G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
G00002016
Gene symbol
KIF5B (HGNC)
Species
Homo sapiens
Description
kinesin family member 5B
Orthologue
G00000767 (Mus musculus)

Databases (8)

Curated Gene
OTTHUMG00000017913 (Vega human gene)
Gene
ENSG00000170759 (Ensembl human gene)
3799 (Entrez Gene)
1190 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
KIF5B (GeneCards)
Literature
602809 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:6324 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
P33176 (UniProt)

Synonyms (1)

  • KNS

Literature (44)

Pubmed - other

  • Role of kinesin light chain-2 of kinesin-1 in the traffic of Na,K-ATPase-containing vesicles in alveolar epithelial cells.

    Trejo HE, Lecuona E, Grillo D, Szleifer I, Nekrasova OE, Gelfand VI and Sznajder JI

    Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL 60611, USA.

    Recruitment of the Na,K-ATPase to the plasma membrane of alveolar epithelial cells results in increased active Na(+) transport and fluid clearance in a process that requires an intact microtubule network. However, the microtubule motors involved in this process have not been identified. In the present report, we studied the role of kinesin-1, a plus-end microtubule molecular motor that has been implicated in the movement of organelles in the Na,K-ATPase traffic. We determined by confocal microscopy and biochemical assays that kinesin-1 and the Na,K-ATPase are present in the same membranous cellular compartment. Knockdown of kinesin-1 heavy chain (KHC) or the light chain-2 (KLC2), but not of the light chain-1 (KLC1), decreased the movement of Na,K-ATPase-containing vesicles when compared to sham siRNA-transfected cells (control group). Thus, a specific isoform of kinesin-1 is required for microtubule-dependent recruitment of Na,K-ATPase to the plasma membrane, which is of physiological significance.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL-48129, HL-71643, P01 HL071643, R01 HL048129, R37 HL048129; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM-52111, R01 GM052111

    FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology 2010;24;2;374-82

  • Kinesin-1 plays a role in transport of SNAP-25 to the plasma membrane.

    Morton AM, Cunningham AL and Diefenbach RJ

    Centre for Virus Research, Westmead Millennium Institute, The University of Sydney and Westmead Hospital, Westmead, NSW 2145, Australia.

    The cellular molecular motor kinesin-1 mediates the microtubule-dependent transport of a range of cargo. We have previously identified an interaction between the cargo-binding domain of kinesin-1 heavy chain KIF5B and the membrane-associated SNARE proteins SNAP-25 and SNAP-23. In this study we further defined the minimal SNAP-25 binding domain in KIF5B to residues 874-894. Overexpression of a fragment of KIF5B (residues 594-910) resulted in significant colocalization with SNAP-25 with resulting blockage of the trafficking of SNAP-25 to the periphery of cells. This indicates that kinesin-1 facilitates the transport of SNAP-25 containing vesicles as a prerequisite to SNAP-25 driven membrane fusion events.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2010;391;1;388-93

  • Kif5b is an essential forward trafficking motor for the Kv1.5 cardiac potassium channel.

    Zadeh AD, Cheng Y, Xu H, Wong N, Wang Z, Goonasekara C, Steele DF and Fedida D

    Department of Anesthesiology, Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of British Columbia, 2350 Health Sciences Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada V6T 1Z3.

    We have investigated the role of the kinesin I isoform Kif5b in the trafficking of a cardiac voltage-gated potassium channel, Kv1.5. In Kv1.5-expressing HEK293 cells and H9c2 cardiomyoblasts, current densities were increased from control levels of 389 +/- 50.0 and 317 +/- 50.3 pA pF(1), respectively, to 614 +/- 74.3 and 580 +/- 90.9 pA pF(1) in cells overexpressing the Kif5b motor. Overexpression of the Kif5b motor increased Kv1.5 expression additively with several manipulations that reduce channel internalization, suggesting that it is involved in the delivery of the channel to the cell surface. In contrast, expression of a Kif5b dominant negative (Kif5bDN) construct increased Kv1.5 expression non-additively with these manipulations. Thus, the dominant negative acts by indirectly inhibiting endocytosis. The increase in Kv1.5 currents induced by wild-type Kif5b was dependent on Golgi function; a 6 h treatment with Brefeldin A reduced Kv1.5 currents to control levels in Kif5b-overexpressing cells but had little effect on the increase associated with Kif5bDN expression. Finally, expression of the Kif5bDN prior to induction of Kv1.5 in a tetracycline inducible system blocked surface expression of the channel in both HEK293 cells and H9c2 cardiomyoblasts. Thus, Kif5b is essential to anterograde trafficking of a cardiac voltage-gated potassium channel.

    The Journal of physiology 2009;587;Pt 19;4565-74

  • Defining the human deubiquitinating enzyme interaction landscape.

    Sowa ME, Bennett EJ, Gygi SP and Harper JW

    Department of Pathology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

    Deubiquitinating enzymes (Dubs) function to remove covalently attached ubiquitin from proteins, thereby controlling substrate activity and/or abundance. For most Dubs, their functions, targets, and regulation are poorly understood. To systematically investigate Dub function, we initiated a global proteomic analysis of Dubs and their associated protein complexes. This was accomplished through the development of a software platform called CompPASS, which uses unbiased metrics to assign confidence measurements to interactions from parallel nonreciprocal proteomic data sets. We identified 774 candidate interacting proteins associated with 75 Dubs. Using Gene Ontology, interactome topology classification, subcellular localization, and functional studies, we link Dubs to diverse processes, including protein turnover, transcription, RNA processing, DNA damage, and endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation. This work provides the first glimpse into the Dub interaction landscape, places previously unstudied Dubs within putative biological pathways, and identifies previously unknown interactions and protein complexes involved in this increasingly important arm of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway.

    Funded by: NIA NIH HHS: AG085011, R01 AG011085, R01 AG011085-16; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM054137, GM67945, R01 GM054137, R01 GM054137-14, R01 GM067945

    Cell 2009;138;2;389-403

  • RANBP2 is an allosteric activator of the conventional kinesin-1 motor protein, KIF5B, in a minimal cell-free system.

    Cho KI, Yi H, Desai R, Hand AR, Haas AL and Ferreira PA

    Department of Ophthalmology, Duke University Medical Center, DUEC 3802, Erwin Road, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA.

    The association of cargoes to kinesins is thought to promote kinesin activation, yet the validation of such a model with native cargoes is lacking because none is known to activate kinesins directly in an in vitro system of purified components. The RAN-binding protein 2 (RANBP2), through its kinesin-binding domain (KBD), associates in vivo with kinesin-1, KIF5B/KIF5C. Here, we show that KBD and its flanking domains, RAN GTPase-binding domains 2 and 3 (RBD2/RBD3), activate the ATPase activity of KIF5B approximately 30-fold in the presence of microtubules and ATP. The activation kinetics of KIF5B by RANBP2 is biphasic and highly cooperative. Deletion of one of its RBDs lowers the activation of KIF5B threefold and abolishes cooperativity. Remarkably, RBD2-KBD-RBD3 induces unfolding and modest activation of KIF5B in the absence of microtubules. Hence, RANBP2 is the first native and positive allosteric activator known to jump-start and boost directly the activity of a kinesin.

    Funded by: NEI NIH HHS: 2P30-EY005722-21, EY011993, P30 EY005722, R01 EY011993, R01 EY011993-08

    EMBO reports 2009;10;5;480-6

  • Nesprin 4 is an outer nuclear membrane protein that can induce kinesin-mediated cell polarization.

    Roux KJ, Crisp ML, Liu Q, Kim D, Kozlov S, Stewart CL and Burke B

    Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA. kroux@ufl.edu

    Nucleocytoplasmic coupling is mediated by outer nuclear membrane (ONM) nesprin proteins and inner nuclear membrane Sun proteins. Interactions spanning the perinuclear space create nesprin-Sun complexes connecting the cytoskeleton to nuclear components. A search for proteins displaying a conserved C-terminal sequence present in nesprins 1-3 identified nesprin 4 (Nesp4), a new member of this family. Nesp4 is a kinesin-1-binding protein that displays Sun-dependent localization to the ONM. Expression of Nesp4 is associated with dramatic changes in cellular organization involving relocation of the centrosome and Golgi apparatus relative to the nucleus. These effects can be accounted for entirely by Nesp4's kinesin-binding function. The implication is that Nesp4 may contribute to microtubule-dependent nuclear positioning.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2009;106;7;2194-9

  • KIF5B gene sequence variation and response of cardiac stroke volume to regular exercise.

    Argyropoulos G, Stütz AM, Ilnytska O, Rice T, Teran-Garcia M, Rao DC, Bouchard C and Rankinen T

    Energy Balance Laboratory, Pennington Biomedical Research Center, 6400 Perkins Road, Baton Rouge, LA 70808-4124, USA.

    A genome-wide linkage scan for endurance training-induced changes in stroke volume detected a quantitative trait locus on chromosome 10p11 in white families of the HERITAGE Family Study. Dense microsatellite mapping narrowed down the linkage region to a 7 Mb area containing 16 known and 14 predicted genes. Association analyses with 90 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) provided suggestive evidence (P values from 0.03 to 0.06) for association in the kinesin heavy chain (KIF5B) gene locus in the whole cohort. The associations at the KIF5B locus were stronger (P values from 0.001 to 0.008) when the analyses were performed on linkage-informative families only (family-specific logarithm of the odds ratio scores >0.025 at peak linkage location). Resequencing the coding and regulatory regions of KIF5B revealed no new exonic SNPs. However, the putative promoter region was particularly polymorphic, containing eight SNPs with at least 5% minor allele frequency within 1850 bp upstream of the start codon. Functional analyses using promoter haplotype reporter constructs led to the identification of sequence variants that had significant effects on KIF5B promoter activity. Analogous inhibition and overexpression experiments showed that changes in KIF5B expression alter mitochondrial localization and biogenesis in a manner that could affect the ability of the heart to adjust to regular exercise. Our data suggest that KIF5B is a strong candidate gene for the response of stroke volume to regular exercise. Furthermore, training-induced changes in submaximal exercise stroke volume may be due to mitochondrial function and variation in KIF5B expression as determined by functional SNPs in its promoter.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL-45670

    Physiological genomics 2009;36;2;79-88

  • Depletion of kinesin 5B affects lysosomal distribution and stability and induces peri-nuclear accumulation of autophagosomes in cancer cells.

    Cardoso CM, Groth-Pedersen L, Høyer-Hansen M, Kirkegaard T, Corcelle E, Andersen JS, Jäättelä M and Nylandsted J

    Center for Neuroscience and Cell Biology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal.

    Background: Enhanced lysosomal trafficking is associated with metastatic cancer. In an attempt to discover cancer relevant lysosomal motor proteins, we compared the lysosomal proteomes from parental MCF-7 breast cancer cells with those from highly invasive MCF-7 cells that express an active form of the ErbB2 (DeltaN-ErbB2).

    Mass spectrometry analysis identified kinesin heavy chain protein KIF5B as the only microtubule motor associated with the lysosomes in MCF-7 cells, and ectopic DeltaN-ErbB2 enhanced its lysosomal association. KIF5B associated with lysosomes also in HeLa cervix carcinoma cells as analyzed by subcellular fractionation. The depletion of KIF5B triggered peripheral aggregations of lysosomes followed by lysosomal destabilization, and cell death in HeLa cells. Lysosomal exocytosis in response to plasma membrane damage as well as fluid phase endocytosis functioned, however, normally in these cells. Both HeLa and MCF-7 cells appeared to express similar levels of the KIF5B isoform but the death phenotype was weaker in KIF5B-depleted MCF-7 cells. Surprisingly, KIF5B depletion inhibited the rapamycin-induced accumulation of autophagosomes in MCF-7 cells. In KIF5B-depleted cells the autophagosomes formed and accumulated in the close proximity to the Golgi apparatus, whereas in the control cells they appeared uniformly distributed in the cytoplasm.

    Our data identify KIF5B as a cancer relevant lysosomal motor protein with additional functions in autophagosome formation.

    PloS one 2009;4;2;e4424

  • Kinesin-1 (uKHC/KIF5B) is required for bidirectional motility of ER exit sites and efficient ER-to-Golgi transport.

    Gupta V, Palmer KJ, Spence P, Hudson A and Stephens DJ

    Cell Biology Laboratories, Department of Biochemistry, University of Bristol, School of Medical Sciences, University Walk, Bristol, BS81TD, UK.

    Transport of proteins and lipids between intracellular compartments is fundamental to the organization and function of eukaryotic cells. The efficiency of this process is greatly enhanced through coupling of membranes to microtubules. This serves two functions, organelle positioning and vesicular transport. In this study, we show that in addition to the well-known role for the minus-end motor dynein in endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-to-Golgi transport, the plus-end-directed motor kinesin-1 is involved in positioning coat protein II-coated ER exit sites (ERES) in cells as well as the formation of transport carriers and their movement to the Golgi. Using two-dimensional Gaussian fitting to determine their location at high spatial resolution, we show that ERES undergo short-range bidirectional movements. Bidirectionality depends on both kinesin-1 and dynein. Suppression of kinesin-1 (KIF5B) also inhibits ER-to-Golgi transport and affects the morphology of ER-to-Golgi transport carriers. Furthermore, we show that suppression of dynein heavy chain expression increases the range of movement of ERES, suggesting that dynein might anchor ERES, or the ER itself, to microtubules. These data implicate kinesin-1 in the spatial organization of the ER/Golgi interface as well as in traffic outside the ER.

    Funded by: Medical Research Council: G117/554, G117/554(71630)

    Traffic (Copenhagen, Denmark) 2008;9;11;1850-66

  • The kinesin-1 motor protein is regulated by a direct interaction of its head and tail.

    Dietrich KA, Sindelar CV, Brewer PD, Downing KH, Cremo CR and Rice SE

    Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL 60611, USA.

    Kinesin-1 is a molecular motor protein that transports cargo along microtubules. Inside cells, the vast majority of kinesin-1 is regulated to conserve ATP and to ensure its proper intracellular distribution and coordination with other molecular motors. Regulated kinesin-1 folds in half at a hinge in its coiled-coil stalk. Interactions between coiled-coil regions near the enzymatically active heads at the N terminus and the regulatory tails at the C terminus bring these globular elements in proximity and stabilize the folded conformation. However, it has remained a mystery how kinesin-1's microtubule-stimulated ATPase activity is regulated in this folded conformation. Here, we present evidence for a direct interaction between the kinesin-1 head and tail. We photochemically cross-linked heads and tails and produced an 8-A cryoEM reconstruction of the cross-linked head-tail complex on microtubules. These data demonstrate that a conserved essential regulatory element in the kinesin-1 tail interacts directly and specifically with the enzymatically critical Switch I region of the head. This interaction suggests a mechanism for tail-mediated regulation of the ATPase activity of kinesin-1. In our structure, the tail makes simultaneous contacts with the kinesin-1 head and the microtubule, suggesting the tail may both regulate kinesin-1 in solution and hold it in a paused state with high ADP affinity on microtubules. The interaction of the Switch I region of the kinesin-1 head with the tail is strikingly similar to the interactions of small GTPases with their regulators, indicating that other kinesin motors may share similar regulatory mechanisms.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: 1P20RR018751, P20 RR-0164-05, P20 RR018751, P51 RR000164; NIAMS NIH HHS: 5 RO1 AR040917-18, R01 AR040917; NIGMS NIH HHS: 5 R01 GM072656-02, GM46033, GM51487, P01 GM051487, R01 GM046033, R01 GM072656, T32 GM008382

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2008;105;26;8938-43

  • Requirement of kinesin-mediated membrane transport of WAVE2 along microtubules for lamellipodia formation promoted by hepatocyte growth factor.

    Takahashi K and Suzuki K

    Molecular Cell Biology Division, Kanagawa Cancer Center Research Institute, 1-1-2 Nakao, Asahi-ku, Yokohama 241-0815, Japan.

    Lamellipodia formation necessary for epithelial cell migration and invasion is accomplished by rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton at the leading edge through membrane transport of WAVE2. However, how WAVE2 is transported to the cell periphery where lamellipodia are formed remains to be established. We report here that hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) promoted lamellipodia formation and intracellular transport of WAVE2 to the cell periphery, depending on Rac1 activity, in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. Immunoblot analyses indicating the coimmunoprecipitation of WAVE2 with kinesin heavy chain KIF5B, one of the motor proteins, and IQGAP1 suggest that KIF5B and IQGAP1 formed a complex with WAVE2 in serum-starved cells and increased in their amount after HGF stimulation. Both downregulation of KIF5B by the small interfering RNA and depolymerization of microtubules with nocodazole abrogated the HGF-induced lamellipodia formation and WAVE2 transport. Therefore, we propose here that the promotion of lamellipodia formation by HGF in MDA-MB-231 cells is Rac1-dependent and requires KIF5B-mediated transport of WAVE2 and IQGAP1 to the cell periphery along microtubules.

    Experimental cell research 2008;314;11-12;2313-22

  • Association of the kinesin-binding domain of RanBP2 to KIF5B and KIF5C determines mitochondria localization and function.

    Cho KI, Cai Y, Yi H, Yeh A, Aslanukov A and Ferreira PA

    Department of Ophthalmology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA.

    The Ran-binding protein 2 (RanBP2) is a large mosaic protein with a pleiotropic role in cell function. Although the contribution of each partner and domain of RanBP2 to its biological functions are not understood, physiological deficits of RanBP2 downregulate glucose catabolism and energy homeostasis and lead to delocalization of mitochondria components in photosensory neurons. The kinesin-binding domain (KBD) of RanBP2 associates selectively in the central nervous system (CNS), and directly, with the ubiquitous and CNS-specific kinesins, KIF5B and KIF5C, respectively, but not with the highly homologous KIF5A. Here, we determine the molecular and biological bases of the selective interaction between RanBP2 and KIF5B/KIF5C. This interaction is conferred by a approximately 100-residue segment, comprising a portion of the coiled-coil and globular tail cargo-binding domains of KIF5B/KIF5C. A single residue conserved in KIF5B and KIF5C, but not KIF5A, confers KIF5-isotype-specific association with RanBP2. This interaction is also mediated by a conserved leucine-like heptad motif present in KIF5s and KBD of RanBP2. Selective inhibition of the interaction between KBD of RanBP2 and KIF5B/KIF5C in cell lines causes perinuclear clustering of mitochondria, but not of lysosomes, deficits in mitochondrial membrane potential and ultimately, cell shrinkage. Collectively, the data provide a rationale of the KIF5 subtype-specific interaction with RanBP2 and support a novel kinesin-dependent role of RanBP2 in mitochondria transport and function. The data also strengthen a model whereby the selection of a large array of cargoes for transport by a restricted number of motor proteins is mediated by adaptor proteins such as RanBP2.

    Funded by: NEI NIH HHS: 2P30-EY005722-21, EY11993, R01 EY011993

    Traffic (Copenhagen, Denmark) 2007;8;12;1722-35

  • Polarization-dependent selective transport to the apical membrane by KIF5B in MDCK cells.

    Jaulin F, Xue X, Rodriguez-Boulan E and Kreitzer G

    Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Weill-Cornell Medical College, 1300 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021, USA.

    Microtubule-based vesicular transport is well documented in epithelial cells, but the specific motors involved and their regulation during polarization are largely unknown. We demonstrate that KIF5B mediates post-Golgi transport of an apical protein in epithelial cells, but only after polarity has developed. Time-lapse imaging of EB1-GFP in polarized MDCK cells showed microtubule plus ends growing toward the apical membrane, implying that plus end-directed N-kinesins might be used to transport apical proteins. Indeed, time-lapse microscopy revealed that expression of a KIF5B dominant negative or microinjection of function-blocking KIF5 antibodies inhibited selectively post-Golgi transport of the apical marker, p75-GFP, after polarization of MDCK cells. Expression of other KIF dominant negatives did not alter p75-GFP trafficking. Immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrated an interaction between KIF5B and p75-GFP in polarized, but not in subconfluent, MDCK cells. Our results demonstrate that apical protein transport depends on selective microtubule motors and that epithelial cells switch kinesins for post-Golgi transport during acquisition of polarity.

    Funded by: NEI NIH HHS: EY08538, R01 EY008538, R01 EY008538-17; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM34107, R01 GM034107, R01 GM034107-23

    Developmental cell 2007;13;4;511-22

  • Kinesin-1 plays multiple roles during the vaccinia virus life cycle.

    Schepis A, Stauber T and Krijnse Locker J

    European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Cell Biology and Biophysics Program, Meyerhofstrasse 1, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany.

    The cytoplasmic distribution of cellular structures is known to depend on the balance between plus- and minus-end-directed motor complexes. Among the plus-end-directed kinesins, kinesin-1 and -2 have been implicated in the outward movement of many organelles. To test for a role of kinesin-1 previous studies mostly relied on the overexpression of dominant-negative kinesin-1 constructs. The latter are often cytotoxic, modify the microtubule network and indirect effects related to altered microtubule dynamics should be excluded. In the present study we present a novel kinesin-1 construct, encompassing the first 330 amino acids of kinesin heavy chain fused to GFP (kin330-GFP) that does not alter microtubules upon its overexpression. Kin330-GFP functionally inhibits kinesin-1 because it induces the peri-nuclear accumulation of mitochondria and intermediate filaments. Using this construct and previously established siRNA-mediated knock-down of kinesin-2 function, we assess the role of both motors in the subcellular distribution of distinct steps of the vaccinia virus (VV) life cycle. We show that kinesin-1, but not kinesin-2, contributes to the specific cytoplasmic distribution of three of the four steps of VV morphogenesis tested. These results are discussed with respect to the possible regulation of kinesin-1 during VV infection.

    Cellular microbiology 2007;9;8;1960-73

  • Systematic analysis of the protein interaction network for the human transcription machinery reveals the identity of the 7SK capping enzyme.

    Jeronimo C, Forget D, Bouchard A, Li Q, Chua G, Poitras C, Thérien C, Bergeron D, Bourassa S, Greenblatt J, Chabot B, Poirier GG, Hughes TR, Blanchette M, Price DH and Coulombe B

    Laboratory of Gene Transcription and Proteomics Discovery Platform, Institut de Recherches Cliniques de Montréal, Montréal, QC, Canada.

    We have performed a survey of soluble human protein complexes containing components of the transcription and RNA processing machineries using protein affinity purification coupled to mass spectrometry. Thirty-two tagged polypeptides yielded a network of 805 high-confidence interactions. Remarkably, the network is significantly enriched in proteins that regulate the formation of protein complexes, including a number of previously uncharacterized proteins for which we have inferred functions. The RNA polymerase II (RNAP II)-associated proteins (RPAPs) are physically and functionally associated with RNAP II, forming an interface between the enzyme and chaperone/scaffolding proteins. BCDIN3 is the 7SK snRNA methylphosphate capping enzyme (MePCE) present in an snRNP complex containing both RNA processing and transcription factors, including the elongation factor P-TEFb. Our results define a high-density protein interaction network for the mammalian transcription machinery and uncover multiple regulatory factors that target the transcription machinery.

    Funded by: Canadian Institutes of Health Research: 14309-3, 82851-1

    Molecular cell 2007;27;2;262-74

  • Proteomics analysis of the interactome of N-myc downstream regulated gene 1 and its interactions with the androgen response program in prostate cancer cells.

    Tu LC, Yan X, Hood L and Lin B

    Institute for Systems Biology, Seattle, Washington 98103, USA.

    NDRG1 is known to play important roles in both androgen-induced cell differentiation and inhibition of prostate cancer metastasis. However, the proteins associated with NDRG1 function are not fully enumerated. Using coimmunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry analysis, we identified 58 proteins that interact with NDRG1 in prostate cancer cells. These proteins include nuclear proteins, adhesion molecules, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperons, proteasome subunits, and signaling proteins. Integration of our data with protein-protein interaction data from the Human Proteome Reference Database allowed us to build a comprehensive interactome map of NDRG1. This interactome map consists of several modules such as a nuclear module and a cell membrane module; these modules explain the reported versatile functions of NDRG1. We also determined that serine 330 and threonine 366 of NDRG1 were phosphorylated and demonstrated that the phosphorylation of NDRG1 was prominently mediated by protein kinase A (PKA). Further, we showed that NDRG1 directly binds to beta-catenin and E-cadherin. However, the phosphorylation of NDRG1 did not interrupt the binding of NDRG1 to E-cadherin and beta-catenin. Finally, we showed that the inhibition of NDRG1 expression by RNA interference decreased the ER inducible chaperon GRP94 expression, directly proving that NDRG1 is involved in the ER stress response. Intriguingly, we observed that many members of the NDRG1 interactome are androgen-regulated and that the NDRG1 interactome links to the androgen response network through common interactions with beta-catenin and heat shock protein 90. Therefore we overlaid the transcriptomic expression changes in the NDRG1 interactome in response to androgen treatment and built a dual dynamic picture of the NDRG1 interactome in response to androgen. This interactome map provides the first road map for understanding the functions of NDRG1 in cells and its roles in human diseases, such as prostate cancer, which can progress from androgen-dependent curable stages to androgen-independent incurable stages.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: 1U54CA119347, 5P01CA085859, 5P50CA097186; NIDA NIH HHS: 1U54DA021519; NIGMS NIH HHS: 1P50GM076547, P50 GM076547

    Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 2007;6;4;575-88

  • Large-scale mapping of human protein-protein interactions by mass spectrometry.

    Ewing RM, Chu P, Elisma F, Li H, Taylor P, Climie S, McBroom-Cerajewski L, Robinson MD, O'Connor L, Li M, Taylor R, Dharsee M, Ho Y, Heilbut A, Moore L, Zhang S, Ornatsky O, Bukhman YV, Ethier M, Sheng Y, Vasilescu J, Abu-Farha M, Lambert JP, Duewel HS, Stewart II, Kuehl B, Hogue K, Colwill K, Gladwish K, Muskat B, Kinach R, Adams SL, Moran MF, Morin GB, Topaloglou T and Figeys D

    Protana, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

    Mapping protein-protein interactions is an invaluable tool for understanding protein function. Here, we report the first large-scale study of protein-protein interactions in human cells using a mass spectrometry-based approach. The study maps protein interactions for 338 bait proteins that were selected based on known or suspected disease and functional associations. Large-scale immunoprecipitation of Flag-tagged versions of these proteins followed by LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis resulted in the identification of 24,540 potential protein interactions. False positives and redundant hits were filtered out using empirical criteria and a calculated interaction confidence score, producing a data set of 6463 interactions between 2235 distinct proteins. This data set was further cross-validated using previously published and predicted human protein interactions. In-depth mining of the data set shows that it represents a valuable source of novel protein-protein interactions with relevance to human diseases. In addition, via our preliminary analysis, we report many novel protein interactions and pathway associations.

    Molecular systems biology 2007;3;89

  • Identification of a novel imatinib responsive KIF5B-PDGFRA fusion gene following screening for PDGFRA overexpression in patients with hypereosinophilia.

    Score J, Curtis C, Waghorn K, Stalder M, Jotterand M, Grand FH and Cross NC

    Wessex Regional Genetics Laboratory, Salisbury District Hospital, Salisbury, Wilts, UK.

    Idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome (IHES) is a disease that is difficult to classify, and diagnosis is one of exclusion. The identification of a cytogenetically invisible interstitial deletion resulting in the fusion of FIP1-Like-1 (FIP1L1) to platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRA) has enabled many IHES cases to be reclassified as chronic eosinophilic leukemia. As it is likely that PDGFRA may fuse to other partner genes, we established a reverse transcriptase-PCR test to detect specific overexpression of the PDGFRA kinase domain as an indicator of the presence of a fusion gene. Overexpression was detected in 12/12 FIP1L1-PDGFRA-positive patients, plus 9/217 (4%) patients with hypereosinophilia who had tested negative for FIP1L1-PDGFRA. One of the positive cases was investigated in detail and found to have a complex karyotype involving chromosomes 3, 4 and 10. Amplification of the genomic breakpoint by bubble PCR revealed a novel fusion between KIF5B at 10p11 and PDGFRA at 4q12. Imatinib, a known inhibitor of PDGFRalpha, produced a complete cytogenetic response and disappearance of the KIF5B-PDGFRA fusion by PCR, from both genomic DNA and mRNA. This study demonstrates the utility of screening for PDGFRA kinase domain overexpression in patients with IHES and has identified a third PDGFRA fusion partner in chronic myeloproliferative disorders.

    Leukemia 2006;20;5;827-32

  • A scan of chromosome 10 identifies a novel locus showing strong association with late-onset Alzheimer disease.

    Grupe A, Li Y, Rowland C, Nowotny P, Hinrichs AL, Smemo S, Kauwe JS, Maxwell TJ, Cherny S, Doil L, Tacey K, van Luchene R, Myers A, Wavrant-De Vrièze F, Kaleem M, Hollingworth P, Jehu L, Foy C, Archer N, Hamilton G, Holmans P, Morris CM, Catanese J, Sninsky J, White TJ, Powell J, Hardy J, O'Donovan M, Lovestone S, Jones L, Morris JC, Thal L, Owen M, Williams J and Goate A

    Celera Diagnostics, Alameda, CA, USA.

    Strong evidence of linkage to late-onset Alzheimer disease (LOAD) has been observed on chromosome 10, which implicates a wide region and at least one disease-susceptibility locus. Although significant associations with several biological candidate genes on chromosome 10 have been reported, these findings have not been consistently replicated, and they remain controversial. We performed a chromosome 10-specific association study with 1,412 gene-based single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), to identify susceptibility genes for developing LOAD. The scan included SNPs in 677 of 1,270 known or predicted genes; each gene contained one or more markers, about half (48%) of which represented putative functional mutations. In general, the initial testing was performed in a white case-control sample from the St. Louis area, with 419 LOAD cases and 377 age-matched controls. Markers that showed significant association in the exploratory analysis were followed up in several other white case-control sample sets to confirm the initial association. Of the 1,397 markers tested in the exploratory sample, 69 reached significance (P < .05). Five of these markers replicated at P < .05 in the validation sample sets. One marker, rs498055, located in a gene homologous to RPS3A (LOC439999), was significantly associated with Alzheimer disease in four of six case-control series, with an allelic P value of .0001 for a meta-analysis of all six samples. One of the case-control samples with significant association to rs498055 was derived from the linkage sample (P = .0165). These results indicate that variants in the RPS3A homologue are associated with LOAD and implicate this gene, adjacent genes, or other functional variants (e.g., noncoding RNAs) in the pathogenesis of this disorder.

    Funded by: Intramural NIH HHS; Medical Research Council: G0300429, G0701075, G9810900; NHGRI NIH HHS: T32 HG000045; NIA NIH HHS: AG 05146, AG05128, P01 AG003991, P01 AG03991, P50 AG005128, P50 AG005131, P50 AG005146, P50 AG005681, P50 AG008671, P50 AG016570, P50 AG05131, P50 AG05681, P50 AG16570, P50-AG08671, R01 AG016208, R01 AG16208, U24 AG021886; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM065509, P50 GM065509; NIMH NIH HHS: MH60451, P50 MH060451, U01 MH046281, U01 MH046290, U01 MH046373; NINDS NIH HHS: NS39764, P50 NS039764

    American journal of human genetics 2006;78;1;78-88

  • CRMP-2 is involved in kinesin-1-dependent transport of the Sra-1/WAVE1 complex and axon formation.

    Kawano Y, Yoshimura T, Tsuboi D, Kawabata S, Kaneko-Kawano T, Shirataki H, Takenawa T and Kaibuchi K

    Department of Cell Pharmacology, Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya University, 65 Tsurumai, Showa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 466-8550, Japan.

    A neuron has two types of highly polarized cell processes, the single axon and multiple dendrites. One of the fundamental questions of neurobiology is how neurons acquire such specific and polarized morphologies. During neuronal development, various actin-binding proteins regulate dynamics of actin cytoskeleton in the growth cones of developing axons. The regulation of actin cytoskeleton in the growth cones is thought to be involved in axon outgrowth and axon-dendrite specification. However, it is largely unknown which actin-binding proteins are involved in axon-dendrite specification and how they are transported into the developing axons. We have previously reported that collapsin response mediator protein 2 (CRMP-2) plays a critical role in axon outgrowth and axon-dendrite specification (N. Inagaki, K. Chihara, N. Arimura, C. Menager, Y. Kawano, N. Matsuo, T. Nishimura, M. Amano, and K. Kaibuchi, Nat. Neurosci. 4:781-782, 2001). Here, we found that CRMP-2 interacted with the specifically Rac1-associated protein 1 (Sra-1)/WASP family verprolin-homologous protein 1 (WAVE1) complex, which is a regulator of actin cytoskeleton. The knockdown of Sra-1 and WAVE1 by RNA interference canceled CRMP-2-induced axon outgrowth and multiple-axon formation in cultured hippocampal neurons. We also found that CRMP-2 interacted with the light chain of kinesin-1 and linked kinesin-1 to the Sra-1/WAVE1 complex. The knockdown of CRMP-2 and kinesin-1 delocalized Sra-1 and WAVE1 from the growth cones of axons. These results suggest that CRMP-2 transports the Sra-1/WAVE1 complex to axons in a kinesin-1-dependent manner and thereby regulates axon outgrowth and formation.

    Molecular and cellular biology 2005;25;22;9920-35

  • Syntabulin-mediated anterograde transport of mitochondria along neuronal processes.

    Cai Q, Gerwin C and Sheng ZH

    Synaptic Function Unit, The Porter Neuroscience Research Center, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

    In neurons, proper distribution of mitochondria in axons and at synapses is critical for neurotransmission, synaptic plasticity, and axonal outgrowth. However, mechanisms underlying mitochondrial trafficking throughout the long neuronal processes have remained elusive. Here, we report that syntabulin plays a critical role in mitochondrial trafficking in neurons. Syntabulin is a peripheral membrane-associated protein that targets to mitochondria through its carboxyl-terminal tail. Using real-time imaging in living cultured neurons, we demonstrate that a significant fraction of syntabulin colocalizes and co-migrates with mitochondria along neuronal processes. Knockdown of syntabulin expression with targeted small interfering RNA or interference with the syntabulin-kinesin-1 heavy chain interaction reduces mitochondrial density within axonal processes by impairing anterograde movement of mitochondria. These findings collectively suggest that syntabulin acts as a linker molecule that is capable of attaching mitochondrial organelles to the microtubule-based motor kinesin-1, and in turn, contributes to anterograde trafficking of mitochondria to neuronal processes.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: Z01 NS002946-09

    The Journal of cell biology 2005;170;6;959-69

  • Targeted proteomic analysis of 14-3-3 sigma, a p53 effector commonly silenced in cancer.

    Benzinger A, Muster N, Koch HB, Yates JR and Hermeking H

    Molecular Oncology, Max-Planck-Institute of Biochemistry, Am Klopferspitz 18, D-82152 Martinsried/Munich, Germany.

    To comprehensively identify proteins interacting with 14-3-3 sigma in vivo, tandem affinity purification and the multidimensional protein identification technology were combined to characterize 117 proteins associated with 14-3-3 sigma in human cells. The majority of identified proteins contained one or several phosphorylatable 14-3-3-binding sites indicating a potential direct interaction with 14-3-3 sigma. 25 proteins were not previously assigned to any function and were named SIP2-26 (for 14-3-3 sigma-interacting protein). Among the 92 interactors with known function were a number of proteins previously implicated in oncogenic signaling (APC, A-RAF, B-RAF, and c-RAF) and cell cycle regulation (AJUBA, c-TAK, PTOV-1, and WEE1). The largest functional classes comprised proteins involved in the regulation of cytoskeletal dynamics, polarity, adhesion, mitogenic signaling, and motility. Accordingly ectopic 14-3-3 sigma expression prevented cellular migration in a wounding assay and enhanced mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling. The functional diversity of the identified proteins indicates that induction of 14-3-3 sigma could allow p53 to affect numerous processes in addition to the previously characterized inhibitory effect on G2/M progression. The data suggest that the cancer-specific loss of 14-3-3 sigma expression by epigenetic silencing or p53 mutations contributes to cancer formation by multiple routes.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: RR11823-08

    Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 2005;4;6;785-95

  • The intracellular fate of Salmonella depends on the recruitment of kinesin.

    Boucrot E, Henry T, Borg JP, Gorvel JP and Méresse S

    Centre d'Immunologie de Marseille-Luminy, CNRS-INSERM-Université de la Méditerranée, Parc Scientifique de Luminy, Case 906-13288 Marseille Cedex 9, France.

    Salmonella enterica causes a variety of diseases, including gastroenteritis and typhoid fever. The success of this pathogen depends on its capacity to proliferate within host cells in a membrane-bound compartment. We found that the Salmonella-containing vacuole recruited the plus-end-directed motor kinesin. Bacterial effector proteins translocated into the host cell by a type III secretion system antagonistically regulated this event. Among these effectors, SifA targeted SKIP, a host protein that down-regulated the recruitment of kinesin on the bacterial vacuole and, in turn, controlled vacuolar membrane dynamics.

    Science (New York, N.Y.) 2005;308;5725;1174-8

  • GRIF-1 and OIP106, members of a novel gene family of coiled-coil domain proteins: association in vivo and in vitro with kinesin.

    Brickley K, Smith MJ, Beck M and Stephenson FA

    Department of Pharmaceutical and Biological Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, University of London, 29/39 Brunswick Square, London WC1N 1AX, United Kingdom.

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid(A) receptor-interacting factor (GRIF-1) is a 913-amino acid protein proposed to function as a GABA(A) receptor beta(2) subunit-interacting, trafficking protein. GRIF-1 shares approximately 44% amino acid sequence identity with O-linked N-acetylglucosamine transferase interacting protein 106, OIP106. Both proteins contain predicted coiled-coil domains and probably constitute a novel gene family. The Drosophila orthologue of this family of proteins may be Milton. Milton shares approximately 44% amino acid homology with GRIF-1. Milton is proposed to function in kinesin-mediated transport of mitochondria to nerve terminals. We report here that GRIF-1 and OIP106 also associate with kinesin and mitochondria. Following expression in human embryonic kidney 293 cells, both GRIF-1 and OIP106 were shown by co-immunoprecipitation to be specifically associated with an endogenous kinesin heavy chain species of 115 kDa and exogenous KIF5C. Association of GRIF-1 with kinesin was also evident in native brain and heart tissue. In the brain, anti-GRIF-1-(8-633) antibodies specifically co-immunoprecipitated two kinesin-immunoreactive species with molecular masses of 118 and 115 kDa, and in the heart, one kinesin-immunoreactive species, 115 kDa, was immunoprecipitated. Further studies revealed that GRIF-1 was predominantly associated with KIF5A in the brain and with KIF5B in both the heart and in HEK 293 cells. Yeast two-hybrid interaction assays and immunoprecipitations showed that GRIF-1 associated directly with KIF5C with the GRIF-1/KIF5C interaction domain localized to GRIF-1-(124-283). These results further support a role for GRIF-1 and OIP106 in protein and/or organelle transport in excitable cells in a manner analogous to glutamate receptor-interacting-protein 1, in the motor-dependent transport of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate glutamate excitatory neurotransmitter receptors to dendrites.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2005;280;15;14723-32

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • Syntabulin is a microtubule-associated protein implicated in syntaxin transport in neurons.

    Su Q, Cai Q, Gerwin C, Smith CL and Sheng ZH

    Synaptic Function Unit, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Building 35, Room 3B203, MSC 3701, 35 Convent Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892-3701, USA.

    Different types of cargo vesicles containing presynaptic proteins are transported from the nerve cell body to the nerve terminal, and participate in the formation of active zones. However, the identity of the membranous cargoes and the nature of the motor-cargo interactions remain unsolved. Here, we report the identification of a syntaxin-1-binding protein named syntabulin. Syntabulin attaches syntaxin-containing vesicles to microtubules and migrates with syntaxin within the processes of hippocampal neurons. Knock-down of syntabulin expression with targeted small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) or interference with the syntabulin-syntaxin interaction inhibit attachment of syntaxin-cargo vesicles to microtubules and reduce syntaxin-1 distribution in neuronal processes. Furthermore, conventional kinesin I heavy chain binds to syntabulin and associates with syntabulin-linked syntaxin vesicles in vivo. These findings suggest that syntabulin functions as a linker molecule that attaches syntaxin-cargo vesicles to kinesin I, enabling the transport of syntaxin-1 to neuronal processes.

    Nature cell biology 2004;6;10;941-53

  • Sequence comparison of human and mouse genes reveals a homologous block structure in the promoter regions.

    Suzuki Y, Yamashita R, Shirota M, Sakakibara Y, Chiba J, Mizushima-Sugano J, Nakai K and Sugano S

    Human Genome Center, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Minato-ku, Tokyo, 108-8639, Japan. ysuzuki@ims.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    Comparative sequence analysis was carried out for the regions adjacent to experimentally validated transcriptional start sites (TSSs), using 3324 pairs of human and mouse genes. We aligned the upstream putative promoter sequences over the 1-kb proximal regions and found that the sequence conservation could not be further extended at, on average, 510 bp upstream positions of the TSSs. This discontinuous manner of the sequence conservation revealed a "block" structure in about one-third of the putative promoter regions. Consistently, we also observed that G+C content and CpG frequency were significantly different inside and outside the blocks. Within the blocks, the sequence identity was uniformly 65% regardless of their length. About 90% of the previously characterized transcription factor binding sites were located within those blocks. In 46% of the blocks, the 5' ends were bounded by interspersed repetitive elements, some of which may have nucleated the genomic rearrangements. The length of the blocks was shortest in the promoters of genes encoding transcription factors and of genes whose expression patterns are brain specific, which suggests that the evolutional diversifications in the transcriptional modulations should be the most marked in these populations of genes.

    Genome research 2004;14;9;1711-8

  • Proteomic, functional, and domain-based analysis of in vivo 14-3-3 binding proteins involved in cytoskeletal regulation and cellular organization.

    Jin J, Smith FD, Stark C, Wells CD, Fawcett JP, Kulkarni S, Metalnikov P, O'Donnell P, Taylor P, Taylor L, Zougman A, Woodgett JR, Langeberg LK, Scott JD and Pawson T

    Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, 600 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X5, Canada.

    Background: 14-3-3 proteins are abundant and conserved polypeptides that mediate the cellular effects of basophilic protein kinases through their ability to bind specific peptide motifs phosphorylated on serine or threonine.

    Results: We have used mass spectrometry to analyze proteins that associate with 14-3-3 isoforms in HEK293 cells. This identified 170 unique 14-3-3-associated proteins, which show only modest overlap with previous 14-3-3 binding partners isolated by affinity chromatography. To explore this large set of proteins, we developed a domain-based hierarchical clustering technique that distinguishes structurally and functionally related subsets of 14-3-3 target proteins. This analysis revealed a large group of 14-3-3 binding partners that regulate cytoskeletal architecture. Inhibition of 14-3-3 phosphoprotein recognition in vivo indicates the general importance of such interactions in cellular morphology and membrane dynamics. Using tandem proteomic and biochemical approaches, we identify a phospho-dependent 14-3-3 binding site on the A kinase anchoring protein (AKAP)-Lbc, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for the Rho GTPase. 14-3-3 binding to AKAP-Lbc, induced by PKA, suppresses Rho activation in vivo.

    Conclusion: 14-3-3 proteins can potentially engage around 0.6% of the human proteome. Domain-based clustering has identified specific subsets of 14-3-3 targets, including numerous proteins involved in the dynamic control of cell architecture. This notion has been validated by the broad inhibition of 14-3-3 phosphorylation-dependent binding in vivo and by the specific analysis of AKAP-Lbc, a RhoGEF that is controlled by its interaction with 14-3-3.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK44239

    Current biology : CB 2004;14;16;1436-50

  • The ribosome receptor, p180, interacts with kinesin heavy chain, KIF5B.

    Diefenbach RJ, Diefenbach E, Douglas MW and Cunningham AL

    Centre for Virus Research, Westmead Millennium Institute, The University of Sydney and Westmead Hospital, Westmead, NSW 2145, Australia. russell_diefenbach@wmi.usyd.edu.au

    The conventional microtubule-dependent motor protein kinesin consists of heavy and light chains both of which have been documented to bind a variety of potential linker or cargo proteins. In this study we employed a yeast two-hybrid assay to identify additional binding partners of the kinesin heavy chain isoform KIF5B. A human brain cDNA library was screened with a bait corresponding to amino acid residues 814-963 of human KIF5B. This screen identified the ribosome receptor, p180, as a KIF5B-binding protein. The sites of interaction are residues 1294-1413 of p180 and the C-terminal half of the cargo binding-domain of KIF5B (residues 867-907). The KIF5B-binding site in p180 is homologous to the previously determined KIF5B-binding site in kinectin. The interacting regions of p180 and KIF5B consist almost entirely of heptad repeats, suggesting the interaction is a coiled-coil. A role for the kinesin/p180 interaction may include mRNA localization and/or transport of endoplasmic reticulum-derived vesicles.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2004;319;3;987-92

  • The DNA sequence and comparative analysis of human chromosome 10.

    Deloukas P, Earthrowl ME, Grafham DV, Rubenfield M, French L, Steward CA, Sims SK, Jones MC, Searle S, Scott C, Howe K, Hunt SE, Andrews TD, Gilbert JG, Swarbreck D, Ashurst JL, Taylor A, Battles J, Bird CP, Ainscough R, Almeida JP, Ashwell RI, Ambrose KD, Babbage AK, Bagguley CL, Bailey J, Banerjee R, Bates K, Beasley H, Bray-Allen S, Brown AJ, Brown JY, Burford DC, Burrill W, Burton J, Cahill P, Camire D, Carter NP, Chapman JC, Clark SY, Clarke G, Clee CM, Clegg S, Corby N, Coulson A, Dhami P, Dutta I, Dunn M, Faulkner L, Frankish A, Frankland JA, Garner P, Garnett J, Gribble S, Griffiths C, Grocock R, Gustafson E, Hammond S, Harley JL, Hart E, Heath PD, Ho TP, Hopkins B, Horne J, Howden PJ, Huckle E, Hynds C, Johnson C, Johnson D, Kana A, Kay M, Kimberley AM, Kershaw JK, Kokkinaki M, Laird GK, Lawlor S, Lee HM, Leongamornlert DA, Laird G, Lloyd C, Lloyd DM, Loveland J, Lovell J, McLaren S, McLay KE, McMurray A, Mashreghi-Mohammadi M, Matthews L, Milne S, Nickerson T, Nguyen M, Overton-Larty E, Palmer SA, Pearce AV, Peck AI, Pelan S, Phillimore B, Porter K, Rice CM, Rogosin A, Ross MT, Sarafidou T, Sehra HK, Shownkeen R, Skuce CD, Smith M, Standring L, Sycamore N, Tester J, Thorpe A, Torcasso W, Tracey A, Tromans A, Tsolas J, Wall M, Walsh J, Wang H, Weinstock K, West AP, Willey DL, Whitehead SL, Wilming L, Wray PW, Young L, Chen Y, Lovering RC, Moschonas NK, Siebert R, Fechtel K, Bentley D, Durbin R, Hubbard T, Doucette-Stamm L, Beck S, Smith DR and Rogers J

    The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton CB10 1SA, UK. panos@sanger.ac.uk

    The finished sequence of human chromosome 10 comprises a total of 131,666,441 base pairs. It represents 99.4% of the euchromatic DNA and includes one megabase of heterochromatic sequence within the pericentromeric region of the short and long arm of the chromosome. Sequence annotation revealed 1,357 genes, of which 816 are protein coding, and 430 are pseudogenes. We observed widespread occurrence of overlapping coding genes (either strand) and identified 67 antisense transcripts. Our analysis suggests that both inter- and intrachromosomal segmental duplications have impacted on the gene count on chromosome 10. Multispecies comparative analysis indicated that we can readily annotate the protein-coding genes with current resources. We estimate that over 95% of all coding exons were identified in this study. Assessment of single base changes between the human chromosome 10 and chimpanzee sequence revealed nonsense mutations in only 21 coding genes with respect to the human sequence.

    Nature 2004;429;6990;375-81

  • Beta-dystrobrevin interacts directly with kinesin heavy chain in brain.

    Macioce P, Gambara G, Bernassola M, Gaddini L, Torreri P, Macchia G, Ramoni C, Ceccarini M and Petrucci TC

    Laboratory of Cell Biology, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome, Italy. macioce@iss.it

    Beta-dystrobrevin, a member of the dystrobrevin protein family, is a dystrophin-related and -associated protein restricted to non-muscle tissues and is highly expressed in kidney, liver and brain. Dystrobrevins are now thought to play an important role in intracellular signal transduction, in addition to providing a membrane scaffold in muscle, but the precise role of beta-dystrobrevin has not yet been determined. To study beta-dystrobrevin's function in brain, we used the yeast two-hybrid approach to look for interacting proteins. Four overlapping clones were identified that encoded Kif5A, a neuronal member of the Kif5 family of proteins that consists of the heavy chains of conventional kinesin. A direct interaction of beta-dystrobrevin with Kif5A was confirmed by in vitro and in vivo association assays. Co-immunoprecipitation with a monoclonal kinesin heavy chain antibody precipitated both alpha- and beta-dystrobrevin, indicating that this interaction is not restricted to the beta-dystrobrevin isoform. The site for Kif5A binding to beta-dystrobrevin was localized in a carboxyl-terminal region that seems to be important in heavy chain-mediated kinesin interactions and is highly homologous in all three Kif5 isoforms, Kif5A, Kif5B and Kif5C. Pull-down and immunofluorescence experiments also showed a direct interaction between beta-dystrobrevin and Kif5B. Our findings suggest a novel function for dystrobrevin as a motor protein receptor that might play a major role in the transport of components of the dystrophin-associated protein complex to specific sites in the cell.

    Journal of cell science 2003;116;Pt 23;4847-56

  • The heavy chain of conventional kinesin interacts with the SNARE proteins SNAP25 and SNAP23.

    Diefenbach RJ, Diefenbach E, Douglas MW and Cunningham AL

    Centre For Virus Research, Westmead Millennium Institute, Westmead Hospital and The University of Sydney, NSW 2145, Australia. russell_diefenbach@wmi.usyd.edu.au

    Recent studies on the conventional motor protein kinesin have identified a putative cargo-binding domain (residues 827-906) within the heavy chain. To identify possible cargo proteins which bind to this kinesin domain, we employed a yeast two-hybrid assay. A human brain cDNA library was screened, using as bait residues 814-963 of human ubiquitous kinesin heavy chain. This screen initially identified synaptosome-associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP25) as a kinesin-binding protein. Subsequently, synaptosome-associated protein of 23 kDa (SNAP23), the nonneuronal homologue of SNAP25, was also confirmed to interact with kinesin. The sites of interaction, determined from in vivo and in vitro assays, are the N-terminus of SNAP25 (residues 1-84) and the cargo-binding domain of kinesin heavy chain (residues 814-907). Both regions are composed almost entirely of heptad repeats, suggesting the interaction between heavy chain and SNAP25 is that of a coiled-coil. The observation that SNAP23 also binds to residues 814-907 of heavy chain would indicate that the minimal kinesin-binding domain of SNAP23 and SNAP25 is most likely residues 45-84 (SNAP25 numbering), a heptad-repeat region in both proteins. The major binding site for kinesin light chain in kinesin heavy chain was mapped to residues 789-813 at the C-terminal end of the heavy chain stalk domain. Weak binding of light chain was also detected at the N-terminus of the heavy chain tail domain (residues 814-854). In support of separate binding sites on heavy chain for light chain and SNAPs, a complex of heavy and light chains was observed to interact with SNAP25 and SNAP23.

    Biochemistry 2002;41;50;14906-15

  • The motor protein kinesin-1 links neurofibromin and merlin in a common cellular pathway of neurofibromatosis.

    Hakimi MA, Speicher DW and Shiekhattar R

    Wistar Institute, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA.

    Mutations in either of the two tumor suppressor genes NF1 (neurofibromin) and NF2 (merlin) result in Neurofibromatosis, a condition predisposing individuals to developing a variety of benign and malignant tumors of the central and peripheral nervous systems. Here we report the identification of two distinct NF1-containing complexes, one in the soluble and the other in the particulate fraction of HeLa extract. We show that the soluble NF1 complex delineates a large holo-NF1 complex (2 MDa) encompassing the components of a smaller particulate core-NF1 complex (400 kDa). Purification of the core-NF1 complex followed by mass spectrometric analysis revealed the motor protein, kinesin-1 heavy chain (HsuKHC/KIF5B), as a catalytic subunit of both NF-1-containing complexes. Importantly, although NF1 and NF2 are not in a stable association, NF2 is also a component of a distinct kinesin-1-containing complex. These results point to kinesin-1 as a common denominator between NF1 and NF2.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA 90758-01

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;40;36909-12

  • Glutamate-receptor-interacting protein GRIP1 directly steers kinesin to dendrites.

    Setou M, Seog DH, Tanaka Y, Kanai Y, Takei Y, Kawagishi M and Hirokawa N

    Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan.

    In cells, molecular motors operate in polarized sorting of molecules, although the steering mechanisms of motors remain elusive. In neurons, the kinesin motor conducts vesicular transport such as the transport of synaptic vesicle components to axons and of neurotransmitter receptors to dendrites, indicating that vesicles may have to drive the motor for the direction to be correct. Here we show that an AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate) receptor subunit--GluR2-interacting protein (GRIP1)--can directly interact and steer kinesin heavy chains to dendrites as a motor for AMPA receptors. As would be expected if this complex is functional, both gene targeting and dominant negative experiments of heavy chains of mouse kinesin showed abnormal localization of GRIP1. Moreover, expression of the kinesin-binding domain of GRIP1 resulted in accumulation of the endogenous kinesin predominantly in the somatodendritic area. This pattern was different from that generated by the overexpression of the kinesin-binding scaffold protein JSAP1 (JNK/SAPK-associated protein-1, also known as Mapk8ip3), which occurred predominantly in the somatoaxon area. These results indicate that directly binding proteins can determine the traffic direction of a motor protein.

    Nature 2002;417;6884;83-7

  • Phosphorylation-dependent interaction of kinesin light chain 2 and the 14-3-3 protein.

    Ichimura T, Wakamiya-Tsuruta A, Itagaki C, Taoka M, Hayano T, Natsume T and Isobe T

    Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Hachioji-shi, Tokyo 192-0397, Japan. ichimura@mail.comp.metro-u.ac.jp

    The protein 14-3-3 is a key regulator in a cell signaling pathway mediated by protein phosphorylation. To identify the cellular targets of this protein systematically, we have employed a proteomic approach: protein components pulled down from PC12 cells stably expressing a myc-tagged 14-3-3eta isoform were analyzed by means of SDS-PAGE and mass spectrometry. This procedure allowed us to identify more than 30 proteins that include various known and unknown targets of the 14-3-3 protein. Among them are several proteins in the membrane traffic pathway, such as the heavy and light chains (KHC/KIF5B and KLC2) of conventional kinesin, a heterotetrameric mechanochemical motor involved in the ATP-dependent movement of vesicles and organelles along microtubules. Subsequent analysis showed that 14-3-3 directly binds to kinesin heterodimers through interaction with KLC2 and that this interaction is dependent on the phosphorylation of KLC2. Studies on the interaction between 14-3-3 and KLC2 variants expressed in cultured cells coupled with mass spectrometric analysis proved that Ser575 is the site of phosphorylation in KLC2 that is responsible for the in vivo interaction with the 14-3-3 protein. These data add KLC2 to the growing list of 14-3-3 targets, and suggest a role of 14-3-3 in the phosphorylation-regulated cellular transport of vesicles and organelles.

    Biochemistry 2002;41;17;5566-72

  • Kinectin-kinesin binding domains and their effects on organelle motility.

    Ong LL, Lim AP, Er CP, Kuznetsov SA and Yu H

    National University Medical Institutes, Faculty of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117597.

    Intracellular organelle motility involves motor proteins that move along microtubules or actin filaments. One of these motor proteins, kinesin, was proposed to bind to kinectin on membrane organelles during movement. Whether kinectin is the kinesin receptor on organelles with a role in organelle motility has been controversial. We have characterized the sites of interaction between human kinectin and conventional kinesin using in vivo and in vitro assays. The kinectin-binding domain on the kinesin tail partially overlaps its head-binding domain and the myosin-Va binding domain. The kinesin-binding domain on kinectin resides near the COOH terminus and enhances the microtubule-stimulated kinesin-ATPase activity, and the overexpression of the kinectin-kinesin binding domains inhibited kinesin-dependent organelle motility in vivo. These data, when combined with other studies, suggest a role for kinectin in organelle motility.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2000;275;42;32854-60

  • KIF5C, a novel neuronal kinesin enriched in motor neurons.

    Kanai Y, Okada Y, Tanaka Y, Harada A, Terada S and Hirokawa N

    Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan.

    Kinesin superfamily proteins (KIFs) are the molecular motors conveying cargos along microtubules. KIF5s, the heavy chains of conventional kinesin (KHC), are originally identified members of KIFs, and neuronal KIF5A and ubiquitous KIF5B have been identified so far. In the present work, we cloned a novel member of KIF5, KIF5C, and generated specific antibodies against three KIF5s to investigate their distribution and functions. KIF5A showed pan-neuronal distribution in the nervous system. KIF5B showed a glial cell distribution pattern in general; however, interestingly, its expression was strongly upregulated in axon-elongating neurons, such as olfactory primary neurons and mossy fibers. KIF5C was also a neuronal KIF5 like KIF5A but was highly expressed in lower motor neurons in 2-week-old or older mice, suggesting its important roles in the maintenance of motor neurons rather than in their formation, such as axonal elongation. Because a large part of KIF5s in adult motor neurons were expected to be KIF5C, we generated mice lacking the kif5C gene to investigate the functions of KIF5C in neurons in living animals. The mutant mice showed smaller brain size but were viable and did not show gross changes in the nervous system. Closer examinations revealed the relative loss of motor neurons to sensory neurons. Because three KIF5s showed high similarity in the amino acid sequence, could rescue the KIF5B mutant cells, and could form heterodimers, we think that there are functional redundancy among the three KIF5s and that KIF5A and KIF5B prevented the KIF5C null mice from the severe phenotype.

    Funded by: NICHD NIH HHS: N01-HD-2-3144

    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 2000;20;17;6374-84

  • Defective kinesin heavy chain behavior in mouse kinesin light chain mutants.

    Rahman A, Kamal A, Roberts EA and Goldstein LS

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0683, USA.

    Conventional kinesin, kinesin-I, is a heterotetramer of two kinesin heavy chain (KHC) subunits (KIF5A, KIF5B, or KIF5C) and two kinesin light chain (KLC) subunits. While KHC contains the motor activity, the role of KLC remains unknown. It has been suggested that KLC is involved in either modulation of KHC activity or in cargo binding. Previously, we characterized KLC genes in mouse (Rahman, A., D.S. Friedman, and L.S. Goldstein. 1998. J. Biol. Chem. 273:15395-15403). Of the two characterized gene products, KLC1 was predominant in neuronal tissues, whereas KLC2 showed a more ubiquitous pattern of expression. To define the in vivo role of KLC, we generated KLC1 gene-targeted mice. Removal of functional KLC1 resulted in significantly smaller mutant mice that also exhibited pronounced motor disabilities. Biochemical analyses demonstrated that KLC1 mutant mice have a pool of KIF5A not associated with any known KLC subunit. Immunofluorescence studies of sensory and motor neuron cell bodies in KLC1 mutants revealed that KIF5A colocalized aberrantly with the peripheral cis-Golgi marker giantin in mutant cells. Striking changes and aberrant colocalization were also observed in the intracellular distribution of KIF5B and beta'-COP, a component of COP1 coatomer. Taken together, these data best support models that suggest that KLC1 is essential for proper KHC activation or targeting.

    The Journal of cell biology 1999;146;6;1277-88

  • Targeted disruption of mouse conventional kinesin heavy chain, kif5B, results in abnormal perinuclear clustering of mitochondria.

    Tanaka Y, Kanai Y, Okada Y, Nonaka S, Takeda S, Harada A and Hirokawa N

    Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Hongo, Japan.

    Mouse kif5B gene was disrupted by homologous recombination. kif5B-/- mice were embryonic lethal with a severe growth retardation at 9.5-11.5 days postcoitum. To analyze the significance of this conventional kinesin heavy chain in organelle transport, we studied the distribution of major organelles in the extraembryonic cells. The null mutant cells impaired lysosomal dispersion, while brefeldin A could normally induce the breakdown of their Golgi apparatus. More prominently, their mitochondria abnormally clustered in the perinuclear region. This mitochondrial phenotype was reversed by an exogenous expression of KIF5B, and a subcellular fractionation revealed that KIF5B is associated with mitochondria. These data collectively indicate that kinesin is essential for mitochondrial and lysosomal dispersion rather than for the Golgi-to-ER traffic in these cells.

    Cell 1998;93;7;1147-58

  • Two kinesin light chain genes in mice. Identification and characterization of the encoded proteins.

    Rahman A, Friedman DS and Goldstein LS

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Division of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Program in Biomedical Sciences and Department of Pharmacology, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0683, USA.

    Native kinesin consists of two light chains and two heavy chains in a 1:1 stoichiometric ratio. To date, only one gene for kinesin light chain has been characterized, while a second gene was identified in a genomic sequencing study but not analyzed biochemically. Here we describe new genes encoding kinesin light chains in mouse. One of these light chains is neuronally enriched, while another shows ubiquitous expression. The presence of multiple kinesin light chain genes in mice is especially interesting, since there are two kinesin heavy chain genes in humans (Niclas, J., Navone, F., Hom-Booher, N., and Vale, R. D. (1994) Neuron 12, 1059-1072). To assess the selectivity of kinesin light chain interaction with the heavy chains, we performed immunoprecipitation experiments. The data suggested that the light chains form homodimers with no specificity in their interaction with the two heavy chains. Immunofluorescence and biochemical subfractionation suggested differences in the subcellular localization of the two kinesin light chain gene products. Although both kinesin light chains are distributed throughout the central and peripheral nervous systems, there is enrichment of one in sciatic nerve axons, while the other shows elevated levels in olfactory bulb glomeruli. These results indicate that the mammalian nervous system contains multiple kinesin light chain gene products with potentially distinct functions.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1998;273;25;15395-403

  • Crystal structure of the kinesin motor domain reveals a structural similarity to myosin.

    Kull FJ, Sablin EP, Lau R, Fletterick RJ and Vale RD

    Department of Biochemistry/Biophysics, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143, USA.

    Kinesin is the founding member of a superfamily of microtubule based motor proteins that perform force-generating tasks such as organelle transport and chromosome segregation. It has two identical approximately 960-amino-acid chains containing an amino-terminal globular motor domain, a central alpha-helical region that enables dimer formation through a coiled-coil, and a carboxy-terminal tail domain that binds light chains and possibly an organelle receptor. The kinesin motor domain of approximately 340 amino acids, which can produce movement in vitro, is much smaller than that of myosin (approximately 850 amino acids) and dynein (1,000 amino acids), and is the smallest known molecular motor. Here, we report the crystal structure of the human kinesin motor domain with bound ADP determined to 1.8-A resolution by X-ray crystallography. The motor consists primarily of a single alpha/beta arrowhead-shaped domain with dimensions of 70 x 45 x 45 A. Unexpectedly, it has a striking structural similarity to the core of the catalytic domain of the actin-based motor myosin. Although kinesin and myosin have virtually no amino-acid sequence++ identity, and exhibit distinct enzymatic and motile properties, our results suggest that these two classes of mechanochemical enzymes evolved from a common ancestor and share a similar force-generating strategy.

    Funded by: Howard Hughes Medical Institute; NIAMS NIH HHS: P01 AR042895, P01 AR042895-040005

    Nature 1996;380;6574;550-5

  • Cloning and localization of a conventional kinesin motor expressed exclusively in neurons.

    Niclas J, Navone F, Hom-Booher N and Vale RD

    Department of Pharmacology, University of California, San Francisco 94143.

    Kinesin is a microtubule-based motor protein involved in organelle transport in neuronal and nonneuronal cells. Although a single kinesin motor has been thought to serve all cell types, we document here that neurons express a second conventional kinesin heavy chain (nKHC) that is 65% identical in amino acid sequence to the ubiquitously expressed kinesin heavy chain (uKHC). By preparing antibodies which distinguish between the two KHCs, we demonstrate that nKHC is a nucleotide-dependent microtubule-binding protein which partially cofractionates with membrane organelles. Immunolocalization experiments show that nKHC is distributed throughout the CNS but is highly enriched in subsets of neurons. In hippocampal neurons in culture, uKHC is distributed uniformly throughout the neuron, whereas nKHC is selectively concentrated in the cell body. These results demonstrate that mammalian neuronal tissue contains two conventional kinesin motors which may serve distinct functions in microtubule-based transport.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM38499

    Neuron 1994;12;5;1059-72

  • Cloning and expression of a human kinesin heavy chain gene: interaction of the COOH-terminal domain with cytoplasmic microtubules in transfected CV-1 cells.

    Navone F, Niclas J, Hom-Booher N, Sparks L, Bernstein HD, McCaffrey G and Vale RD

    Department of Pharmacology, University of California, San Francisco 94143.

    To understand the interactions between the microtubule-based motor protein kinesin and intracellular components, we have expressed the kinesin heavy chain and its different domains in CV-1 monkey kidney epithelial cells and examined their distributions by immunofluorescence microscopy. For this study, we cloned and sequenced cDNAs encoding a kinesin heavy chain from a human placental library. The human kinesin heavy chain exhibits a high level of sequence identity to the previously cloned invertebrate kinesin heavy chains; homologies between the COOH-terminal domain of human and invertebrate kinesins and the nonmotor domain of the Aspergillus kinesin-like protein bimC were also found. The gene encoding the human kinesin heavy chain also contains a small upstream open reading frame in a G-C rich 5' untranslated region, features that are associated with translational regulation in certain mRNAs. After transient expression in CV-1 cells, the kinesin heavy chain showed both a diffuse distribution and a filamentous staining pattern that coaligned with microtubules but not vimentin intermediate filaments. Altering the number and distribution of microtubules with taxol or nocodazole produced corresponding changes in the localization of the expressed kinesin heavy chain. The expressed NH2-terminal motor and the COOH-terminal tail domains, but not the alpha-helical coiled coil rod domain, also colocalized with microtubules. The finding that both the kinesin motor and tail domains can interact with cytoplasmic microtubules raises the possibility that kinesin could crossbridge and induce sliding between microtubules under certain circumstances.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM38499, R01 GM038499

    The Journal of cell biology 1992;117;6;1263-75

Gene lists (6)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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