G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
exocyst complex component 2
G00000713 (Mus musculus)

Databases (6)

ENSG00000112685 (Ensembl human gene)
55770 (Entrez Gene)
1122 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
EXOC2 (GeneCards)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:24968 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
Q96KP1 (UniProt)

Synonyms (2)

  • FLJ11026
  • Sec5p

Literature (23)

Pubmed - other

  • Genome-wide association study of tanning phenotype in a population of European ancestry.

    Nan H, Kraft P, Qureshi AA, Guo Q, Chen C, Hankinson SE, Hu FB, Thomas G, Hoover RN, Chanock S, Hunter DJ and Han J

    Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. hnan@hsph.harvard.edu

    We conducted a multistage genome-wide association study (GWAS) of tanning response after exposure to sunlight in over 9,000 men and women of European ancestry who live in the United States. An initial analysis of 528,173 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped on 2,287 women identified LOC401937 (rs966321) on chromosome 1 as a novel locus highly associated with tanning ability, and we confirmed this association in 870 women controls from a skin cancer case-control study with joint P-value=1.6 x 10(-9). We further genotyped this SNP in two subsequent replication studies (one with 3,750 women and the other with 2,405 men). This association was not replicated in either of these two studies. We found that several SNPs reaching the genome-wide significance level are located in or adjacent to the loci previously known as pigmentation genes: MATP, IRF4, TYR, OCA2, and MC1R. Overall, these tanning ability-related loci are similar to the hair color-related loci previously reported in the GWAS of hair color.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA122838, CA128080, R01 CA122838, R01 CA122838-01A2, R03 CA128080, R03 CA128080-02

    The Journal of investigative dermatology 2009;129;9;2250-7

  • Solution structure and dynamics of the small GTPase RalB in its active conformation: significance for effector protein binding.

    Fenwick RB, Prasannan S, Campbell LJ, Nietlispach D, Evetts KA, Camonis J, Mott HR and Owen D

    Department of Biochemistry, University of Cambridge, UK.

    The small G proteins RalA/B have a crucial function in the regulatory network that couples extracellular signals with appropriate cellular responses. RalA/B are an important component of the Ras signaling pathway and, in addition to their role in membrane trafficking, are implicated in the initiation and maintenance of tumorigenic transformation of human cells. RalA and RalB share 85% sequence identity and collaborate in supporting cancer cell proliferation but have markedly different effects. RalA is important in mediating proliferation, while depletion of RalB results in transformed cells undergoing apoptosis. Crystal structures of RalA in the free form and in complex with its effectors, Sec5 and Exo84, have been solved. Here we have determined the solution structure of free RalB bound to the GTP analogue GMPPNP to an RMSD of 0.6 A. We show that, while the overall architecture of RalB is very similar to the crystal structure of RalA, differences exist in the switch regions, which are sensitive to the bound nucleotide. Backbone 15N dynamics suggest that there are four regions of disorder in RalB: the P-loop, switch I, switch II, and the loop comprising residues 116-121, which has a single residue insertion compared to RalA. 31P NMR data and the structure of RalB.GMPPNP show that the switch regions predominantly adopt state 1 (Ras nomenclature) in the unbound form, which in Ras is not competent to bind effectors. In contrast, 31P NMR analysis of RalB.GTP reveals that conformations corresponding to states 1 and 2 are both sampled in solution and that addition of an effector protein only partially stabilizes state 2.

    Funded by: Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council: BB/E013228/1; Medical Research Council: G0700057

    Biochemistry 2009;48;10;2192-206

  • Ral-regulated interaction between Sec5 and paxillin targets Exocyst to focal complexes during cell migration.

    Spiczka KS and Yeaman C

    Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA.

    Changes in cellular behavior that cause epithelial cells to lose adhesiveness, acquire a motile invasive phenotype and metastasize to secondary sites are complex and poorly understood. Molecules that normally function to integrate adhesive spatial information with cytoskeleton dynamics and membrane trafficking probably serve important functions in cellular transformation. One such complex is the Exocyst, which is essential for targeted delivery of membrane and secretory proteins to specific plasma membrane sites to maintain epithelial cell polarity. Upon loss of cadherin-mediated adhesion in Dunning R3327-5'A prostate tumor cells, Exocyst localization shifts from lateral membranes to tips of protrusive membrane extensions. Here, it colocalizes and co-purifies with focal complex proteins that regulate membrane trafficking and cytoskeleton dynamics. These sites are the preferred destination of post-Golgi transport vesicles ferrying biosynthetic cargo, such as alpha(5)-integrin, which mediates adhesion of cells to the substratum, a process essential to cell motility. Interference with Exocyst activity impairs integrin delivery to plasma membrane and inhibits tumor cell motility and matrix invasiveness. Localization of Exocyst and, by extension, targeting of Exocyst-dependent cargo, is dependent on Ral GTPases, which control association between Sec5 and paxillin. Overexpression of Ral-uncoupled Sec5 mutants inhibited Exocyst interaction with paxillin in 5'A cells, as did RNAi-mediated reduction of either RalA or RalB. Reduction of neither GTPase significantly altered steady-state levels of assembled Exocyst in these cells, but did change the observed localization of Exocyst proteins.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM067002, R01 GM067002

    Journal of cell science 2008;121;Pt 17;2880-91

  • A genome-wide association study identifies novel alleles associated with hair color and skin pigmentation.

    Han J, Kraft P, Nan H, Guo Q, Chen C, Qureshi A, Hankinson SE, Hu FB, Duffy DL, Zhao ZZ, Martin NG, Montgomery GW, Hayward NK, Thomas G, Hoover RN, Chanock S and Hunter DJ

    Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America.

    We conducted a multi-stage genome-wide association study of natural hair color in more than 10,000 men and women of European ancestry from the United States and Australia. An initial analysis of 528,173 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped on 2,287 women identified IRF4 and SLC24A4 as loci highly associated with hair color, along with three other regions encompassing known pigmentation genes. We confirmed these associations in 7,028 individuals from three additional studies. Across these four studies, SLC24A4 rs12896399 and IRF4 rs12203592 showed strong associations with hair color, with p = 6.0x10(-62) and p = 7.46x10(-127), respectively. The IRF4 SNP was also associated with skin color (p = 6.2x10(-14)), eye color (p = 6.1x10(-13)), and skin tanning response to sunlight (p = 3.9x10(-89)). A multivariable analysis pooling data from the initial GWAS and an additional 1,440 individuals suggested that the association between rs12203592 and hair color was independent of rs1540771, a SNP between the IRF4 and EXOC2 genes previously found to be associated with hair color. After adjustment for rs12203592, the association between rs1540771 and hair color was not significant (p = 0.52). One variant in the MATP gene was associated with hair color. A variant in the HERC2 gene upstream of the OCA2 gene showed the strongest and independent association with hair color compared with other SNPs in this region, including three previously reported SNPs. The signals detected in a region around the MC1R gene were explained by MC1R red hair color alleles. Our results suggest that the IRF4 and SLC24A4 loci are associated with human hair color and skin pigmentation.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA049449, CA087969, CA098233, CA128080, CA132175, CA88363, P01 CA087969, R01 CA049449, R01 CA088363, R03 CA128080, R03 CA132175, U01 CA049449, U01 CA098233

    PLoS genetics 2008;4;5;e1000074

  • Genetic determinants of hair, eye and skin pigmentation in Europeans.

    Sulem P, Gudbjartsson DF, Stacey SN, Helgason A, Rafnar T, Magnusson KP, Manolescu A, Karason A, Palsson A, Thorleifsson G, Jakobsdottir M, Steinberg S, Pálsson S, Jonasson F, Sigurgeirsson B, Thorisdottir K, Ragnarsson R, Benediktsdottir KR, Aben KK, Kiemeney LA, Olafsson JH, Gulcher J, Kong A, Thorsteinsdottir U and Stefansson K

    deCODE genetics, Sturlugata 8, 101 Reykjavik, Iceland.

    Hair, skin and eye colors are highly heritable and visible traits in humans. We carried out a genome-wide association scan for variants associated with hair and eye pigmentation, skin sensitivity to sun and freckling among 2,986 Icelanders. We then tested the most closely associated SNPs from six regions--four not previously implicated in the normal variation of human pigmentation--and replicated their association in a second sample of 2,718 Icelanders and a sample of 1,214 Dutch. The SNPs from all six regions met the criteria for genome-wide significance. A variant in SLC24A4 is associated with eye and hair color, a variant near KITLG is associated with hair color, two coding variants in TYR are associated with eye color and freckles, and a variant on 6p25.3 is associated with freckles. The fifth region provided refinements to a previously reported association in OCA2, and the sixth encompasses previously described variants in MC1R.

    Nature genetics 2007;39;12;1443-52

  • RalB GTPase-mediated activation of the IkappaB family kinase TBK1 couples innate immune signaling to tumor cell survival.

    Chien Y, Kim S, Bumeister R, Loo YM, Kwon SW, Johnson CL, Balakireva MG, Romeo Y, Kopelovich L, Gale M, Yeaman C, Camonis JH, Zhao Y and White MA

    Department of Cell Biology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 5323 Harry Hines Blvd., Dallas, TX 75390, USA.

    The monomeric RalGTPases, RalA and RalB are recognized as components of a regulatory framework supporting tumorigenic transformation. Specifically, RalB is required to suppress apoptotic checkpoint activation, the mechanistic basis of which is unknown. Reported effector proteins of RalB include the Sec5 component of the exocyst, an octameric protein complex implicated in tethering of vesicles to membranes. Surprisingly, we find that the RalB/Sec5 effector complex directly recruits and activates the atypical IkappaB kinase family member TBK1. In cancer cells, constitutive engagement of this pathway, via chronic RalB activation, restricts initiation of apoptotic programs typically engaged in the context of oncogenic stress. Although dispensable for survival in a nontumorigenic context, this pathway helps mount an innate immune response to virus exposure. These observations define the mechanistic contribution of RalGTPases to cancer cell survival and reveal the RalB/Sec5 effector complex as a component of TBK1-dependent innate immune signaling.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA107943, CA71443, CN35132, R01 CA071443; NIGMS NIH HHS: R01 GM067002

    Cell 2006;127;1;157-70

  • Exo84 and Sec5 are competitive regulatory Sec6/8 effectors to the RalA GTPase.

    Jin R, Junutula JR, Matern HT, Ervin KE, Scheller RH and Brunger AT

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-5432, USA.

    The Sec6/8 complex, also known as the exocyst complex, is an octameric protein complex that has been implicated in tethering of secretory vesicles to specific regions on the plasma membrane. Two subunits of the Sec6/8 complex, Exo84 and Sec5, have recently been shown to be effector targets for active Ral GTPases. However, the mechanism by which Ral proteins regulate the Sec6/8 activities remains unclear. Here, we present the crystal structure of the Ral-binding domain of Exo84 in complex with active RalA. The structure reveals that the Exo84 Ral-binding domain adopts a pleckstrin homology domain fold, and that RalA interacts with Exo84 via an extended interface that includes both switch regions. Key residues of Exo84 and RalA were found that determine the specificity of the complex interactions; these interactions were confirmed by mutagenesis binding studies. Structural and biochemical data show that Exo84 and Sec5 competitively bind to active RalA. Taken together, these results further strengthen the proposed role of RalA-regulated assembly of the Sec6/8 complex.

    The EMBO journal 2005;24;12;2064-74

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • Large-scale characterization of HeLa cell nuclear phosphoproteins.

    Beausoleil SA, Jedrychowski M, Schwartz D, Elias JE, Villén J, Li J, Cohn MA, Cantley LC and Gygi SP

    Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

    Determining the site of a regulatory phosphorylation event is often essential for elucidating specific kinase-substrate relationships, providing a handle for understanding essential signaling pathways and ultimately allowing insights into numerous disease pathologies. Despite intense research efforts to elucidate mechanisms of protein phosphorylation regulation, efficient, large-scale identification and characterization of phosphorylation sites remains an unsolved problem. In this report we describe an application of existing technology for the isolation and identification of phosphorylation sites. By using a strategy based on strong cation exchange chromatography, phosphopeptides were enriched from the nuclear fraction of HeLa cell lysate. From 967 proteins, 2,002 phosphorylation sites were determined by tandem MS. This unprecedented large collection of sites permitted a detailed accounting of known and unknown kinase motifs and substrates.

    Funded by: NHGRI NIH HHS: HG00041, K22 HG000041, T32 HG000041; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM67945, GMS6203, R01 GM056203, R01 GM067945

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2004;101;33;12130-5

  • Characterisation of an evolutionary conserved protein interacting with the putative guanine nucleotide exchange factor DelGEF and modulating secretion.

    Sjölinder M, Uhlmann J and Ponstingl H

    Division for Molecular Biology of Mitosis, German Cancer Research Center, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany. ponstingl@dkfz.de

    A human cDNA library was screened for proteins interacting with the deafness locus putative guanine nucleotide exchange factor (DelGEF) using a yeast two-hybrid system. A protein with a predicted size of 9 kDa was identified as a binding partner, this protein was designated DelGEF interacting protein 1 (DelGIP1). The interaction between DelGEF and DelGIP1 was verified by co-immunoprecipitation of a DelGEF-DelGIP1 complex from cell lysates. Highly conserved homologues of DelGIP1 were identified in higher and lower eukaryotes by database searching. The human DelGIP1 gene is ubiquitously expressed as judged by human multiple tissue Northern blot analysis. DelGEF was recently shown to interact with Sec5, a protein involved in secretion, and to regulate secretion of proteoglycans. Downregulation of endogenous DelGIP1 in HeLa cells induced increased extracellular secretion of proteoglycans indicating a possible role for DelGIP1 in the secretion process.

    Experimental cell research 2004;294;1;68-76

  • Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.

    Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, Otsuki T, Sugiyama T, Irie R, Wakamatsu A, Hayashi K, Sato H, Nagai K, Kimura K, Makita H, Sekine M, Obayashi M, Nishi T, Shibahara T, Tanaka T, Ishii S, Yamamoto J, Saito K, Kawai Y, Isono Y, Nakamura Y, Nagahari K, Murakami K, Yasuda T, Iwayanagi T, Wagatsuma M, Shiratori A, Sudo H, Hosoiri T, Kaku Y, Kodaira H, Kondo H, Sugawara M, Takahashi M, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Furuya T, Kikkawa E, Omura Y, Abe K, Kamihara K, Katsuta N, Sato K, Tanikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ninomiya K, Ishibashi T, Yamashita H, Murakawa K, Fujimori K, Tanai H, Kimata M, Watanabe M, Hiraoka S, Chiba Y, Ishida S, Ono Y, Takiguchi S, Watanabe S, Yosida M, Hotuta T, Kusano J, Kanehori K, Takahashi-Fujii A, Hara H, Tanase TO, Nomura Y, Togiya S, Komai F, Hara R, Takeuchi K, Arita M, Imose N, Musashino K, Yuuki H, Oshima A, Sasaki N, Aotsuka S, Yoshikawa Y, Matsunawa H, Ichihara T, Shiohata N, Sano S, Moriya S, Momiyama H, Satoh N, Takami S, Terashima Y, Suzuki O, Nakagawa S, Senoh A, Mizoguchi H, Goto Y, Shimizu F, Wakebe H, Hishigaki H, Watanabe T, Sugiyama A, Takemoto M, Kawakami B, Yamazaki M, Watanabe K, Kumagai A, Itakura S, Fukuzumi Y, Fujimori Y, Komiyama M, Tashiro H, Tanigami A, Fujiwara T, Ono T, Yamada K, Fujii Y, Ozaki K, Hirao M, Ohmori Y, Kawabata A, Hikiji T, Kobatake N, Inagaki H, Ikema Y, Okamoto S, Okitani R, Kawakami T, Noguchi S, Itoh T, Shigeta K, Senba T, Matsumura K, Nakajima Y, Mizuno T, Morinaga M, Sasaki M, Togashi T, Oyama M, Hata H, Watanabe M, Komatsu T, Mizushima-Sugano J, Satoh T, Shirai Y, Takahashi Y, Nakagawa K, Okumura K, Nagase T, Nomura N, Kikuchi H, Masuho Y, Yamashita R, Nakai K, Yada T, Nakamura Y, Ohara O, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Helix Research Institute, 1532-3 Yana, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0812, Japan.

    As a base for human transcriptome and functional genomics, we created the "full-length long Japan" (FLJ) collection of sequenced human cDNAs. We determined the entire sequence of 21,243 selected clones and found that 14,490 cDNAs (10,897 clusters) were unique to the FLJ collection. About half of them (5,416) seemed to be protein-coding. Of those, 1,999 clusters had not been predicted by computational methods. The distribution of GC content of nonpredicted cDNAs had a peak at approximately 58% compared with a peak at approximately 42%for predicted cDNAs. Thus, there seems to be a slight bias against GC-rich transcripts in current gene prediction procedures. The rest of the cDNAs unique to the FLJ collection (5,481) contained no obvious open reading frames (ORFs) and thus are candidate noncoding RNAs. About one-fourth of them (1,378) showed a clear pattern of splicing. The distribution of GC content of noncoding cDNAs was narrow and had a peak at approximately 42%, relatively low compared with that of protein-coding cDNAs.

    Nature genetics 2004;36;1;40-5

  • The exocyst complex in polarized exocytosis.

    Hsu SC, TerBush D, Abraham M and Guo W

    Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854, USA.

    Exocytosis is an essential membrane traffic event mediating the secretion of intracellular protein contents such as hormones and neurotransmitters as well as the incorporation of membrane proteins and lipids to specific domains of the plasma membrane. As a fundamental cell biological process, exocytosis is crucial for cell growth, cell-cell communication, and cell polarity establishment. For most eukaryotic cells exocytosis is polarized. A multiprotein complex, named the exocyst, is required for polarized exocytosis from yeast to mammals. The exocyst consists of eight components: Sec3, Sec5, Sec6, Sec8, Sec10, Sec15, Exo70, and Exo84. They are localized to sites of active exocytosis, where they mediate the targeting and tethering of post-Golgi secretory vesicles for subsequent membrane fusion. Here we review the progress made in the understanding of the exocyst and its role in polarized exocytosis.

    International review of cytology 2004;233;243-65

  • Ral GTPases regulate exocyst assembly through dual subunit interactions.

    Moskalenko S, Tong C, Rosse C, Mirey G, Formstecher E, Daviet L, Camonis J and White MA

    Department of Cell Biology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75235-9039, USA.

    Ral GTPases have been implicated in the regulation of a variety of dynamic cellular processes including proliferation, oncogenic transformation, actin-cytoskeletal dynamics, endocytosis, and exocytosis. Recently the Sec6/8 complex, or exocyst, a multisubunit complex facilitating post-Golgi targeting of distinct subclasses of secretory vesicles, has been identified as a bona fide Ral effector complex. Ral GTPases regulate exocyst-dependent vesicle trafficking and are required for exocyst complex assembly. Sec5, a membrane-associated exocyst subunit, has been identified as a direct target of activated Ral; however, the mechanism by which Ral can modulate exocyst assembly is unknown. Here we report that an additional component of the exocyst, Exo84, is a direct target of activated Ral. We provide evidence that mammalian exocyst components are present as distinct subcomplexes on vesicles and the plasma membrane and that Ral GTPases regulate the assembly interface of a full octameric exocyst complex through interaction with Sec5 and Exo84.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA71443

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;51;51743-8

  • The DNA sequence and analysis of human chromosome 6.

    Mungall AJ, Palmer SA, Sims SK, Edwards CA, Ashurst JL, Wilming L, Jones MC, Horton R, Hunt SE, Scott CE, Gilbert JG, Clamp ME, Bethel G, Milne S, Ainscough R, Almeida JP, Ambrose KD, Andrews TD, Ashwell RI, Babbage AK, Bagguley CL, Bailey J, Banerjee R, Barker DJ, Barlow KF, Bates K, Beare DM, Beasley H, Beasley O, Bird CP, Blakey S, Bray-Allen S, Brook J, Brown AJ, Brown JY, Burford DC, Burrill W, Burton J, Carder C, Carter NP, Chapman JC, Clark SY, Clark G, Clee CM, Clegg S, Cobley V, Collier RE, Collins JE, Colman LK, Corby NR, Coville GJ, Culley KM, Dhami P, Davies J, Dunn M, Earthrowl ME, Ellington AE, Evans KA, Faulkner L, Francis MD, Frankish A, Frankland J, French L, Garner P, Garnett J, Ghori MJ, Gilby LM, Gillson CJ, Glithero RJ, Grafham DV, Grant M, Gribble S, Griffiths C, Griffiths M, Hall R, Halls KS, Hammond S, Harley JL, Hart EA, Heath PD, Heathcott R, Holmes SJ, Howden PJ, Howe KL, Howell GR, Huckle E, Humphray SJ, Humphries MD, Hunt AR, Johnson CM, Joy AA, Kay M, Keenan SJ, Kimberley AM, King A, Laird GK, Langford C, Lawlor S, Leongamornlert DA, Leversha M, Lloyd CR, Lloyd DM, Loveland JE, Lovell J, Martin S, Mashreghi-Mohammadi M, Maslen GL, Matthews L, McCann OT, McLaren SJ, McLay K, McMurray A, Moore MJ, Mullikin JC, Niblett D, Nickerson T, Novik KL, Oliver K, Overton-Larty EK, Parker A, Patel R, Pearce AV, Peck AI, Phillimore B, Phillips S, Plumb RW, Porter KM, Ramsey Y, Ranby SA, Rice CM, Ross MT, Searle SM, Sehra HK, Sheridan E, Skuce CD, Smith S, Smith M, Spraggon L, Squares SL, Steward CA, Sycamore N, Tamlyn-Hall G, Tester J, Theaker AJ, Thomas DW, Thorpe A, Tracey A, Tromans A, Tubby B, Wall M, Wallis JM, West AP, White SS, Whitehead SL, Whittaker H, Wild A, Willey DJ, Wilmer TE, Wood JM, Wray PW, Wyatt JC, Young L, Younger RM, Bentley DR, Coulson A, Durbin R, Hubbard T, Sulston JE, Dunham I, Rogers J and Beck S

    The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SA, UK. ajm@sanger.ac.uk

    Chromosome 6 is a metacentric chromosome that constitutes about 6% of the human genome. The finished sequence comprises 166,880,988 base pairs, representing the largest chromosome sequenced so far. The entire sequence has been subjected to high-quality manual annotation, resulting in the evidence-supported identification of 1,557 genes and 633 pseudogenes. Here we report that at least 96% of the protein-coding genes have been identified, as assessed by multi-species comparative sequence analysis, and provide evidence for the presence of further, otherwise unsupported exons/genes. Among these are genes directly implicated in cancer, schizophrenia, autoimmunity and many other diseases. Chromosome 6 harbours the largest transfer RNA gene cluster in the genome; we show that this cluster co-localizes with a region of high transcriptional activity. Within the essential immune loci of the major histocompatibility complex, we find HLA-B to be the most polymorphic gene on chromosome 6 and in the human genome.

    Nature 2003;425;6960;805-11

  • Structural basis of the interaction between RalA and Sec5, a subunit of the sec6/8 complex.

    Fukai S, Matern HT, Jagath JR, Scheller RH and Brunger AT

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Molecular and Cellular Physiology, Stanford University, James H.Clark Center, E300C, 318 Campus Drive, Stanford, CA 94305-5432, USA.

    The sec6/8 complex or exocyst is an octameric protein complex that functions during cell polarization by regulating the site of exocytic vesicle docking to the plasma membrane, in concert with small GTP-binding proteins. The Sec5 subunit of the mammalian sec6/8 complex binds Ral in a GTP-dependent manner. Here we report the crystal structure of the complex between the Ral-binding domain of Sec5 and RalA bound to a non-hydrolyzable GTP analog (GppNHp) at 2.1 A resolution, providing the first structural insights into the mechanism and specificity of sec6/8 regulation. The Sec5 Ral-binding domain folds into an immunoglobulin-like beta-sandwich structure, which represents a novel fold for an effector of a GTP-binding protein. The interface between the two proteins involves a continuous antiparallel beta-sheet, similar to that found in other effector/G-protein complexes, such as Ras and Rap1A. Specific interactions unique to the RalA.Sec5 complex include Sec5 Thr11 and Arg27, and RalA Glu38, which we show are required for complex formation by isothermal titration calorimetry. Comparison of the structures of GppNHp- and GDP-bound RalA suggests a nucleotide-dependent switch mechanism for Sec5 binding.

    The EMBO journal 2003;22;13;3267-78

  • Structure of the GTPase-binding domain of Sec5 and elucidation of its Ral binding site.

    Mott HR, Nietlispach D, Hopkins LJ, Mirey G, Camonis JH and Owen D

    Department of Biochemistry, University of Cambridge, 80, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1GA, United Kingdom. mott@bio.cam.ac.uk

    The exocyst complex is involved in the final stages of exocytosis, when vesicles are targeted to the plasma membrane and dock. The regulation of exocytosis is vital for a number of processes, for example, cell polarity, embryogenesis, and neuronal growth formation. Regulation of the exocyst complex in mammals was recently shown to be dependent upon binding of the small G protein, Ral, to Sec5, a central component of the exocyst. This interaction is thought to be necessary for anchoring the exocyst to secretory vesicles. We have determined the structure of the Ral-binding domain of Sec5 and shown that it adopts a fold that has not been observed in a G protein effector before. This fold belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily in a subclass known as IPT domains. We have mapped the Ral binding site on this domain and found that it overlaps with protein-protein interaction sites on other IPT domains but that it is completely different from the G protein-geranyl-geranyl interaction face of the Ig-like domain of the Rho guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor. This mapping, along with available site-directed mutagenesis data, allows us to predict how Ral and Sec5 may interact.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;19;17053-9

  • The exocyst complex is required for targeting of Glut4 to the plasma membrane by insulin.

    Inoue M, Chang L, Hwang J, Chiang SH and Saltiel AR

    Life Sciences Institute, Departments of Internal Medicine and Physiology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA.

    Insulin stimulates glucose transport by promoting exocytosis of the glucose transporter Glut4 (refs 1, 2). The dynamic processes involved in the trafficking of Glut4-containing vesicles, and in their targeting, docking and fusion at the plasma membrane, as well as the signalling processes that govern these events, are not well understood. We recently described tyrosine-phosphorylation events restricted to subdomains of the plasma membrane that result in activation of the G protein TC10 (refs 3, 4). Here we show that TC10 interacts with one of the components of the exocyst complex, Exo70. Exo70 translocates to the plasma membrane in response to insulin through the activation of TC10, where it assembles a multiprotein complex that includes Sec6 and Sec8. Overexpression of an Exo70 mutant blocked insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, but not the trafficking of Glut4 to the plasma membrane. However, this mutant did block the extracellular exposure of the Glut4 protein. So, the exocyst might have a crucial role in the targeting of the Glut4 vesicle to the plasma membrane, perhaps directing the vesicle to the precise site of fusion.

    Nature 2003;422;6932;629-33

  • Mutations in the exocyst component Sec5 disrupt neuronal membrane traffic, but neurotransmitter release persists.

    Murthy M, Garza D, Scheller RH and Schwarz TL

    Department of Molecular and Cellular Physiology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.

    The exocyst (Sec6/8) complex is necessary for secretion in yeast and has been postulated to establish polarity by directing vesicle fusion to specific sites along the plasma membrane. The complex may also function in the nervous system, but its precise role is unknown. We have investigated exocyst function in Drosophila with mutations in one member of the complex, sec5. Null alleles die as growth-arrested larvae, whose neuromuscular junctions fail to expand. In culture, neurite outgrowth fails in sec5 mutants once maternal Sec5 is exhausted. Using a trafficking assay, we found impairments in the membrane addition of newly synthesized proteins. In contrast, synaptic vesicle fusion was not impaired. Thus, Sec5 differentiates between two forms of vesicle trafficking: trafficking for cell growth and membrane protein insertion depend on sec5, whereas transmitter secretion does not. In this regard, sec5 differs from the homologs of other yeast exocytosis genes that are required for both neuronal trafficking pathways.

    Funded by: NIMH NIH HHS: 5T32 MH20016-04, MH48108; NINDS NIH HHS: NS41062

    Neuron 2003;37;3;433-47

  • DelGEF, a homologue of the Ran guanine nucleotide exchange factor RanGEF, binds to the exocyst component Sec5 and modulates secretion.

    Sjölinder M, Uhlmann J and Ponstingl H

    Division for Molecular Biology of Mitosis, German Cancer Research Center, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.

    In order to identify the function of deafness locus putative guanine nucleotide exchange factor (DelGEF), a protein homologous to the nucleotide exchange factor for the small GTPase Ran, a cDNA library was screened for interacting proteins using a yeast two-hybrid system. The human homologue of Sec5, a protein involved in vesicle transport and secretion, was identified as a binding partner. The interaction between DelGEF and Sec5 was found to be dependent on Mg2+ and stimulated by guanosine triphosphate (GTP) or deoxycytidine triphosphate (dCTP). Downregulation of endogenous DelGEF in HeLa cells induced increased extracellular secretion of proteoglycans indicating a possible role for DelGEF in the secretion process.

    FEBS letters 2002;532;1-2;211-5

  • The exocyst complex binds the small GTPase RalA to mediate filopodia formation.

    Sugihara K, Asano S, Tanaka K, Iwamatsu A, Okawa K and Ohta Y

    Hematology Division, Department of Medicine, Brigham and women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    The Ras-related small GTPase RalA is involved in controlling actin cytoskeletal remodelling and vesicle transport in mammalian cells. We identified the mammalian homologue of Sec5, a subunit of the exocyst complex determining yeast cell polarity, as a specific binding partner for GTP-ligated RalA. Inhibition of RalA binding to Sec5 prevents filopod production by tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1 (IL-1) and by activated forms of RalA and Cdc42, signalling intermediates downstream of these inflammatory cytokines. We propose that the RalA-exocyst complex interaction integrates the secretory and cytoskeletal pathways.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL19429

    Nature cell biology 2002;4;1;73-8

  • The Sec6/8 complex in mammalian cells: characterization of mammalian Sec3, subunit interactions, and expression of subunits in polarized cells.

    Matern HT, Yeaman C, Nelson WJ and Scheller RH

    Genentech, Inc., Department of Richard Scheller, South San Francisco, CA 94080-4990, USA.

    The yeast exocyst complex (also called Sec6/8 complex in higher eukaryotes) is a multiprotein complex essential for targeting exocytic vesicles to specific docking sites on the plasma membrane. It is composed of eight proteins (Sec3, -5, -6, -8, -10, and -15, and Exo70 and -84), with molecular weights ranging from 70 to 144 kDa. Mammalian orthologues for seven of these proteins have been described and here we report the cloning and initial characterization of the remaining subunit, Sec3. Human Sec3 (hSec3) shares 17% sequence identity with yeast Sec3p, interacts in the two-hybrid system with other subunits of the complex (Sec5 and Sec8), and is expressed in almost all tissues tested. In yeast, Sec3p has been proposed to be a spatial landmark for polarized secretion (1), and its localization depends on its interaction with Rho1p (2). We demonstrate here that hSec3 lacks the potential Rho1-binding site and GFP-fusions of hSec3 are cytosolic. Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusions of nearly every subunit of the mammalian Sec6/8 complex were expressed in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells, but they failed to assemble into a complex with endogenous proteins and localized in the cytosol. Of the subunits tested, only GFP-Exo70 localized to lateral membrane sites of cell-cell contact when expressed in MDCK cells. Cells overexpressing GFP-Exo70 fail to form a tight monolayer, suggesting the Exo70 targeting interaction is critical for normal development of polarized epithelial cells.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2001;98;17;9648-53

  • Subunit composition, protein interactions, and structures of the mammalian brain sec6/8 complex and septin filaments.

    Hsu SC, Hazuka CD, Roth R, Foletti DL, Heuser J and Scheller RH

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Molecular and Cellular Physiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, California 94305, USA.

    Both the sec6/8 complex and septin filaments have been implicated in directing vesicles and proteins to sites of active membrane addition in yeast. The rat brain sec6/8 complex coimmunoprecipitates with a filament composed of four mammalian septins, suggesting an interaction between these complexes. One of the septins, CDC10, displays broad subcellular and tissue distributions and is found in postmitotic neurons as well as dividing cells. Electron microscopic studies showed that the purified rat brain septins form filaments of 8.25 nm in diameter; the lengths of the filaments are multiples of 25 nm. Glutaraldehyde-fixed rat brain sec6/8 complex adopts a conformation resembling the letter "T" or "Y". The sec6/8 and septin complexes likely play an important role in trafficking vesicles and organizing proteins at the plasma membrane of neurons.

    Neuron 1998;20;6;1111-22

  • Subunit structure of the mammalian exocyst complex.

    Kee Y, Yoo JS, Hazuka CD, Peterson KE, Hsu SC and Scheller RH

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Molecular and Cellular Physiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford CA 94305-5428, USA.

    The exocyst is a protein complex required for the late stages of secretion in yeast. Unlike the SNAREs (SNAP receptors), important secretory proteins that are broadly distributed on the target membrane, the exocyst is specifically located at sites of vesicle fusion. We have isolated cDNAs encoding the rexo70, rsec5, and rsec15 subunits of the mammalian complex. The amino acid sequences encoded by these genes are between 21% and 24% identical to their yeast homologs. All three genes are broadly expressed and multiple transcripts are observed for rexo70 and rsec15. Characterization of cDNAs encoding the 84-kDa subunit of the mammalian complex revealed a novel protein. mAbs were generated to the mammalian rsec6 subunit of the exocyst complex. rsec6 immunoreactivity is found in a punctate distribution at terminals of PC12 cell processes at or near sites of granule exocytosis.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1997;94;26;14438-43

Gene lists (6)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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