G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
myosin VI
G00000770 (Mus musculus)

Databases (8)

Curated Gene
OTTHUMG00000015061 (Vega human gene)
ENSG00000196586 (Ensembl human gene)
4646 (Entrez Gene)
1197 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
MYO6 (GeneCards)
600970 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:7605 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
Q9UM54 (UniProt)

Synonyms (1)

  • KIAA0389

Literature (49)

Pubmed - other

  • Overexpression of myosin VI in prostate cancer cells enhances PSA and VEGF secretion, but has no effect on endocytosis.

    Puri C, Chibalina MV, Arden SD, Kruppa AJ, Kendrick-Jones J and Buss F

    Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, University of Cambridge, Wellcome Trust/MRC Building, Cambridge, UK.

    Tissue expression microarrays, employed to determine the players and mechanisms leading to prostate cancer development, have consistently shown that myosin VI, a unique actin-based motor, is upregulated in medium-grade human prostate cancers. Thus, to understand the role of myosin VI in prostate cancer development, we have characterized its intracellular localization and function in the prostate cancer cell line LNCaP. Using light and electron microscopy, we identified myosin VI on Rab5-positive early endosomes, as well as on recycling endosomes and the trans-Golgi network. Intracellular targeting seems to involve two myosin VI-interacting proteins, GIPC and LMTK2, both of which can be co-immunoprecipitated with myosin VI from LNCaP cells. The absence of Disabled-2 (Dab2), a tumour suppressor and myosin VI-binding partner, inhibits recruitment of myosin VI to endocytic structures at the plasma membrane in LNCaP cells, but interestingly has no effect on endocytosis. Small interfering RNA-mediated downregulation of myosin VI expression results in a significant reduction in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion in LNCaP cells. Our results suggest that in prostate cancer cells, myosin VI regulates protein secretion, but the overexpression of myosin VI has no major impact on clathrin-mediated endocytosis.

    Funded by: Cancer Research UK: A7548; Medical Research Council: MC_U105184323; Wellcome Trust

    Oncogene 2010;29;2;188-200

  • Defining the human deubiquitinating enzyme interaction landscape.

    Sowa ME, Bennett EJ, Gygi SP and Harper JW

    Department of Pathology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

    Deubiquitinating enzymes (Dubs) function to remove covalently attached ubiquitin from proteins, thereby controlling substrate activity and/or abundance. For most Dubs, their functions, targets, and regulation are poorly understood. To systematically investigate Dub function, we initiated a global proteomic analysis of Dubs and their associated protein complexes. This was accomplished through the development of a software platform called CompPASS, which uses unbiased metrics to assign confidence measurements to interactions from parallel nonreciprocal proteomic data sets. We identified 774 candidate interacting proteins associated with 75 Dubs. Using Gene Ontology, interactome topology classification, subcellular localization, and functional studies, we link Dubs to diverse processes, including protein turnover, transcription, RNA processing, DNA damage, and endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation. This work provides the first glimpse into the Dub interaction landscape, places previously unstudied Dubs within putative biological pathways, and identifies previously unknown interactions and protein complexes involved in this increasingly important arm of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway.

    Funded by: NIA NIH HHS: AG085011, R01 AG011085, R01 AG011085-16; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM054137, GM67945, R01 GM054137, R01 GM054137-14, R01 GM067945

    Cell 2009;138;2;389-403

  • GOLPH2 and MYO6: putative prostate cancer markers localized to the Golgi apparatus.

    Wei S, Dunn TA, Isaacs WB, De Marzo AM and Luo J

    Department of Urology, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21287, USA.

    Background: Malignant transformation is often accompanied by morphological and functional alterations in subcellular organelles. The Golgi apparatus is a subcellular structure primarily involved in modification and sorting of macromolecules for secretion and transport to other cellular destinations. Molecular alterations associated with the Golgi apparatus may take place during prostate carcinogenesis but such alterations have not been documented.

    Methods: To demonstrate that the Golgi apparatus undergoes alterations during prostate carcinogenesis, we examined the expression and localization of two candidate molecules, Golgi phosphoprotein 2 (GOLPH2) and myosin VI (MYO6), both overexpressed in prostate cancer as initially identified by expression microarray analysis.

    Results: Elevated GOLPH2 expression in prostate cancers was validated through real-time RT-PCR, Western blot, and tissue microarray analysis, and its Golgi localization in surgical prostate cancer tissues confirmed using two-color immunofluorescence. In addition, distinctive juxtanuclear MYO6 staining pattern consistent with Golgi localization was observed in surgical prostate cancer tissues. Two-color immunofluorescence revealed intensive Golgi-specific staining for both GOLPH2 and myosin VI in prostate cancer cells but not in the adjacent normal prostate epithelium.

    Conclusions: We show that the Golgi apparatus in prostate cancer cells differs from the normal Golgi by elevated levels of two molecules, GOLPH2 and MYO6. These results for the first time demonstrated consistent cancer cell-specific alterations in the molecular composition of the Golgi apparatus. Such alterations can be explored for discovery of novel prostate cancer biomarkers through targeted organellar approaches.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: P30 CA006973, P50 CA058236, P50CA58236

    The Prostate 2008;68;13;1387-95

  • A splice-site mutation and overexpression of MYO6 cause a similar phenotype in two families with autosomal dominant hearing loss.

    Hilgert N, Topsakal V, van Dinther J, Offeciers E, Van de Heyning P and Van Camp G

    Department of Medical Genetics, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium.

    Hearing loss is the most common sensory disorder, affecting 1 in 650 newborns. Linkage analysis revealed linkage to locus DFNA22 in two Belgian families 1 and 2 with autosomal dominant sensorineural hearing loss. As MYO6 has previously been reported as responsible for the hearing loss at loci DFNA22 and DFNB37, respectively, DNA sequencing of the coding region and the promoter of MYO6 was performed but this analysis did not reveal any mutations. However, only in patients of family 2, an insertion of 108 bp was identified in the mRNA of the gene. The inserted fragment was part of intron 23 and sequencing of this intron revealed a new splice-site mutation c.IVS23+2321T>G, segregating with the hearing loss in the family. The mutation causes a frameshift and a premature termination codon, but real-time PCR revealed that only 15-20% of the mRNA is degraded by nonsense-mediated decay, while the other part may give rise to an aberrant protein. In family 1, a quantitative real-time PCR experiment revealed a 1.5-1.8-fold overexpression of MYO6 in patients compared to controls. The possible presence of a gene duplication could be excluded by real-time PCR on genomic level. Most likely, the overexpression is caused by a mutation in an unidentified regulatory region of the gene. This study indicates that the inner ear hair cells are sensitive to changes in expression levels of MYO6.

    European journal of human genetics : EJHG 2008;16;5;593-602

  • BREK/LMTK2 is a myosin VI-binding protein involved in endosomal membrane trafficking.

    Inoue T, Kon T, Ohkura R, Yamakawa H, Ohara O, Yokota J and Sutoh K

    Department of Life Sciences, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, University of Tokyo, Komaba 3-8-1, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8902, Japan.

    Myosin VI is involved in a wide range of endocytic and exocytic membrane trafficking pathways; clathrin-mediated endocytosis, intracellular transport of clathrin-coated and -uncoated vesicles, AP-1B-dependent basolateral sorting in polarized epithelial cells and secretion from the Golgi complex to the cell surface. In this study, using a yeast two-hybrid screen, we identified brain-enriched kinase/lemur tyrosine kinase 2 (BREK/LMTK2), a transmembrane serine/threonine kinase with previously unknown cellular functions, as a myosin VI-interacting protein. Several binding experiments confirmed the interaction of myosin VI with BREK in vivo and in vitro. Immunocytochemical analyses revealed that BREK localizes to cytoplasmic membrane vesicles and to perinuclear recycling endosomes. Notably, cells in which BREK was depleted by siRNA were still able to internalize transferrin molecules and to transport them to early endosomes, but were unable to transport them to perinuclear recycling endosomes. Our results show that BREK is critical for the transition of endocytosed membrane vesicles from early endosomes to recycling endosomes and also suggest an involvement of myosin VI in this pathway.

    Genes to cells : devoted to molecular & cellular mechanisms 2008;13;5;483-95

  • A novel nonsense mutation in MYO6 is associated with progressive nonsyndromic hearing loss in a Danish DFNA22 family.

    Sanggaard KM, Kjaer KW, Eiberg H, Nürnberg G, Nürnberg P, Hoffman K, Jensen H, Sørum C, Rendtorff ND and Tranebjaerg L

    Wilhelm Johannsen Centre for Functional Genome Research, Institute of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, The Panum Institute, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

    Autosomal dominant inheritance is described in about 20% of all nonsyndromic hearing loss with currently 54 distinct loci (DFNA1-54), and >20 different genes identified. Seven different unconventional myosin genes are involved in ten different types of syndromic and nonsyndromic hearing loss with different patterns of inheritance: MYO7A in DFNA11/DFNB2/USH1B, MYH9 in DFNA17, MYH14 in DFNA4, MYO6 in DFNA22/DFNB37, MYO3A in DFNB30, MYO1A in DFNA48, and MYO15A in DFNB3. Two missense mutations in MYO6 (p.C442Y and p.H246R) have been characterized in families of Italian and American Caucasian extraction with autosomal dominant hearing loss, respectively, and the latter was associated with cardiomyopathy in some patients. Three Pakistani families had homozygosity for three MYO6 mutations (c.36insT, p.R1166X, and p.E216V, respectively), and was in one instance associated with retinal degeneration. In the present study, we linked autosomal dominant hearing loss in a large Danish family to a 38.9 Mb interval overlapping with the DFNA22/DFNB37 locus on chromosome 6q13. A novel nonsense mutation in MYO6 exon 25 (c.2545C > T; p.R849X) was identified in the family. The mutation co-segregated with the disease and the mutant allele is predicted to encode a truncated protein lacking the coiled-coil and globular tail domains. These domains are hypothesized to be essential for targeting myosin VI to its cellular compartments. No other system was involved indicating nonsyndromic loss. In conclusion, a novel nonsense MYO6 mutation causes post-lingual, slowly progressive autosomal dominant nonsyndromic moderate to severe hearing loss in a Danish family.

    American journal of medical genetics. Part A 2008;146A;8;1017-25

  • Motor protein-dependent transport of AMPA receptors into spines during long-term potentiation.

    Correia SS, Bassani S, Brown TC, Lisé MF, Backos DS, El-Husseini A, Passafaro M and Esteban JA

    Department of Pharmacology, University of Michigan Medical School, 1150 W. Medical Center Dr., Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-0632, USA.

    The regulated trafficking of neurotransmitter receptors at synapses is critical for synaptic function and plasticity. However, the molecular machinery that controls active transport of receptors into synapses is largely unknown. We found that, in rat hippocampus, the insertion of AMPA receptors (AMPARs) into spines during synaptic plasticity requires a specific motor protein, which we identified as myosin Va. We found that myosin Va associates with AMPARs through its cargo binding domain. This interaction was enhanced by active, GTP-bound Rab11, which is also transported by the motor protein. Myosin Va mediated the CaMKII-triggered translocation of GluR1 receptors from the dendritic shaft into spines, but it was not required for constitutive GluR2 trafficking. Accordingly, myosin Va was specifically required for long-term potentiation, but not for basal synaptic transmission. In summary, we identified the specific motor protein and organelle acceptor that catalyze the directional transport of AMPARs into spines during activity-dependent synaptic plasticity.

    Funded by: NIMH NIH HHS: F31-MH070205, MH070417; Telethon: TCR07006

    Nature neuroscience 2008;11;4;457-66

  • Myosin VI and its interacting protein LMTK2 regulate tubule formation and transport to the endocytic recycling compartment.

    Chibalina MV, Seaman MN, Miller CC, Kendrick-Jones J and Buss F

    Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, University of Cambridge, Wellcome Trust/MRC Building, Hills Road, Cambridge, CB2 2XY, UK.

    Myosin VI is an actin-based retrograde motor protein that plays a crucial role in both endocytic and secretory membrane trafficking pathways. Myosin VI's targeting to and function in these intracellular pathways is mediated by a number of specific binding partners. In this paper we have identified a new myosin-VI-binding partner, lemur tyrosine kinase 2 (LMTK2), which is the first transmembrane protein and kinase that directly binds to myosin VI. LMTK2 binds to the WWY site in the C-terminal myosin VI tail, the same site as the endocytic adaptor protein Dab2. When either myosin VI or LMTK2 is depleted by siRNAs, the transferrin receptor (TfR) is trapped in swollen endosomes and tubule formation in the endocytic recycling pathway is dramatically reduced, showing that both proteins are required for the transport of cargo, such as the TfR, from early endosomes to the endocytic recycling compartment.

    Funded by: Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council: BB/C506913/1; Medical Research Council: G0501573, G117/452, MC_U105184323; Wellcome Trust: 071162

    Journal of cell science 2007;120;Pt 24;4278-88

  • T6BP and NDP52 are myosin VI binding partners with potential roles in cytokine signalling and cell adhesion.

    Morriswood B, Ryzhakov G, Puri C, Arden SD, Roberts R, Dendrou C, Kendrick-Jones J and Buss F

    MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Hills Road, Cambridge, CB2 2QH, UK.

    Myosin VI has been implicated in many cellular processes including endocytosis, secretion, membrane ruffling and cell motility. We carried out a yeast two-hybrid screen and identified TRAF6-binding protein (T6BP) and nuclear dot protein 52 (NDP52) as myosin VI binding partners. Myosin VI interaction with T6BP and NDP52 was confirmed in vitro and in vivo and the binding sites on each protein were accurately mapped. Immunofluorescence and electron microscopy showed that T6BP, NDP52 and myosin VI are present at the trans side of the Golgi complex, and on vesicles in the perinuclear region. Although the SKICH domain in T6BP and NDP52 does not mediate recruitment into membrane ruffles, loss of T6BP and NDP52 in RNAi knockdown cells results in reduced membrane ruffling activity and increased stress fibre and focal adhesion formation. Furthermore, we observed in these knockdown cells an upregulation of constitutive secretion of alkaline phosphatase, implying that both proteins act as negative regulators of secretory traffic at the Golgi complex. T6BP was also found to inhibit NF-kappaB activation, implicating it in the regulation of TRAF6-mediated cytokine signalling. Thus myosin VI-T6BP interactions may link membrane trafficking pathways with cell adhesion and cytokine-dependent cell signalling.

    Funded by: Medical Research Council: MC_U105184323; Wellcome Trust: 071162

    Journal of cell science 2007;120;Pt 15;2574-85

  • Precise positioning of myosin VI on endocytic vesicles in vivo.

    Altman D, Goswami D, Hasson T, Spudich JA and Mayor S

    Department of Biochemistry, Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, California, United States of America.

    Myosin VI has been studied in both a monomeric and a dimeric form in vitro. Because the functional characteristics of the motor are dramatically different for these two forms, it is important to understand whether myosin VI heavy chains are brought together on endocytic vesicles. We have used fluorescence anisotropy measurements to detect fluorescence resonance energy transfer between identical fluorophores (homoFRET) resulting from myosin VI heavy chains being brought into close proximity. We observed that, when associated with clathrin-mediated endocytic vesicles, myosin VI heavy chains are precisely positioned to bring their tail domains in close proximity. Our data show that on endocytic vesicles, myosin VI heavy chains are brought together in an orientation that previous in vitro studies have shown causes dimerization of the motor. Our results are therefore consistent with vesicle-associated myosin VI existing as a processive dimer, capable of its known trafficking function.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM33289, R01 GM033289; Wellcome Trust: 056727/Z/99

    PLoS biology 2007;5;8;e210

  • Myosin VI targeting to clathrin-coated structures and dimerization is mediated by binding to Disabled-2 and PtdIns(4,5)P2.

    Spudich G, Chibalina MV, Au JS, Arden SD, Buss F and Kendrick-Jones J

    MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 2QH, UK.

    Vesicle transport is essential for the movement of proteins, lipids and other molecules between membrane compartments within the cell. The role of the class VI myosins in vesicular transport is particularly intriguing because they are the only class that has been shown to move 'backwards' towards the minus end of actin filaments. Myosin VI is found in distinct intracellular locations and implicated in processes such as endocytosis, exocytosis, maintenance of Golgi morphology and cell movement. We have shown that the carboxy-terminal tail is the key targeting region and have identified three binding sites: a WWY motif for Disabled-2 (Dab2) binding, a RRL motif for glucose-transporter binding protein (GIPC) and optineurin binding and a site that binds specifically and with high affinity (Kd = 0.3 microM) to PtdIns(4,5)P2-containing liposomes. This is the first demonstration that myosin VI binds lipid membranes. Lipid binding induces a large structural change in the myosin VI tail (31% increase in helicity) and when associated with lipid vesicles, it can dimerize. In vivo targeting and recruitment of myosin VI to clathrin-coated structures (CCSs) at the plasma membrane is mediated by Dab2 and PtdIns(4,5)P2 binding.

    Funded by: Wellcome Trust: WT071162

    Nature cell biology 2007;9;2;176-83

  • Large-scale mapping of human protein-protein interactions by mass spectrometry.

    Ewing RM, Chu P, Elisma F, Li H, Taylor P, Climie S, McBroom-Cerajewski L, Robinson MD, O'Connor L, Li M, Taylor R, Dharsee M, Ho Y, Heilbut A, Moore L, Zhang S, Ornatsky O, Bukhman YV, Ethier M, Sheng Y, Vasilescu J, Abu-Farha M, Lambert JP, Duewel HS, Stewart II, Kuehl B, Hogue K, Colwill K, Gladwish K, Muskat B, Kinach R, Adams SL, Moran MF, Morin GB, Topaloglou T and Figeys D

    Protana, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

    Mapping protein-protein interactions is an invaluable tool for understanding protein function. Here, we report the first large-scale study of protein-protein interactions in human cells using a mass spectrometry-based approach. The study maps protein interactions for 338 bait proteins that were selected based on known or suspected disease and functional associations. Large-scale immunoprecipitation of Flag-tagged versions of these proteins followed by LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis resulted in the identification of 24,540 potential protein interactions. False positives and redundant hits were filtered out using empirical criteria and a calculated interaction confidence score, producing a data set of 6463 interactions between 2235 distinct proteins. This data set was further cross-validated using previously published and predicted human protein interactions. In-depth mining of the data set shows that it represents a valuable source of novel protein-protein interactions with relevance to human diseases. In addition, via our preliminary analysis, we report many novel protein interactions and pathway associations.

    Molecular systems biology 2007;3;89

  • A novel role of myosin VI in human prostate cancer.

    Dunn TA, Chen S, Faith DA, Hicks JL, Platz EA, Chen Y, Ewing CM, Sauvageot J, Isaacs WB, De Marzo AM and Luo J

    Department of Urology, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA.

    Myosin VI is an actin motor that moves to the minus end of the polarized actin filament, a direction opposite to all other characterized myosins. Using expression microarrays, we identified myosin VI as one of the top genes that demonstrated cancer-specific overexpression in clinical prostate specimens. Protein expression of myosin VI was subsequently analyzed in arrayed prostate tissues from 240 patients. Notably, medium-grade prostate cancers demonstrated the most consistent cancer-specific myosin VI protein overexpression, whereas prostate cancers associated with more aggressive histological features continued to overexpress myosin VI but to a lesser extent. Myosin VI protein expression in cell lines positively correlated with the presence of androgen receptor. Small interference RNA-mediated myosin VI knockdown in the LNCaP human prostate cancer cell line resulted in impaired in vitro migration and soft-agar colony formation. Depletion of myosin VI expression was also accompanied by global gene expression changes reflective of attenuated tumorigenic potential, as marked by a nearly 10-fold induction of TXNIP (VDUP1), a tumor suppressor with decreased expression in prostate cancer specimens. These results support that myosin VI is critical in maintaining the malignant properties of the majority of human prostate cancers diagnosed today.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: P50 CA058236, P50CA58236

    The American journal of pathology 2006;169;5;1843-54

  • Nuclear myosin VI enhances RNA polymerase II-dependent transcription.

    Vreugde S, Ferrai C, Miluzio A, Hauben E, Marchisio PC, Crippa MP, Bussi M and Biffo S

    Molecular Histology and Cell Growth Unit, DIBIT, Via Olgettina 58, Milano 20132, Italy. vreugde.sarah@hsr.it

    Myosin VI is the only myosin that moves toward the minus end of actin filaments, suggesting a unique biological function. Here, we show that myosin VI is present in the nucleus of mammalian cells where it colocalizes with newly transcribed mRNA and with RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) and is detected in the RNAPII complex. The colocalization and interaction of myosin VI with RNAPII require transcriptional activity. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) demonstrates that myosin VI is recruited to the promoter and intragenic regions of active genes, encoding urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA), eukaryotic initiation factor 6 (p27/eIF6), and low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), but not to noncoding, nonregulatory intergenic regions. Downregulation of myosin VI reduces steady-state mRNA levels of these genes in vivo, and antibodies to myosin VI reduce transcription in vitro. We suggest that myosin VI modulates RNAPII-dependent transcription of active genes, implicating the possibility of an actin-myosin based mechanism of transcription.

    Funded by: Telethon: GGP05043, TGT06S01; Worldwide Cancer Research: 05-0360

    Molecular cell 2006;23;5;749-55

  • Binding of internalized receptors to the PDZ domain of GIPC/synectin recruits myosin VI to endocytic vesicles.

    Naccache SN, Hasson T and Horowitz A

    Section of Cell and Developmental Biology, Division of Biological Sciences, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA.

    Myosin VI (myo6) is the only actin-based molecular motor that translocates along actin filaments toward the minus end. Myo6 participates in two steps of endocytic trafficking; it is recruited to both clathrin-coated pits and to ensuing uncoated endocytic vesicles (UCV). Although there is evidence suggesting that the PDZ adaptor protein GIPC/synectin is involved in the association of myo6 with UCV, the recruitment mechanism is unknown. We show that GIPC/synectin is required for both internalization of cell surface receptors and for coupling of myo6 to UCV. This coupling occurs via a mechanism wherein engagement of the GIPC/synectin PDZ domain by C termini of internalized receptors facilitates in trans myo6 binding to the GIPC/synectin C terminus located outside of the PDZ domain. Analysis of megalin, a prototypical GIPC/synectin-binding receptor, revealed that deletion of its PDZ-binding motif drastically reduced GIPC/synectin and myo6 recruitment to UCV. Furthermore, interaction with GIPC/synectin was required for megalin's function, as megalin was mistargeted in the renal proximal tubules of GIPC/synectin-null mice and these mice exhibited proteinuria, a condition consistent with defective megalin trafficking.

    Funded by: NEI NIH HHS: EY12695, R01 EY012695; NHLBI NIH HHS: HL67960, R01 HL067960

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2006;103;34;12735-40

  • Clinical evaluation of atraumatic restorations in primary molars: a comparison between 2 glass ionomer cements.

    Menezes JP, Rosenblatt A and Medeiros E

    Federal University of Sergipe-Brazil, Aracasu.

    Dental caries continues to be a highly prevalent disease among Brazilian preschoolers, especially those with low socioeconomic status. The purpose of this randomized, controlled trial was to evaluate in vivo 245 simplified restorations in deciduous molars using glass ionomer cements (Vidrion R and Ketac-Molar). Dental restorations were evaluated at 6- and 12-month follow-ups. The teeth restored with Vidrion R (SS White) on a single tooth surface were successful in 87% of the cases evaluated at 6 months and in 63% at 12 months. The teeth restored with Ketac-Molar on one surface achieved a success rate of 95% at 6 months and 82% at 12 months. No recurrent caries or pulpal infection was evident. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that teeth with cavities restricted to the occlusal surface on sclerotic dentin showed the best adhesion to the restorative material. The restorations with Ketac-Molar had a better clinical performance than those with Vidrion R.

    Journal of dentistry for children (Chicago, Ill.) 2006;73;2;91-7

  • Crystal structure of the ubiquitin binding domains of rabex-5 reveals two modes of interaction with ubiquitin.

    Penengo L, Mapelli M, Murachelli AG, Confalonieri S, Magri L, Musacchio A, Di Fiore PP, Polo S and Schneider TR

    IFOM, the FIRC Institute for Molecular Oncology Foundation, Via Adamello 16, 20139 Milan, Italy.

    The interaction between ubiquitinated proteins and intracellular proteins harboring ubiquitin binding domains (UBDs) is critical to a multitude of cellular processes. Here, we report that Rabex-5, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rab5, binds to Ub through two independent UBDs. These UBDs determine a number of properties of Rabex-5, including its coupled monoubiquitination and interaction in vivo with ubiquitinated EGFRs. Structural and biochemical characterization of the UBDs of Rabex-5 revealed that one of them (MIU, motif interacting with ubiquitin) binds to Ub with modes superimposable to those of the UIM (ubiquitin-interacting motif):Ub interaction, although in the opposite orientation. The other UBD, RUZ (Rabex-5 ubiquitin binding zinc finger) binds to a surface of Ub centered on Asp58(Ub) and distinct from the "canonical" Ile44(Ub)-based surface. The two binding surfaces allow Ub to interact simultaneously with different UBDs, thus opening new perspectives in Ub-mediated signaling.

    Cell 2006;124;6;1183-95

  • Myosin VI is a mediator of the p53-dependent cell survival pathway.

    Jung EJ, Liu G, Zhou W and Chen X

    Department of Cell Biology, MCLM 660, 1530 3rd Ave. S, Birmingham, AL 35294-0005, USA.

    Myosin VI is an unconventional motor protein, and its mutation is responsible for the familiar conditions sensorineural deafness and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Myosin VI is found to play a key role in the protein trafficking and homeostasis of the Golgi complex. However, very little is known about how myosin VI is regulated and whether myosin VI has a function in the DNA damage response. Here, we found that myosin VI is regulated by DNA damage in a p53-dependent manner and possesses a novel function in the p53-dependent prosurvival pathway. Specifically, we show that myosin VI is induced by p53 and DNA damage in a p53-dependent manner. We found that p53 directly binds to, and activates, the promoter of the myosin VI gene. We also show that the intracellular localization of myosin VI is substantially altered by p53 and DNA damage in a p53-dependent manner such that the pool of myosin VI in endocytic vesicles, membrane ruffles, and cytosol migrates to the Golgi complex, perinuclear membrane, and nucleus. Furthermore, we show that knockdown of myosin VI attenuates activation of p53 and impairs Golgi complex integrity, which makes myosin VI-deficient cells susceptible to apoptosis upon DNA damage. Taken together, we found a novel function for p53 in the maintenance of Golgi complex integrity and for myosin VI in the p53-dependent prosurvival pathway.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA076069, R01 CA076069, R29 CA076069

    Molecular and cellular biology 2006;26;6;2175-86

  • Diversification of transcriptional modulation: large-scale identification and characterization of putative alternative promoters of human genes.

    Kimura K, Wakamatsu A, Suzuki Y, Ota T, Nishikawa T, Yamashita R, Yamamoto J, Sekine M, Tsuritani K, Wakaguri H, Ishii S, Sugiyama T, Saito K, Isono Y, Irie R, Kushida N, Yoneyama T, Otsuka R, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Kondo H, Wagatsuma M, Murakawa K, Ishida S, Ishibashi T, Takahashi-Fujii A, Tanase T, Nagai K, Kikuchi H, Nakai K, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Life Science Research Laboratory, Central Research Laboratory, Hitachi, Ltd., Kokubunji, Tokyo, 185-8601, Japan.

    By analyzing 1,780,295 5'-end sequences of human full-length cDNAs derived from 164 kinds of oligo-cap cDNA libraries, we identified 269,774 independent positions of transcriptional start sites (TSSs) for 14,628 human RefSeq genes. These TSSs were clustered into 30,964 clusters that were separated from each other by more than 500 bp and thus are very likely to constitute mutually distinct alternative promoters. To our surprise, at least 7674 (52%) human RefSeq genes were subject to regulation by putative alternative promoters (PAPs). On average, there were 3.1 PAPs per gene, with the composition of one CpG-island-containing promoter per 2.6 CpG-less promoters. In 17% of the PAP-containing loci, tissue-specific use of the PAPs was observed. The richest tissue sources of the tissue-specific PAPs were testis and brain. It was also intriguing that the PAP-containing promoters were enriched in the genes encoding signal transduction-related proteins and were rarer in the genes encoding extracellular proteins, possibly reflecting the varied functional requirement for and the restricted expression of those categories of genes, respectively. The patterns of the first exons were highly diverse as well. On average, there were 7.7 different splicing types of first exons per locus partly produced by the PAPs, suggesting that a wide variety of transcripts can be achieved by this mechanism. Our findings suggest that use of alternate promoters and consequent alternative use of first exons should play a pivotal role in generating the complexity required for the highly elaborated molecular systems in humans.

    Genome research 2006;16;1;55-65

  • A human protein-protein interaction network: a resource for annotating the proteome.

    Stelzl U, Worm U, Lalowski M, Haenig C, Brembeck FH, Goehler H, Stroedicke M, Zenkner M, Schoenherr A, Koeppen S, Timm J, Mintzlaff S, Abraham C, Bock N, Kietzmann S, Goedde A, Toksöz E, Droege A, Krobitsch S, Korn B, Birchmeier W, Lehrach H and Wanker EE

    Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine, 13092 Berlin-Buch, Germany.

    Protein-protein interaction maps provide a valuable framework for a better understanding of the functional organization of the proteome. To detect interacting pairs of human proteins systematically, a protein matrix of 4456 baits and 5632 preys was screened by automated yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) interaction mating. We identified 3186 mostly novel interactions among 1705 proteins, resulting in a large, highly connected network. Independent pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation assays validated the overall quality of the Y2H interactions. Using topological and GO criteria, a scoring system was developed to define 911 high-confidence interactions among 401 proteins. Furthermore, the network was searched for interactions linking uncharacterized gene products and human disease proteins to regulatory cellular pathways. Two novel Axin-1 interactions were validated experimentally, characterizing ANP32A and CRMP1 as modulators of Wnt signaling. Systematic human protein interaction screens can lead to a more comprehensive understanding of protein function and cellular processes.

    Cell 2005;122;6;957-68

  • Optineurin links myosin VI to the Golgi complex and is involved in Golgi organization and exocytosis.

    Sahlender DA, Roberts RC, Arden SD, Spudich G, Taylor MJ, Luzio JP, Kendrick-Jones J and Buss F

    Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, University of Cambridge, England, UK.

    Myosin VI plays a role in the maintenance of Golgi morphology and in exocytosis. In a yeast 2-hybrid screen we identified optineurin as a binding partner for myosin VI at the Golgi complex and confirmed this interaction in a range of protein interaction studies. Both proteins colocalize at the Golgi complex and in vesicles at the plasma membrane. When optineurin is depleted from cells using RNA interference, myosin VI is lost from the Golgi complex, the Golgi is fragmented and exocytosis of vesicular stomatitis virus G-protein to the plasma membrane is dramatically reduced. Two further binding partners for optineurin have been identified: huntingtin and Rab8. We show that myosin VI and Rab8 colocalize around the Golgi complex and in vesicles at the plasma membrane and overexpression of constitutively active Rab8-Q67L recruits myosin VI onto Rab8-positive structures. These results show that optineurin links myosin VI to the Golgi complex and plays a central role in Golgi ribbon formation and exocytosis.

    Funded by: Wellcome Trust: WT071162

    The Journal of cell biology 2005;169;2;285-95

  • Myosin VI regulates endocytosis of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator.

    Swiatecka-Urban A, Boyd C, Coutermarsh B, Karlson KH, Barnaby R, Aschenbrenner L, Langford GM, Hasson T and Stanton BA

    Dartmouth Medical School, Department of Physiology, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755, USA. Agnieszka.Swiatecka-Urban@Dartmouth.edu

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a cyclic AMP-regulated Cl(-) channel expressed in the apical plasma membrane in fluid-transporting epithelia. Although CFTR is rapidly endocytosed from the apical membrane of polarized epithelial cells and efficiently recycled back to the plasma membrane, little is known about the molecular mechanisms regulating CFTR endocytosis and endocytic recycling. Myosin VI, an actin-dependent, minus-end directed mechanoenzyme, has been implicated in clathrin-mediated endocytosis in epithelial cells. The goal of this study was to determine whether myosin VI regulates CFTR endocytosis. Endogenous, apical membrane CFTR in polarized human airway epithelial cells (Calu-3) formed a complex with myosin VI, the myosin VI adaptor protein Disabled 2 (Dab2), and clathrin. The tail domain of myosin VI, a dominant-negative recombinant fragment, displaced endogenous myosin VI from interacting with Dab2 and CFTR and increased the expression of CFTR in the plasma membrane by reducing CFTR endocytosis. However, the myosin VI tail fragment had no effect on the recycling of endocytosed CFTR or on fluid-phase endocytosis. CFTR endocytosis was decreased by cytochalasin D, an actin-filament depolymerizing agent. Taken together, these data indicate that myosin VI and Dab2 facilitate CFTR endocytosis by a mechanism that requires actin filaments.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: P20-RR018787-01; NEI NIH HHS: R01-EY12695; NIDDK NIH HHS: R01-DK34533, R01-DK45881

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2004;279;36;38025-31

  • Human deafness mutation of myosin VI (C442Y) accelerates the ADP dissociation rate.

    Sato O, White HD, Inoue A, Belknap B, Ikebe R and Ikebe M

    Department of Physiology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts 01655-0127, USA.

    The missense mutation of Cys(442) to Tyr of myosin VI causes progressive postlingual sensorineural deafness. Here we report the affects of the C442Y mutation on the kinetics of the actomyosin ATP hydrolysis mechanism and motor function of myosin VI. The largest changes in the kinetic mechanism of ATP hydrolysis produced by the C442Y mutation are about 10-fold increases in the rate of ADP dissociation from both myosin VI and actomyosin VI. The rates of ADP dissociation from acto-C442Y myosin VI-ADP and C442Y myosin VI-ADP are 20-40 times more rapid than the steady state rates and cannot be the rate-limiting steps of the hydrolysis mechanism in the presence or absence of actin. The 2-fold increase in the actin gliding velocity of C442Y compared with wild type (WT) may be explained at least in part by the more rapid rate of ADP dissociation. The C442Y myosin VI has a significant increase ( approximately 10-fold) in the steady state ATPase rate in the absence of actin relative to WT myosin VI. The steady state rate of actin-activated ATP hydrolysis is unchanged by the C442Y mutation at low (<10(-7) m) calcium but is calcium-sensitive with a 1.6-fold increase at high ( approximately 10(-4) m) calcium that does not occur with WT. The actin gliding velocity of the C442Y mutant decreases significantly at low surface density of myosin VI, suggesting that the mutation hampers the processive movement of myosin VI.

    Funded by: NIAMS NIH HHS: AR 48526, AR41653; NIBIB NIH HHS: EB00209; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM 55834

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2004;279;28;28844-54

  • Functional proteomics mapping of a human signaling pathway.

    Colland F, Jacq X, Trouplin V, Mougin C, Groizeleau C, Hamburger A, Meil A, Wojcik J, Legrain P and Gauthier JM

    Hybrigenics SA, 75014 Paris, France. fcolland@hybrigenics.fr

    Access to the human genome facilitates extensive functional proteomics studies. Here, we present an integrated approach combining large-scale protein interaction mapping, exploration of the interaction network, and cellular functional assays performed on newly identified proteins involved in a human signaling pathway. As a proof of principle, we studied the Smad signaling system, which is regulated by members of the transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) superfamily. We used two-hybrid screening to map Smad signaling protein-protein interactions and to establish a network of 755 interactions, involving 591 proteins, 179 of which were poorly or not annotated. The exploration of such complex interaction databases is improved by the use of PIMRider, a dedicated navigation tool accessible through the Web. The biological meaning of this network is illustrated by the presence of 18 known Smad-associated proteins. Functional assays performed in mammalian cells including siRNA knock-down experiments identified eight novel proteins involved in Smad signaling, thus validating this integrated functional proteomics approach.

    Genome research 2004;14;7;1324-32

  • Lessons from border cell migration in the Drosophila ovary: A role for myosin VI in dissemination of human ovarian cancer.

    Yoshida H, Cheng W, Hung J, Montell D, Geisbrecht E, Rosen D, Liu J and Naora H

    Department of Molecular Therapeutics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

    Dissemination of ovarian cancer is a major clinical challenge and is poorly understood at the molecular level due to a lack of suitable experimental models. During normal development of the Drosophila ovary, a dynamic process called border cell migration occurs that resembles the migratory behavior of human ovarian cancer cells. In this study, we found that myosin VI, a motor protein that regulates border cell migration, is abundantly expressed in high-grade ovarian carcinomas but not in normal ovary and ovarian cancers that behave indolently. Inhibiting myosin VI expression in high-grade ovarian carcinoma cells impeded cell spreading and migration in vitro. Optical imaging and histopathologic studies revealed that inhibiting myosin VI expression reduces tumor dissemination in nude mice. Therefore, using genetic analysis of border cell migration in Drosophila is a powerful approach to identify novel molecules that promote ovarian cancer dissemination and represent potential therapeutic targets.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: P50 CA083639

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2004;101;21;8144-9

  • A monomeric myosin VI with a large working stroke.

    Lister I, Schmitz S, Walker M, Trinick J, Buss F, Veigel C and Kendrick-Jones J

    MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Hills Road, Cambridge, UK.

    Myosin VI is involved in a wide variety of intracellular processes such as endocytosis, secretion and cell migration. Unlike almost all other myosins so far studied, it moves towards the minus end of actin filaments and is therefore likely to have unique cellular properties. However, its mechanism of force production and movement is not understood. Under our experimental conditions, both expressed full-length and native myosin VI are monomeric. Electron microscopy using negative staining revealed that the addition of ATP induces a large conformational change in the neck/tail region of the expressed molecule. Using an optical tweezers-based force transducer we found that expressed myosin VI is nonprocessive and produces a large working stroke of 18 nm. Since the neck region of myosin VI is short (it contains only a single IQ motif), it is difficult to reconcile the 18 nm working stroke with the classical 'lever arm mechanism', unless other structures in the molecule contribute to the effective lever. A possible model to explain the large working stroke of myosin VI is presented.

    Funded by: Wellcome Trust: 071162

    The EMBO journal 2004;23;8;1729-38

  • Novel association of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, sensorineural deafness, and a mutation in unconventional myosin VI (MYO6).

    Mohiddin SA, Ahmed ZM, Griffith AJ, Tripodi D, Friedman TB, Fananapazir L and Morell RJ

    Journal of medical genetics 2004;41;4;309-14

  • Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.

    Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, Otsuki T, Sugiyama T, Irie R, Wakamatsu A, Hayashi K, Sato H, Nagai K, Kimura K, Makita H, Sekine M, Obayashi M, Nishi T, Shibahara T, Tanaka T, Ishii S, Yamamoto J, Saito K, Kawai Y, Isono Y, Nakamura Y, Nagahari K, Murakami K, Yasuda T, Iwayanagi T, Wagatsuma M, Shiratori A, Sudo H, Hosoiri T, Kaku Y, Kodaira H, Kondo H, Sugawara M, Takahashi M, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Furuya T, Kikkawa E, Omura Y, Abe K, Kamihara K, Katsuta N, Sato K, Tanikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ninomiya K, Ishibashi T, Yamashita H, Murakawa K, Fujimori K, Tanai H, Kimata M, Watanabe M, Hiraoka S, Chiba Y, Ishida S, Ono Y, Takiguchi S, Watanabe S, Yosida M, Hotuta T, Kusano J, Kanehori K, Takahashi-Fujii A, Hara H, Tanase TO, Nomura Y, Togiya S, Komai F, Hara R, Takeuchi K, Arita M, Imose N, Musashino K, Yuuki H, Oshima A, Sasaki N, Aotsuka S, Yoshikawa Y, Matsunawa H, Ichihara T, Shiohata N, Sano S, Moriya S, Momiyama H, Satoh N, Takami S, Terashima Y, Suzuki O, Nakagawa S, Senoh A, Mizoguchi H, Goto Y, Shimizu F, Wakebe H, Hishigaki H, Watanabe T, Sugiyama A, Takemoto M, Kawakami B, Yamazaki M, Watanabe K, Kumagai A, Itakura S, Fukuzumi Y, Fujimori Y, Komiyama M, Tashiro H, Tanigami A, Fujiwara T, Ono T, Yamada K, Fujii Y, Ozaki K, Hirao M, Ohmori Y, Kawabata A, Hikiji T, Kobatake N, Inagaki H, Ikema Y, Okamoto S, Okitani R, Kawakami T, Noguchi S, Itoh T, Shigeta K, Senba T, Matsumura K, Nakajima Y, Mizuno T, Morinaga M, Sasaki M, Togashi T, Oyama M, Hata H, Watanabe M, Komatsu T, Mizushima-Sugano J, Satoh T, Shirai Y, Takahashi Y, Nakagawa K, Okumura K, Nagase T, Nomura N, Kikuchi H, Masuho Y, Yamashita R, Nakai K, Yada T, Nakamura Y, Ohara O, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Helix Research Institute, 1532-3 Yana, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0812, Japan.

    As a base for human transcriptome and functional genomics, we created the "full-length long Japan" (FLJ) collection of sequenced human cDNAs. We determined the entire sequence of 21,243 selected clones and found that 14,490 cDNAs (10,897 clusters) were unique to the FLJ collection. About half of them (5,416) seemed to be protein-coding. Of those, 1,999 clusters had not been predicted by computational methods. The distribution of GC content of nonpredicted cDNAs had a peak at approximately 58% compared with a peak at approximately 42%for predicted cDNAs. Thus, there seems to be a slight bias against GC-rich transcripts in current gene prediction procedures. The rest of the cDNAs unique to the FLJ collection (5,481) contained no obvious open reading frames (ORFs) and thus are candidate noncoding RNAs. About one-fourth of them (1,378) showed a clear pattern of splicing. The distribution of GC content of noncoding cDNAs was narrow and had a peak at approximately 42%, relatively low compared with that of protein-coding cDNAs.

    Nature genetics 2004;36;1;40-5

  • The DNA sequence and analysis of human chromosome 6.

    Mungall AJ, Palmer SA, Sims SK, Edwards CA, Ashurst JL, Wilming L, Jones MC, Horton R, Hunt SE, Scott CE, Gilbert JG, Clamp ME, Bethel G, Milne S, Ainscough R, Almeida JP, Ambrose KD, Andrews TD, Ashwell RI, Babbage AK, Bagguley CL, Bailey J, Banerjee R, Barker DJ, Barlow KF, Bates K, Beare DM, Beasley H, Beasley O, Bird CP, Blakey S, Bray-Allen S, Brook J, Brown AJ, Brown JY, Burford DC, Burrill W, Burton J, Carder C, Carter NP, Chapman JC, Clark SY, Clark G, Clee CM, Clegg S, Cobley V, Collier RE, Collins JE, Colman LK, Corby NR, Coville GJ, Culley KM, Dhami P, Davies J, Dunn M, Earthrowl ME, Ellington AE, Evans KA, Faulkner L, Francis MD, Frankish A, Frankland J, French L, Garner P, Garnett J, Ghori MJ, Gilby LM, Gillson CJ, Glithero RJ, Grafham DV, Grant M, Gribble S, Griffiths C, Griffiths M, Hall R, Halls KS, Hammond S, Harley JL, Hart EA, Heath PD, Heathcott R, Holmes SJ, Howden PJ, Howe KL, Howell GR, Huckle E, Humphray SJ, Humphries MD, Hunt AR, Johnson CM, Joy AA, Kay M, Keenan SJ, Kimberley AM, King A, Laird GK, Langford C, Lawlor S, Leongamornlert DA, Leversha M, Lloyd CR, Lloyd DM, Loveland JE, Lovell J, Martin S, Mashreghi-Mohammadi M, Maslen GL, Matthews L, McCann OT, McLaren SJ, McLay K, McMurray A, Moore MJ, Mullikin JC, Niblett D, Nickerson T, Novik KL, Oliver K, Overton-Larty EK, Parker A, Patel R, Pearce AV, Peck AI, Phillimore B, Phillips S, Plumb RW, Porter KM, Ramsey Y, Ranby SA, Rice CM, Ross MT, Searle SM, Sehra HK, Sheridan E, Skuce CD, Smith S, Smith M, Spraggon L, Squares SL, Steward CA, Sycamore N, Tamlyn-Hall G, Tester J, Theaker AJ, Thomas DW, Thorpe A, Tracey A, Tromans A, Tubby B, Wall M, Wallis JM, West AP, White SS, Whitehead SL, Whittaker H, Wild A, Willey DJ, Wilmer TE, Wood JM, Wray PW, Wyatt JC, Young L, Younger RM, Bentley DR, Coulson A, Durbin R, Hubbard T, Sulston JE, Dunham I, Rogers J and Beck S

    The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SA, UK. ajm@sanger.ac.uk

    Chromosome 6 is a metacentric chromosome that constitutes about 6% of the human genome. The finished sequence comprises 166,880,988 base pairs, representing the largest chromosome sequenced so far. The entire sequence has been subjected to high-quality manual annotation, resulting in the evidence-supported identification of 1,557 genes and 633 pseudogenes. Here we report that at least 96% of the protein-coding genes have been identified, as assessed by multi-species comparative sequence analysis, and provide evidence for the presence of further, otherwise unsupported exons/genes. Among these are genes directly implicated in cancer, schizophrenia, autoimmunity and many other diseases. Chromosome 6 harbours the largest transfer RNA gene cluster in the genome; we show that this cluster co-localizes with a region of high transcriptional activity. Within the essential immune loci of the major histocompatibility complex, we find HLA-B to be the most polymorphic gene on chromosome 6 and in the human genome.

    Nature 2003;425;6960;805-11

  • Myosin VI: two distinct roles in endocytosis.

    Hasson T

    Division of Biological Sciences, Section of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of California at San Diego, 2129 Bonner Hall, MC 0368, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0368, USA. tama@ucsd.edu

    Actin is found at the cortex of the cell where endocytosis occurs, but does it play a role in this essential process? Recent studies on the unconventional myosin, myosin VI, an actin-based molecular motor, provide compelling evidence that this myosin and therefore actin is involved in two distinct steps of endocytosis in higher eukaryotes: the formation of clathrin-coated vesicles and the movement of nascent uncoated vesicles from the actin-rich cell periphery to the early endosome. Three distinct adapter proteins--GIPC, Dab2 and SAP97--that associate with the cargo-binding tail domain of myosin VI have been identified. These proteins may recruit myosin VI to its sites of action.

    Journal of cell science 2003;116;Pt 17;3453-61

  • Myo6 facilitates the translocation of endocytic vesicles from cell peripheries.

    Aschenbrenner L, Lee T and Hasson T

    Section of Cell and Developmental Biology, Division of Biological Sciences, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA.

    Immunolocalization studies in epithelial cells revealed myo6 was associated with peripherally located vesicles that contained the transferrin receptor. Pulse-chase experiments after transferrin uptake showed that these vesicles were newly uncoated endocytic vesicles and that myo6 was recruited to these vesicles immediately after uncoating. GIPC, a putative myo6 tail binding protein, was also present. Myo6 was not present on early endosomes, suggesting that myo6 has a transient association with endocytic vesicles and is released upon early endosome fusion. Green fluorescent protein (GFP) fused to myo6 as well as the cargo-binding tail (M6tail) alone targeted to the nascent endocytic vesicles. Overexpression of GFP-M6tail had no effect on a variety of organelle markers; however, GFP-M6tail displaced the endogenous myo6 from nascent vesicles and resulted in a significant delay in transferrin uptake. Pulse-chase experiments revealed that transferrin accumulated in uncoated vesicles within the peripheries of transfected cells and that Rab5 was recruited to the surface of these vesicles. Given sufficient time, the transferrin did traffic to the perinuclear sorting endosome. These data suggest that myo6 is an accessory protein required for the efficient transportation of nascent endocytic vesicles from the actin-rich peripheries of epithelial cells, allowing for timely fusion of endocytic vesicles with the early endosome.

    Molecular biology of the cell 2003;14;7;2728-43

  • Mutations of MYO6 are associated with recessive deafness, DFNB37.

    Ahmed ZM, Morell RJ, Riazuddin S, Gropman A, Shaukat S, Ahmad MM, Mohiddin SA, Fananapazir L, Caruso RC, Husnain T, Khan SN, Riazuddin S, Griffith AJ, Friedman TB and Wilcox ER

    Section on Human Genetics, National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, MD 20850, USA.

    Cosegregation of profound, congenital deafness with markers on chromosome 6q13 in three Pakistani families defines a new recessive deafness locus, DFNB37. Haplotype analyses reveal a 6-cM linkage region, flanked by markers D6S1282 and D6S1031, that includes the gene encoding unconventional myosin VI. In families with recessively inherited deafness, DFNB37, our sequence analyses of MYO6 reveal a frameshift mutation (36-37insT), a nonsense mutation (R1166X), and a missense mutation (E216V). These mutations, along with a previously published missense allele linked to autosomal dominant progressive hearing loss (DFNA22), provide an allelic spectrum that probes the relationship between myosin VI dysfunction and the resulting phenotype.

    Funded by: NIDCD NIH HHS: T32 DC000035, Z01 DC000039, Z01 DC000064, ZO1 DC000039-06, ZO1 DC000064-02, ZO1 DC00035-06

    American journal of human genetics 2003;72;5;1315-22

  • Interaction of SAP97 with minus-end-directed actin motor myosin VI. Implications for AMPA receptor trafficking.

    Wu H, Nash JE, Zamorano P and Garner CC

    Department of Neurobiology, University of Alabama, Birmingham, AL 35294-0021, USA.

    SAP97 is a modular protein composed of three PDZ domains, an SH3 domain, and a guanylate kinase-like domain. It has been implicated functionally in the assembly and structural stability of synaptic junctions as well as in the trafficking, recruitment, and localization of specific ion channels and neurotransmitter receptors. The N terminus of SAP97 (S97N) has been shown to play a key role in the selection of binding partners and the localization of SAP97 at adhesion sites, as well as the clustering of ion channels in heterologous cells. Using the S97N domain as bait in a yeast two-hybrid screen, we identified the minus-end-directed actin-based motor, myosin VI, as an S97N binding partner. Moreover, in light membrane fractions prepared from rat brain, we found that myosin VI and SAP97 form a trimeric complex with the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA) receptor subunit, GluR1. These data suggest that SAP97 may serve as a molecular link between GluR1 and the actin-dependent motor protein myosin VI during the dynamic translocation of AMPA receptors to and from the postsynaptic plasma membrane.

    Funded by: NIA NIH HHS: AG 06569-09, AG 12978-02; NICHD NIH HHS: P50 HD 32901

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;34;30928-34

  • Myosin VI binds to and localises with Dab2, potentially linking receptor-mediated endocytosis and the actin cytoskeleton.

    Morris SM, Arden SD, Roberts RC, Kendrick-Jones J, Cooper JA, Luzio JP and Buss F

    Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Division of Basic Sciences, 1100 Fairview Avenue North, Seattle, WA 98109-1024, USA.

    Myosin VI, an actin-based motor protein, and Disabled 2 (Dab2), a molecule involved in endocytosis and cell signalling, have been found to bind together using yeast and mammalian two-hybrid screens. In polarised epithelial cells, myosin VI is known to be associated with apical clathrin-coated vesicles and is believed to move them towards the minus end of actin filaments, away from the plasma membrane and into the cell. Dab2 belongs to a group of signal transduction proteins that bind in vitro to the FXNPXY sequence found in the cytosolic tails of members of the low-density lipoprotein receptor family. The central region of Dab2, containing two DPF motifs, binds to the clathrin adaptor protein AP-2, whereas a C-terminal region contains the binding site for myosin VI. This site is conserved in Dab1, the neuronal counterpart of Dab2. The interaction between Dab2 and myosin VI was confirmed by in vitro binding assays and coimmunoprecipitation and by their colocalisation in clathrin-coated pits/vesicles concentrated at the apical domain of polarised cells. These results suggest that the myosin VI-Dab2 interaction may be one link between the actin cytoskeleton and receptors undergoing endocytosis.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R37-CA40172

    Traffic (Copenhagen, Denmark) 2002;3;5;331-41

  • DOC-2/DAB2 is the binding partner of myosin VI.

    Inoue A, Sato O, Homma K and Ikebe M

    Department of Physiology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, 55 Lake Avenue North, Worcester, Massachusetts 01655-0127, USA.

    Myosin VI is a molecular motor that moves processively along actin filaments and is believed to play a role in cargo movement in cells. Here we found that DOC-2/DAB2, a signaling molecule inhibiting the Ras cascade, binds to myosin VI at the globular tail domain. DOC-2/DAB2 binds stoichiometrically to myosin VI with one molecule per one myosin VI heavy chain. The C-terminal 122 amino acid residues of DOC-2/DAB2, containing the Grb2 binding site, is identified to be critical for the binding to myosin VI. Actin gliding assay revealed that the binding of DOC-2/DAB2 to myosin VI can support the actin filament gliding by myosin VI, suggesting that it can function as a myosin VI anchoring molecule. The C-terminal domain but not the N-terminal domain of DOC-2/DAB2 functions as a myosin VI anchoring site. The present findings suggest that myosin VI plays a role in transporting DOC-2/DAB2, a Ras cascade signaling molecule, thus involved in Ras signaling pathways.

    Funded by: NIAMS NIH HHS: AR 41653; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM 55834

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2002;292;2;300-7

  • Myosin VI, a new force in clathrin mediated endocytosis.

    Buss F, Luzio JP and Kendrick-Jones J

    Department of Clinical Biochemistry, University of Cambridge, UK. fb1@mole.bio.cam.ac.uk

    The integrity of the actin cytoskeleton and associated motor proteins are essential for the efficient functioning of clathrin mediated endocytosis at least in polarised cells. Myosin VI, the only motor protein so far identified that moves towards the minus end of actin filaments, is the first motor protein to be shown to associate with clathrin coated pits/vesicles at the plasma membrane and to modulate clathrin mediated endocytosis. Recent kinetic studies suggest that myosin VI may move processively along actin filaments providing clues about its functions in the cell. The possible role(s) of myosin VI in the sequential steps involved in receptor mediated endocytosis are discussed.

    FEBS letters 2001;508;3;295-9

  • Myosin VI is a processive motor with a large step size.

    Rock RS, Rice SE, Wells AL, Purcell TJ, Spudich JA and Sweeney HL

    Department of Biochemistry, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.

    Myosin VI is a molecular motor involved in intracellular vesicle and organelle transport. To carry out its cellular functions myosin VI moves toward the pointed end of actin, backward in relation to all other characterized myosins. Myosin V, a motor that moves toward the barbed end of actin, is processive, undergoing multiple catalytic cycles and mechanical advances before it releases from actin. Here we show that myosin VI is also processive by using single molecule motility and optical trapping experiments. Remarkably, myosin VI takes much larger steps than expected, based on a simple lever-arm mechanism, for a myosin with only one light chain in the lever-arm domain. Unlike other characterized myosins, myosin VI stepping is highly irregular with a broad distribution of step sizes.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2001;98;24;13655-9

  • Dual regulation of mammalian myosin VI motor function.

    Yoshimura M, Homma K, Saito J, Inoue A, Ikebe R and Ikebe M

    Department of Physiology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, 55 Lake Ave., Worcester, MA 01655-0127, USA.

    Myosin VI is expressed in a variety of cell types and is thought to play a role in membrane trafficking and endocytosis, yet its motor function and regulation are not understood. The present study clarified mammalian myosin VI motor function and regulation at a molecular level. Myosin VI ATPase activity was highly activated by actin with K(actin) of 9 microm. A predominant amount of myosin VI bound to actin in the presence of ATP unlike conventional myosins. K(ATP) was much higher than those of other known myosins, suggesting that myosin VI has a weak affinity or slow binding for ATP. On the other hand, ADP markedly inhibited the actin-activated ATPase activity, suggesting a high affinity for ADP. These results suggested that myosin VI is predominantly in a strong actin binding state during the ATPase cycle. p21-activated kinase 3 phosphorylated myosin VI, and the site was identified as Thr(406). The phosphorylation of myosin VI significantly facilitated the actin-translocating activity of myosin VI. On the other hand, Ca(2+) diminished the actin-translocating activity of myosin VI although the actin-activated ATPase activity was not affected by Ca(2+). Calmodulin was not dissociated from the heavy chain at high Ca(2+), suggesting that a conformational change of calmodulin upon Ca(2+) binding, but not its physical dissociation, determines the inhibition of the motility activity. The present results revealed the dual regulation of myosin VI by phosphorylation and Ca(2+) binding to calmodulin light chain.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL 60381; NIAMS NIH HHS: AR 41653; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM 55834

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2001;276;43;39600-7

  • MYO6, the human homologue of the gene responsible for deafness in Snell's waltzer mice, is mutated in autosomal dominant nonsyndromic hearing loss.

    Melchionda S, Ahituv N, Bisceglia L, Sobe T, Glaser F, Rabionet R, Arbones ML, Notarangelo A, Di Iorio E, Carella M, Zelante L, Estivill X, Avraham KB and Gasparini P

    Servizio Genetica Medica, Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico-Ospedale "Casa Sollievo Sofferenza," I-71013 San Giovanni Rotondo, Italy.

    Mutations in the unconventional myosin VI gene, Myo6, are associated with deafness and vestibular dysfunction in the Snell's waltzer (sv) mouse. The corresponding human gene, MYO6, is located on chromosome 6q13. We describe the mapping of a new deafness locus, DFNA22, on chromosome 6q13 in a family affected by a nonsyndromic dominant form of deafness (NSAD), and the subsequent identification of a missense mutation in the MYO6 gene in all members of the family with hearing loss.

    Funded by: FIC NIH HHS: 1 R03 TW01108-01; Telethon: TGM06S01

    American journal of human genetics 2001;69;3;635-40

  • Myosin VI isoform localized to clathrin-coated vesicles with a role in clathrin-mediated endocytosis.

    Buss F, Arden SD, Lindsay M, Luzio JP and Kendrick-Jones J

    Department of Clinical Biochemistry and Wellcome Trust Centre for the Study of Molecular Mechanisms in Disease, Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, University of Cambridge, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge CB2 2XY, UK. fb1@mole.bio.cam.ac.uk

    Myosin VI is involved in membrane traffic and dynamics and is the only myosin known to move towards the minus end of actin filaments. Splice variants of myosin VI with a large insert in the tail domain were specifically expressed in polarized cells containing microvilli. In these polarized cells, endogenous myosin VI containing the large insert was concentrated at the apical domain co-localizing with clathrin- coated pits/vesicles. Using full-length myosin VI and deletion mutants tagged with green fluorescent protein (GFP) we have shown that myosin VI associates and co-localizes with clathrin-coated pits/vesicles by its C-terminal tail. Myosin VI, precipitated from whole cytosol, was present in a protein complex containing adaptor protein (AP)-2 and clathrin, and enriched in purified clathrin-coated vesicles. Over-expression of the tail domain of myosin VI containing the large insert in fibroblasts reduced transferrin uptake in transiently and stably transfected cells by >50%. Myosin VI is the first motor protein to be identified associated with clathrin-coated pits/vesicles and shown to modulate clathrin-mediated endocytosis.

    The EMBO journal 2001;20;14;3676-84

  • Myosin VI is an actin-based motor that moves backwards.

    Wells AL, Lin AW, Chen LQ, Safer D, Cain SM, Hasson T, Carragher BO, Milligan RA and Sweeney HL

    Department of Physiology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia 19104-6085, USA.

    Myosins and kinesins are molecular motors that hydrolyse ATP to track along actin filaments and microtubules, respectively. Although the kinesin family includes motors that move towards either the plus or minus ends of microtubules, all characterized myosin motors move towards the barbed (+) end of actin filaments. Crystal structures of myosin II (refs 3-6) have shown that small movements within the myosin motor core are transmitted through the 'converter domain' to a 'lever arm' consisting of a light-chain-binding helix and associated light chains. The lever arm further amplifies the motions of the converter domain into large directed movements. Here we report that myosin VI, an unconventional myosin, moves towards the pointed (-) end of actin. We visualized the myosin VI construct bound to actin using cryo-electron microscopy and image analysis, and found that an ADP-mediated conformational change in the domain distal to the motor, a structure likely to be the effective lever arm, is in the opposite direction to that observed for other myosins. Thus, it appears that myosin VI achieves reverse-direction movement by rotating its lever arm in the opposite direction to conventional myosin lever arm movement.

    Nature 1999;401;6752;505-8

  • Protein interactions with the glucose transporter binding protein GLUT1CBP that provide a link between GLUT1 and the cytoskeleton.

    Bunn RC, Jensen MA and Reed BC

    The Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Louisiana State University School of Medicine, Shreveport, Louisiana 71130-3932, USA.

    Subcellular targeting and the activity of facilitative glucose transporters are likely to be regulated by interactions with cellular proteins. This report describes the identification and characterization of a protein, GLUT1 C-terminal binding protein (GLUT1CBP), that binds via a PDZ domain to the C terminus of GLUT1. The interaction requires the C-terminal four amino acids of GLUT1 and is isoform specific because GLUT1CBP does not interact with the C terminus of GLUT3 or GLUT4. Most rat tissues examined contain both GLUT1CBP and GLUT1 mRNA, whereas only small intestine lacked detectable GLUT1CBP protein. GLUT1CBP is also expressed in primary cultures of neurons and astrocytes, as well as in Chinese hamster ovary, 3T3-L1, Madin-Darby canine kidney, Caco-2, and pheochromocytoma-12 cell lines. GLUT1CBP is able to bind to native GLUT1 extracted from cell membranes, self-associate, or interact with the cytoskeletal proteins myosin VI, alpha-actinin-1, and the kinesin superfamily protein KIF-1B. The presence of a PDZ domain places GLUT1CBP among a growing family of structural and regulatory proteins, many of which are localized to areas of membrane specialization. This and its ability to interact with GLUT1 and cytoskeletal proteins implicate GLUT1CBP in cellular mechanisms for targeting GLUT1 to specific subcellular sites either by tethering the transporter to cytoskeletal motor proteins or by anchoring the transporter to the actin cytoskeleton.

    Molecular biology of the cell 1999;10;4;819-32

  • The localization of myosin VI at the golgi complex and leading edge of fibroblasts and its phosphorylation and recruitment into membrane ruffles of A431 cells after growth factor stimulation.

    Buss F, Kendrick-Jones J, Lionne C, Knight AE, Côté GP and Paul Luzio J

    Department of Clinical Biochemistry, University of Cambridge, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, CB2 2QR, United Kingdom. fb1@mole.bio.cam.ac.uk

    Myosin VI is an unconventional myosin that may play a role in vesicular membrane traffic through actin rich regions of the cytoplasm in eukaryotic cells. In this study we have cloned and sequenced a cDNA encoding a chicken intestinal brush border myosin VI. Polyclonal antisera were raised to bacterially expressed fragments of this myosin VI. The affinity purified antibodies were highly specific for myosin VI by immunoblotting and immunoprecipitation and were used to study the localization of the protein by immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy. It was found that in NRK and A431 cells, myosin VI was associated with both the Golgi complex and the leading, ruffling edge of the cell as well as being present in a cytosolic pool. In A431 cells in which cell surface ruffling was stimulated by EGF, myosin VI was phosphorylated and recruited into the newly formed ruffles along with ezrin and myosin V. In vitro experiments suggested that a p21-activated kinase (PAK) might be the kinase responsible for phosphorylation in the motor domain. These results strongly support a role for myosin VI in membrane traffic on secretory and endocytic pathways.

    The Journal of cell biology 1998;143;6;1535-45

  • Characterization of unconventional MYO6, the human homologue of the gene responsible for deafness in Snell's waltzer mice.

    Avraham KB, Hasson T, Sobe T, Balsara B, Testa JR, Skvorak AB, Morton CC, Copeland NG and Jenkins NA

    Department of Human Genetics, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Israel. karena@post.tau.ac.il

    Deafness is the most common form of sensory impairment in humans. Mutations in unconventional myosins have been found to cause deafness in humans and mice. The mouse recessive deafness mutation, Snell's waltzer, contains an intragenic deletion in an unconventional myosin, myosin VI (locus designation, Myo6). The requirement for Myo6 for proper hearing in mice makes this gene an excellent candidate for a human deafness disorder. Here we report the cloning and characterization of the human unconventional myosin VI (locus designation, MYO6) cDNA. The MYO6 gene maps to human chromosome 6q13. The isolation of the human gene makes it now possible to determine if mutations in MYO6 contribute to the pathogenesis of deafness in the human population.

    Funded by: NIDCD NIH HHS: DC00038-05, DC00871; NIDDK NIH HHS: DK38979

    Human molecular genetics 1997;6;8;1225-31

  • Prediction of the coding sequences of unidentified human genes. VII. The complete sequences of 100 new cDNA clones from brain which can code for large proteins in vitro.

    Nagase T, Ishikawa K, Nakajima D, Ohira M, Seki N, Miyajima N, Tanaka A, Kotani H, Nomura N and Ohara O

    Kazusa DNA Research Institute, Chiba, Japan.

    In this series of projects of sequencing human cDNA clones which correspond to relatively long transcripts, we newly determined the entire sequences of 100 cDNA clones which were screened on the basis of the potentiality of coding for large proteins in vitro. The cDNA libraries used were the fractions with average insert sizes from 5.3 to 7.0 kb of the size-fractionated cDNA libraries from human brain. The randomly sampled clones were single-pass sequenced from both the ends to select clones that are not registered in the public database. Then their protein-coding potentialities were examined by an in vitro transcription/translation system, and the clones that generated proteins larger than 60 kDa were entirely sequenced. Each clone gave a distinct open reading frame (ORF), and the length of the ORF was roughly coincident with the approximate molecular mass of the in vitro product estimated from its mobility on SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The average size of the cDNA clones sequenced was 6.1 kb, and that of the ORFs corresponded to 1200 amino acid residues. By computer-assisted analysis of the sequences with DNA and protein-motif databases (GenBank and PROSITE databases), the functions of at least 73% of the gene products could be anticipated, and 88% of them (the products of 64 clones) were assigned to the functional categories of proteins relating to cell signaling/communication, nucleic acid managing, and cell structure/motility. The expression profiles in a variety of tissues and chromosomal locations of the sequenced clones have been determined. According to the expression spectra, approximately 11 genes appeared to be predominantly expressed in brain. Most of the remaining genes were categorized into one of the following classes: either the expression occurs in a limited number of tissues (31 genes) or the expression occurs ubiquitously in all but a few tissues (47 genes).

    DNA research : an international journal for rapid publication of reports on genes and genomes 1997;4;2;141-50

  • The mouse Snell's waltzer deafness gene encodes an unconventional myosin required for structural integrity of inner ear hair cells.

    Avraham KB, Hasson T, Steel KP, Kingsley DM, Russell LB, Mooseker MS, Copeland NG and Jenkins NA

    Mammalian Genetics Laboratory, NCI-Frederick Cancer Research and Development Center, Maryland 21702, USA.

    The mouse represents an excellent model system for the study of genetic deafness in humans. Many mouse deafness mutants have been identified and the anatomy of the mouse and human ear is similar. Here we report the use of a positional cloning approach to identify the gene encoded by the mouse recessive deafness mutation, Snell's waltzer (sv). We show that sv encodes an unconventional myosin heavy chain, myosin VI, which is expressed within the sensory hair cells of the inner ear, and appears to be required for maintaining their structural integrity. The requirement for myosin VI in hearing makes this gene an excellent candidate for a human deafness disorder.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK-25387, DK-38979; NIGMS NIH HHS: 5F32GM15909-02

    Nature genetics 1995;11;4;369-75

  • Porcine myosin-VI: characterization of a new mammalian unconventional myosin.

    Hasson T and Mooseker MS

    Department of Biology, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520.

    We have cloned a new mammalian unconventional myosin, porcine myosin-VI from the proximal tubule cell line, LLC-PK1 (CL4). Porcine myosin-VI is highly homologous to Drosophila 95F myosin heavy chain, and together these two myosins comprise a sixth class of myosin motors. Myosin-VI exhibits ATP-sensitive actin-binding activities characteristic of myosins, and it is associated with a calmodulin light chain. Within LLC-PK1 cells, myosin-VI is soluble and does not associate with the major actin-containing domains. Within the kidney, however, myosin-VI is associated with sedimentable structures and specifically locates to the actin- and membrane-rich apical brush border domain of the proximal tubule cells. This motor was not enriched within the glomerulus, capillaries, or distal tubules. Myosin-VI associates with the proximal tubule cytoskeleton in an ATP-sensitive fashion, suggesting that this motor is associated with the actin cytoskeleton within the proximal tubule cells. Given the difference in association of myosin-VI with the apical cytoskeleton between LLC-PK1 cells and adult kidney, it is likely that this cell line does not fully differentiate to form functional proximal tubule cells. Myosin-VI may require the presence of additional elements, only found in vivo in proximal tubule cells, to properly locate to the apical domain.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK-38979, DK25387, DK34989

    The Journal of cell biology 1994;127;2;425-40

  • Identification and overlapping expression of multiple unconventional myosin genes in vertebrate cell types.

    Bement WM, Hasson T, Wirth JA, Cheney RE and Mooseker MS

    Department of Biology, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520-8103.

    Myosin diversity in the human epithelial cell line Caco-2BBe, the porcine epithelial cell line LLC-PK1 (CL-4), human peripheral blood leukocytes, and human liver was analyzed. PCR amplification yielded 8-11 putative myosins (depending on the cDNA source) representing six distinct myosin classes. Analysis of clones obtained by hybridization screening demonstrated that the original PCR products correspond to bona fide myosins, based on the presence of sequences highly conserved in other myosins. RNase protection analysis confirmed mRNA expression of 11 myosins in Caco-2BBe cells. Immunoblot analysis showed that at least 6 myosin immunogens are expressed in Caco-2BBe cells. The results reveal the existence of at least 11 unconventional human myosin genes, most of which are expressed in an overlapping fashion in different cell types. The abundance of myosins suggests that the myosin I vs. myosin II paradigm is inadequate to explain actin-based cellular motility.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK 25387, DK 34989, DK 38979

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1994;91;14;6549-53

Gene lists (6)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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