G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
metaxin 1
G00000743 (Mus musculus)

Databases (8)

Curated Gene
OTTHUMG00000035708 (Vega human gene)
ENSG00000173171 (Ensembl human gene)
4580 (Entrez Gene)
1159 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
MTX1 (GeneCards)
600605 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:7504 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
Q13505 (UniProt)

Synonyms (1)

  • MTXN

Literature (14)

Pubmed - other

  • Toward a confocal subcellular atlas of the human proteome.

    Barbe L, Lundberg E, Oksvold P, Stenius A, Lewin E, Björling E, Asplund A, Pontén F, Brismar H, Uhlén M and Andersson-Svahn H

    Department of Biotechnology, AlbaNova University Center, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.

    Information on protein localization on the subcellular level is important to map and characterize the proteome and to better understand cellular functions of proteins. Here we report on a pilot study of 466 proteins in three human cell lines aimed to allow large scale confocal microscopy analysis using protein-specific antibodies. Approximately 3000 high resolution images were generated, and more than 80% of the analyzed proteins could be classified in one or multiple subcellular compartment(s). The localizations of the proteins showed, in many cases, good agreement with the Gene Ontology localization prediction model. This is the first large scale antibody-based study to localize proteins into subcellular compartments using antibodies and confocal microscopy. The results suggest that this approach might be a valuable tool in conjunction with predictive models for protein localization.

    Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 2008;7;3;499-508

  • The mitochondrial inner membrane protein mitofilin exists as a complex with SAM50, metaxins 1 and 2, coiled-coil-helix coiled-coil-helix domain-containing protein 3 and 6 and DnaJC11.

    Xie J, Marusich MF, Souda P, Whitelegge J and Capaldi RA

    Institute of Molecular Biology, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403, USA. cxjing@uoregon.edu

    A monoclonal antibody (mAb) has been produced which reacts with human mitofilin, a mitochondrial inner membrane protein. This mAb immunocaptures its target protein in association with six other proteins, metaxins 1 and 2, SAM50, CHCHD3, CHCHD6 and DnaJC11, respectively. The first three are outer membrane proteins, CHCHD3 has been assigned to the matrix space, and the other two proteins have not been described in mitochondria previously. The functional role of this new complex is uncertain. However, a role in protein import related to maintenance of mitochondrial structure is suggested as mitofilin helps regulate mitochondrial morphology and at least four of the associated proteins (metaxins 1 and 2, SAM50 and CHCHD3) have been implicated in protein import, while DnaJC11 is a chaperone-like protein that may have a similar role.

    FEBS letters 2007;581;18;3545-9

  • Conserved roles of Sam50 and metaxins in VDAC biogenesis.

    Kozjak-Pavlovic V, Ross K, Benlasfer N, Kimmig S, Karlas A and Rudel T

    Department of Molecular Biology, Max-Planck-Institut für Infektionsbiologie, Charitéplatz 1, D-10117, Berlin, Germany.

    Voltage-dependent anion-selective channel (VDAC) is a beta-barrel protein in the outer mitochondrial membrane that is necessary for metabolite exchange with the cytosol and is proposed to be involved in certain forms of apoptosis. We studied the biogenesis of VDAC in human mitochondria by depleting the components of the mitochondrial import machinery by using RNA interference. Here, we show the importance of the translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane (TOM) complex in the import of the VDAC precursor. The deletion of Sam50, the central component of the sorting and assembly machinery (SAM), led to both a strong defect in the assembly of VDAC and a reduction in the steady-state level of VDAC. Metaxin 2-depleted mitochondria had reduced levels of metaxin 1 and were deficient in import and assembly of VDAC and Tom40, but not of three matrix-targeted precursors. We also observed a reduction in the levels of metaxin 1 and metaxin 2 in Sam50-depleted mitochondria, implying a connection between these three proteins, although Sam50 and metaxins seemed to be in different complexes. We conclude that the pathway of VDAC biogenesis in human mitochondria involves the TOM complex, Sam50 and metaxins, and that it is evolutionarily conserved.

    EMBO reports 2007;8;6;576-82

  • Large-scale mapping of human protein-protein interactions by mass spectrometry.

    Ewing RM, Chu P, Elisma F, Li H, Taylor P, Climie S, McBroom-Cerajewski L, Robinson MD, O'Connor L, Li M, Taylor R, Dharsee M, Ho Y, Heilbut A, Moore L, Zhang S, Ornatsky O, Bukhman YV, Ethier M, Sheng Y, Vasilescu J, Abu-Farha M, Lambert JP, Duewel HS, Stewart II, Kuehl B, Hogue K, Colwill K, Gladwish K, Muskat B, Kinach R, Adams SL, Moran MF, Morin GB, Topaloglou T and Figeys D

    Protana, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

    Mapping protein-protein interactions is an invaluable tool for understanding protein function. Here, we report the first large-scale study of protein-protein interactions in human cells using a mass spectrometry-based approach. The study maps protein interactions for 338 bait proteins that were selected based on known or suspected disease and functional associations. Large-scale immunoprecipitation of Flag-tagged versions of these proteins followed by LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis resulted in the identification of 24,540 potential protein interactions. False positives and redundant hits were filtered out using empirical criteria and a calculated interaction confidence score, producing a data set of 6463 interactions between 2235 distinct proteins. This data set was further cross-validated using previously published and predicted human protein interactions. In-depth mining of the data set shows that it represents a valuable source of novel protein-protein interactions with relevance to human diseases. In addition, via our preliminary analysis, we report many novel protein interactions and pathway associations.

    Molecular systems biology 2007;3;89

  • Lineage-specific gene duplication and loss in human and great ape evolution.

    Fortna A, Kim Y, MacLaren E, Marshall K, Hahn G, Meltesen L, Brenton M, Hink R, Burgers S, Hernandez-Boussard T, Karimpour-Fard A, Glueck D, McGavran L, Berry R, Pollack J and Sikela JM

    Department of Pharmacology and Human Medical Genetics Program, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, Colorado, USA.

    Given that gene duplication is a major driving force of evolutionary change and the key mechanism underlying the emergence of new genes and biological processes, this study sought to use a novel genome-wide approach to identify genes that have undergone lineage-specific duplications or contractions among several hominoid lineages. Interspecies cDNA array-based comparative genomic hybridization was used to individually compare copy number variation for 39,711 cDNAs, representing 29,619 human genes, across five hominoid species, including human. We identified 1,005 genes, either as isolated genes or in clusters positionally biased toward rearrangement-prone genomic regions, that produced relative hybridization signals unique to one or more of the hominoid lineages. Measured as a function of the evolutionary age of each lineage, genes showing copy number expansions were most pronounced in human (134) and include a number of genes thought to be involved in the structure and function of the brain. This work represents, to our knowledge, the first genome-wide gene-based survey of gene duplication across hominoid species. The genes identified here likely represent a significant majority of the major gene copy number changes that have occurred over the past 15 million years of human and great ape evolution and are likely to underlie some of the key phenotypic characteristics that distinguish these species.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: K07 CA088811, K07CA88811; NIAAA NIH HHS: R01 AA011853, R01AA11853

    PLoS biology 2004;2;7;E207

  • A novel alteration in metaxin 1, F202L, is associated with N370S in Gaucher disease.

    LaMarca ME, Goldstein M, Tayebi N, Arcos-Burgos M, Martin BM and Sidransky E

    Medical Genetics Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892-4405, USA.

    The gene for glucocerebrosidase ( GBA), the enzyme deficient in Gaucher disease, is located in a gene-rich region on 1q21. Metaxin 1( MTX1) is a convergently transcribed gene contiguous to the 3' end of the GBA pseudogene. A single nucleotide alteration in MTX1, 628T-->C, resulting in the amino acid change F202L, was identified in patients with Gaucher disease in association with the common N370S mutation in GBA. The polymorphism was also present on 4.6% of 152 control alleles, but could have functional consequences that have a modifying role in Gaucher disease.

    Journal of human genetics 2004;49;4;220-2

  • Metaxin is required for tumor necrosis factor-induced cell death.

    Wang X, Ono K, Kim SO, Kravchenko V, Lin SC and Han J

    Department of Immunology, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.

    We used retrovirus insertion-mediated random mutagenesis and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) selection to generate TNF-resistant lines from L929 cells. The metaxin gene, which encodes a protein located on the outer membrane of mitochondria, was identified to be the gene disrupted in one of the resistant lines. The requirement of metaxin in TNF-induced cell death of L929 was confirmed by the restoration of TNF sensitivity after ectopic reconstitution of metaxin expression. Analysis of the cell death induced by other stimuli revealed that metaxin deficiency-mediated death resistance was selective to certain stimuli. Studies using deletion mutants of metaxin showed that mitochondrial association of metaxin is required for the function of metaxin. Over-expression of truncated metaxin lacking the mitochondria anchoring sequence mimicked metaxin deficiency in wild-type cells. Interfering with metaxin prevented TNF-induced necrotic cell death in L929 cells and apoptosis in MCF-7 cells. Our work has thus defined a novel component in the death pathway used by TNF and some other death stimuli.

    EMBO reports 2001;2;7;628-33

  • Functional analysis of human metaxin in mitochondrial protein import in cultured cells and its relationship with the Tom complex.

    Abdul KM, Terada K, Yano M, Ryan MT, Streimann I, Hoogenraad NJ and Mori M

    Department of Molecular Genetics, Kumamoto University School of Medicine, Honjo 2-2-1, Kumamoto, 860-0811, Japan.

    Metaxin is an outer membrane protein of mammalian mitochondria which is suggested to be involved in protein import into the organelle. RNA blot analysis showed that distribution of metaxin mRNA in human tissues differs from that of mRNA for the translocase component Tom20. Effect of overexpression of human metaxin on mitochondrial preprotein import and processing in COS-7 cells was studied. Overexpression of metaxin resulted in impaired mitochondrial import of natural and chimeric preproteins and in their accumulation. We previously reported that overexpression of Tom20 in cultured cells causes inhibition of import of mitochondrial preprotein. Coexpression of metaxin with Tom20 had no further effect on the preprotein import. Overexpression of the cytosolic domain of metaxin also caused inhibition of preprotein import, although less strongly than the full-length metaxin. In blue native PAGE, Tom40, Tom22, and a portion of Tom20 migrated as a complex of approximately 400 kDa, and the other portion of Tom20 migrated in smaller forms of approximately 100 and approximately 40 kDa. On the other hand, metaxin migrated at a position of approximately 50 kDa. These results confirm earlier in vitro results that metaxin participates in preprotein import into mammalian mitochondria, and indicates that it does not associate with the Tom complex.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2000;276;3;1028-34

  • Metaxin 1 interacts with metaxin 2, a novel related protein associated with the mammalian mitochondrial outer membrane.

    Armstrong LC, Saenz AJ and Bornstein P

    Department of Biochemistry, University of Washington, Seattle 98195-7350, USA.

    A recently described protein, metaxin 1, serves as a component of a preprotein import complex in the outer membrane of the mammalian mitochondrion. A yeast two-hybrid screen with metaxin 1 as bait has now identified a novel protein, which we have termed metaxin 2, as a metaxin 1-binding protein. Metaxin 2 shares 29% identity with metaxin 1 at the amino acid level, but metaxin 2, unlike metaxin 1, lacks a C-terminal mitochondrial outer membrane signal-anchor domain. Two C. elegans hypothetical proteins, CelZC97.1 and CelF39B2.i, share high sequence similarity with metaxin 2 and metaxin 1, respectively, and likely represent the C. elegans orthologs. Affinity-purified antibodies against metaxin 2 were prepared against the recombinant protein produced in E. coli and were used to analyze the subcellular distribution of metaxin 2. In subcellular fractions of mouse liver, a 29 kD immunoreactive protein, consistent in size with the predicted translation product of metaxin 2 cDNA, was found solely in mitochondria. Alkali extraction of mitochondria indicated that metaxin 2 is peripherally associated with mitochondrial membranes. Metaxin 2 in intact mitochondria was susceptible to digestion with proteinase K, indicating that metaxin 2 is located on the cytosolic face of the mitochondrial outer membrane. Finally, baculoviruses encoding a His6-tagged metaxin 2 and an untagged metaxin 1 lacking its C-terminal transmembrane domain were produced and used separately or in combination to infect Sf21 insect cells. Metaxin 1 bound to a Ni2+-chelate affinity column only in the presence of metaxin 2, indicating that metaxin 1 and metaxin 2 interact when overexpressed in insect cells. These results suggest that metaxin 2 is bound to the cytosolic face of the mitochondrial outer membrane by means of its interaction with membrane-bound metaxin 1, and that this complex may play a role in protein import into mammalian mitochondria.

    Funded by: NIA NIH HHS: AG051361; NIDCR NIH HHS: DE08229; NIGMS NIH HHS: 5F32GM17395

    Journal of cellular biochemistry 1999;74;1;11-22

  • Identification of three additional genes contiguous to the glucocerebrosidase locus on chromosome 1q21: implications for Gaucher disease.

    Winfield SL, Tayebi N, Martin BM, Ginns EI and Sidransky E

    Clinical Neuroscience Branch, Intramural Research Program (IRP), National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.

    Gaucher disease results from the deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme glucocerebrosidase (EC Although the functional gene for glucocerebrosidase (GBA) and its pseudogene (psGBA), located in close proximity on chromosome 1q21, have been studied extensively, the flanking sequence has not been well characterized. The recent identification of human metaxin (MTX) immediately downstream of psGBA prompted a closer analysis of the sequence of the entire region surrounding the GBA gene. We now report the genomic DNA sequence and organization of a 75-kb region around GBA, including the duplicated region containing GBA and MTX. The origin and endpoints of the duplication leading to the pseudogenes for GBA and MTX are now clearly established. We also have identified three new genes within the 32 kb of sequence upstream to GBA, all of which are transcribed in the same direction as GBA. Of these three genes, the gene most distal to GBA is a protein kinase (clk2). The second gene, propin1, has a 1.5-kb cDNA and shares homology to a rat secretory carrier membrane protein 37 (SCAMP37). Finally, cote1, a gene of unknown function lies most proximal to GBA. The possible contributions of these closely arrayed genes to the more atypical presentations of Gaucher disease is now under investigation.

    Genome research 1997;7;10;1020-6

  • Metaxin is a component of a preprotein import complex in the outer membrane of the mammalian mitochondrion.

    Armstrong LC, Komiya T, Bergman BE, Mihara K and Bornstein P

    Department of Biochemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA.

    Metaxin, a novel gene located between the glucocerebrosidase and thrombospondin 3 genes in the mouse, is essential for survival of the postimplantation mouse embryo. In this study, the subcellular location, domain structure, and biochemical function of metaxin were investigated. Anti-recombinant metaxin antibodies recognized 35- and 70-kDa proteins in mitochondria from various tissues; the 35-kDa protein is consistent in size with the predicted translation product of metaxin cDNA. When metaxin cDNA was transfected into COS cells, immunofluorescence staining demonstrated that the protein is located in mitochondria. Metaxin contains a putative mitochondrial outer membrane signal anchor domain at its C terminus, and a truncated form of metaxin lacking this signal anchor domain had a reduced association with mitochondria. In addition, metaxin was highly susceptible to proteases in intact mitochondria. We therefore conclude that metaxin is a mitochondrial protein that extends into the cytosol while anchored into the outer membrane at its C terminus. In its N-terminal region, metaxin shows significant sequence identity to Tom37, a component of the outer membrane portion of the mitochondrial preprotein translocation apparatus in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, but important structural differences, including apparently different mechanisms of targeting to membranes, also exist between the two proteins. Given the similar subcellular locations of metaxin and Tom37, the possible role of metaxin in mitochondrial preprotein import was investigated. Antibodies against metaxin, when preincubated with mitochondria, partially inhibited the uptake of radiolabeled preadrenodoxin into mitochondria. Metaxin is therefore the second mammalian component of the protein translocation apparatus of the mitochondrial outer membrane to be characterized at the molecular level and the first for which an inherited mutation has been described. The early embryonic lethal phenotype of mice lacking metaxin demonstrates that efficient import of proteins into mitochondria is crucial for cellular survival. The characterization of metaxin provides an opportunity to elucidate similarities and possible differences in the mechanisms of protein import between fungi and mammals and in the phenotypes of fungi and mammals lacking mitochondrial import receptors.

    Funded by: NIA NIH HHS: AG051361; NIGMS NIH HHS: 5F32GM17395-02

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1997;272;10;6510-8

  • Structure and organization of the human metaxin gene (MTX) and pseudogene.

    Long GL, Winfield S, Adolph KW, Ginns EI and Bornstein P

    Department of Biochemistry, University of Washington, Seattle 98195, USA.

    Metaxin encodes a mitochondrial protein and is an essential nuclear gene in mice. The cDNA sequence and genomic organization of the human metaxin gene (MTX) have now been determined. MTX is 6 kb and consists of eight protein-encoding exons. The gene is contiguous to thrombospondin 3 (THBS3) and to the pseudogene for glucocerebrosidase (psGBA), but it transcribed in a direction opposite to the latter two genes. Thus, MTX and THBS3 share a common promoter region and are transcribed convergently, whereas MTX and psGBA are transcribed convergently and have closed apposed polyadenylation sites. Human metaxin contains 317 amino acids and is 91.5% identical to mouse metaxin. Metaxin is rich in leucine (14.2%) and in basic (12.9%) and acidic (12.0%) amino acids. The predicted protein lacks an amino-terminal signal sequence and N-glycosylation sites, but contains a putative transmembrane domain near its carboxy terminus. A DNA duplication has led to a direct repeat and the evolution of a pseudogene for GBA. A pseudogene for metaxin (psMTX) is also located within the 16 kb of DNA separating GBA from psGBA. The psMTX sequence is nearly identical to the 3' part of exon 2 through exon 8 of MTX, and both the intronic and the 3'-flanking sequences are highly conserved. Thus, there is a 278 amino acid open reading frame that is 97.8% identical to metaxin. However, psMTX lacks the first intron and promoter present in MTX, and at least in liver, the pseudogene is not expressed.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CO6-HL39745; NIDCR NIH HHS: DE 08229

    Genomics 1996;33;2;177-84

  • Metaxin, a gene contiguous to both thrombospondin 3 and glucocerebrosidase, is required for embryonic development in the mouse: implications for Gaucher disease.

    Bornstein P, McKinney CE, LaMarca ME, Winfield S, Shingu T, Devarayalu S, Vos HL and Ginns EI

    Department of Biochemistry, University of Washington, Seattle 98195, USA.

    We have identified a murine gene, metaxin, that spans the 6-kb interval separating the glucocerebrosidase gene (GC) from the thrombospondin 3 gene on chromosome 3E3-F1. Metaxin and GC are transcribed convergently; their major polyadenylylation sites are only 431 bp apart. On the other hand, metaxin and the thrombospondin 3 gene are transcribed divergently and share a common promoter sequence. The cDNA for metaxin encodes a 317-aa protein, without either a signal sequence or consensus for N-linked glycosylation. Metaxin protein is expressed ubiquitously in tissues of the young adult mouse, but no close homologues have been found in the DNA or protein data bases. A targeted mutation (A-->G in exon 9) was introduced into GC by homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells to establish a mouse model for a mild form of Gaucher disease. A phosphoglycerate kinase-neomycin gene cassette was also inserted into the 3'-flanking region of GC as a selectable marker, at a site later identified as the terminal exon of metaxin. Mice homozygous for the combined mutations die early in gestation. Since the same amino acid mutation in humans is associated with mild type 1 Gaucher disease, we suggest that metaxin protein is likely to be essential for embryonic development in mice. Clearly, the contiguous gene organization at this locus limits targeting strategies for the production of murine models of Gaucher disease.

    Funded by: NIDCR NIH HHS: DE 08229

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1995;92;10;4547-51

Gene lists (6)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000010 G2C Homo sapiens Human mitochondria Human orthologues of mouse mitochondria adapted from Collins et al (2006) 91
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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