G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
exocyst complex component 3
G00000714 (Mus musculus)

Databases (7)

ENSG00000180104 (Ensembl human gene)
11336 (Entrez Gene)
1123 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
EXOC3 (GeneCards)
608186 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:30378 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
O60645 (UniProt)

Synonyms (1)

  • Sec6p

Literature (15)

Pubmed - other

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • The exocyst complex in polarized exocytosis.

    Hsu SC, TerBush D, Abraham M and Guo W

    Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854, USA.

    Exocytosis is an essential membrane traffic event mediating the secretion of intracellular protein contents such as hormones and neurotransmitters as well as the incorporation of membrane proteins and lipids to specific domains of the plasma membrane. As a fundamental cell biological process, exocytosis is crucial for cell growth, cell-cell communication, and cell polarity establishment. For most eukaryotic cells exocytosis is polarized. A multiprotein complex, named the exocyst, is required for polarized exocytosis from yeast to mammals. The exocyst consists of eight components: Sec3, Sec5, Sec6, Sec8, Sec10, Sec15, Exo70, and Exo84. They are localized to sites of active exocytosis, where they mediate the targeting and tethering of post-Golgi secretory vesicles for subsequent membrane fusion. Here we review the progress made in the understanding of the exocyst and its role in polarized exocytosis.

    International review of cytology 2004;233;243-65

  • Ral GTPases regulate exocyst assembly through dual subunit interactions.

    Moskalenko S, Tong C, Rosse C, Mirey G, Formstecher E, Daviet L, Camonis J and White MA

    Department of Cell Biology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75235-9039, USA.

    Ral GTPases have been implicated in the regulation of a variety of dynamic cellular processes including proliferation, oncogenic transformation, actin-cytoskeletal dynamics, endocytosis, and exocytosis. Recently the Sec6/8 complex, or exocyst, a multisubunit complex facilitating post-Golgi targeting of distinct subclasses of secretory vesicles, has been identified as a bona fide Ral effector complex. Ral GTPases regulate exocyst-dependent vesicle trafficking and are required for exocyst complex assembly. Sec5, a membrane-associated exocyst subunit, has been identified as a direct target of activated Ral; however, the mechanism by which Ral can modulate exocyst assembly is unknown. Here we report that an additional component of the exocyst, Exo84, is a direct target of activated Ral. We provide evidence that mammalian exocyst components are present as distinct subcomplexes on vesicles and the plasma membrane and that Ral GTPases regulate the assembly interface of a full octameric exocyst complex through interaction with Sec5 and Exo84.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA71443

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;51;51743-8

  • Immunological characterization of exocyst complex subunits in cell differentiation.

    Wang S and Hsu SC

    Department of Cell Biology and Neurosciences, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA.

    We have generated monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against three proteins sec6, sec15, and exo84. These proteins have been shown to be components of the exocyst complex, a macromolecule required for many biological processes such as kidney epithelial formation and neuronal development. These antibodies can detect the three proteins by enzyme-linked immunoadsorbent assay (ELISA), Western blotting, immunofluorescence microscopy, and immunoprecipitation. Using these antibodies, we found that the three proteins have similar subcellular localization which changes upon cell differentiation. These three proteins also co-immunoprecipitate with each other. These results suggest that at least three exocyst subunits associate with each other in vivo and redistribute in response to cell differentiation. In the future, these antibodies should be useful in the cell biological and functional analysis of the exocyst complex under physiological and pathological conditions.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: NS38892

    Hybridoma and hybridomics 2003;22;3;159-64

  • NMDA receptor trafficking through an interaction between PDZ proteins and the exocyst complex.

    Sans N, Prybylowski K, Petralia RS, Chang K, Wang YX, Racca C, Vicini S and Wenthold RJ

    Laboratory of Neurochemistry, National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, National Institutes of Health, Building 50, Room 4146, 50 South Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892-8027, USA. sansn@nidcd.nih.gov

    NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptors (NMDARs) are targeted to dendrites and anchored at the post-synaptic density (PSD) through interactions with PDZ proteins. However, little is known about how these receptors are sorted from the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus to the synapse. Here, we find that synapse-associated protein 102 (SAP102) interacts with the PDZ-binding domain of Sec8, a member of the exocyst complex. Our results show that interactions between SAP102 and Sec8 are involved in the delivery of NMDARs to the cell surface in heterologous cells and neurons. Furthermore, they suggest that an exocyst-SAP102-NMDAR complex is an important component of NMDAR trafficking.

    Nature cell biology 2003;5;6;520-30

  • The exocyst complex is required for targeting of Glut4 to the plasma membrane by insulin.

    Inoue M, Chang L, Hwang J, Chiang SH and Saltiel AR

    Life Sciences Institute, Departments of Internal Medicine and Physiology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA.

    Insulin stimulates glucose transport by promoting exocytosis of the glucose transporter Glut4 (refs 1, 2). The dynamic processes involved in the trafficking of Glut4-containing vesicles, and in their targeting, docking and fusion at the plasma membrane, as well as the signalling processes that govern these events, are not well understood. We recently described tyrosine-phosphorylation events restricted to subdomains of the plasma membrane that result in activation of the G protein TC10 (refs 3, 4). Here we show that TC10 interacts with one of the components of the exocyst complex, Exo70. Exo70 translocates to the plasma membrane in response to insulin through the activation of TC10, where it assembles a multiprotein complex that includes Sec6 and Sec8. Overexpression of an Exo70 mutant blocked insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, but not the trafficking of Glut4 to the plasma membrane. However, this mutant did block the extracellular exposure of the Glut4 protein. So, the exocyst might have a crucial role in the targeting of the Glut4 vesicle to the plasma membrane, perhaps directing the vesicle to the precise site of fusion.

    Nature 2003;422;6932;629-33

  • Characterization of long cDNA clones from human adult spleen. II. The complete sequences of 81 cDNA clones.

    Jikuya H, Takano J, Kikuno R, Hirosawa M, Nagase T, Nomura N and Ohara O

    Kazusa DNA Research Institute, 2-6-7 Kazusa-kamatari, Chiba 292-0818, Japan.

    To accumulate information on the coding sequences (CDSs) of unidentified genes, we have conducted a sequencing project of human long cDNA clones. Both the end sequences of approximately 10,000 cDNA clones from two size-fractionated human spleen cDNA libraries (average sizes of 4.5 kb and 5.6 kb) were determined by single-pass sequencing to select cDNAs with unidentified sequences. We herein present the entire sequences of 81 cDNA clones, most of which were selected by two approaches based on their protein-coding potentialities in silico: Fifty-eight cDNA clones were selected as those having protein-coding potentialities at the 5'-end of single-pass sequences by applying the GeneMark analysis; and 20 cDNA clones were selected as those expected to encode proteins larger than 100 amino acid residues by analysis of the human genome sequences flanked by both the end sequences of cDNAs using the GENSCAN gene prediction program. In addition to these newly identified cDNAs, three cDNA clones were isolated by colony hybridization experiments using probes corresponding to known gene sequences since these cDNAs are likely to contain considerable amounts of new information regarding the genes already annotated. The sequence data indicated that the average sizes of the inserts and corresponding CDSs of cDNA clones analyzed here were 5.0 kb and 2.0 kb (670 amino acid residues), respectively. From the results of homology and motif searches against the public databases, functional categories of the 29 predicted gene products could be assigned; 86% of these predicted gene products (25 gene products) were classified into proteins relating to cell signaling/communication, nucleic acid management, and cell structure/motility.

    DNA research : an international journal for rapid publication of reports on genes and genomes 2003;10;1;49-57

  • Ral-GTPase influences the regulation of the readily releasable pool of synaptic vesicles.

    Polzin A, Shipitsin M, Goi T, Feig LA and Turner TJ

    Department of Biochemistry, Tufts University School of Medicine, Tufts-New England Medical Center, Boston, MA 02111, USA.

    The Ral proteins are members of the Ras superfamily of GTPases. Because they reside in synaptic vesicles, we used transgenic mice expressing a dominant inhibitory form of Ral to investigate the role of Ral in neurosecretion. Using a synaptosomal secretion assay, we found that while K(+)-evoked secretion of glutamate was normal, protein kinase C-mediated enhancement of glutamate secretion was suppressed in the mutant mice. Since protein kinase C effects on secretion have been shown to be due to enhancement of the size of the readily releasable pool of synaptic vesicles docked at the plasma membrane, we directly measured the refilling of this readily releasable pool of synaptic vesicles after Ca(2+)-triggered exocytosis. Refilling of the readily releasable pool was suppressed in synaptosomes from mice expressing dominant inhibitory Ral. Moreover, we found that protein kinase C and calcium-induced phosphorylation of proteins thought to influence synaptic vesicle function, such as MARCKS, synapsin, and SNAP-25, were all reduced in synaptosomes from these transgenic mice. Concomitant with these studies, we searched for new functions of Ral by detecting proteins that specifically bind to it in cells. Consistent with the phenotype of the transgenic mice described above, we found that active but not inactive RalA binds to the Sec6/8 (exocyst) complex, whose yeast counterpart is essential for targeting exocytic vesicles to specific docking sites on the plasma membrane. These findings demonstrate a role for Ral-GTPase signaling in the modulation of the readily releasable pool of synaptic vesicles and suggest the possible involvement of Ral-Sec6/8 (exocyst) binding in modulation of synaptic strength.

    Molecular and cellular biology 2002;22;6;1714-22

  • The brain exocyst complex interacts with RalA in a GTP-dependent manner: identification of a novel mammalian Sec3 gene and a second Sec15 gene.

    Brymora A, Valova VA, Larsen MR, Roufogalis BD and Robinson PJ

    Children's Medical Research Institute, 214 Hawkesbury Road, Westmead NSW 2145, Australia.

    Ral is a small GTPase involved in critical cellular signaling pathways. The two isoforms, RalA and RalB, are widely distributed in different tissues, with RalA being enriched in brain. The best characterized RalA signaling pathways involve RalBP1 and phospholipase D. To investigate RalA signaling in neuronal cells we searched for RalA-binding proteins in brain. We found at least eight proteins that bound RalA in a GTP-dependent manner. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) identified these as the components of the exocyst complex. The yeast exocyst is a regulator of polarized secretion, docking vesicles to regions of the plasma membrane involved in active exocytosis. We identified the human FLJ10893 protein as the mammalian homologue of the yeast exocyst protein Sec3p. The exocyst complex did not contain the previously identified exocyst component rSec15, but a new homologue of both yeast Sec15p and rSec15, called KIAA0919. Western blots confirmed that two rat exocyst proteins, rSec6 and rSec8, bound active RalA in nerve terminals, as did RalBP1. Phospholipase D bound RalA in a nucleotide-independent manner. This places the RalA signaling system in mammalian nerve terminals, where the exocyst may act as an effector for activated RalA in directing sites of exocytosis.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2001;276;32;29792-7

  • Subunit composition, protein interactions, and structures of the mammalian brain sec6/8 complex and septin filaments.

    Hsu SC, Hazuka CD, Roth R, Foletti DL, Heuser J and Scheller RH

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Molecular and Cellular Physiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, California 94305, USA.

    Both the sec6/8 complex and septin filaments have been implicated in directing vesicles and proteins to sites of active membrane addition in yeast. The rat brain sec6/8 complex coimmunoprecipitates with a filament composed of four mammalian septins, suggesting an interaction between these complexes. One of the septins, CDC10, displays broad subcellular and tissue distributions and is found in postmitotic neurons as well as dividing cells. Electron microscopic studies showed that the purified rat brain septins form filaments of 8.25 nm in diameter; the lengths of the filaments are multiples of 25 nm. Glutaraldehyde-fixed rat brain sec6/8 complex adopts a conformation resembling the letter "T" or "Y". The sec6/8 and septin complexes likely play an important role in trafficking vesicles and organizing proteins at the plasma membrane of neurons.

    Neuron 1998;20;6;1111-22

  • Subunit structure of the mammalian exocyst complex.

    Kee Y, Yoo JS, Hazuka CD, Peterson KE, Hsu SC and Scheller RH

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Molecular and Cellular Physiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford CA 94305-5428, USA.

    The exocyst is a protein complex required for the late stages of secretion in yeast. Unlike the SNAREs (SNAP receptors), important secretory proteins that are broadly distributed on the target membrane, the exocyst is specifically located at sites of vesicle fusion. We have isolated cDNAs encoding the rexo70, rsec5, and rsec15 subunits of the mammalian complex. The amino acid sequences encoded by these genes are between 21% and 24% identical to their yeast homologs. All three genes are broadly expressed and multiple transcripts are observed for rexo70 and rsec15. Characterization of cDNAs encoding the 84-kDa subunit of the mammalian complex revealed a novel protein. mAbs were generated to the mammalian rsec6 subunit of the exocyst complex. rsec6 immunoreactivity is found in a punctate distribution at terminals of PC12 cell processes at or near sites of granule exocytosis.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1997;94;26;14438-43

  • Large-scale concatenation cDNA sequencing.

    Yu W, Andersson B, Worley KC, Muzny DM, Ding Y, Liu W, Ricafrente JY, Wentland MA, Lennon G and Gibbs RA

    A total of 100 kb of DNA derived from 69 individual human brain cDNA clones of 0.7-2.0 kb were sequenced by concatenated cDNA sequencing (CCS), whereby multiple individual DNA fragments are sequenced simultaneously in a single shotgun library. The method yielded accurate sequences and a similar efficiency compared with other shotgun libraries constructed from single DNA fragments (> 20 kb). Computer analyses were carried out on 65 cDNA clone sequences and their corresponding end sequences to examine both nucleic acid and amino acid sequence similarities in the databases. Thirty-seven clones revealed no DNA database matches, 12 clones generated exact matches (> or = 98% identity), and 16 clones generated nonexact matches (57%-97% identity) to either known human or other species genes. Of those 28 matched clones, 8 had corresponding end sequences that failed to identify similarities. In a protein similarity search, 27 clone sequences displayed significant matches, whereas only 20 of the end sequences had matches to known protein sequences. Our data indicate that full-length cDNA insert sequences provide significantly more nucleic acid and protein sequence similarity matches than expressed sequence tags (ESTs) for database searching.

    Funded by: NHGRI NIH HHS: 1F32 HG00169-01, F32 HG000169, F33 HG000210, P30 HG00210-05, R01 HG00823, U54 HG003273

    Genome research 1997;7;4;353-8

  • The mammalian brain rsec6/8 complex.

    Hsu SC, Ting AE, Hazuka CD, Davanger S, Kenny JW, Kee Y and Scheller RH

    Department of Molecular and Cellular Physiology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Stanford University Medical School, California 94305-5428, USA.

    rsec6 and rsec8 are two components of a 17S complex in mammalian brain that is homologous to the yeast 834 kDa Sec6/8/15 complex which is essential for exocytosis. Purification and partial amino acid sequencing of the mammalian rsec6/8 complex reveals that it is composed of eight novel proteins with a combined molecular weight of 743 kDa. The complex is broadly expressed in brain and displays a plasma membrane localization in nerve terminals. Membrane associated rsec6/8 complex coimmunoprecipitates with syntaxin, a plasma membrane protein critical for neurotransmission. These data suggest a role for the mammalian rsec6/8 complex in neurotransmitter release via interactions with the core vesicle docking and fusion apparatus.

    Neuron 1996;17;6;1209-19

  • A "double adaptor" method for improved shotgun library construction.

    Andersson B, Wentland MA, Ricafrente JY, Liu W and Gibbs RA

    Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, Texas, 77030, USA.

    The efficiency of shotgun DNA sequencing depends to a great extent on the quality of the random-subclone libraries used. We here describe a novel "double adaptor" strategy for efficient construction of high-quality shotgun libraries. In this method, randomly sheared and end-repaired fragments are ligated to oligonucleotide adaptors creating 12-base overhangs. Nonphosphorylated oligonucleotides are used, which prevents formation of adaptor dimers and ensures efficient ligation of insert to adaptor. The vector is prepared from a modified M13 vector, by KpnI/PstI digestion followed by ligation to oligonucleotides with ends complementary to the overhangs created in the digest. These adaptors create 5'-overhangs complementary to those on the inserts. Following annealing of insert to vector, the DNA is directly used for transformation without a ligation step. This protocol is robust and shows three- to fivefold higher yield of clones compared to previous protocols. No chimeric clones can be detected and the background of clones without an insert is <1%. The procedure is rapid and shows potential for automation.

    Funded by: NHGRI NIH HHS: R01 HG00823

    Analytical biochemistry 1996;236;1;107-13

Gene lists (6)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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