 EY015560, R01 EY015560-02

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2004;279;43;44841-6

  • The endothelial cell-specific antibody PAL-E identifies a secreted form of vimentin in the blood vasculature.

    Xu B, deWaal RM, Mor-Vaknin N, Hibbard C, Markovitz DM and Kahn ML

    Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 421 Curie Blvd., BRB II/III Room 952, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6100, USA.

    During mammalian vascular development, endothelial cells form a complex array of vessels that differ markedly in structure and function, but the molecular basis for this vascular complexity is poorly understood. Recent insights into endothelial diversity have come from the identification of molecular markers expressed on distinct endothelial cell populations. One such marker, the PAL-E antibody, has been used for almost 20 years to distinguish blood and lymphatic vessels, but the identity of the protein recognized by PAL-E has been unknown. In the present study we have used protein purification and tandem mass spectrometry analysis of tryptic peptides to identify the PAL-E antigen as a secreted form of vimentin. Vimentin has been well characterized as an intracellular intermediate filament protein expressed broadly in mesenchymal cells. In contrast, PAL-E-reactive vimentin is secreted extracellularly, its synthesis is restricted to a distinct population of blood endothelial cells and activated macrophages, and PAL-E-reactive vimentin is found in circulating human blood. PAL-E-reactive vimentin does not arise from an endothelial cell-specific mRNA transcript but is the product of cell-specific posttranslational modification. The PAL-E antibody therefore defines secretion of vimentin as a molecular distinction among endothelial cells and exposes a novel, extracellular role for vimentin in the blood vasculature.

    Molecular and cellular biology 2004;24;20;9198-206

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • A protein interaction network links GIT1, an enhancer of huntingtin aggregation, to Huntington's disease.

    Goehler H, Lalowski M, Stelzl U, Waelter S, Stroedicke M, Worm U, Droege A, Lindenberg KS, Knoblich M, Haenig C, Herbst M, Suopanki J, Scherzinger E, Abraham C, Bauer B, Hasenbank R, Fritzsche A, Ludewig AH, Büssow K, Buessow K, Coleman SH, Gutekunst CA, Landwehrmeyer BG, Lehrach H and Wanker EE

    Max-Delbrueck-Center for Molecular Medicine, 13125 Berlin-Buch, Germany.

    Analysis of protein-protein interactions (PPIs) is a valuable approach for characterizing proteins of unknown function. Here, we have developed a strategy combining library and matrix yeast two-hybrid screens to generate a highly connected PPI network for Huntington's disease (HD). The network contains 186 PPIs among 35 bait and 51 prey proteins. It revealed 165 new potential interactions, 32 of which were confirmed by independent binding experiments. The network also permitted the functional annotation of 16 uncharacterized proteins and facilitated the discovery of GIT1, a G protein-coupled receptor kinase-interacting protein, which enhances huntingtin aggregation by recruitment of the protein into membranous vesicles. Coimmunoprecipitations and immunofluorescence studies revealed that GIT1 and huntingtin associate in mammalian cells under physiological conditions. Moreover, GIT1 localizes to neuronal inclusions, and is selectively cleaved in HD brains, indicating that its distribution and function is altered during disease pathogenesis.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: NS31862

    Molecular cell 2004;15;6;853-65

  • The DNA sequence and comparative analysis of human chromosome 10.

    Deloukas P, Earthrowl ME, Grafham DV, Rubenfield M, French L, Steward CA, Sims SK, Jones MC, Searle S, Scott C, Howe K, Hunt SE, Andrews TD, Gilbert JG, Swarbreck D, Ashurst JL, Taylor A, Battles J, Bird CP, Ainscough R, Almeida JP, Ashwell RI, Ambrose KD, Babbage AK, Bagguley CL, Bailey J, Banerjee R, Bates K, Beasley H, Bray-Allen S, Brown AJ, Brown JY, Burford DC, Burrill W, Burton J, Cahill P, Camire D, Carter NP, Chapman JC, Clark SY, Clarke G, Clee CM, Clegg S, Corby N, Coulson A, Dhami P, Dutta I, Dunn M, Faulkner L, Frankish A, Frankland JA, Garner P, Garnett J, Gribble S, Griffiths C, Grocock R, Gustafson E, Hammond S, Harley JL, Hart E, Heath PD, Ho TP, Hopkins B, Horne J, Howden PJ, Huckle E, Hynds C, Johnson C, Johnson D, Kana A, Kay M, Kimberley AM, Kershaw JK, Kokkinaki M, Laird GK, Lawlor S, Lee HM, Leongamornlert DA, Laird G, Lloyd C, Lloyd DM, Loveland J, Lovell J, McLaren S, McLay KE, McMurray A, Mashreghi-Mohammadi M, Matthews L, Milne S, Nickerson T, Nguyen M, Overton-Larty E, Palmer SA, Pearce AV, Peck AI, Pelan S, Phillimore B, Porter K, Rice CM, Rogosin A, Ross MT, Sarafidou T, Sehra HK, Shownkeen R, Skuce CD, Smith M, Standring L, Sycamore N, Tester J, Thorpe A, Torcasso W, Tracey A, Tromans A, Tsolas J, Wall M, Walsh J, Wang H, Weinstock K, West AP, Willey DL, Whitehead SL, Wilming L, Wray PW, Young L, Chen Y, Lovering RC, Moschonas NK, Siebert R, Fechtel K, Bentley D, Durbin R, Hubbard T, Doucette-Stamm L, Beck S, Smith DR and Rogers J

    The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton CB10 1SA, UK. panos@sanger.ac.uk

    The finished sequence of human chromosome 10 comprises a total of 131,666,441 base pairs. It represents 99.4% of the euchromatic DNA and includes one megabase of heterochromatic sequence within the pericentromeric region of the short and long arm of the chromosome. Sequence annotation revealed 1,357 genes, of which 816 are protein coding, and 430 are pseudogenes. We observed widespread occurrence of overlapping coding genes (either strand) and identified 67 antisense transcripts. Our analysis suggests that both inter- and intrachromosomal segmental duplications have impacted on the gene count on chromosome 10. Multispecies comparative analysis indicated that we can readily annotate the protein-coding genes with current resources. We estimate that over 95% of all coding exons were identified in this study. Assessment of single base changes between the human chromosome 10 and chimpanzee sequence revealed nonsense mutations in only 21 coding genes with respect to the human sequence.

    Nature 2004;429;6990;375-81

  • Specific in vivo phosphorylation sites determine the assembly dynamics of vimentin intermediate filaments.

    Eriksson JE, He T, Trejo-Skalli AV, Härmälä-Braskén AS, Hellman J, Chou YH and Goldman RD

    Department of Biology, Laboratory of Animal Physiology, University of Turku, Science Building 1, FIN-20014 Turku, Finland. john.eriksson@utu.fi

    Intermediate filaments (IFs) continuously exchange between a small, depolymerized fraction of IF protein and fully polymerized IFs. To elucidate the possible role of phosphorylation in regulating this equilibrium, we disrupted the exchange of phosphate groups by specific inhibition of dephosphorylation and by specific phosphorylation and site-directed mutagenesis of two of the major in vivo phosphorylation sites determined in this study. Inhibition of type-1 (PP1) and type-2A (PP2A) protein phosphatases in BHK-21 fibroblasts with calyculin-A, induced rapid vimentin phosphorylation in concert with disassembly of the IF polymers into soluble tetrameric vimentin oligomers. This oligomeric composition corresponded to the oligopeptides released by cAMP-dependent kinase (PKA) following in vitro phosphorylation. Characterization of the (32)P-labeled vimentin phosphopeptides, demonstrated Ser-4, Ser-6, Ser-7, Ser-8, Ser-9, Ser-38, Ser-41, Ser-71, Ser-72, Ser-418, Ser-429, Thr-456, and Ser-457 as significant in vivo phosphorylation sites. A number of the interphase-specific high turnover sites were shown to be in vitro phosphorylation sites for PKA and protein kinase C (PKC). The effect of presence or absence of phosphate groups on individual subunits was followed in vivo by microinjecting PKA-phosphorylated (primarily S38 and S72) and mutant vimentin (S38:A, S72:A), respectively. The PKA-phosphorylated vimentin showed a clearly decelerated filament formation in vivo, whereas obstruction of phosphorylation at these sites by site-directed mutagenesis had no significant effect on the incorporation rates of subunits into assembled polymers. Taken together, our results suggest that elevated phosphorylation regulates IF assembly in vivo by changing the equilibrium constant of subunit exchange towards a higher off-rate.

    Journal of cell science 2004;117;Pt 6;919-32

  • A physical and functional map of the human TNF-alpha/NF-kappa B signal transduction pathway.

    Bouwmeester T, Bauch A, Ruffner H, Angrand PO, Bergamini G, Croughton K, Cruciat C, Eberhard D, Gagneur J, Ghidelli S, Hopf C, Huhse B, Mangano R, Michon AM, Schirle M, Schlegl J, Schwab M, Stein MA, Bauer A, Casari G, Drewes G, Gavin AC, Jackson DB, Joberty G, Neubauer G, Rick J, Kuster B and Superti-Furga G

    Cellzome AG, Meyerhofstrasse 1, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany. tewis.bouwmeester@cellzome.com

    Signal transduction pathways are modular composites of functionally interdependent sets of proteins that act in a coordinated fashion to transform environmental information into a phenotypic response. The pro-inflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha triggers a signalling cascade, converging on the activation of the transcription factor NF-kappa B, which forms the basis for numerous physiological and pathological processes. Here we report the mapping of a protein interaction network around 32 known and candidate TNF-alpha/NF-kappa B pathway components by using an integrated approach comprising tandem affinity purification, liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, network analysis and directed functional perturbation studies using RNA interference. We identified 221 molecular associations and 80 previously unknown interactors, including 10 new functional modulators of the pathway. This systems approach provides significant insight into the logic of the TNF-alpha/NF-kappa B pathway and is generally applicable to other pathways relevant to human disease.

    Nature cell biology 2004;6;2;97-105

  • Proteomic identification of brain proteins that interact with dynein light chain LC8.

    Navarro-Lérida I, Martínez Moreno M, Roncal F, Gavilanes F, Albar JP and Rodríguez-Crespo I

    Departamento de Bioquímicay Biología Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain. nacho@bbml.ucm.es

    Cytoplasmic dynein is a large minus end-directed microtubule motor that translocates cargos towards the minus end of microtubules. Light chain 8 of the dynein machinery (LC8) has been reported to interact with a large variety of proteins that possess K/RSTQT or GIQVD motifs in their sequence, hence permitting their transport in a retrograde manner. Yeast two-hybrid analysis has revealed that in brain, LC8 associates directly with several proteins such as neuronal nitric oxide synthase, guanylate kinase domain-associated protein and gephyrin. In this work, we report the identification of over 40 polypeptides, by means of a proteomic approach, that interact with LC8 either directly or indirectly. Many of the neuronal proteins that we identified cluster at the post-synaptic terminal, and some of them such as phosphofructokinase, lactate dehydrogenase or aldolase are directly involved in glutamate metabolism. Other pool of proteins identified displayed the LC8 consensus binding motif. Finally, recombinant LC8 was produced and a library of overlapping dodecapeptides (pepscan) was employed to map the LC8 binding site of some of the proteins that were previously identified using the proteomic approach, hence confirming binding to the consensus binding sites.

    Proteomics 2004;4;2;339-46

  • SEREX identification of new tumour-associated antigens in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.

    Hartmann TB, Thiel D, Dummer R, Schadendorf D and Eichmüller S

    German Cancer Research Center, Skin Cancer Unit (D070), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.

    Background: Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) is a clonal lymphoproliferative disorder of mainly CD4+ T cells, with primary manifestation in the skin.

    Objectives: To detect new CTCL-associated antigens for immunological therapies and to define their specificity in terms of RNA expression and seroreactivity.

    Methods: A newly constructed CTCL cDNA phage library was screened and cross-reactivities against the detected clones were tested using 15 mycosis fungoides and six Sézary syndrome sera. The mRNA expression of the identified genes was analysed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using 22 tumour tissues, nine cell lines and up to 29 different types of normal tissue.

    Results: We identified nine different tumour antigens (HD-CL-01 to HD-CL-09) of which seven clones had high homology to genes with known functions. Several of these genes had previously been associated with cancer, namely inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate 5-phosphatase, vimentin, aldose reductase and elongation factor-1alpha. Variations in the deduced protein sequences were observed in three cases, mostly due to variations in protein length. The individual clones were recognized by up to 56% of patients' sera, while control sera were negative except in one case. Using RT-PCR, we found a frequent expression of these new tumour antigens in tumour specimens (26-100%). In contrast to humoral specificity, specific mRNA was also detected in selected normal tissues (29-89%).

    Conclusions: SEREX (serological identification of antigens by recombinant expression cloning) identified multiple tumour-associated antigens in CTCL. The serological specificity and the high percentage of reactive sera of CTCL patients against several clones suggest these genes as potential targets for diagnostic and prognostic purposes.

    The British journal of dermatology 2004;150;2;252-8

  • Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.

    Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, Otsuki T, Sugiyama T, Irie R, Wakamatsu A, Hayashi K, Sato H, Nagai K, Kimura K, Makita H, Sekine M, Obayashi M, Nishi T, Shibahara T, Tanaka T, Ishii S, Yamamoto J, Saito K, Kawai Y, Isono Y, Nakamura Y, Nagahari K, Murakami K, Yasuda T, Iwayanagi T, Wagatsuma M, Shiratori A, Sudo H, Hosoiri T, Kaku Y, Kodaira H, Kondo H, Sugawara M, Takahashi M, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Furuya T, Kikkawa E, Omura Y, Abe K, Kamihara K, Katsuta N, Sato K, Tanikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ninomiya K, Ishibashi T, Yamashita H, Murakawa K, Fujimori K, Tanai H, Kimata M, Watanabe M, Hiraoka S, Chiba Y, Ishida S, Ono Y, Takiguchi S, Watanabe S, Yosida M, Hotuta T, Kusano J, Kanehori K, Takahashi-Fujii A, Hara H, Tanase TO, Nomura Y, Togiya S, Komai F, Hara R, Takeuchi K, Arita M, Imose N, Musashino K, Yuuki H, Oshima A, Sasaki N, Aotsuka S, Yoshikawa Y, Matsunawa H, Ichihara T, Shiohata N, Sano S, Moriya S, Momiyama H, Satoh N, Takami S, Terashima Y, Suzuki O, Nakagawa S, Senoh A, Mizoguchi H, Goto Y, Shimizu F, Wakebe H, Hishigaki H, Watanabe T, Sugiyama A, Takemoto M, Kawakami B, Yamazaki M, Watanabe K, Kumagai A, Itakura S, Fukuzumi Y, Fujimori Y, Komiyama M, Tashiro H, Tanigami A, Fujiwara T, Ono T, Yamada K, Fujii Y, Ozaki K, Hirao M, Ohmori Y, Kawabata A, Hikiji T, Kobatake N, Inagaki H, Ikema Y, Okamoto S, Okitani R, Kawakami T, Noguchi S, Itoh T, Shigeta K, Senba T, Matsumura K, Nakajima Y, Mizuno T, Morinaga M, Sasaki M, Togashi T, Oyama M, Hata H, Watanabe M, Komatsu T, Mizushima-Sugano J, Satoh T, Shirai Y, Takahashi Y, Nakagawa K, Okumura K, Nagase T, Nomura N, Kikuchi H, Masuho Y, Yamashita R, Nakai K, Yada T, Nakamura Y, Ohara O, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Helix Research Institute, 1532-3 Yana, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0812, Japan.

    As a base for human transcriptome and functional genomics, we created the "full-length long Japan" (FLJ) collection of sequenced human cDNAs. We determined the entire sequence of 21,243 selected clones and found that 14,490 cDNAs (10,897 clusters) were unique to the FLJ collection. About half of them (5,416) seemed to be protein-coding. Of those, 1,999 clusters had not been predicted by computational methods. The distribution of GC content of nonpredicted cDNAs had a peak at approximately 58% compared with a peak at approximately 42%for predicted cDNAs. Thus, there seems to be a slight bias against GC-rich transcripts in current gene prediction procedures. The rest of the cDNAs unique to the FLJ collection (5,481) contained no obvious open reading frames (ORFs) and thus are candidate noncoding RNAs. About one-fourth of them (1,378) showed a clear pattern of splicing. The distribution of GC content of noncoding cDNAs was narrow and had a peak at approximately 42%, relatively low compared with that of protein-coding cDNAs.

    Nature genetics 2004;36;1;40-5

  • Regional ependymal upregulation of vimentin in Chiari II malformation, aqueductal stenosis, and hydromyelia.

    Sarnat HB

    Department of Pathology (Neuropathology), Cedars-Sinai Medical Center and UCLA School of Medicine, 4221 North Tower, 8700 Beverly Boulevard, Los Angeles, CA 90048, USA. harveyb.sarnat@cshs.org

    Vimentin, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and S-100beta protein were studied by immunocytochemistry in the ependyma of patients with Chiari II malformations, congenital aqueductal stenosis, and hydromyelia. Paraffin sections of brains and spinal cords of 16 patients were examined, 14 with Chiari II malformations, most with aqueductal stenosis and/or hydromyelia as associated features, and 2 patients with congenital aqueductal stenosis without Chiari malformation. Patients ranged in age from 20-wk gestation to 48 years. The results demonstrated: 1) in the fetus and young infant with Chiari II malformations, congenital aqueductal stenosis, and hydromyelia, vimentin is focally upregulated in the ependyma only in areas of dysgenesis and not in the ependyma throughout the ventricular system; 2) GFAP and S-100beta protein are not coexpressed, indicating that the selective upregulation of vimentin is not simple maturational delay; 3) vimentin upregulation also is seen in the ependymal remnants of the congenital atretic cerebral aqueduct, not associated with Chiari malformation; 4) in the older child and adult with Chiari II malformation, vimentin overexpression in the ependyma becomes more generalized in the lateral ventricles as well, hence evolves into a nonspecific upregulation. The interpretation from these findings leads to speculation that it is unlikely that ependymal vimentin is directly involved in the pathogenesis of Chiari II malformation, but may reflect a secondary upregulation due to defective expression of another gene. This gene may be one of rhombomeric segmentation that also plays a role in defective programming of the paraxial mesoderm for the basioccipital and supraoccipital bones resulting in a small posterior fossa. This interpretation supports the hypothesis of a molecular genetic defect, rather than a mechanical cause, as the etiology of the Chiari II malformation.

    Pediatric and developmental pathology : the official journal of the Society for Pediatric Pathology and the Paediatric Pathology Society 2004;7;1;48-60

  • Preferentially localized dynein and perinuclear dynactin associate with nuclear pore complex proteins to mediate genomic union during mammalian fertilization.

    Payne C, Rawe V, Ramalho-Santos J, Simerly C and Schatten G

    Program in Molecular and Cellular Biosciences, Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR 97201, USA.

    Fertilization is complete once the parental genomes unite, and requires the migration of the egg nucleus to the sperm nucleus (female and male pronuclei, respectively) on microtubules within the inseminated egg. Neither the molecular mechanism of pronucleus binding to microtubules nor the role of motor proteins in regulating pronuclear motility has been fully characterized, and the failure of zygotic development in some patients suggests that they contribute to human infertility. Based on the minus-end direction of female pronuclear migration, we propose a role for cytoplasmic dynein and dynactin in associating with the pronuclear envelope and mediating genomic union. Our results show that dynein intermediate and heavy chains preferentially concentrate around the female pronucleus, whereas dynactin subunits p150Glued, p50 and p62 localize to the surfaces of both pronuclei. Transfection of antibodies against dynein and dynactin block female pronuclear migration in zygotes. Both parthenogenetic activation in oocytes and microtubule depolymerization in zygotes significantly reduce the localization of dynein to the female pronucleus but do not inhibit the pronuclear association of dynactin. When immunoprecipitated from zygotes, p150Glued associates with nuclear pore complex proteins, as well as the intermediate filament vimentin and dynein. Antibodies against nucleoporins and vimentin inhibit pronuclear apposition when transfected into zygotes. We conclude that preferentially localized dynein and perinuclear dynactin associate with the nuclear pore complex and vimentin and are required to mediate genomic union. These data suggest a model in which dynein accumulates and binds to the female pronucleus on sperm aster microtubules, where it interacts with dynactin, nucleoporins and vimentin.

    Funded by: NICHD NIH HHS: R00 HD055330

    Journal of cell science 2003;116;Pt 23;4727-38

  • Identification of an autoantigen on the surface of apoptotic human T cells as a new protein interacting with inflammatory group IIA phospholipase A2.

    Boilard E, Bourgoin SG, Bernatchez C and Surette ME

    Centre de Recherche en Rhumatologie et Immunologie, Université Laval, QC G1V 4G2, Canada.

    One of the most studied secreted phospholipases A2 (sPLA2), the group IIA sPLA2, is found at high levels in inflammatory fluids of patients with autoimmune diseases. A characteristic of group IIA sPLA2 is its preference for negatively charged phospholipids, which become exposed on the extracellular leaflet of apoptotic cell membranes. We recently showed that low molecular weight heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) and uncharacterized detergent-insoluble binding site(s) contribute to the enhanced binding of human group IIA PLA2 (hGIIA) to apoptotic human T cells. Using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry we now identify vimentin as the major HSPG-independent binding protein of hGIIA on apoptotic primary T lymphocytes. Vimentin is partially exposed on the surface of apoptotic T cells and binds hGIIA via its rod domain in a calcium-independent manner. Studies with hGIIA mutants showed that specific motifs in the interfacial binding surface are involved in the interaction with vimentin. The sPLA2 inhibitor LY311727, but not heparin, inhibited this interaction. In contrast, heparin but not LY311727 abrogated the binding of hGIIA to cellular HSPGs. Importantly, vimentin does not inhibit the catalytic activity of hGIIA. Altogether, the results show that vimentin, in conjunction with HSPGs, contributes to the enhanced binding of hGIIA to apoptotic T cells.

    Blood 2003;102;8;2901-9

  • Proteomic analysis of the tumorigenic human prostate cell line M12 after microcell-mediated transfer of chromosome 19 demonstrates reduction of vimentin.

    Liu X, Wu Y, Zehner ZE, Jackson-Cook C and Ware JL

    Department of Pathology, Medical College of Virginia Campus, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298, USA.

    Critical alterations in proteins that accompany or control the aggressiveness of human prostate cancers remain poorly defined. Previously we demonstrated that the highly tumorigenic, metastatic human prostate cell line M12 was converted to a slow growing, poorly tumorigenic cell line by introduction of an intact human chromosome 19, generating the M12 (F6) hybrid cells. The objective of this report was to identify changes in the protein profile of these M12(F6) microcell hybrid cells. A combination of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and matrix assisted laser desorption-time of flight-mass spectroscopy was used to compare proteins made by these two cell lines. No consistently increased proteins were identified. However, seven proteins were reproducibly reduced more than twofold: vimentin, hsp90, ATP synthase, 26S protease regulatory subunit, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein, T-Complex protein 1 beta, and alpha-1 tubulin. The striking reduction in vimentin protein was accompanied by significantly decreased vimentin mRNA, revealed by Northern blotting. Our findings implicate reduced vimentin in the conversion of these tumorigenic prostate epithelial cells into slow growing, less aggressive cells. These studies demonstrate that application of proteomic analysis to specific problems in an experimental context can yield biologically relevant information about the prostate cancer cell phenotype.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R01 CA58126; NHLBI NIH HHS: HL-45422; NIDDK NIH HHS: R01 DK52683

    Electrophoresis 2003;24;19-20;3445-53

  • Retaining of the assembly capability of vimentin phosphorylated by mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase-2.

    Cheng TJ, Tseng YF, Chang WM, Chang MD and Lai YK

    Department of Life Science, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinshu, Taiwan 30013, Republic of China.

    Intermediate filament (IF) networks can be regulated by phosphorylation of unit proteins, such as vimentin, by specific kinases leading to reorganization of the IF filamentous structure. Recently, we identified mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase-2 (MAPKAP kinase-2) as a vimentin kinase (Cheng and Lai [1998] J. Cell. Biochem. 71:169-181). Herein we describe the results of further in vitro studies investigating the effects of MAPKAP kinase-2 phosphorylation on vimentin and the effects of the phosphorylation on the filamentous structure. We show that MAPKAP kinase-2 mainly phosphorylates vimentin at Ser-38, Ser-50, Ser-55, and Ser-82, residues all located in the head domain of the protein. Surprisingly, and in stark contrast to phosphorylation by most other kinases, phosphorylation of vimentin by MAPKAP kinase-2 has no discernable effect on its assembly. It suggested that structure disassembly is not the only obligated consequence of phosphorylated vimentin as regulated by other kinases. Finally, a mutational analysis of each of the phosphorylated serine residues in vimentin suggested that no single serine site was primarily responsible for structure maintenance, implying that the retention of filamentous structure may be the result of the coordinated action of several phosphorylated serine sites. This also shed new lights on the functional task(s) of vimentin that is intermediate filament proteins might provide a phosphate reservoir to accommodate the phosphate surge without any structural changes.

    Journal of cellular biochemistry 2003;89;3;589-602

  • Transactivation of vimentin by beta-catenin in human breast cancer cells.

    Gilles C, Polette M, Mestdagt M, Nawrocki-Raby B, Ruggeri P, Birembaut P and Foidart JM

    Laboratory of Tumor and Developmental Biology, University of Liège, CHU Sart-Tilman, B23, B-4000 Liège, Belgium. cgilles@ulg.ac.be

    The cytoplasmic and nuclear redistribution of beta-catenin and the de novo expression of vimentin are frequently involved in the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition associated with increased invasive/migratory properties of epithelial cells. Because beta-catenin can act as a coactivator of transcription through its binding to the T-cell factor (TCF)/lymphoid enhancer factor 1 transcription factor family, we have explored the possibility that beta-catenin/TCF could directly transactivate vimentin. We first compared vimentin expression in relation with the localization of beta-catenin in eight breast cancer cell lines displaying various degrees of invasiveness and in a model of cell migration using human mammary MCF10A cells. We could thus show a cytoplasmic and/or nuclear distribution of beta-catenin in invasive/migratory cells expressing vimentin, but not in noninvasive/stationary vimentin-negative cell lines. In addition, the human vimentin promoter was found to be up-regulated by beta-catenin and TCF-4 cotransfection. Varying with the cellular background, a diminution of this up-regulation was observed when the putative beta-catenin/TCF binding site of the vimentin promoter was mutated. Our results therefore demonstrate that the vimentin promoter is a target of the beta-catenin/TCF pathway and strongly suggest an implication of this regulation in epithelial cell migration/invasion.

    Cancer research 2003;63;10;2658-64

  • The architecture of microtubular network and Golgi orientation in osteoclasts--major differences between avian and mammalian species.

    Mulari MT, Patrikainen L, Kaisto T, Metsikkö K, Salo JJ and Väänänen HK

    Institute of Biomedicine, Department of Anatomy, University of Turku, Kiinamyllynkatu 10, FIN-20520 Turku, Finland.

    In the present study, we analyze multinuclear osteoclasts obtained from several avian and mammalian species and describe the reorganization of their microtubular architecture and Golgi complex orientation during osteoclast differentiation and activation for bone resorption. In nonresorbing quail and chicken multinuclear osteoclasts, microtubules radiate from multiple centrosomal microtubule-organizing centers (MTOCs), whose number is equal to the number of nuclei. However, centrosomal MTOCs disappear at the time of cell activation for bone resorption and the Golgi membranes redistribute to circumscribe nuclei. In contrast to avian osteoclasts, both resorbing and nonresorbing rat, rabbit, and human osteoclasts have no or few centrosomal MTOCs. Instead, after cold-induced depolymerization, regrowing microtubules nucleate from the perinuclear area where immunofluoresce and immunoelectron scanning microscopy reveal pericentriolar matrix protein pericentrin associated with vimentin filaments. Furthermore, the circumnuclear reorganization of MTOCs and the Golgi is a result of mammalian osteoclast maturation and occur before any resorptive activity of the mononuclear osteoclasts and their fusion into multinucleated cells. Our results show that unlike previously suggested, the nuclear surfaces of mammalian osteoclasts act as the microtubule anchoring sites similarly to nuclear surfaces in multinucleated myotubes and suggest the role of perinuclear intermediate filament network in orchestrating the microtubular cytoskeleton.

    Experimental cell research 2003;285;2;221-35

  • Overexpression of vimentin: role in the invasive phenotype in an androgen-independent model of prostate cancer.

    Singh S, Sadacharan S, Su S, Belldegrun A, Persad S and Singh G

    Hamilton Regional Cancer Centre, Ontario, L8V 5C2 Canada.

    The androgen-sensitive LNCaP prostate cancer cell line is less invasive than hormone-insensitive lines. CL1, an aggressive, hormone-insensitive LNCaP subline derived by continuous passaging in hormone-depleted medium, was compared with the parental cell line by cDNA microarray analysis. The gene coding for the intermediate filament protein vimentin was found to be highly up-regulated in the CL1 subline. This difference was confirmed by Northern and Western blots and visualized by immunofluorescence microscopy. To assess the contribution of vimentin to the invasive phenotype, LNCaP cells were stably transfected to overexpress vimentin, and the CL1 cells were transfected with vimentin antisense construct. The invasiveness of the transfected cells was tested using an in vitro invasion assay. We were able to demonstrate that decreasing vimentin expression in the constitutively vimentin-expressing CL1 cells led to a significant decrease in their invasiveness but that forcing expression of vimentin in the LNCaP cells did not augment their invasiveness. These findings imply that vimentin expression contributes to the invasive phenotype but cannot confer it alone.

    Cancer research 2003;63;9;2306-11

  • Rab8B GTPase and junction dynamics in the testis.

    Lau AS and Mruk DD

    Population Council, Center for Biomedical Research, New York, New York 10021, USA.

    Throughout spermatogenesis, germ cells migrate from the basal to the adluminal compartment while remaining attached to Sertoli cells via actin-based adherens and intermediate filament-based anchoring junctions. However, the events that trigger deadhesion and adhesion remain largely unknown. As part of our continued effort in elucidating the mechanism of germ cell movement, we have examined the role of Rab8B, a GTPase probably participating in intracellular trafficking events at the site of the adherens junction. By RT-PCR Rab8B mRNA was found in the brain, testis, heart, kidney, and spleen. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that Rab8B was concentrated predominantly in the basal compartment, localizing to a similar site at which immunoreactive E-cadherin was found. Additional experiments demonstrated that Rab8B associated with the actin, intermediate filament, and microtubule cytoskeletal networks. When Sertoli cells were cultured at high density or germ cells were cocultured with Sertoli cells, Rab8B increased significantly during junction assembly. Moreover, inclusion of germ cell-conditioned medium in Sertoli cell cultures resulted in stimulation of Rab8B expression. Conversely, treatment of adult rats with 1-(2,4-dichlorobenzyl)-indazole-3-carbohydrazide reduced Rab8B mRNA and protein levels, coinciding with the time of germ cell loss from the epithelium. Taken collectively, these studies suggest that Rab8B participates in adherens junction dynamics in the testis.

    Endocrinology 2003;144;4;1549-63

  • The role of Vif during HIV-1 infection: interaction with novel host cellular factors.

    Lake JA, Carr J, Feng F, Mundy L, Burrell C and Li P

    National Centre for HIV Virology Research, Infectious Diseases Laboratories, Institute of Medical and Veterinary Science, Frome Road, Adelaide 5000, Australia.

    Background: Current research suggests that human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) virion infectivity factor (Vif) acts during viral assembly in producer cells to ensure infectivity in target cells but the exact mechanism of action has not been defined. Vif interacts with Gag, viral protease and RNA and these interactions are proposed to be important for correct particle assembly and stability of the reverse transcription complex.

    Objectives: The existence of cells that are either permissive or non-permissive for replication of Vif deficient viruses suggests the involvement of host cellular factors in its function. Current research suggests an association of Vif with the intermediate filament protein, vimentin, and the tyrosine kinase, Hck, but the significance of these associations remains to be defined. More recently HP68, a cellular ATP binding protein, has been shown to be important for capsid formation and an interaction between Vif and HP68 has been shown. Our aim was to further identify host cellular factors involved in Vif function.

    We have employed the yeast 2-hybrid system to identify cellular proteins which interact with HIV-1 Vif. Sixteen clones were isolated from a high stringency yeast-2-hybrid screen of a human leucocyte cDNA library with Vif derived from the T-cell tropic HIV-1 strain NL4.3. Of these, 8 clones were confirmed as specifically binding Vif, fully sequenced and identified via GenBank homology searches.

    Results: Thus far 3 of these clones, spermine/spermidine N1-acetyltransferase, Triad 3 and a novel gene which we have termed 'novel Vif binding protein', have been characterised and represent attractive candidates for mediating Vif action during HIV replication.

    Conclusions: Through identification and characterisation of cellular factors interacting with HIV-1 Vif we hope to unravel the mechanism of action of Vif which may ultimately aid therapeutic design.

    Journal of clinical virology : the official publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology 2003;26;2;143-52

  • Vimentin is secreted by activated macrophages.

    Mor-Vaknin N, Punturieri A, Sitwala K and Markovitz DM

    Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-0640, USA.

    Vimentin is a widely expressed intermediate filament protein thought to be involved mainly in structural processes, such as wound healing. We now demonstrate that activated human macrophages secrete vimentin into the extracellular space. The maturation of blood-derived monocytes into macrophages involves several signalling pathways. We show that secretion of vimentin, which is phosphorylated at serine and threonine residues, is enhanced by the phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid and blocked by the specific protein kinase C inhibitor GO6983. These findings are consistent with previous observations that phosphorylation of vimentin affects its intracellular localization and that vimentin is a substrate for protein kinase C (PKC). We also show that the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10), which inhibits PKC activity, blocks secretion of vimentin. In contrast, the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) can trigger secretion of vimentin. Finally, we found that extracellular vimentin is involved in bacterial killing and the generation of oxidative metabolites, two important functions of activated macrophages. These data establish that vimentin is secreted by macrophages in response to pro-inflammatory signalling pathways and is probably involved in immune function.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: M01-RR00042; NIAMS NIH HHS: P30 AR48310-02

    Nature cell biology 2003;5;1;59-63

  • High molecular weight vimentin complex is formed after proteolytic digestion of vimentin by caspase-3: detection by sera of patients with interstitial pneumonia.

    Fujita J, Bandoh S, Yang Y, Wu F, Ohtsuki Y, Yoshinouchi T and Ishida T

    First Department of Internal Medicine, Kagawa Medical University, Kagawa 761-0793, Japan. jiro@kms.ac.jp

    In a previous study, we demonstrated anti-vimentin antibodies in sera of patients with interstitial pneumonia. We hypothesized that antibodies in sera might detect vimentin fragments formed during the process of apoptosis. To prove this, recombinant human vimentin was digested by recombinant human caspase-3 or caspase-8. Then, Western blotting using several commercially available antibodies against human vimentin or patients' sera which had anti-vimentin autoantibodies, was performed. As a result, after recombinant human vimentin was digested by caspase-3 or caspase-8, several vimentin fragments were formed and detected by 2 kinds of monoclonal anti-vimentin antibodies (clone 3B4 and clone V9) as well as by polyclonal sheep anti-human vimentin antibody. It was demonstrated that high molecular weight vimentin was formed after the digestion of vimentin by caspase-3, which was only detected by patients' sera. The high molecular weight vimentin was not formed after digestion of vimentin by caspase-8. Our present results show that high molecular weight vimentin was formed after the digestion of vimentin by caspase-3. In addition, it is suggested that this high molecular weight vimentin acted as an autoantigen to form anti-vimentin autoantibody in vivo.

    Microbiology and immunology 2003;47;6;447-51

  • The 3' untranslated region of human vimentin mRNA interacts with protein complexes containing eEF-1gamma and HAX-1.

    Al-Maghrebi M, Brulé H, Padkina M, Allen C, Holmes WM and Zehner ZE

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics and the Massey Cancer Center, Medical College of Virginia Campus of Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298-0614, USA.

    Previously, we have shown that the vimentin 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) contains a highly conserved region, which is sufficient for the perinuclear localization of a reporter mRNA. This region was shown to specifically bind protein(s) by band shift analyses. UV-cross-linking studies suggest these proteins are 46- and 35-kDa in mass. Here, we have used this sequence as 'bait' to isolate RNA binding proteins using the yeast three-hybrid method. This technique relies on a functional assay detecting bona fide RNA-protein interaction in vivo. Three cDNA isolates, HAX-1, eEF-1gamma and hRIP, code for proteins of a size consistent with in vitro cross- linking studies. In all cases, recombinant proteins were capable of binding RNA in vitro. Although hRIP is thought to be a general mRNA binding protein, this represents an unreported activity for eEF-1gamma and HAX-1. Moreover, HAX-1 binding appears to be specific to vimentin's 3'UTR. Both in vivo synthesized eEF-1gamma and HAX-1 proteins were 'pulled out' of HeLa whole cell extracts by binding to a RNA affinity column comprised of vimentin's 3'UTR. Moreover, size-fractionation of extracts results in the separation of large complexes containing either eEF-1gamma or HAX-1. Thus, in addition to their known functions, both eEF-1gamma and HAX-1 are RNA binding proteins, which suggests new roles in mRNA translation and/or perinuclear localization.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL-45422

    Nucleic acids research 2002;30;23;5017-28

  • The TSC1 tumor suppressor hamartin interacts with neurofilament-L and possibly functions as a novel integrator of the neuronal cytoskeleton.

    Haddad LA, Smith N, Bowser M, Niida Y, Murthy V, Gonzalez-Agosti C and Ramesh V

    Molecular Neurogenetics Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown 02129, USA.

    Tuberous sclerosis complex, an autosomal dominant disease caused by mutations in either TSC1 or TSC2, is characterized by the development of hamartomas in a variety of organs. The proteins encoded by TSC1 and TSC2, hamartin and tuberin, respectively, associate with each other forming a tight complex. Here we show that hamartin binds the neurofilament light chain and it is possible to recover the hamartin-tuberin complex over the neurofilament light chain rod domain spanning amino acids 93-156 by affinity precipitation. Homologous rod domains in other intermediate filaments such as neurofilament medium chain, alpha-internexin, vimentin, and desmin are not able to bind hamartin. In cultured cortical neurons, hamartin and tuberin co-localize with neurofilament light chain preferentially in the proximal to central growth cone region. Interestingly, in the distal part of the growth cone hamartin overlaps with the ezrin-radixin-moesin family of actin binding proteins, and we have validated the interaction of hamartin with moesin. These results demonstrate that hamartin may anchor neuronal intermediate filaments to the actin cytoskeleton, which may be critical for some of the CNS functions of the hamartin-tuberin complex, and abolishing this through mutations in TSC1 or TSC2 may lead to certain neurological manifestations associated with the disease.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: NS24279, NS41917

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;46;44180-6

  • Regulation of the association of alpha 6 beta 4 with vimentin intermediate filaments in endothelial cells.

    Homan SM, Martinez R, Benware A and LaFlamme SE

    Center for Cell Biology and Cancer Research, Albany Medical College, Albany, New York 12208, USA.

    Unlabelled: The adhesion of microvascular endothelial cells to their underlying basement membrane is important for the maintenance of vascular integrity. Most integrins function in endothelial cell adhesion by forming a transmembrane link between their basement membrane ligand and the actin microfilament cytoskeleton. The alpha 6 beta 4 laminin-binding integrin, however, associates with vimentin intermediate filaments (IFs) in microvascular endothelial cells and therefore is likely to uniquely contribute to the barrier function of the endothelium. In this study, we examined the regulation of alpha 6 beta 4-vimentin IF association. We first tested the requirement for alpha 6 beta 4-laminin interactions and actin microfilament assembly. We found that alpha 6 beta 4 associated with vimentin IFs when cells were adherent to either laminin 5 or fibronectin, indicating that this association can occur independent of alpha 6 beta 4-ligand interactions. Additionally, we found that alpha 6 beta 4 was associated with vimentin IFs prior to cell spreading, indicating that changes in the microfilament cytoskeleton associated with changes in cell shape are also not required. Thus, although the association of alpha 6 beta 4 with vimentin IFs may strengthen cell adhesion by providing endothelial cells with an additional transmembrane linkage between the basement membrane and the cytoskeleton, this association is not itself regulated by alpha 6 beta 4-mediated adhesion. Finally, we tested the role of plectin in the association of alpha 6 beta 4 with vimentin IFs. Plectin is known to bind in vitro to both IFs and the beta 4 cytoplasmic domain (beta 4 tail), suggesting that it may be important for this linkage. Therefore, we generated deletion mutants of the beta 4 tail and compared the ability of alpha 6 beta 4 containing these deletions to associate with vimentin IFs. We targeted the two regions of the beta 4 tail known to bind to plectin

    the N-terminal and C-terminal plectin binding sites. We found that deletion of the N-terminal binding site inhibited the association of alpha 6 beta 4 with vimentin IFs. Thus, plectin-beta 4 tail interactions may play an important role in connecting alpha 6 beta 4 with vimentin IFs and may prove to be important targets in the regulation of this association in endothelial cells.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: T32-HL-07194

    Experimental cell research 2002;281;1;107-14

  • Functional proteomic analysis of human nucleolus.

    Scherl A, Couté Y, Déon C, Callé A, Kindbeiter K, Sanchez JC, Greco A, Hochstrasser D and Diaz JJ

    Central Clinical Chemistry Laboratory, Geneva University Hospital, 1211 Geneva 14, Switzerland.

    The notion of a "plurifunctional" nucleolus is now well established. However, molecular mechanisms underlying the biological processes occurring within this nuclear domain remain only partially understood. As a first step in elucidating these mechanisms we have carried out a proteomic analysis to draw up a list of proteins present within nucleoli of HeLa cells. This analysis allowed the identification of 213 different nucleolar proteins. This catalog complements that of the 271 proteins obtained recently by others, giving a total of approximately 350 different nucleolar proteins. Functional classification of these proteins allowed outlining several biological processes taking place within nucleoli. Bioinformatic analyses permitted the assignment of hypothetical functions for 43 proteins for which no functional information is available. Notably, a role in ribosome biogenesis was proposed for 31 proteins. More generally, this functional classification reinforces the plurifunctional nature of nucleoli and provides convincing evidence that nucleoli may play a central role in the control of gene expression. Finally, this analysis supports the recent demonstration of a coupling of transcription and translation in higher eukaryotes.

    Molecular biology of the cell 2002;13;11;4100-9

  • Unique role for the periplakin tail in intermediate filament association: specific binding to keratin 8 and vimentin.

    Kazerounian S, Uitto J and Aho S

    Department of Dermatology and Cutaneous Biology, Jefferson Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19107, USA.

    Plectin, desmoplakin, and the 230-kDa bullous pemphigoid antigen (BPAG1), members of the plakin family of proteins, are multifunctional cytolinkers, connecting the cytoskeletal structures to the cell adhesion complexes. Envoplakin and periplakin are components of the cornified envelope, but less is known about their role in tissues other than the stratified epithelium. Our tissue-wide survey utilizing RT-PCR revealed that periplakin, like plectin and desmoplakin, has a wide tissue distribution, but envoplakin expression is limited to certain tissues only, and BPAG1 is clearly specific for epidermal keratinocytes. Plectin, desmoplakin and BPAG1 are known to bind to the intermediate filaments through their C-terminal domains. The short C-terminal domain of periplakin is composed only of the linker domain, a region highly homologous between the plakin proteins. Here we demonstrate, through the use of yeast two-hybrid assay, a specific interaction of the periplakin linker domain with keratin 8 and vimentin. Co-expression of each plakin linker domain with keratin 8 revealed that periplakin and BPAG1 linkers co-localize with keratin signals in HaCaT cells, plectin and desmoplakin linkers were detected both in the nucleus and in cytoplasm together with the overexpressed keratin 8, while envoplakin linker localized independently into the nucleus. These results suggest that, in spite of its high homology and structural similarity with envoplakin, periplakin is functionally closer to the well-characterized plakin proteins plectin and desmoplakin, and thus may function tissue-wide as a scaffolding protein in intermediate filament assembly.

    Funded by: NIAMS NIH HHS: R01-AR44833

    Experimental dermatology 2002;11;5;428-38

  • Enhanced expression of vimentin in motile prostate cell lines and in poorly differentiated and metastatic prostate carcinoma.

    Lang SH, Hyde C, Reid IN, Hitchcock IS, Hart CA, Bryden AA, Villette JM, Stower MJ and Maitland NJ

    YCR Cancer Research Unit, University of York, Heslington, York, United Kingdom. SHL@york.ac.uk

    Background: The metastatic potential of a series of prostate cell lines was analysed by measuring motility and invasiveness, and further correlated to the expression of epithelial differentiation markers.

    Methods: Invasion and motility were measured using in vitro assays. Immunohistochemistry of cell lines and tissues was used to identify expression of cytokeratins 8 and 1, 5, 10, 14, vimentin, prostate specific antigen, prostate specific membrane antigen, androgen receptor, desmoglein, E-cadherin, beta1 integrin, CD44, hmet, vinculin and actin.

    Results: Expression of vimentin was the only marker to correlate with motility, no markers correlated to invasion. Lower vimentin expression was observed in cells with low motility (PNT2-C2) and high expression in cells with high motility (P4E6, PNT1a, PC-3). Vimentin expression was not detected in well differentiated tumours, moderately differentiated tumours contained vimentin positive cells (1/9 bone scan negative, 2/5 bone scan positive), but the majority of poorly differentiated cancers (4/11 bone scan negative, 9/14 bone scan positive) and bone metastases (7/8) had high vimentin expression in tumour cells.

    Conclusions: Motile prostate cancer cell lines express vimentin. In tissue sections, the presence of vimentin positive tumour cells correlated positively to poorly differentiated cancers and the presence of bone metastases.

    The Prostate 2002;52;4;253-63

  • Menin's interaction with glial fibrillary acidic protein and vimentin suggests a role for the intermediate filament network in regulating menin activity.

    Lopez-Egido J, Cunningham J, Berg M, Oberg K, Bongcam-Rudloff E and Gobl A

    Department of Medical Sciences, Endocrine Oncology Unit, Uppsala University Hospital, S-751 85 Uppsala, Sweden.

    Recently the multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) tumor suppressor gene was cloned. Its protein product, called menin, has been shown to associate with the AP1 transcription factor JunD and to repress JunD-mediated transcription. However, little is known concerning the regulation of menin. Here we report that menin interacts with the type III intermediate filament (IF) proteins glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and vimentin. Menin's interaction with these IF proteins was characterized and confirmed both in vitro and in vivo using GST pull-down analysis, co-immunoprecipitation experiments, and immunofluorescence studies. Deletion mutants of GFAP or vimentin involving the head domains of the molecules abolish the interaction with menin. Endogenous menin is colocalized with GFAP and vimentin in glioma cells as determined by confocal microscopy. Furthermore, a tailless GFAP deletion mutant, which disrupts the IF network, results in menin/GFAP/vimentin-containing aggregates. Triple immunofluorescence labeling studies with antibodies against menin, BrdU, and GFAP show that menin and GFAP colocalize in glioma cells at the S-G2 phase of the cell cycle, as measured by BrdU incorporation. Our data suggest that the intermediate filament network interacts with and may serve as a cytoplasmic sequestering network for menin at the S and early G2 phase of the cell cycle.

    Experimental cell research 2002;278;2;175-83

  • C-propeptide region of human pro alpha 1 type 1 collagen interacts with thioredoxin.

    Matsumoto K, Masutani H, Nishiyama A, Hashimoto S, Gon Y, Horie T and Yodoi J

    Department of Internal Medicine, Nihon University School of Medicine, Itabashi, Tokyo 173-8610, Japan.

    Thioredoxin (TRX) is one of major components of thiol reducing systems. To investigate the molecular mechanism of TRX function in the lung tissue, we screened a human lung epithelial cell cDNA library for TRX-binding protein by yeast two-hybrid systems. We isolated a plasmid containing C-propeptide region of human pro alpha 1 type 1 collagen (CP-pro alpha 1(1)). CP-pro alpha 1(1) stably binds to wild type TRX but not to mutant TRX, in which redox-active cysteine residues are substituted. Failure of the interaction of mutant TRX with CP-pro alpha 1(1) was confirmed in yeast two-hybrid systems. The CP-pro alpha 1(1)/TRX interaction was increased by dithiothreitol treatment, but was markedly inhibited by hydrogen peroxide or diamide treatment. These data showed that the reducing status of TRX active site cysteine residues is important for the TRX-CP-pro alpha 1(1) interaction, indicating that collagen biosynthesis is under the regulation of TRX-dependent redox control.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2002;295;3;663-7

  • Cytoplasmic localization of wild-type p53 in glioblastomas correlates with expression of vimentin and glial fibrillary acidic protein.

    Sembritzki O, Hagel C, Lamszus K, Deppert W and Bohn W

    Department of Tumor Virology, Heinrich-Pette-Institute of Experimental Virology and Immunology, University of Hamburg, Martinistrasse 52, 20251 Hamburg, Germany.

    Cytoplasmic accumulation of wild-type p53 in tumor cells indicates that the tumor suppressor is inactive with regard to growth suppressive functions. Whether this occurs randomly during tumor development or characterizes a certain tumor cell subset is not known. Here we assayed primary glioblastomas for expression and subcellular localization of p53 and determined a correlation with expression of intermediate filament proteins characterizing glial cell development. Sixty-nine percent of the tumors were p53 positive in immunohistochemistry. A significant number of tumors (23%) accumulated wild-type p53 in the cytoplasm, which correlated with the presence of vimentin and glial fibrillary acidic protein, except for 1 case. Tumors with exclusive nuclear p53 contained none or only one of these intermediate filament proteins. In an alternative approach, tumors positive for glial fibrillary acidic protein were screened for expression of p53 and vimentin. Thirty-eight percent of these tumors showed cytoplasmic p53, and all of those also expressed vimentin. Tumors with only nuclear p53 were vimentin negative, except for 1 case. No mutation was detected in p53 exons 5 to 8 in tumors with cytoplasmic p53, suggesting that they express wild-type p53. The data indicate that a cytoplasmic accumulation of wild-type p53 in human primary glioblastomas correlates with a certain intermediate filament protein expression, suggesting that it identifies a certain subset of tumors.

    Neuro-oncology 2002;4;3;171-8

  • Screening the proteins that interact with calpain in a human heart cDNA library using a yeast two-hybrid system.

    Jiang LQ, Wen SJ, Wang HY and Chen LY

    Division of Biochemistry, Cardiovascular Institute and Fu Wai Hospital, Peking Union Medical College and Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, PR China.

    Calpain, a cytosolic cysteine protease, requires calcium ions for activity. It has been reported that calpain is involved in the degradation of myofibrillar and neurofilament proteins, and the activation of phosphorylase b kinase and protein kinase C. More recently, calpain was shown to participate in apoptosis. In order to understand the calpain-related signal transduction pathway and its changes during hypertrophy, and especially in hypertension, we screened a human heart cDNA library to find proteins that interact with calpain. 1) Using PCR we amplified the full-length, domain II, domain III and domain IV cDNA of calpain (calcium-activated neutral protease, CANP) I large subunit respectively. 2) Then the fragments were cloned into pGBKT7 vector, resulting in 4 bait expression constructs (pGBKT7-CANP, pGBKT7-CANP II, pGBKT7-CANP III, and pG BKT7-CANP IV). 3) After 4 bait vectors were transformed into AH109 by the lithium acetate-mediated method, AH109/pGBKT7-CANP, AH109/pGBKT7-CANP II, AH109/pGBKT7-CANP III, and AH109/pGBKT7-CANP IV were obtained, respectively. 4) After the human heart cDNA library was sequentially transformed into AH109/ pGBKT7-CANP, 1000-1200 positive clones were grown on SD/Trp-Leu-Ade-His-. Only 150 positive clones were obtained through a colony-lift filter assay to detect beta-galactosidase activity. 5) Total 105 clones among above 150 positive clones were eliminated through that the duplicate, pseudopositive and autoactive detection, respectively. 6) Finally, sequencing eliminated clones with a wrong open reading frame (ORF). Eight clones were cancelled with wrong ORF. The remaining 37 positive clones were analyzed using BLAST software available on the Internet and classified as follows: 1. enzymes or proteins related to signal transduction in the cell; 2. contraction proteins 3. matrix proteins 4. unknown proteins. 7) In order to determine which domain of the calpain I large subunit was involved in the interaction with these real clones, the 37 clones were transformed into AH109/pGBKT7-CANP II, AH109/pGBKT7-CANP III or AH109/pGBKT7-CANP IV. Among these 37 clones, 29 clones could interact with domain II, 5 clones could interact with domain III and 6 clones could interact with domain IV. Thus, we successfully constructed 4 bait expression vectors, pGBKT7-CANP, pGBKT7-CANP II, pGBKT7-CANP III and pGBKT7-CANP IV, and obtained 37 real positive clones that interacted with the calpain I large subunit by screening a human heart cDNA library using pGBKT7-CANP as bait. Among them, 29 clones could interact with domain II of the calpain I large subunit, where the active site of calpain is located. Additional studies will be needed to clarify the calpain-related signal transduction pathway in greater detail.

    Hypertension research : official journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension 2002;25;4;647-52

  • Histamine stimulates phosphorylation of adherens junction proteins and alters their link to vimentin.

    Shasby DM, Ries DR, Shasby SS and Winter MC

    Department of Internal Medicine, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA. michael.shasby@uiowa.edu

    Histamine increases microvascular permeability by creating small transitory (100-400 nm) gaps between adjacent endothelial cells at sites of vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin-based adhesion. We examined the effects of histamine on the proteins within the VE-cadherin-based adherens junction in primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells. VE-cadherin is linked not only by beta- and alpha-catenin to cortical actin but also by gamma-catenin to the intermediate filament vimentin. In mature human umbilical vein cultures, the VE-cadherin immunoprecipitate contained equivalent amounts of alpha- and beta-catenin, 130% as much beta- as gamma-catenin, and 50% as much actin as vimentin. Within 60 s, histamine decreased the fraction of VE-cadherin in the insoluble portion of the cell lysate by 35 +/- 1.5%. At the same time, histamine decreased the amount of vimentin that immunoprecipitated with VE-cadherin by 50 +/- 6%. Histamine did not affect the amount of actin or the amount of alpha-, beta-, or gamma-catenin that immunoprecipitated with VE-cadherin. Within 60 s, histamine simulated a doubling in the phosphorylation of VE-cadherin and beta- and gamma-catenin. The VE-cadherin immunoprecipitate contained kinase activity that phosphorylated VE-cadherin and gamma-catenin in vitro.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL-335450, HL-63100

    American journal of physiology. Lung cellular and molecular physiology 2002;282;6;L1330-8

  • MICAL, a novel CasL interacting molecule, associates with vimentin.

    Suzuki T, Nakamoto T, Ogawa S, Seo S, Matsumura T, Tachibana K, Morimoto C and Hirai H

    Department of Hematology and Oncology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8655, Japan.

    CasL/HEF1 belongs to the p130(Cas) family. It is tyrosine-phosphorylated following beta(1) integrin and/or T cell receptor stimulation and is thus considered to be important for immunological reactions. CasL has several structural motifs such as an SH3 domain and a substrate domain and interacts with many molecules through these motifs. To obtain more insights on the CasL-mediated signal transduction, we sought proteins that interact with the CasL SH3 domain by far Western screening, and we identified a novel human molecule, MICAL (a Molecule Interacting with CasL). MICAL is a protein of 118 kDa and is expressed in the thymus, lung, spleen, kidney, testis, and hematopoietic cells. MICAL has a calponin homology domain, a LIM domain, a putative leucine zipper motif, and a proline-rich PPKPP sequence. MICAL associates with CasL through this PPKPP sequence. MICAL is a cytoplasmic protein and colocalizes with CasL at the perinuclear area. Through the COOH-terminal region, MICAL also associates with vimentin that is a major component of intermediate filaments. Immunostaining revealed that MICAL localizes along with vimentin intermediate filaments. These results suggest that MICAL may be a cytoskeletal regulator that connects CasL to intermediate filaments.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;17;14933-41

  • Conserved segments 1A and 2B of the intermediate filament dimer: their atomic structures and role in filament assembly.

    Strelkov SV, Herrmann H, Geisler N, Wedig T, Zimbelmann R, Aebi U and Burkhard P

    Maurice E.Müller Institute for Structural Biology, Biozentrum, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 70, CH-4056 Basel, Switzerland. sergei-v.strelkov@unibas.ch

    Intermediate filaments (IFs) are key components of the cytoskeleton in higher eukaryotic cells. The elementary IF 'building block' is an elongated coiled-coil dimer consisting of four consecutive alpha-helical segments. The segments 1A and 2B include highly conserved sequences and are critically involved in IF assembly. Based on the crystal structures of three human vimentin fragments at 1.4-2.3 A resolution (PDB entries 1gk4, 1gk6 and 1gk7), we have established the molecular organization of these two segments. The fragment corresponding to segment 1A forms a single, amphipatic alpha-helix, which is compatible with a coiled-coil geometry. While this segment might yield a coiled coil within an isolated dimer, monomeric 1A helices are likely to play a role in specific dimer-dimer interactions during IF assembly. The 2B segment reveals a double-stranded coiled coil, which unwinds near residue Phe351 to accommodate a 'stutter'. A fragment containing the last seven heptads of 2B interferes heavily with IF assembly and also transforms mature vimentin filaments into a new kind of structure. These results provide the first insight into the architecture and functioning of IFs at the atomic level.

    The EMBO journal 2002;21;6;1255-66

  • Vimentin exposed on activated platelets and platelet microparticles localizes vitronectin and plasminogen activator inhibitor complexes on their surface.

    Podor TJ, Singh D, Chindemi P, Foulon DM, McKelvie R, Weitz JI, Austin R, Boudreau G and Davies R

    Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, McMaster University and the Hamilton Civic Hospitals Research Centre, 711 Concession Street, Hamilton, Ontario L8V 1C3, Canada. podort@mcmaster.ca

    Type 1 plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1), the primary inhibitor of tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA), is found in plasma and platelets. PAI-1 circulates in complex with vitronectin (Vn), an interaction that stabilizes PAI-1 in its active conform. In this study, we examined the binding of platelet-derived Vn and PAI-1 to the surface of isolated platelets. Flow cytometry indicate that, like P-selectin, PAI-1, and Vn are found on the surface of thrombin- or calcium ionophore-activated platelets and platelet microparticles. The binding of PAI-1 to the activated platelet surface is Vn-dependent. Vn mediates the binding of PAI-1 to platelet surfaces through a high affinity (K(d) of 80 nm) binding interaction with the NH(2) terminus of vimentin, and this Vn-binding domain is expressed on the surface of activated platelets and platelet microparticles. Immunological and functional assays indicate that only -5% of the total PAI-1 in platelet releasates is functionally active, and it co-precipitates with Vn, and the vimentin-enriched cytoskeleton fraction of activated platelet debris. The remaining platelet PAI-1 is inactive, and does not associate with the cytoskeletal debris of activated platelets. Confocal microscopic analysis of platelet-rich plasma clots confirm the co-localization of PAI-1 with Vn and vimentin on the surface of activated platelets, and platelet microparticles. These findings suggest that platelet vimentin may regulate fibrinolysis in plasma and thrombi by binding platelet-derived Vn.PAI-1 complexes.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;9;7529-39

  • Oxysterol-binding-protein (OSBP)-related protein 4 binds 25-hydroxycholesterol and interacts with vimentin intermediate filaments.

    Wang C, JeBailey L and Ridgway ND

    Atlantic Research Center, Department of Pediatrics, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 4H7, Canada.

    Oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP) is the prototypical member of a class of phospholipid and oxysterol-binding proteins that interacts with the Golgi apparatus and regulates lipid and cholesterol metabolism. As a result of recent sequencing efforts, eleven other OSBP-related proteins (ORPs) have been identified in humans. We have investigated the structure, oxysterol-binding activity, cellular localization and function of ORP4 (also designated OSBP2 or HLM), a homologue that shares the highest degree of similarity with OSBP. Two ORP4 cDNAs were identified: a full-length ORP4 containing a pleckstrin homology (PH) domain and an oxysterol-binding region (designated ORP4-L), and a splice variant in which the PH domain and part of the oxysterol-binding domain were deleted (designated ORP4-S). ORP4 mRNA and protein expression overlapped partially with OSBP and were restricted to brain, heart, muscle and kidney. Like OSBP, ORP4-L bound [3H]25-hydroxycholesterol with high affinity and specificity. In contrast, ORP4-S did not bind [3H]25-hydroxycholesterol or [3H]7-ketocholesterol. Immunofluorescence localization in stably transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells showed that ORP4-S co-localized with vimentin and caused the intermediate filament network to bundle or aggregate. ORP4-L displayed a diffuse staining pattern that did not overlap with vimentin except when the microtubule network was disrupted with nocodazole. Oxysterols had no effect on the localization of either ORP4. Cells overexpressing ORP4-S had a 40% reduction in the esterification of low-density-lipoprotein-derived cholesterol, demonstrating that ORP4 interaction with intermediate filaments inhibits an intracellular cholesterol-transport pathway mediated by vimentin. These studies elucidate a hitherto unknown relationship between OSBPs and the intermediate filament network that influences cholesterol transport.

    The Biochemical journal 2002;361;Pt 3;461-72

  • Phosphorylation and reorganization of vimentin by p21-activated kinase (PAK).

    Goto H, Tanabe K, Manser E, Lim L, Yasui Y and Inagaki M

    Division of Biochemistry, Aichi Cancer Center Research Institute, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8681, Japan.

    Background: Intermediate filament (IF) is one of the three major cytoskeletal filaments. Vimentin is the most widely expressed IF protein component. The Rho family of small GTPases, such as Cdc42, Rac and Rho, are thought to control the organization of actin filaments as well as other cytoskeletal filaments.

    Results: We determined if the vimentin filaments can be regulated by p21-activated kinase (PAK), one of targets downstream of Cdc42 or Rac. In vitro analyses revealed that vimentin served as an excellent substrate for PAK. This phosphorylated vimentin lost the potential to form 10 nm filaments. We identified Ser25, Ser38, Ser50, Ser65 and Ser72 in the amino-terminal head domain as the major phosphorylation sites on vimentin for PAK. The ectopic expression of constitutively active PAK in COS-7 cells induced vimentin phosphorylation. Fibre bundles or granulates of vimentin were frequent in these transfected cells. However, the kinase-inactive mutant induced neither vimentin phosphorylation nor filament reorganization.

    Conclusion: Our observations suggest that PAK may regulate the reorganization of vimentin filaments through direct vimentin phosphorylation.

    Genes to cells : devoted to molecular & cellular mechanisms 2002;7;2;91-7

  • Asymmetric vimentin distribution in human spermatozoa.

    Markova MD, Marinova TT and Vatev IT

    Department of Biology, Medical Faculty, Medical University of Sofia, Bulgaria. mmarkova@medfac.acad.bg

    The subject of the study was vimentin distribution in spermatozoa from human ejaculates by immunofluorescence and immunogold electron microscopy. In accordance with earlier reports, vimentin was found in the sperm head and was localized mainly in the equatorial segment region. However, electron microscopic observations revealed an additional intriguing detail: vimentin-associated gold granules showed asymmetric distribution. This asymmetry tended to be more pronounced in heads with defects such as cytoplasmic droplets. Abnormal cells also had positive reaction for vimentin in the neck and the proximal midpiece, but in these domains gold granule distribution was apparently uniform. These findings seem to support the hypothesis that the surfaces of the mammalian sperm head are functionally non-equivalent, although morphological basis for such a phenomenon is evident only in rodents. It is also interesting that asymmetry in vimentin distribution correlates with distinct types of sperm structural defects.

    Folia biologica 2002;48;4;160-2

  • Polycystin-1 interacts with intermediate filaments.

    Xu GM, Sikaneta T, Sullivan BM, Zhang Q, Andreucci M, Stehle T, Drummond I and Arnaout MA

    Renal Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, Massachusetts 02129, USA.

    Polycystin-1, the protein defective in a majority of patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, is a ubiquitously expressed multi-span transmembrane protein of unknown function. Subcellular localization studies found this protein to be a component of various cell junctional complexes and to be associated with the cytoskeleton, but the specificity and nature of such associations are not known. To identify proteins that interact with the polycystin-1 C-tail (P1CT), this segment was used as bait in a yeast two-hybrid screening of a kidney epithelial cell library. The intermediate filament (IF) protein vimentin was identified as a strong polycystin-1-interacting partner. Cytokeratins K8 and K18 and desmin were also found to interact with P1CT. These interactions were mediated by coiled-coil motifs in polycystin-1 and IF proteins. Vimentin, cytokeratins K8 and K18, and desmin also bound directly to P1CT in GST pull-down and in in vitro filament assembly assays. Two observations confirmed these interactions in vivo: (i) a cell membrane-anchored form of recombinant P1CT decorated the IF network and was found to associate with the cytoskeleton in detergent-solubilized cells and (ii) endogenous polycystin-1 distributed with IF at desmosomal junctions. Polycystin-1 may utilize this association for structural, storage, or signaling functions.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: P01 DK54711

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2001;276;49;46544-52

  • Identification of a caspase-9 substrate and detection of its cleavage in programmed cell death during mouse development.

    Nakanishi K, Maruyama M, Shibata T and Morishima N

    Bioarchitect Research Group, RIKEN (Institute of Physical and Chemical Research), 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198, Japan.

    The caspase family of proteases represents the main machinery by which apoptosis occurs. In vitro studies have revealed that upstream caspases are activated in response to apoptotic stimuli, and the active caspases in turn process downstream effector caspases that are involved in the destruction of cellular structure. Caspase-9 is an upstream caspase that can become active in response to cellular damage, including deprivation of growth factors and exposure to oxidative stress in vitro. Little is known, however, about how activation of caspase-9 is temporally and spatially regulated in vivo, e.g. during development. We have identified vimentin as the first example of a caspase-9 substrate that is not a downstream procaspase. Immunohistochemical analysis, using a specific antibody against the vimentin fragments generated by caspase-9, showed that caspase-9 cleaves vimentin in apoptotic cells in the embryonic nervous system and the interdigital regions. This result is consistent with observations that gene knockouts of caspase-9 and its activator, Apaf-1, result in developmental defects in these tissues. Our results show that the specific antibody is useful for in situ detection of caspase-9 activation in programmed cell death.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2001;276;44;41237-44

  • Remodeling of vimentin cytoskeleton correlates with enhanced motility of promyelocytic leukemia cells during differentiation induced by retinoic acid.

    Bruel A, Paschke S, Jainta S, Zhang Y, Vassy J, Rigaut JP and Beil M

    Institute of Hematology, Hospital St. Louis, Paris, France. abruel@jupiter.chu-stlouis.fr

    The intermediate filament (IFs) cytoskeleton is one of the major determinants for the mechanical properties of cytoplasm. Vimentin is the major IFs protein in peripheral blood neutrophils. We investigated its expression and function during neutrophil differentiation using the promyelocytic leukemia cell line NB4. The differentiation of NB4 cells along the neutrophil lineage and the monocytic pathway was induced by all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and phorbol esters (PMA), respectively. We demonstrated a down-regulation of vimentin after ATRA treatment of NB4 cells by immunoblotting and immunofluorescence. The architecture of the vimentin cytoskeleton in differentiated NB4 cells resembled that observed in mature neutrophils. In contrast, we showed a slight increase of vimentin content in phorbol ester (PMA)-treated NB4 cells. The structural features of the vimentin cytoskeleton obtained by image analysis showed significant differences in network density and directionality between ATRA-treated NB4 cells and controls. The functional consequence of the cytoskeletal remodeling for the mechanical properties of NB4 cells was assessed in migration assays. After ATRA treatment, we found a 4-fold increased migration of NB4 cells across transwell membranes with a 8 microm pore size without any cell size modification. No significant differences between PMA-treated NB4 cells and control cells could be observed using similar tests. These results indicate that both vimentin expression and network architecture are tightly controlled during neutrophil differentiation to regulate the mechanical properties of these cells.

    Anticancer research 2001;21;6A;3973-80

  • A nuclear SH3 domain-binding protein that colocalizes with mRNA splicing factors and intermediate filament-containing perinuclear networks.

    Craggs G, Finan PM, Lawson D, Wingfield J, Perera T, Gadher S, Totty NF and Kellie S

    Yamanouchi Research Institute, Littlemore Park, Oxford OX4 4XS, United Kingdom.

    A protein (SNP70) has been isolated that binds to the Src homology domain 3 of p47(phox), p85alpha, and c-src. Cloning and sequencing of the polypeptide revealed it to be a 70-kDa protein that has a number of potential domains, including Src homology 3 binding motifs and several nuclear localization signals. Immunofluorescence using anti-peptide antibodies revealed SNP70 to be primarily concentrated in the nucleus but excluded from nucleoli, in interphase cells. However, it was distributed throughout the cytoplasm in dividing cells. Extraction and subfractionation experiments indicated that SNP70 did not bind directly to DNA but did bind to poly(G)-rich oligonucleotides and was resistant to extraction with non-ionic detergents but was solubilized by treatment with RNase, high salt, or ammonium sulfate. Double-immunofluorescence experiments showed that SNP70 co-localized with two pre-mRNA splicing factors SC35 and U2B" within the nucleus. A population of SNP70 was found outside the nucleus, and double-immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy demonstrated that it associated with vimentin-containing intermediate filaments, particularly those surrounding the nucleus. The data suggest that SNP70 associates with nuclear or perinuclear filaments and may play a role in the regulation of pre-mRNA processing.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2001;276;32;30552-60

  • Cutting edge: integration of human T lymphocyte cytoskeleton by the cytolinker plectin.

    Brown MJ, Hallam JA, Liu Y, Yamada KM and Shaw S

    Experimental Immunology Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, 10 Center Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA. BrownM@exchange.nih.gov

    Chemokine-induced polarization of lymphocytes involves the rapid collapse of vimentin intermediate filaments (IFs) into an aggregate within the uropod. Little is known about the interactions of lymphocyte vimentin with other cytoskeletal elements. We demonstrate that human peripheral blood T lymphocytes express plectin, an IF-binding, cytoskeletal cross-linking protein. Plectin associates with a complex of structural proteins including vimentin, actin, fodrin, moesin, and lamin B in resting peripheral blood T lymphocytes. During chemokine-induced polarization, plectin redistributes to the uropod associated with vimentin and fodrin; their spatial distribution indicates that this vimentin-plectin-fodrin complex provides a continuous linkage from the nucleus (lamin B) to the cortical cytoskeleton. Overexpression of the plectin IF-binding domain in the T cell line Jurkat induces the perinuclear aggregation of vimentin IFs. Plectin is therefore likely to serve as an important organizer of the lymphocyte cytoskeleton and may regulate changes of lymphocyte cytoarchitecture during polarization and extravasation.

    Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 2001;167;2;641-5

  • Caspase cleavage of vimentin disrupts intermediate filaments and promotes apoptosis.

    Byun Y, Chen F, Chang R, Trivedi M, Green KJ and Cryns VL

    Center for Endocrinology, Metabolism and Molecular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Northwestern University Medical School, Chicago, IL 60611, USA.

    Caspases are key mediators of apoptosis. Using a novel expression cloning strategy we recently developed to identify cDNAs encoding caspase substrates, we isolated the intermediate filament protein vimentin as a caspase substrate. Vimentin is preferentially cleaved by multiple caspases at distinct sites in vitro, including Asp85 by caspases-3 and -7 and Asp259 by caspase-6, to yield multiple proteolytic fragments. Vimentin is rapidly proteolyzed by multiple caspases into similar sized fragments during apoptosis induced by many stimuli. Caspase cleavage of vimentin disrupts its cytoplasmic network of intermediate filaments and coincides temporally with nuclear fragmentation. Moreover, caspase proteolysis of vimentin at Asp85 generates a pro-apoptotic amino-terminal fragment whose ability to induce apoptosis is dependent on caspases. Taken together, our findings suggest that caspase proteolysis of vimentin promotes apoptosis by dismantling intermediate filaments and by amplifying the cell death signal via a pro-apoptotic cleavage product.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: K08-CA01752; NIAMS NIH HHS: R01 AR41836

    Cell death and differentiation 2001;8;5;443-50

  • Uridine phosphorylase association with vimentin. Intracellular distribution and localization.

    Russell RL, Cao D, Zhang D, Handschumacher RE and Pizzorno G

    Department of Internal Medicine, Section of Medical Oncology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA.

    Uridine phosphorylase (UPase), a key enzyme in the pyrimidine salvage pathway, is associated with the intermediate filament protein vimentin, in NIH 3T3 fibroblasts and colon 26 cells. Affinity chromatography was utilized to purify UPase from colon 26 and NIH 3T3 cells using the uridine phosphorylase inhibitor 5'-amino benzylacyclouridine linked to an agarose matrix. Vimentin copurification with UPase was confirmed using both Western blot analysis and MALDI-MS methods. Separation of cytosolic proteins using gel filtration chromatography yields a high molecular weight complex containing UPase and vimentin. Purified recombinant UPase and recombinant vimentin were shown to bind in vitro with an affinity of 120 pm and a stoichiometry of 1:2. Immunofluorescence techniques confirm that UPase is associated with vimentin in both NIH 3T3 and colon 26 cells and that depolymerization of the microtubule system using nocodazole results in UPase remaining associated with the collapsed intermediate filament, vimentin. Our data demonstrate that UPase is associated with both the soluble and insoluble pools of vimentin. Approximately 60-70% of the total UPase exists in the cytosol as a soluble protein. Sequential extraction of NIH 3T3 or colon 26 cells liberates an additional 30-40% UPase activity associated with a detergent extractable fraction. All pools of UPase have been shown to possess enzymatic activity. We demonstrate for the first time that UPase is associated with vimentin and the existence of an enzymatically active cytoskeleton-associated UPase.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2001;276;16;13302-7

  • Divide-and-conquer crystallographic approach towards an atomic structure of intermediate filaments.

    Strelkov SV, Herrmann H, Geisler N, Lustig A, Ivaninskii S, Zimbelmann R, Burkhard P and Aebi U

    Maurice E. Müller Institute for Structural Biology Biozentrum, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 70, Basel, CH-4056, Switzerland.

    Intermediate filaments (IFs) represent an essential component of the cytoskeleton in higher eukaryotic cells. The elementary building block of the IF architecture is an elongated dimer with its dominant central part being a parallel double-stranded alpha-helical coiled coil. Filament formation proceeds via a specific multi-step association of the dimers into the unit-length filaments, which subsequently anneal longitudinally and finally radially compact into mature filaments. To tackle the challenge of a crystallographic structure determination, we have produced and characterised 17 overlapping soluble fragments of human IF protein vimentin. For six fragments ranging in length between 39 and 84 amino acid residues, conditions yielding macroscopic crystals could be established and X-ray diffraction data were collected to the highest resolution limit between 1.4 and 3 A. We expect that solving the crystal structures of these and further fragments will eventually allow us to patch together a molecular model for the full-length vimentin dimer. This divide-and-conquer approach will be subsequently extended to determining the crystal structures of a number of complexes formed by appropriate vimentin fragments, and will eventually allow us to establish the three- dimensional architecture of complete filaments at atomic resolution.

    Journal of molecular biology 2001;306;4;773-81

  • Fully functional, naturally occurring and C-terminally truncated variant human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Vif does not bind to HIV Gag but influences intermediate filament structure.

    Henzler T, Harmache A, Herrmann H, Spring H, Suzan M, Audoly G, Panek T and Bosch V

    Forschungsschwerpunkt Angewandte Tumorvirologie, F0200, Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Im Neuenheimer Feld 242, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.

    A variant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vif gene, vifA45-2, which encodes a protein lacking 19 amino acids at the C terminus but which is fully functional in supporting HIV replication in non-permissive cells has been described previously. By employing newly generated anti-VifA45 serum, further properties of VifA45 and its full-length counterpart, VifA45open, in comparison to Vif from HIV strain BH10 are reported in permissive HeLa and COS-7 cells. The results obtained using confocal microscopic localization studies and in vitro binding assays do not support a requirement for the direct interaction of HIV Gag with Vif. Furthermore and in contrast to previous conclusions, detergent solubility analyses do not demonstrate a role for the C terminus of Vif in mediating localization to the fraction containing cellular membrane proteins. Localization of Vif from HIV strain BH10 to perinuclear aggregates in a small fraction (about 10%) of transfected HeLa cells has been previously reported. The intermediate filament protein vimentin colocalizes to these structures. In contrast, VifA45 and VifA45open form perinuclear aggregates in nearly all transfected HeLa cells; vimentin as well as the cytoskeletal-bridging protein plectin, but not the microtubular protein tubulin, become relocalized to these structures. Interestingly, in COS-7 cells, all of the functional Vif proteins tested (Vif from strain BH10, VifA45 and VifA45open) predominantly localize in the cytoplasm but still induce dramatic aggregation of vimentin and plectin, i.e. in these cells the respective Vif proteins are influencing intermediate filament structure in the absence of colocalization.

    The Journal of general virology 2001;82;Pt 3;561-73

  • Amino-terminal polypeptides of vimentin are responsible for the changes in nuclear architecture associated with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease activity in tissue culture cells.

    Shoeman RL, Hüttermann C, Hartig R and Traub P

    Max-Planck-Institut für Zellbiologie, Rosenhof, D-68526 Ladenburg, Germany. rshoeman@zellbio.mpg.de

    Electron microscopy of human skin fibroblasts syringe-loaded with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease (HIV-1 PR) revealed several effects on nuclear architecture. The most dramatic is a change from a spherical nuclear morphology to one with multiple lobes or deep invaginations. The nuclear matrix collapses or remains only as a peripheral rudiment, with individual elements thicker than in control cells. Chromatin organization and distribution is also perturbed. Attempts to identify a major nuclear protein whose cleavage by the protease might be responsible for these alterations were unsuccessful. Similar changes were observed in SW 13 T3 M [vimentin(+)] cells, whereas no changes were observed in SW 13 [vimentin(-)] cells after microinjection of protease. Treatment of SW 13 [vimentin(-)] cells, preinjected with vimentin to establish an intermediate filament network, with HIV-1 PR resulted in alterations in chromatin staining and distribution, but not in nuclear shape. These same changes were produced in SW 13 [vimentin(-)] cells after the injection of a mixture of vimentin peptides, produced by the cleavage of vimentin to completion by HIV-1 PR in vitro. Similar experiments with 16 purified peptides derived from wild-type or mutant vimentin proteins and five synthetic peptides demonstrated that exclusively N-terminal peptides were capable of altering chromatin distribution. Furthermore, two separate regions of the N-terminal head domain are primarily responsible for perturbing nuclear architecture. The ability of HIV-1 to affect nuclear organization via the liberation of vimentin peptides may play an important role in HIV-1-associated cytopathogenesis and carcinogenesis.

    Molecular biology of the cell 2001;12;1;143-54

  • Nucleoside diphosphate kinase beta (Nm23-R1/NDPKbeta) is associated with intermediate filaments and becomes upregulated upon cAMP-induced differentiation of rat C6 glioma.

    Roymans D, Willems R, Vissenberg K, De Jonghe C, Grobben B, Claes P, Lascu I, Van Bockstaele D, Verbelen JP, Van Broeckhoven C and Slegers H

    Laboratory of Cellular Biochemistry, University of Antwerp, Wilrijk-Antwerpen, B-2610, Belgium.

    Nucleoside diphosphate kinases (Nm23/NDPK) are enzymes functional in cell proliferation, differentiation, development, tumor progression, and metastasis. Nevertheless, no consensus exists about the molecular mechanism by which Nm23/NDPK isoforms exert their role in these processes. We investigated the expression of the rat Nm23-R1/NDPKbeta and Nm23-R2/NDPKalpha isoforms, homologues of the human Nm23-H1/NDPK A and Nm23-H2/NDPK B proteins, respectively, upon cAMP-induced differentiation of rat C6 glioma cells and demonstrated a differential interaction with intermediate filaments. Semiquantitative RT-PCR, immunoblotting, and flow cytometry showed a constitutive expression of both Nm23 isoforms. After induction of differentiation in C6 cells with cAMP analogs or isoproterenol, a dose-dependent 2- and 2.5-fold upregulation of the Nm23-R1 mRNA and protein, respectively, was observed. In contrast, the expression of Nm23-R2 remained unchanged. Localization of both isoforms with confocal laser scanning microscopy demonstrated a punctate reticular staining pattern for both Nm23 isoforms in the cytosol and processes of the cells which was particularly intense in the perinuclear region. In addition, while Nm23-R2 was colocalized and coimmunoprecipitated with vimentin in nondifferentiated cells, both isoforms were associated with GFAP in differentiated cells. The significance of these findings in relation to a possible function of Nm23 isoforms in cell proliferation, differentiation, and tumor-associated mechanisms is discussed.

    Experimental cell research 2000;261;1;127-38

  • Calyculin A-induced vimentin phosphorylation sequesters 14-3-3 and displaces other 14-3-3 partners in vivo.

    Tzivion G, Luo ZJ and Avruch J

    Diabetes Unit, the Department of Molecular Biology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA.

    14-3-3 proteins bind their targets through a specific serine/threonine-phosphorylated motif present on the target protein. This binding is a crucial step in the phosphorylation-dependent regulation of various key proteins involved in signal transduction and cell cycle control. We report that treatment of COS-7 cells with the phosphatase inhibitor calyculin A induces association of 14-3-3 with a 55-kDa protein, identified as the intermediate filament protein vimentin. Association of vimentin with 14-3-3 depends on vimentin phosphorylation and requires the phosphopeptide-binding domain of 14-3-3. The region necessary for binding to 14-3-3 is confined to the vimentin amino-terminal head domain (amino acids 1-96). Monomeric forms of 14-3-3 do not bind vimentin in vivo or in vitro, indicating that a stable complex requires the binding of a 14-3-3 dimer to two sites on a single vimentin polypeptide. The calyculin A-induced association of vimentin with 14-3-3 in vivo results in the displacement of most other 14-3-3 partners, including the protooncogene Raf, which nevertheless remain capable of binding 14-3-3 in vitro. Concomitant with 14-3-3 displacement, calyculin A treatment blocks Raf activation by EGF; however, this inhibition is completely overcome by 14-3-3 overexpression in vivo or by the addition of prokaryotic recombinant 14-3-3 in vitro. Thus, phosphovimentin, by sequestering 14-3-3 and limiting its availability to other target proteins can affect intracellular signaling processes that require 14-3-3.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2000;275;38;29772-8

  • Activation of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II within post-synaptic dendritic spines of cultured hippocampal neurons.

    Inagaki N, Nishizawa M, Arimura N, Yamamoto H, Takeuchi Y, Miyamoto E, Kaibuchi K and Inagaki M

    Laboratory of Biochemistry, Aichi Cancer Center Research Institute, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8681, Japan. ninagaki@bs.aistnara.ac.jp

    To understand the cell signaling of protein kinases, it is essential to monitor their activity in each of the subcellular compartments. Here we developed a method to visualize the activities of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) in the cytoplasm, plasma membrane, and nucleus, separately, by utilizing targeted phosphorylation motifs and phosphorylation-specific antibodies. This approach was used to monitor the activities of post-synaptic CaMKII in cultured hippocampal neurons. Strong stimulation of the neurons by N-methyl-d-aspartate led to global activations of CaMKII in the cell bodies and dendrites. On the other hand, weak stimulation by removal of Mg(2+) block of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors induced CaMKII signaling localized within single dendritic spines. Post-synaptic CaMKII is thought to modify synaptic efficiency. The present data for the first time demonstrate the activation of CaMKII localized within single dendritic spines and are consistent with the notion that synaptic efficiency is modified by CaMKII in single or multiple spine level depending on the strength of receptor activation.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2000;275;35;27165-71

  • Interaction of plakophilins with desmoplakin and intermediate filament proteins: an in vitro analysis.

    Hofmann I, Mertens C, Brettel M, Nimmrich V, Schnölzer M and Herrmann H

    Division of Cell Biology/A0100 and Protein Analysis Facility/R0800, German Cancer Research Center, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany. i.hofmann@dkfz-heidelberg.de

    Plakophilin 1 and 2 (PKP1, PKP2) are members of the arm-repeat protein family. They are both constitutively expressed in most vertebrate cells, in two splice forms named a and b, and display a remarkable dual location: they occur in the nuclei of cells and, in epithelial cells, at the plasma membrane within the desmosomal plaques. We have shown by solid phase-binding assays that both PKP1a and PKP2a bind to intermediate filament (IF) proteins, in particular to cytokeratins (CKs) from epidermal as well as simple epithelial cells and, to some extent, to vimentin. In line with this we show that recombinant PKP1a binds strongly to IFs assembled in vitro from CKs 8/18, 5/14, vimentin or desmin and integrates them into thick (up to 120 nm in diameter) IF bundles extending for several microm. The basic amino-terminal, non-arm-repeat domain of PKP1a is necessary and sufficient for this specific interaction as shown by blot overlay and centrifugation experiments. In particular, the binding of PKP1a to IF proteins is saturable at an approximately equimolar ratio. In extracts from HaCaT cells, distinct soluble complexes containing PKP1a and desmoplakin I (DPI) have been identified by co-immunoprecipitation and sucrose density fractionation. The significance of these interactions of PKP1a with IF proteins on the one hand and desmoplakin on the other is discussed in relation to the fact that PKP1a is not bound - and does not bind - to extended IFs in vivo. We postulate that (1) effective cellular regulatory mechanisms exist that prevent plakophilins from unscheduled IF-binding, and (2) specific desmoplakin interactions with either PKP1, PKP2 or PKP3, or combinations thereof, are involved in the selective recruitment of plakophilins to the desmosomal plaques.

    Journal of cell science 2000;113 ( Pt 13);2471-83

  • Cleavage of vimentin by different retroviral proteases.

    Snásel J, Shoeman R, Horejsí M, Hrusková-Heidingsfeldová O, Sedlácek J, Ruml T and Pichová I

    Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague.

    Proteases (PRs) of retroviruses cleave viral polyproteins into their mature structural proteins and replication enzymes. Besides this essential role in the replication cycle of retroviruses, PRs also cleave a variety of host cell proteins. We have analyzed the in vitro cleavage of mouse vimentin by proteases of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and type 2 (HIV-2), bovine leukemia virus (BLV), Mason-Pfizer monkey virus (M-PMV), myeloblastosis-associated virus (MAV), and two active-site mutants of MAV PR. Retroviral proteases display significant differences in specificity requirements. Here, we show a comparison of substrate specificities of several retroviral proteases on vimentin as a substrate. Vimentin was cleaved by all the proteases at different sites and with different rates. The results show that the physiologically important cellular protein vimentin can be degraded by different retroviral proteases.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: R31W00050

    Archives of biochemistry and biophysics 2000;377;2;241-5

  • Identification of a cellular protein that functionally interacts with the C2 domain of cytosolic phospholipase A(2)alpha.

    Nakatani Y, Tanioka T, Sunaga S, Murakami M and Kudo I

    Department of Health Chemistry, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Showa University, 1-5-8 Hatanodai, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 142-8555, Japan.

    Cytosolic phospholipase A(2) (cPLA(2)) alpha plays critical roles in lipid mediator synthesis. We performed far-Western analysis and identified a 60-kDa protein (P60) that interacted with cPLA(2)alpha in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner. Peptide microsequencing revealed that purified P60 was identical to vimentin, a major component of the intermediate filament. The interaction occurred between the C2 domain of cPLA(2)alpha and the head domain of vimentin. Immunofluorescence microscopic analysis demonstrated that cPLA(2)alpha and vimentin colocalized around the perinuclear area in cPLA(2)alpha-overexpressing human embryonic kidney 293 cells following A23187 stimulation. Forcible expression of vimentin in vimentin-deficient SW13 cells augmented A23187-induced arachidonate release. Moreover, overexpression of the vimentin head domain in rat fibroblastic 3Y1 cells exerted a dominant inhibitory effect on arachidonate metabolism, significantly reducing A23187-induced arachidonate release and attendant prostanoid generation. These results suggest that vimentin is an adaptor for cPLA(2)alpha to function properly during the eicosanoid-biosynthetic process.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2000;275;2;1161-8

  • Effect of serine and tyrosine phosphorylation on retroviral proteinase substrates.

    Tözsér J, Bagossi P, Boross P, Louis JM, Majerova E, Oroszlan S and Copeland TD

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University Medical School of Debrecen, Hungary. tozser@indi.biochem.dote.hu

    Vimentin, a cellular substrate of HIV type 1 (HIV-1) proteinase, contains a protein kinase C (PKC) phosphorylation site at one of its cleavage sites. Peptides representing this site were synthesized in P2 Ser-phosphorylated and nonphosphorylated forms. While the nonphosphorylated peptide was a fairly good substrate of the enzyme, phosphorylation prevented hydrolysis. Phosphorylation of human recombinant vimentin by PKC prevented its processing within the head domain, where the phosphorylation occurred. Oligopeptides representing naturally occurring cleavage sites at the C-terminus of the Rous sarcoma virus integrase were assayed as substrates of the avian proteinase. Unlike the nonphosphorylated peptides, a Ser-phosphorylated peptide was not hydrolyzed by the enzyme at the Ser-Pro bond, suggesting the role of previously established phosphorylation in processing at this site. Ser-phosphorylated and Tyr-phosphorylated forms of model substrates were also tested as substrates of the HIV-1 and the avian retroviral proteinases. In contrast to the moderate effect of P4 Ser phosphorylation, phosphorylation of P1 Tyr prevented substrate hydrolysis by HIV-1 proteinase. Substrate phosphorylation had substantially smaller effects on the hydrolysis by the avian retroviral proteinase. As the active retroviral proteinase as well as various protein kinases are incorporated into mature virions, substrate phosphorylation resulting in attenuation or prevention of proteolytic processing may have important consequences in the regulation of the retroviral life cycle as well as in virus-host cell interactions.

    European journal of biochemistry 1999;265;1;423-9

  • [Vimentin intermediate filaments are involved in replication of human immunodeficiency virus type I].

    Khakhulina TV, Vorkunova GK, Manukhina EE and Bukrinskaia AG

    Doklady Akademii nauk 1999;368;5;706-8

  • Changes in nuclear morphology during apoptosis correlate with vimentin cleavage by different caspases located either upstream or downstream of Bcl-2 action.

    Morishima N

    Biodesign Research Group, RIKEN (the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research), 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198, Japan. morishim@postman.riken.go.jp

    Background: Upon Fas stimulation, procaspase-8 is recruited to the death-inducing signalling complex where autoactivation of caspase-8 occurs. Active caspase-8 can directly activate downstream caspases (e.g. caspase-3, 6, and 7) for the execution of apoptosis (mitochondria-independent pathway), while caspase-8 can also lead to executioner caspase activation through mitochondrial damage (mitochondria-dependent pathway). Caspase activation results in the dismantling of intracellular structure through specific proteolysis.

    Results: We have found that an intermediate filament protein, vimentin, is cleaved at multiple sites by caspases at an early stage of apoptosis in Jurkat cells. The sequences of the two major cleavage sites in vimentin (IDVD/V and DSVD/F) suggested that these sites are cleaved by caspase-8 and caspase-3, respectively, or by close homologues of these proteases. The IDVD/V site can be cleaved by caspase-8 in vitro, and its cleavage is less sensitive to DEVD-CHO and Bcl-2 over-expression than that of the DSVD/F site in Jurkat cells. Over-expression of a mutant vimentin which was insensitive to caspase cleavage at these sites delayed the appearance of apoptotic nuclei in Jurkat cells.

    Conclusion: The specific cleavage of vimentin can be used as an apoptotic marker of both apical- and mitochondria-dependent caspase activation. Apoptotic cleavage of vimentin most likely results in disruption of its filamentous structure, which may facilitate nuclear condensation and subsequent fragmentation through disruption of the cytoskeletal network.

    Genes to cells : devoted to molecular & cellular mechanisms 1999;4;7;401-14

  • Phosphorylation of vimentin by Rho-associated kinase at a unique amino-terminal site that is specifically phosphorylated during cytokinesis.

    Goto H, Kosako H, Tanabe K, Yanagida M, Sakurai M, Amano M, Kaibuchi K and Inagaki M

    Laboratory of Biochemistry, Aichi Cancer Center Research Institute, Chikusa-ku, Aichi 464, Japan.

    We found that vimentin, the most widely expressed intermediate filament protein, served as an excellent substrate for Rho-associated kinase (Rho-kinase) and that vimentin phosphorylated by Rho-kinase lost its ability to form filaments in vitro. Two amino-terminal sites on vimentin, Ser38 and Ser71, were identified as the major phosphorylation sites for Rho-kinase, and Ser71 was the most favored and unique phosphorylation site for Rho-kinase in vitro. To analyze the vimentin phosphorylation by Rho-kinase in vivo, we prepared an antibody GK71 that specifically recognizes the phosphorylation of vimentin-Ser71. Ectopic expression of constitutively active Rho-kinase in COS-7 cells induced phosphorylation of vimentin at Ser71, followed by the reorganization of vimentin filament networks. During the cell cycle, the phosphorylation of vimentin-Ser71 occurred only at the cleavage furrow in late mitotic cells but not in interphase or early mitotic cells. This cleavage furrow-specific phosphorylation of vimentin-Ser71 was observed in the various types of cells we examined. All these accumulating observations increase the possibility that Rho-kinase may have a definite role in governing regulatory processes in assembly-disassembly and turnover of vimentin filaments at the cleavage furrow during cytokinesis.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1998;273;19;11728-36

  • Construction and characterization of a full length-enriched and a 5'-end-enriched cDNA library.

    Suzuki Y, Yoshitomo-Nakagawa K, Maruyama K, Suyama A and Sugano S

    International and Interdisciplinary Studies, The University of Tokyo, Japan.

    Using 'oligo-capped' mRNA [Maruyama, K., Sugano, S., 1994. Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with oligoribonucleotides. Gene 138, 171-174], whose cap structure was replaced by a synthetic oligonucleotide, we constructed two types of cDNA library. One is a 'full length-enriched cDNA library' which has a high content of full-length cDNA clones and the other is a '5'-end-enriched cDNA library', which has a high content of cDNA clones with their mRNA start sites. The 5'-end-enriched library was constructed especially for isolating the mRNA start sites of long mRNAs. In order to characterize these libraries, we performed one-pass sequencing of randomly selected cDNA clones from both libraries (84 clones for the full length-enriched cDNA library and 159 clones for the 5'-end-enriched cDNA library). The cDNA clones of the polypeptide chain elongation factor 1 alpha were most frequently (nine clones) isolated, and more than 80% of them (eight clones) contained the mRNA start site of the gene. Furthermore, about 80% of the cDNA clones of both libraries whose sequence matched with known genes had the known 5' ends or sequences upstream of the known 5' ends (28 out of 35 for the full length-enriched library and 51 out of 62 for the 5'-end-enriched library). The longest full-length clone of the full length-enriched cDNA library was about 3300 bp (among 28 clones). In contrast, seven clones (out of the 51 clones with the mRNA start sites) from the 5'-end-enriched cDNA library came from mRNAs whose length is more than 3500 bp. These cDNA libraries may be useful for generating 5' ESTs with the information of the mRNA start sites that are now scarce in the EST database.

    Gene 1997;200;1-2;149-56

  • Two-hybrid analysis reveals fundamental differences in direct interactions between desmoplakin and cell type-specific intermediate filaments.

    Meng JJ, Bornslaeger EA, Green KJ, Steinert PM and Ip W

    Department of Cell Biology, Neurobiology and Anatomy, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, Ohio 45267-0521, USA.

    Desmosomes are cell junctions that act as sites of strong intercellular adhesion and also serve to anchor the intermediate filament (IF) cytoskeleton to the plasma membrane of a variety of cell types. Previous studies demonstrated that the COOH terminus of the desmosomal plaque protein, desmoplakin (DP), is required for the association of DP with IF networks in cultured cells and that this domain interacts directly with type II epidermal keratin polypeptides in vitro. However, these studies left open the question of how desmosomes might anchor other IF types known to associate with these junctions. In this report we used yeast two-hybrid and in vitro dot blot assays to further examine the requirements for direct interactions between desmoplakin and various IF types. Our results confirm the ability of the DP COOH terminus (DPCT) to interact with at least two regions of the head domain of the type II epidermal keratin K1 and also demonstrate that DPCT can interact with the type III IF family members, vimentin and desmin, as well as simple epithelial keratins. Unlike the situation for type II epidermal keratins, the interaction between DPCT and simple epithelial keratins appears to depend on heterodimerization of the type I and II keratin polypeptides, since both are required to detect an interaction. Furthermore, although the interaction between DPCT and K1 requires the keratin head domain, deletion of this domain from the simple epithelial keratins does not compromise interaction with DPCT. The interaction between DPCT and type III or simple epithelial keratins also appeared to be less robust than that between DPCT and K1. In the case of K8/K18, however, the interaction as assessed by yeast two-hybrid assays increased 9-fold when a serine located in a protein kinase A consensus phosphorylation site 23 residues from the end of DP was altered to a glycine. Taken together, these data indicate that DP interacts directly with different IF types in specific ways.

    Funded by: NIAMS NIH HHS: R01 AR35973, R01 AR43380

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1997;272;34;21495-503

  • The Vif and Gag proteins of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 colocalize in infected human T cells.

    Simon JH, Fouchier RA, Southerling TE, Guerra CB, Grant CK and Malim MH

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia 19104-6148, USA.

    The Vif protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and other lentiviruses is required for efficient replication in primary cells and certain immortalized cell lines in vitro and, in all likelihood, for the establishment of pathogenic infections in vivo. Current hypotheses concerning Vif's mechanism of action posit that it operates in virus-expressing cells during virion assembly, budding, or maturation such that released virions are modified in a manner that enables them to undergo productive infection in subsequent viral challenges. To gain further insight into the mechanism of action of lentivirus Vif proteins, we have performed a variety of in situ localization and biochemical fractionation studies using cells in which Vif is essential for efficient replication. Double-label immunofluorescence analyses of cells productively infected with HIV-1 or feline immunodeficiency virus revealed dramatic patterns of colocalization between Vif and the virally encoded Gag proteins. Subcellular fractionations of human T cells expressing HIV-1 Vif performed in the absence of any detergent demonstrated that greater than 90% of Vif is associated with cellular membranes. Additional purification using a continuous density gradient indicated that the majority of the membrane-bound Vif copurifies with the plasma membrane. Taken together, these observations suggest that lentivirus Vif and Gag proteins colocalize at the plasma membrane as virion assembly and budding take place. As a result, Vif is able to exert its modulatory effect(s) on these late steps of the virus life cycle.

    Funded by: NIAID NIH HHS: AI28809, AI38715

    Journal of virology 1997;71;7;5259-67

  • Domain-specific phosphorylation of vimentin and glial fibrillary acidic protein by PKN.

    Matsuzawa K, Kosako H, Inagaki N, Shibata H, Mukai H, Ono Y, Amano M, Kaibuchi K, Matsuura Y, Azuma I and Inagaki M

    Laboratory of Biochemistry, Aichi Cancer Center Research Institute, Nagoya, Japan.

    PKN is a serine/threonine protein kinase with a catalytic domain homologous to the protein kinase C family and unique N-terminal leucine zipper-like sequences. Using analyses with the yeast two-hybrid system and in vitro binding assay, we found that the regulatory domain of PKN interacted with vimentin. We then examined whether PKN would phosphorylate vimentin in vitro. Vimentin proved to be an excellent substrate for PKN, and the phosphorylation of vimentin by PKN occurred in the head domain with the result of a nearly complete inhibition of its filament formation in vitro. Similar results were also obtained with another type III intermediate filament protein, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). These results raise the possibility that PKN may regulate filament structures of vimentin and GFAP by domain-specific phosphorylation.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 1997;234;3;621-5

  • Two-dimensional electrophoretic analysis of human breast carcinoma proteins: mapping of proteins that bind to the SH3 domain of mixed lineage kinase MLK2.

    Rasmussen RK, Ji H, Eddes JS, Moritz RL, Reid GE, Simpson RJ and Dorow DS

    Joint Protein Structure Laboratory, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Parkville, Victoria, Australia.

    MLK2, a member of the mixed lineage kinase (MLK) family of protein kinases, first reported by Dorow et al. (Eur. J. Biochem. 1993, 213, 701-710), comprises several distinct structural domains including an src homology-3 (SH3) domain, a kinase catalytic domain, a unique domain containing two leucine zipper motifs, a polybasic sequence, and a cdc42/rac interactive binding motif. Each of these domains has been shown in other systems to be associated with a specific type of protein interaction in the regulation of cellular signal transduction. To study the role of MLK2 in recruiting specific substrates, we constructed a recombinant cDNA encoding the N-terminal 100 amino acids of MLK2 (MLK2N), including the SH3 domain (residues 23-77), fused to glutathione S-transferase. This fusion protein was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified using gluthathione-Sepharose affinity chromatography and employed in an affinity approach to isolate MLK2-SH3 domain binding proteins from lysates of 35S-labelled MDA-MB231 human breast tumour cells. Electrophoretic analysis of bound proteins revealed that two low-abundance proteins with a molecular weights (Mr) of approximately 31,500 and approximately 34,000, bound consistently to the MLK2N protein. To establish accurately the Mt / isoelectric point (pI) loci of these MLK2-SH3 domain binding proteins, a number of abundant proteins in a two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) master gel were identified to serve as triangulation marker points. Proteins were identified by (i) direct Edman degradation following electroblotting onto polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) membranes, (ii) Edman degradation of peptides generated by in-gel proteolysis and fractionation by rapid (approximately 12 min) microbore column (2.1 mm ID) reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), (iii) mass spectrometric methods including peptide-mass fingerprinting and electrospray (ESI)-mass spectrometry (MS)-MS utilizing capillary (0.2-0.3 mm ID) column chromatography, or (iv) immunoblot analysis. Using this information, a preliminary 2-DE protein database for the human breast carcinoma cell line MDA-MB231, comprising 21 identified proteins, has been constructed and can be accessed via the World Wide Web (URL address: http:(/)/ www.ludwig.edu.au/www/jpsl/jpslhome.htm l).

    Electrophoresis 1997;18;3-4;588-98

  • Topogenesis of a nucleolar protein: determination of molecular segments directing nucleolar association.

    Zirwes RF, Kouzmenko AP, Peters JM, Franke WW and Schmidt-Zachmann MS

    Division of Cell Biology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg, Federal Republic of Germany.

    To identify the element(s) in nucleolar proteins which determine nucleolus-specific topogenesis, we have used different kinds of cDNA constructs encoding various chimeric combinations of mutants of the constitutive nucleolar protein NO38 (B23): 1) with an amino terminally placed short "myc tag"; 2) with two different carboxyl terminally attached large alpha-helical coiled coil structures, the lamin A rod domain or the rod domain of vimentin; 3) with the sequence-related nucleoplasmic histone-binding protein nucleo-plasmin; and 4) with the soluble cytoplasmic protein pyruvate kinase. To avoid the problem of formation of complexes with endogenous wild-type (wt) molecules and "piggyback" localization, special care was taken to secure that the mutants and chimeras used did not oligomerize as is typical of protein NO38 (B23). Using microinjection and transfection of cultured cells, we found that the segment comprising the amino-terminal 123 amino acids (aa) alone was sufficient to effect nucleolar accumulation of the construct molecules, including the chimeras with the entire rod domains of lamin A and vimentin. However, when the amino-terminal 109 aa were deleted, the molecules still associated with the nucleolus. The results of further deletion experiments and of domain swaps with nucleoplasmin all point to the topogenic importance of two independent molecular regions located at both the amino- and carboxyl-terminal end. Our definition of dominant elements determining the nucleolar localization of protein NO38 (B23) as well as of diverse nonnucleolar proteins will help to identify its local binding partner(s) and functions, the construction of probes examining other proteins or sequence elements within the nucleolar microenvironment, and the generation of cells with an altered nuclear architecture.

    Molecular biology of the cell 1997;8;2;231-48

  • Cytoskeleton association and virion incorporation of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vif protein.

    Karczewski MK and Strebel K

    Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, Maryland 20892-0460, USA.

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Vif protein has an important role in the regulation of virus infectivity. This function of Vif is cell type specific, and virions produced in the absence of Vif in restrictive cells have greatly reduced infectivity. We show here that the intracellular localization of Vif is dependent on the presence of the intermediate filament vimentin. Fractionation of acutely infected T cells or transiently transfected HeLa cells demonstrates the existence of a soluble and a cytoskeletal form and to a lesser extent the presence of a detergent-extractable form of Vif. Confocal microscopy suggests that in HeLa cells, Vif is predominantly present in the cytoplasm and closely colocalizes with the intermediate filament vimentin. Treatment of cells with drugs affecting the structure of vimentin filaments affect the localization of Vif accordingly, indicating a close association of Vif with this cytoskeletal component. The association of Vif with vimentin can cause the collapse of the intermediate filament network into a perinuclear aggregate. In contrast, analysis of Vif in vimentin-negative cells reveals significant staining of the nucleus and the nuclear membrane in addition to diffuse cytoplasmic staining. In addition to the association of Vif with intermediate filaments, analyses of virion preparations demonstrate that Vif is incorporated into virus particles. In sucrose density gradients, Vif cosediments with capsid proteins even after detergent treatment of virus preparations, suggesting that Vif is associated with the inner core of HIV particles. We propose a model in which Vif has a crucial function as a virion component either by regulating virus maturation or following virus entry into a host cell possibly involving an interaction with the cellular cytoskeletal network.

    Journal of virology 1996;70;1;494-507

  • The cleavage of host cell proteins by HIV-1 protease.

    Snásel J and Pichová I

    Department of Biochemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague, Czech Republic.

    Folia biologica 1996;42;5;227-30

  • Anti-idiotypic antibody to the V3 domain of gp120 binds to vimentin: a possible role of intermediate filaments in the early steps of HIV-1 infection cycle.

    Thomas EK, Connelly RJ, Pennathur S, Dubrovsky L, Haffar OK and Bukrinsky MI

    Bristol-Myers Squibb Pharmaceutical Research Institute, Seattle, Washington 98121, USA.

    Although the CD4 molecule is the major cellular receptor for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), several lines of evidence suggest participation of additional molecules that are engaged after the binding of HIV to the CD4 receptor and that may facilitate viral entry into the target cell. Some of the post-CD4 binding, perfusion events involve the third hypervariable region (V3 loop) of the viral envelope protein gp120. To identify cellular proteins that interact with the V3 loop, we chose as a probe an antiidiotypic monoclonal antibody (MAb), anti-id2, which was prepared against the neutralizing MAb 110.4 that binds the V3 domain in the envelope glycoprotein gp120 of the LAI isolate of HIV-1. Anti-id2 reacted specifically with a 55- to 60-kDa protein in human T cell and monocytoid cell lines, and in a mouse melanoma cell line. This protein was identified immunologically and by protein sequence analysis as vimentin, an intermediate filament protein of lymphoid and other cells of mesodermal origin. Antiserum raised against vimentin inhibited nuclear translocation of HIV-1 DNA following infection of monocytes and CD4+ T cells with live virus, and reduced the amount of HIV-1 gag-specific RNA in the nuclei of monocytes following inoculation with HIV-1 pseudovirions. These data suggest that vimentin may participate in the early steps of HIV-1 replication, perhaps during the uptake of HIV-1 preintegration complexes into the nuclear compartment.

    Funded by: NIAID NIH HHS: AI 33776

    Viral immunology 1996;9;2;73-87

  • The product of the ataxia-telangiectasia group D complementing gene, ATDC, interacts with a protein kinase C substrate and inhibitor.

    Brzoska PM, Chen H, Zhu Y, Levin NA, Disatnik MH, Mochly-Rosen D, Murnane JP and Christman MF

    Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francisco 94143-0806, USA.

    Ataxia-telangiectasia (AT) is an autosomal recessive human genetic disease characterized by immunological, neurological, and developmental defects and an increased risk of cancer. Cells from individuals with AT show sensitivity to ionizing radiation, elevated recombination, cell cycle abnormalities, and aberrant cytoskeletal organization. The molecular basis of the defect is unknown. A candidate AT gene (ATDC) was isolated on the basis of its ability to complement the ionizing radiation sensitivity of AT group D fibroblasts. Whether ATDC is mutated in any AT patients is not known. We have found that the ATDC protein physically interacts with the intermediate-filament protein vimentin, which is a protein kinase C substrate and colocalizing protein, and with an inhibitor of protein kinase C, hPKCI-1. Indirect immunofluorescence analysis of cultured cells transfected with a plasmid encoding an epitope-tagged ATDC protein localizes the protein to vimentin filaments. We suggest that the ATDC and hPKCI-1 proteins may be components of a signal transduction pathway that is induced by ionizing radiation and mediated by protein kinase C.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1995;92;17;7824-8

  • Visualization and function of vimentin phosphorylation by cdc2 kinase during mitosis.

    Tsujimura K, Ogawara M, Takeuchi Y, Imajoh-Ohmi S, Ha MH and Inagaki M

    Department of Neurophysiology, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology, Japan.

    To investigate the role of intermediate filament (IF) protein phosphorylation by cdc2 kinase during mitosis, we developed a monoclonal antibody 4A4 recognizing Ser55-phosphorylated vimentin. Western blotting indicated that this antibody reacted with vimentin phosphorylated by cdc2 kinase but not with non-phosphorylated vimentin or with vimentin phosphorylated by other kinases such as cAMP-dependent protein kinase, protein kinase C, or Ca(2+)-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II. Immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy showed that vimentin Ser55 residues distributed in the entire cytoplasmic vimentin filament system are phosphorylated when the cells enter mitosis and dephosphorylated in cytokinesis. All cell lines examined showed a similar appearance of immunoreactivity with antibody 4A4. Fractionation of mitotic cell extracts on Mono-Q Sepharose revealed a single peak of vimentin Ser55 kinase activity, and the anti-p34cdc2 antibody reacted with the 34 kDa band in the kinase containing fractions. Vimentin Ser55 kinase activities were nil in the interphase cell extract. Immunofluorescent evidence using antibody 4A4 and biochemical analysis using vimentin Ser55 peptide showed that the degree of disassembly of vimentin filament of various cell types at early mitotic phase correlated well with the amount of mitotically activated cdc2 kinase.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1994;269;49;31097-106

  • Colocalization of nestin and vimentin/desmin in skeletal muscle cells demonstrated by three-dimensional fluorescence digital imaging microscopy.

    Sjöberg G, Jiang WQ, Ringertz NR, Lendahl U and Sejersen T

    Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.

    During skeletal muscle development three intermediate filament proteins are expressed: nestin, vimentin, and desmin. Vimentin and desmin belong to the class III intermediate filaments and are closely related to each other, whereas nestin is a more distantly related, class VI, intermediate filament. It was previously observed by conventional immunocytochemistry that the intracellular patterns of nestin, desmin, and vimentin appeared indistinguishable, despite nestin's more distant evolutionary relationship. We here extend this analysis by applying three-dimensional fluorescence digital imaging microscopy to compare the intracellular distribution of nestin with that of desmin, vimentin, actin, and tubulin in G6 human fetal skeletal muscle cells. We show that in vitro differentiation of G6 cells can produce an intermediate filament expression pattern similar to that observed during myogenesis in vivo, i.e., downregulation of vimentin but not of nestin and desmin during myotube maturation. The image analysis demonstrated that the degree of overlap between nestin and desmin/vimentin was very extensive in myoblasts and in multinucleate myotubes in all regions of the cells. In contrast, nestin did not colocalize with tubulin or actin in G6 myoblasts. In particular, nestin immunoreactivity was not detected at the microtubule-organizing center, and it was only sparsely observed at the cell periphery where actin stress fibers were seen. Our data lend further support to the notion that nestin interacts very closely with the two more distantly related class III intermediate filament proteins desmin and vimentin in the entire muscle cell, before and after myotube formation. A comparison of conserved amino acid residues in the different IFs suggest that charged amino acid residues in the alpha-helical rod domain may play a role in the interaction.

    Experimental cell research 1994;214;2;447-58

  • Human immunodeficiency virus protein gp120 interferes with beta-adrenergic receptor-mediated protein phosphorylation in cultured rat cortical astrocytes.

    Bernardo A, Patrizio M, Levi G and Petrucci TC

    Laboratory of Cell Biology, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Roma, Italy.

    1. We have previously shown that acute exposure to the HIV coat protein gp120 interferes with the beta-adrenergic regulation of astroglial and microglial cells (Levi et al., 1993). In particular, exposure to 100 pM gp120 for 30 min depressed the phosphorylation of vimentin and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) induced by isoproterenol in rat cortical astrocyte cultures. In the present study we have extended our analysis on the effects of gp120 on astroglial protein phosphorylation. 2. We found that chronic (3-day) treatment of the cells with 100 pM gp120 before exposure to isoproterenol was substantially more effective than acute treatment in depressing the stimulatory effect of the beta-adrenergic agonist on vimentin and GFAP phosphorylation. 3. Even after chronic treatment with gp120, no differences were found in the levels and solubility of these proteins. 4. Besides stimulating the phosphorylation of intermediate filament proteins, isoproterenol inhibited the incorporation of 32P into a soluble acidic protein of 80,000 M(r), which was only minimally present in Triton X-100-insoluble extracts. 5. Treatment of astrocytes with a phorbol ester or exposure to 3H-myristic acid indicated that the acidic 80,000 M(r) protein is a substrate for protein kinase C (PKC) and is myristoylated, thus suggesting that it is related to the MARCKS family of PKC substrates. 6. Acute (30-min) treatment with 100 pM gp120 totally prevented the inhibitory effect of isoproterenol on the phosphorylation of the 80,000 M(r) MARCKS-like protein. 7. Our studies corroborate the hypothesis that viral components may contribute to the neuropathological changes observed in AIDS through the alteration of signal transduction systems in glial cells.

    Cellular and molecular neurobiology 1994;14;2;159-73

  • Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with oligoribonucleotides.

    Maruyama K and Sugano S

    Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Japan.

    We have devised a method to replace the cap structure of a mRNA with an oligoribonucleotide (r-oligo) to label the 5' end of eukaryotic mRNAs. The method consists of removing the cap with tobacco acid pyrophosphatase (TAP) and ligating r-oligos to decapped mRNAs with T4 RNA ligase. This reaction was made cap-specific by removing 5'-phosphates of non-capped RNAs with alkaline phosphatase prior to TAP treatment. Unlike the conventional methods that label the 5' end of cDNAs, this method specifically labels the capped end of the mRNAs with a synthetic r-oligo prior to first-strand cDNA synthesis. The 5' end of the mRNA was identified quite simply by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).

    Gene 1994;138;1-2;171-4

  • Human immunodeficiency virus coat protein gp120 inhibits the beta-adrenergic regulation of astroglial and microglial functions.

    Levi G, Patrizio M, Bernardo A, Petrucci TC and Agresti C

    Laboratory of Pathophysiology, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome, Italy.

    The goal of our study was to assess whether the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coat protein gp120 induces functional alterations in astrocytes and microglia, known for their reactivity and involvement in most types of brain pathology. We hypothesized that gp120-induced anomalies in glial functions, if present, might be mediated by changes in the levels of intracellular messengers important for signal transduction, such as cAMP. Acute (10 min) exposure of cultured rat cortical astrocytes or microglia to 100 pM gp120 caused only a modest (50-60%), though statistically significant, elevation in cAMP levels, which was antagonized by the beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist propranolol. More importantly, the protein substantially depressed [by 30% (astrocytes) and 50% (microglia)] the large increase in cAMP induced by the beta-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol (10 nM), without affecting that induced by direct adenylate cyclase stimulation by forskolin. Qualitatively similar results were obtained using a glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive human glioma cell line. The depression of the beta-adrenergic response had functional consequences in both astrocytes and microglia. In astrocytes we studied the phosphorylation of the two major cytoskeletal proteins, vimentin and GFAP, which is normally stimulated by isoproterenol, and found that gp120 partially (40-50%) prevented such stimulation. In microglial cells, which are the major producers of inflammatory cytokines within the brain, gp120 partially antagonized the negative beta-adrenergic modulation of lipopolysaccharide (10 ng/ml)-induced production of tumor necrosis factor alpha. Our results suggest that, by interfering with the beta-adrenergic regulation of astrocytes and microglia, gp120 may alter astroglial "reactivity" and upset the delicate cytokine network responsible for the defense against viral and opportunistic infections.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1993;90;4;1541-5

  • Cleavage of human and mouse cytoskeletal and sarcomeric proteins by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease. Actin, desmin, myosin, and tropomyosin.

    Shoeman RL, Sachse C, Höner B, Mothes E, Kaufmann M and Traub P

    Max-Planck-Institut für Zellbiologie, Ladenburg, Federal Republic of Germany.

    HeLa cell actin was cleaved by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease when in its soluble, globular form (G-actin). No cleavage of the polymerized, filamentous form of actin (F-actin) was observed when examined by denaturing gel electrophoresis; however, electron microscopy revealed a low level of cleavage of F-actin. Immunoblotting of mouse skeletal and human pectoral muscle myofibrils treated in vitro with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease showed that myosin heavy chain, desmin, tropomyosin, and a fraction of the actin were all cleaved. Electron microscopy of these myofibrils demonstrated changes consistent with cleavage of these proteins: Z-lines were rapidly lost, the length of the A bands was shortened, and the thick filaments (myosin filaments) were often laterally frayed such that the structures disintegrated. Nonmuscle myosin heavy chains were also cleaved by this enzyme in vitro. These data demonstrate that this protease can cause alterations in muscle cell ultrastructure in vitro that may be of clinical relevance in infected individuals.

    The American journal of pathology 1993;142;1;221-30

  • Membrane-binding properties of filensin, a cytoskeletal protein of the lens fiber cells.

    Brunkener M and Georgatos SD

    Program of Cell Biology, European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Heidelberg, Federal Republic of Germany.

    Filensin is a 100/110 kDa membrane-associated protein found in lens fiber cells. Previous studies have shown that this protein polymerizes in vitro and binds strongly to vimentin and to another 47 kDa lens membrane protein. Using cosedimentation assays, flotation assays and immunoelectron microscopy, we have examined the properties of purified filensin and measured its binding to lens membranes. Filensin behaves as a ureaextractable, hydrophilic protein which does not partition with Triton X-114 and is not affected by 1 M hydroxylamine at alkaline pH, an agent known to release fatty-acylated proteins from the membrane. Immunoblotting of urea-extracted lens membranes with two different affinity-purified antibodies reveals that, unlike intact filensin, a COOH-terminal filensin degradation product (51 kDa) remains tightly associated with the membranes. Purified filensin binds directly to urea-stripped lens membranes, but not to protein-free vesicles reconstituted from total lens lipids. The binding of filensin is not significantly influenced by the purified 47 kDa protein. Interestingly, the filensin-binding capacity of urea-extracted membranes is increased at least two-fold after trypsin treatment, which removes entirely the 51 kDa peptide from the membranes and presumably unmasks additional filensin-acceptor sites. Consistent with this, filensin binds to trypsinized and non-trypsinized membranes with similar affinities (2 x 10(-7) and 4 x 10(-7) M, respectively). Treatment of the membranes with thrombin, which also eliminates the 51 kDa peptide, does not increase their binding capacity, apparently because filensin-acceptor sites are also destroyed during proteolysis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

    Journal of cell science 1992;103 ( Pt 3);709-18

  • Degradation of cytoskeletal proteins by the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease.

    Höner B, Shoeman RL and Traub P

    Max-Planck-Institut für Zellbiologie, Ladenburg/Heidelberg, FRG.

    Triton X-100-extracted human skin fibroblasts were exposed to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease and analysed by 2D-gel electrophoresis and immunofluorescence microscopy. Vimentin, two of the tropomyosin isoforms, a protein with M(r) approximately 90,000 and a protein with M(r) approximately 200,000 were found to be degraded. Structurally, this was accompanied by the disintegration of the vimentin filament network and the disappearance of the microfilament network. In contrast to our in vivo observations (Höner et al., 1991), prominent stress fibers and chromatin structure seemed to be rather resistant to the action of this protease.

    Cell biology international reports 1992;16;7;603-12

  • Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease microinjected into cultured human skin fibroblasts cleaves vimentin and affects cytoskeletal and nuclear architecture.

    Höner B, Shoeman RL and Traub P

    Max-Planck-Institut für Zellbiologie, Ladenburg bei Heidelberg, Federal Republic of Germany.

    In human skin fibroblasts microinjected with purified human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease (HIV-1 PR), stress fibers were lost and alterations in nuclear morphology and condensation of nuclear chromatin were observed. Thereafter, the vimentin intermediate filament (IF) network collapsed. No effect was seen on the microtubules. While complicated by loss of affected cells from the substratum, a minimum estimate of the proportion of cells demonstrating these effects is 50%. Observation of single cells demonstrated that these effects were largely irreversible and were steps leading to the death of the HIV-1 PR-injected cells. After microinjection of various dilutions of the HIV-1 PR, it was observed that the changes in nuclear morphology and chromatin condensation were detectable under conditions where little or no effect was observed on both stress fibers and the IF network. Proteins of cells labelled with [35S]methionine and microinjected with either HIV-1 PR or BSA were subjected to two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The major differences in the gel patterns were a diminution in the amount of vimentin and the appearance of novel products comigrating with cleavage products obtained after treatment of vimentin with HIV-1 PR in vitro. Thus, the HIV-1 PR is capable not only of cleaving IF subunit proteins in vivo, but also can catalyze alterations in other cellular structures.

    Journal of cell science 1991;100 ( Pt 4);799-807

  • Expression of intermediate filament in endometrial glands changes with the onset of pregnancy and in endometriosis.

    Norwitz ER, Fernandez-Shaw S, Barlow DH and Starkey PM

    University of Oxford, Nuffield Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, John Radcliffe Hospital, UK.

    Appropriate endometrial differentiation is believed to be a prerequisite for pregnancy success. This study investigates the expression of two intermediate filament proteins, cytokeratin and vimentin, in human endometrium and first trimester decidua and in ectopic endometrium from women with endometriosis. Stromal elements, including vascular endothelial cells, were consistently vimentin-positive and cytokeratin-negative. Surface and glandular epithelial cells of human endometrium co-expressed vimentin and cytokeratin during all stages of the menstrual cycle, but failed to express vimentin after the onset of pregnancy. This suggests that intermediate filaments, and especially vimentin, may have a role to play in the proliferation and/or differentiation of the endometrial glands during decidualization. Ectopic endometrium showed a staining pattern similar to normal endometrium.

    Human reproduction (Oxford, England) 1991;6;10;1470-3

  • Filensin: a new vimentin-binding, polymerization-competent, and membrane-associated protein of the lens fiber cell.

    Merdes A, Brunkener M, Horstmann H and Georgatos SD

    Programme of Cell Biology, European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Heidelberg, Germany.

    We have studied the molecular properties of a 100-kD protein, termed filensin, which we have isolated from porcine lens membranes. Filensin represents a membrane-associated element, resistant to salt and nonionic detergent treatment, and extractable only by alkali or high concentrations of urea. By indirect immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy, this protein can be localized at the periphery of the lens fiber cells. Immunochemical analysis suggests that filensin originates from a larger 110-kD component which is abundantly expressed in lens but not in other tissues. Purified filensin polymerizes in a salt-dependent fashion and forms irregular fibrils (integral of 10 nm in diameter) when reconstituted into buffers of physiological ionic strength and neutral pH. Radiolabeled filensin binds specifically to lens vimentin under isotonic conditions, as demonstrated by affinity chromatography and ligand-blotting assays. By the latter approach, filensin also reacts with a 47-kD peripheral membrane protein of the lens cells. Purified filensin binds to PI, a synthetic peptide modelled after a segment of the COOH-terminal domain of peripherin (a type III intermediate filament protein highly homologous to vimentin), but not to various other peptides including the NH2-terminal headpiece of vimentin and derivatives of its middle (rod) domain. The filensin-PI binding is inhibited by purified lamin B, which is known to interact in vitro with PI (Djabali, K., M.-M. Portier, F. Gros, G. Blobel, and S. D. Georgatos. 1991. Cell. 64:109-121). Finally, limited proteolysis indicates that the filensin-vimentin interaction involves a 30-kD segment of the filensin molecule. Based on these observations, we postulate that the lens fiber cells express a polymerization-competent protein which is tightly associated with the plasma membrane and has the potential to serve as an anchorage site for vimentin intermediate filaments.

    The Journal of cell biology 1991;115;2;397-410

  • Effect of pepstatin A on structure and polymerization of intermediate filament subunit proteins in vitro.

    Mothes E, Shoeman RL and Traub P

    Max-Planck-Institut für Zellbiologie, Ladenburg, Federal Republic of Germany.

    Pepstatin A, a pentapeptide aspartyl protease inhibitor, can interact with intermediate filament (IF) subunit proteins and induce their polymerization in the absence of salt into long filaments with a rough surface and a diameter of 15-17 nm. This polymerization appears to be driven primarily by non-ionic interactions between pepstatin A and polymerization-competent forms of IF proteins, resulting in a composite filament. Proteolytic fragments of vimentin, lacking portions of only the head domain or of both the head and tail domains, failed to copolymerize with pepstatin A into long filaments under these conditions. Rather, these peptides, as well as control proteins like bovine serum albumin, were found to decorate pepstatin A polymers (filaments, ribbons, and sheets) by sticking to their surfaces. In addition to the electron microscopy experiments, UV difference spectra, ultracentrifugation, and SDS-PAGE analysis of in vitro cleavage products of vimentin obtained with HIV-1 protease all provided independent evidence for a direct association of pepstatin A with IF subunit proteins, with subsequent alterations in the IF subunit protein conformation. These data show that non-ionic interactions can substitute for the effect of salt and effectively drive the higher-order polymerization of IF subunit proteins.

    Journal of structural biology 1991;106;1;64-72

  • Non-viral cellular substrates for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease.

    Shoeman RL, Kesselmier C, Mothes E, Höner B and Traub P

    Max-Planck-Institut für Zellbiologie, Ladenburg/Heidelberg, Germany.

    A computer search revealed 10 proteins with homology to the sequence we originally identified in vimentin as the site of cleavage by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease. Of these 10 proteins (actin, alpha-actinin, spectrin, tropomyosins, vinculin, dystrophin, MAP-2, villin, TRK-1 and Ig mu-chain), we show that 4 of the first 5 were cleaved in vitro by this protease, as are MAP-1 and -2 [(1990) J. Gen. Virol. 71, 1985-1991]. In these proteins, cleavage is not restricted to a single motif, but occurs at many sites. However, cleavage is not random, since 9 other proteins including the cytoskeletal proteins filamin and band 4.1 are not cleaved in the in vitro assay. Thus, the ability of HIV-1 protease to cleave specific components of the cytoskeleton may be an important, although as yet unevaluated aspect of the life cycle of this retrovirus and/or may directly contribute to the pathogenesis observed during infection.

    FEBS letters 1991;278;2;199-203

  • Cleavage of the intermediate filament subunit protein vimentin by HIV-1 protease: utilization of a novel cleavage site and identification of higher order polymers of pepstatin A.

    Shoeman RL, Höner B, Stoller TJ, Mothes E, Kesselmeier C, Traub P and Graves MC

    Max-Planck-Institut für Zellbiologie, Ladenburg/Heidelberg, Federal Republic of Germany.

    Advances in experimental medicine and biology 1991;306;533-7

  • Nucleotide sequence of cDNA covering the complete coding part of the human vimentin gene.

    Honoré B, Madsen P, Basse B, Andersen A, Walbum E, Celis JE and Leffers H

    Institute of Medical Biochemistry, Aarhus University, Denmark.

    Nucleic acids research 1990;18;22;6692

  • Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease cleaves the intermediate filament proteins vimentin, desmin, and glial fibrillary acidic protein.

    Shoeman RL, Höner B, Stoller TJ, Kesselmeier C, Miedel MC, Traub P and Graves MC

    Max-Planck-Institut für Zellbiologie, Abteilung Traub, Rosenhof, Federal Republic of Germany.

    The intermediate filament proteins vimentin, desmin, and glial fibrillary acidic protein are cleaved in vitro by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease (HIV-1 PR). Microsequencing showed that HIV-1 PR cleaved both human and murine vimentin between leucine-422 and arginine-423 within the sequence between positions 418 and 427, Ser-Ser-Leu-Asn-Leu/Arg-Glu-Thr-Asn-Leu (SSLNL/RETNL). Minor cleavages at other sites were also observed. Heat-denatured vimentin was cleaved by HIV-1 PR less efficiently than native vimentin. A decapeptide containing the sequence SSLN-LRETNL was also cleaved in vitro by HIV-1 PR as predicted. The presence of a charged residue (arginine) at the primary cleavage site distinguishes this from other known naturally occurring cleavage sites. Microinjection of HIV-1 PR into cultured human fibroblasts resulted in a 9-fold increase in the percentage of cells with an altered and abnormal distribution of vimentin intermediate filaments. Most commonly, the intermediate filaments collapsed into a clump with a juxtanuclear localization. These results support the possibility that intermediate filament proteins may serve as substrates within HIV-1-infected cells.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1990;87;16;6336-40

  • Intermediate filament assembly and stability in vitro: effect and implications of the removal of head and tail domains of vimentin by the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease.

    Shoeman RL, Mothes E, Kesselmeier C and Traub P

    Max-Planck-Institut für Zellbiologie, Landenburg/Heidelberg, Federal Republic of Germany.

    The intermediate filament subunit protein vimentin is efficiently cleaved in vitro by purified human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease. Immunological data confirm that identical sites are cleaved when vimentin is polymerized into filaments or occurs as protofilaments. The primary cleavage gives rise to a molecule lacking most of the tail domain and which not only remains in preformed filaments, but is also capable of polymerizing into essentially normal 10 nm filaments. However, these filaments show a propensity to form large lateral aggregates. The three secondary cleavage products of vimentin additionally lack portions of the head domain, are almost quantitatively (greater than 95%) released from preformed filaments and are not capable of forming filaments de novo. These results extend the limits of the head and tail domains of vimentin that play a role in filament formation and stability.

    Cell biology international reports 1990;14;7;583-94

  • Isolation of a human vimentin cDNA with a long 3'-noncoding region from a human osteosarcoma cell line (MG-63).

    Gupta AK, Aubin JE and Waye MM

    MRC Group in Periodontal Physiology, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Toronto, Ont., Canada.

    Human vimentin cDNA clones were isolated and sequenced from a lambda gt11 library of the human osteosarcoma cell line MG-63. The 3'-noncoding region of the sequence is 325 nucleotides (nt) long. This cDNA sequence includes both the further 104 nt and the polyadenylation signal site at the 3' end which were earlier predicted from the genomic nt sequence, but had not been found in any previously cloned cDNAs.

    Gene 1990;86;2;303-4

  • Vimentin rather than keratin expression in some hormone-independent breast cancer cell lines and in oncogene-transformed mammary epithelial cells.

    Sommers CL, Walker-Jones D, Heckford SE, Worland P, Valverius E, Clark R, McCormick F, Stampfer M, Abularach S and Gelmann EP

    Medical Breast Cancer Section, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland 20892.

    To characterize differences in gene expression between hormone-dependent and hormone-independent mammary carcinoma, we cloned complementary DNAs of genes expressed in a hormone-independent breast carcinoma cell line that were not expressed in a hormone-dependent line. One clone, which was isolated in many copies, coded for the intermediate filament protein vimentin. A complementary DNA clone 1.8 kilobases long included the entire protein-coding region for vimentin. Vimentin was expressed by more than one-half of the hormone-independent breast carcinoma cell lines tested but not by the hormone-dependent cell lines. The cell lines which expressed vimentin expressed only low levels of cytokeratins. The correlation between vimentin expression and more advanced stages of mammary cell transformation was tested in a model system in which immortal, nontumorigenic human mammary epithelial cells or derivative lines transformed with v-ras-H or SV40 T-antigen were found not to express vimentin, whereas a derivative highly tumorigenic cell line transformed by both v-ras-H and T-antigen did express vimentin. Analysis of several other kinds of epithelial carcinoma cell lines showed only rare examples of vimentin expression.

    Cancer research 1989;49;15;4258-63

  • Domain- and sequence-specific phosphorylation of vimentin induces disassembly of the filament structure.

    Ando S, Tanabe K, Gonda Y, Sato C and Inagaki M

    Biophysics Unit, Aichi Cancer Center Research Institute, Nagoya, Japan.

    We reported that stoichiometric phosphorylation by either cAMP-dependent protein kinase or protein kinase C induces disassembly of vimentin filaments [Inagaki, M., Nishi, Y., Nishizawa, K., Matsuyama, M., & Sato, C. (1987) Nature 328, 649-652; Inagaki, M., Gonda, Y., Matsuyama, M., Nishizawa, K., Nishi, Y., & Sato, C. (1988) J. Biol. Chem. 263, 5970-5978]. In the present work, we attempted to identify the sites of vimentin phosphorylated by each protein kinase. Sequential analysis of the purified phosphopeptides, together with the known primary sequence, revealed that Ser-8, Ser-9, Ser-20, Ser-25, Ser-33, and Ser-41 were specifically phosphorylated by protein kinase C, whereas Ser-46 was phosphorylated preferentially by cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Both kinases reacted with Ser-6, Ser-24, Ser-38, Ser-50, and Ser-65. Specific phosphorylation sites for protein kinase C are mostly located close to the amino-terminal side of arginine while those for cAMP-dependent protein kinase are located close to the carboxyl-terminal side of arginine. The phosphorylation sites exclusively occur in the amino-terminal non-alpha-helical head domain, particularly at the beta-turn region. These results provide clues to the molecular mechanisms of phosphorylation-dependent disassembly of vimentin filaments.

    Biochemistry 1989;28;7;2974-9

  • Expression of intermediate filament proteins during development of Xenopus laevis. I. cDNA clones encoding different forms of vimentin.

    Herrmann H, Fouquet B and Franke WW

    Institute of Cell and Tumor Biology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg.

    To provide a basis for studies of the expression of genes encoding the diverse kinds of intermediate-filament (IF) proteins during embryogenesis of Xenopus laevis we have isolated and characterized IF protein cDNA clones. Here we report the identification of two types of Xenopus vimentin, Vim1 and Vim4, with their complete amino acid sequences as deduced from the cloned cDNAs, both of which are expressed during early embryogenesis. In addition, we have obtained two further vimentin cDNAs (Vim2 and 3) which are sequence variants of closely related Vim1. The high evolutionary conservation of the amino acid sequences (Vim1: 458 residues; Mr approximately 52,800; Vim4: 463 residues; Mr approximately 53,500) to avian and mammalian vimentin and, to a lesser degree, to desmin from the same and higher vertebrate species, is emphasized, including conserved oligopeptide motifs in their head domains. Using these cDNAs in RNA blot and ribonuclease protection assays of various embryonic stages, we observed a dramatic increase of vimentin RNA at stage 14, in agreement with immunocytochemical results obtained with antibody VIM-3B4. The significance of very weak mRNA signals detected in earlier stages is discussed in relation to negative immunocytochemical results obtained in these stages. The first appearance of vimentin has been localized to a distinct mesenchymal cell layer underlying the neural plate or tube, respectively. The results are discussed in relation to programs of de novo synthesis of other cytoskeletal proteins in amphibian and mammalian development.

    Development (Cambridge, England) 1989;105;2;279-98

  • Nucleotide sequence of the human vimentin gene and regulation of its transcription in tissues and cultured cells.

    Perreau J, Lilienbaum A, Vasseur M and Paulin D

    Université Paris 7, France.

    We have previously reported the identification and isolation by mRNA selection/translation of a recombinant clone containing 80% of the human vimentin gene sequence [Lilienbaum et al., EMBO J. 5 (1986) 2809-2814]. We present here the nucleotide sequence of this genomic clone including the 3' untranslated region. To complete the coding sequence, we have isolated cDNA recombinant clones (1.1 kb) of vimentin from human libraries constructed in lambda gt11. Comparison of the coding sequence between human and hamster shows 90% homology at the nucleotide level and four differences out of 353 amino acid residues, as deduced from the nucleotide sequences. In addition to the extensive homology previously reported between the coding sequences of hamster and human vimentin genes [Ferrari et al., Mol. Cell. Biol. 6 (1986) 3614-3620], we observed that the positions of the noncoding regions are also conserved and that the 3' nontranslated region includes two canonic poly(A) signals. Hybridization of the clones to mRNA from different mammalian sources revealed a single species of 2 kb and confirmed that the length of the untranslated and coding sequences are conserved. Quantitative estimations of the mRNA levels in mammalian cells and tissues of various origins are consistent with transcriptional regulation.

    Gene 1988;62;1;7-16

  • The gene encoding human vimentin is located on the short arm of chromosome 10.

    Ferrari S, Cannizzaro LA, Battini R, Huebner K and Baserga R

    Department of Pathology, Temple University Medical School, Philadelphia, PA 19140.

    The gene for vimentin, an intermediate-filament protein, is growth regulated. We used Southern blot analysis and in situ chromosome hybridization to determine the location of the human vimentin gene. Our results show that there is only one copy of the vimentin gene and that it is located on the short arm of chromosome 10 (10pter-10q23) close to the interleukin-2 receptor gene, which is also growth regulated. In situ hybridization studies suggest that the most likely location of the vimentin gene is 10p13. Sequence similarities and homologies of human vimentin to other genes are presented.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA10815, CA21124, CA25898

    American journal of human genetics 1987;41;4;616-26

  • Plectin and IFAP-300K are homologous proteins binding to microtubule-associated proteins 1 and 2 and to the 240-kilodalton subunit of spectrin.

    Herrmann H and Wiche G

    Structural and functional characteristics of plectin from intermediate filament preparations of rat glioma C6 cells were compared to those of the intermediate filament-associated protein of Mr = 300,000 (IFAP-300K) of baby hamster kidney cells (Yang, H.-S., Lieska, N., Goldman, A.E., and Goldman, R.D. (1985) J. Cell Biol. 100, 620-631). After radiolabeling and proteolytic digestion under varied conditions, both proteins yielded nearly identical peptide maps. Immunological cross-reactivity, co-migration on one- and two-dimensional high-resolution gels, chromatofocusing, and amino acid analysis demonstrated structural homology as well. In vivo labeling with 32Pi showed that plectin was the target for cAMP-independent protein kinases which phosphorylated 18-kDa domains at the end(s) of the molecule. Previously reported phosphorylation sites for cAMP-dependent and a newly identified site for Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases were located on different domains. In solid-phase binding assays, plectin bound to vimentin, microtubule-associated proteins 1 and 2, the 240-kDa chain of brain fodrin, and alpha-spectrin from human erythrocytes. Similar characteristics were revealed for corresponding 300-kDa components of various other cell lines, supporting the concept that plectin is a general cytoskeletal cross-linking element, probably of multiple function.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1987;262;3;1320-5

  • Coding sequence and growth regulation of the human vimentin gene.

    Ferrari S, Battini R, Kaczmarek L, Rittling S, Calabretta B, de Riel JK, Philiponis V, Wei JF and Baserga R

    We have established the complete coding sequence of the human vimentin gene. It had 91% homology to the coding sequence of the Syrian hamster vimentin gene (Quax et al., Cell 35:215-223, 1983) and partial homology to several other sequences coding for intermediate filament proteins. The most striking difference between the Syrian hamster and human vimentin genes was in the 3' untranslated region, which was considerably longer in the Syrian hamster. Using RNA blots and a human vimentin cDNA clone from an Okayama-Berg library, we have established that expression of the vimentin gene was growth regulated. The steady-state levels of cytoplasmic vimentin mRNA in 3T3 cells were increased by serum and platelet-derived growth factor, but not by epidermal growth factor, insulin, or platelet-poor plasma. The increase in expression of the vimentin gene that occurred when G0-phase cells were stimulated to proliferate was detected in six different cell types from four different species. The expression of the vimentin gene was also increased when HL60 cells were induced to differentiate by phorbol esters; it decreased when differentiation was induced by retinoic acid.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA-25898; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM-33694

    Molecular and cellular biology 1986;6;11;3614-20

  • Vimentin gene: expression in human lymphocytes and in Burkitt's lymphoma cells.

    Lilienbaum A, Legagneux V, Portier MM, Dellagi K and Paulin D

    We have isolated a human genomic clone for the intermediate filament subunit vimentin with a DNA probe encoding chicken vimentin. We show that the gene for this protein exists as a single copy in the haploid human genome and is transcribed into one mature RNA species of 2 kb. In vitro translation of poly(A)+ mRNA in a rabbit reticulocyte cell-free system showed that vimentin is a major product of RNA from normal lymphocytes but not of RNA extracted from Burkitt cells. 2-kb vimentin mRNA can be detected with a DNA probe in normal lymphocytes and in fibroblasts, but not in cell lines derived from Burkitt's lymphoma (JI, JBL2, BJAB, DAUDI). The abundance of vimentin mRNA is correlated with the quantity of vimentin present in the cells, suggesting that the level of expression is regulated by the abundance of mRNA. The half-lives of vimentin mRNA were found identical in both fibroblasts and lymphocytes and belong to the class of stable mRNA.

    The EMBO journal 1986;5;11;2809-14

Gene lists (6)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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