G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein, alpha
G00000706 (Mus musculus)

Databases (8)

Curated Gene
OTTHUMG00000071527 (Vega human gene)
ENSG00000105402 (Ensembl human gene)
8775 (Entrez Gene)
1108 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
NAPA (GeneCards)
603215 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:7641 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
P54920 (UniProt)

Literature (32)

Pubmed - other

  • Involvement of a novel Q-SNARE, D12, in quality control of the endomembrane system.

    Okumura AJ, Hatsuzawa K, Tamura T, Nagaya H, Saeki K, Okumura F, Nagao K, Nishikawa M, Yoshimura A and Wada I

    Division of Molecular and Cellular Immunology, Medical Institute of Bioregulation, Kyushu University, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka, Japan.

    The cellular endomembrane system requires the proper kinetic balance of synthesis and degradation of its individual components, which is maintained in part by a specific membrane fusion apparatus. In this study, we describe the molecular properties of D12, which was identified from a mouse expression library. This C-terminal anchored membrane protein has sequence similarity to both a yeast soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein (SNAP) receptor (SNARE), Use1p/Slt1p, and a recently identified human syntaxin 18-binding protein, p31. D12 formed a tight complex with syntaxin 18 as well as Sec22b and bound to alpha-SNAP, indicating that D12 is a SNARE protein. Although the majority of D12 is located in the endoplasmic reticulum and endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi intermediate compartments at steady state, overexpression or knockdown of D12 had no obvious effects on membrane trafficking in the early secretory pathway. However, suppression of D12 expression caused rapid appearance of lipofuscin granules, accompanied by apoptotic cell death without the apparent activation of the unfolded protein response. The typical cause of lipofuscin formation is the impaired degradation of mitochondria by lysosomal degradative enzymes, and, consistent with this, we found that proper post-Golgi maturation of cathepsin D was impaired in D12-deficient cells. This unexpected observation was supported by evidence that D12 associates with VAMP7, a SNARE in the endosomal-lysosomal pathway. Hence, we suggest that D12 participates in the degradative function of lysosomes.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2006;281;7;4495-506

  • Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network.

    Rual JF, Venkatesan K, Hao T, Hirozane-Kishikawa T, Dricot A, Li N, Berriz GF, Gibbons FD, Dreze M, Ayivi-Guedehoussou N, Klitgord N, Simon C, Boxem M, Milstein S, Rosenberg J, Goldberg DS, Zhang LV, Wong SL, Franklin G, Li S, Albala JS, Lim J, Fraughton C, Llamosas E, Cevik S, Bex C, Lamesch P, Sikorski RS, Vandenhaute J, Zoghbi HY, Smolyar A, Bosak S, Sequerra R, Doucette-Stamm L, Cusick ME, Hill DE, Roth FP and Vidal M

    Center for Cancer Systems Biology and Department of Cancer Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, 44 Binney Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    Systematic mapping of protein-protein interactions, or 'interactome' mapping, was initiated in model organisms, starting with defined biological processes and then expanding to the scale of the proteome. Although far from complete, such maps have revealed global topological and dynamic features of interactome networks that relate to known biological properties, suggesting that a human interactome map will provide insight into development and disease mechanisms at a systems level. Here we describe an initial version of a proteome-scale map of human binary protein-protein interactions. Using a stringent, high-throughput yeast two-hybrid system, we tested pairwise interactions among the products of approximately 8,100 currently available Gateway-cloned open reading frames and detected approximately 2,800 interactions. This data set, called CCSB-HI1, has a verification rate of approximately 78% as revealed by an independent co-affinity purification assay, and correlates significantly with other biological attributes. The CCSB-HI1 data set increases by approximately 70% the set of available binary interactions within the tested space and reveals more than 300 new connections to over 100 disease-associated proteins. This work represents an important step towards a systematic and comprehensive human interactome project.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R33 CA132073; NHGRI NIH HHS: P50 HG004233, R01 HG001715, RC4 HG006066, U01 HG001715; NHLBI NIH HHS: U01 HL098166

    Nature 2005;437;7062;1173-8

  • G alpha12 interaction with alphaSNAP induces VE-cadherin localization at endothelial junctions and regulates barrier function.

    Andreeva AV, Kutuzov MA, Vaiskunaite R, Profirovic J, Meigs TE, Predescu S, Malik AB and Voyno-Yasenetskaya T

    Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, University of Illinois, Chicago, Illinois 60612, USA.

    The involvement of heterotrimeric G proteins in the regulation of adherens junction function is unclear. We identified alphaSNAP as an interactive partner of G alpha12 using yeast two-hybrid screening. Glutathione S-transferase pull-down assays showed the selective interaction of alphaSNAP with G alpha12 in COS-7 as well as in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Using domain swapping experiments, we demonstrated that the N-terminal region of G alpha12 (1-37 amino acids) was necessary and sufficient for its interaction with alphaSNAP. G alpha13 with its N-terminal extension replaced by that of G alpha12 acquired the ability to bind to alphaSNAP, whereas G alpha12 with its N terminus replaced by that of G alpha13 lost this ability. Using four point mutants of alphaSNAP, which alter its ability to bind to the SNARE complex, we determined that the convex rather than the concave surface of alphaSNAP was involved in its interaction with G alpha12. Co-transfection of human umbilical vein endothelial cells with G alpha12 and alphaSNAP stabilized VE-cadherin at the plasma membrane, whereas down-regulation of alphaSNAP with siRNA resulted in the loss of VE-cadherin from the cell surface and, when used in conjunction with G alpha12 overexpression, decreased endothelial barrier function. Our results demonstrate a direct link between the alpha subunit of G12 and alphaSNAP, an essential component of the membrane fusion machinery, and implicate a role for this interaction in regulating the membrane localization of VE-cadherin and endothelial barrier function.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL06078; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM56159, GM65160

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2005;280;34;30376-83

  • Transcriptional maps of 10 human chromosomes at 5-nucleotide resolution.

    Cheng J, Kapranov P, Drenkow J, Dike S, Brubaker S, Patel S, Long J, Stern D, Tammana H, Helt G, Sementchenko V, Piccolboni A, Bekiranov S, Bailey DK, Ganesh M, Ghosh S, Bell I, Gerhard DS and Gingeras TR

    Affymetrix Inc., Santa Clara, CA 95051, USA.

    Sites of transcription of polyadenylated and nonpolyadenylated RNAs for 10 human chromosomes were mapped at 5-base pair resolution in eight cell lines. Unannotated, nonpolyadenylated transcripts comprise the major proportion of the transcriptional output of the human genome. Of all transcribed sequences, 19.4, 43.7, and 36.9% were observed to be polyadenylated, nonpolyadenylated, and bimorphic, respectively. Half of all transcribed sequences are found only in the nucleus and for the most part are unannotated. Overall, the transcribed portions of the human genome are predominantly composed of interlaced networks of both poly A+ and poly A- annotated transcripts and unannotated transcripts of unknown function. This organization has important implications for interpreting genotype-phenotype associations, regulation of gene expression, and the definition of a gene.

    Science (New York, N.Y.) 2005;308;5725;1149-54

  • alpha-SNAP and NSF are required in a priming step during the human sperm acrosome reaction.

    Tomes CN, De Blas GA, Michaut MA, Farré EV, Cherhitin O, Visconti PE and Mayorga LS

    Laboratorio de Biología Celular y Molecular, Instituto de Histología y Embriología (IHEM-CONICET), Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, CC 56, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, 5500 Mendoza, Argentina. ctomes@fcm.uncu.edu.ar

    The acrosome is a membrane-limited granule that overlies the nucleus of the mature spermatozoon. In response to physiological or pharmacological stimuli it undergoes a special type of Ca2+-dependent exocytosis termed the acrosome reaction (AR), which is an absolute prerequisite for fertilization. Aided by a streptolysin-O permeabilization protocol developed in our laboratory, we have previously demonstrated requirements for Rab3A, N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF), several soluble NSF-attachment protein receptor (SNARE) proteins, and synaptotagmin VI in the human sperm AR. Here, we show that alpha-soluble NSF-attachment protein (alpha-SNAP), a protein essential for most fusion events through its interaction with NSF and the SNARE complex, exhibits a direct role in the AR. First, the presence of alpha-SNAP is demonstrated by the Western blot of human sperm protein extracts. Immunostaining experiments reveal an acrosomal localization for this protein. Second, the Ca2+ and Rab3A-triggered ARs are inhibited by anti-alpha-SNAP antibodies. Third, bacterially expressed alpha-SNAP abolishes exocytosis in a fashion that depends on its interaction with NSF. Fourth, we show a requirement for alpha-SNAP/NSF in a prefusion step early in the exocytotic pathway, after the tethering of the acrosome to the plasma membrane and before the efflux of intra-acrosomal Ca2+. These results suggest a key role for alpha-SNAP/NSF in the AR, and strengthen our understanding of the molecular players involved in the vesicle-to-plasma membrane fusion taking place during exocytosis.

    Funded by: NICHD NIH HHS: HD 38082

    Molecular human reproduction 2005;11;1;43-51

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • VAMP2-dependent exocytosis regulates plasma membrane insertion of TRPC3 channels and contributes to agonist-stimulated Ca2+ influx.

    Singh BB, Lockwich TP, Bandyopadhyay BC, Liu X, Bollimuntha S, Brazer SC, Combs C, Das S, Leenders AG, Sheng ZH, Knepper MA, Ambudkar SV and Ambudkar IS

    Secretory Physiology Section, Gene Therapy and Therapeutics Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

    The mechanism(s) involved in agonist-stimulation of TRPC3 channels is not yet known. Here we demonstrate that TRPC3-N terminus interacts with VAMP2 and alphaSNAP. Further, endogenous and exogenously expressed TRPC3 colocalized and coimmunoprecipitated with SNARE proteins in neuronal and epithelial cells. Imaging of GFP-TRPC3 revealed its localization in the plasma membrane region and in mobile intracellular vesicles. Recovery of TRPC3-GFP fluorescence after photobleaching of the plasma membrane region was decreased by brefeldin-A or BAPTA-AM. Cleavage of VAMP2 with tetanus toxin (TeNT) did not prevent delivery of TRPC3 to the plasma membrane region but reduced its surface expression. TeNT also decreased carbachol and OAG, but not thapsigargin, stimulated Ca2+ influx. Importantly, carbachol, not thapsigargin, increased surface expression of TRPC3 that was attenuated by TeNT and not by BAPTA. In aggregate, these data suggest that VAMP2-dependent exocytosis regulates plasma membrane insertion of TRPC3 channels and contributes to carbachol-stimulation of Ca2+ influx.

    Funded by: Intramural NIH HHS: Z01 HL001285-21, Z99 HL999999

    Molecular cell 2004;15;4;635-46

  • Involvement of BNIP1 in apoptosis and endoplasmic reticulum membrane fusion.

    Nakajima K, Hirose H, Taniguchi M, Kurashina H, Arasaki K, Nagahama M, Tani K, Yamamoto A and Tagaya M

    School of Life Science, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Science, Hachioji, Tokyo, Japan.

    BNIP1, a member of the BH3-only protein family, was first discovered as one of the proteins that are capable of interacting with the antiapoptotic adenovirus E1B 19-kDa protein. Here we disclose a totally unexpected finding that BNIP1 is a component of the complex comprising syntaxin 18, an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-located soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF) attachment protein (SNAP) receptor (SNARE). Functional analysis revealed that BNIP1 participates in the formation of the ER network structure, but not in membrane trafficking between the ER and Golgi. Notably, a highly conserved leucine residue in the BH3 domain of BNIP1 plays an important role not only in the induction of apoptosis but also in the binding of alpha-SNAP, an adaptor that serves as a link between the chaperone ATPase NSF and SNAREs. This predicts that alpha-SNAP may suppress apoptosis by competing with antiapoptotic proteins for the BH3 domain of BNIP1. Indeed, overexpression of alpha-SNAP markedly delayed staurosporine-induced apoptosis. Our results shed light on possible crosstalk between apparently independent cellular events, apoptosis and ER membrane fusion.

    The EMBO journal 2004;23;16;3216-26

  • Implication of ZW10 in membrane trafficking between the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi.

    Hirose H, Arasaki K, Dohmae N, Takio K, Hatsuzawa K, Nagahama M, Tani K, Yamamoto A, Tohyama M and Tagaya M

    School of Life Science, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Science, Hachioji, Tokyo, Japan.

    ZW10, a dynamitin-interacting protein associated with kinetochores, is known to participate directly in turning off of the spindle checkpoint. In the present study, we show that ZW10 is located in the endoplasmic reticulum as well as in the cytosol during interphase, and forms a subcomplex with RINT-1 (Rad50-interacting protein) and p31 in a large complex comprising syntaxin 18, an endoplasmic reticulum-localized t-SNARE implicated in membrane trafficking. Like conventional syntaxin-binding proteins, ZW10, RINT-1 and p31 dissociated from syntaxin 18 upon Mg(2+)-ATP treatment in the presence of NSF and alpha-SNAP, whereas the subcomplex was not disassembled. Overexpression, microinjection and knockdown experiments revealed that ZW10 is involved in membrane trafficking between the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi. The present results disclose an unexpected role for a spindle checkpoint protein, ZW10, during interphase.

    The EMBO journal 2004;23;6;1267-78

  • Three ways to make a vesicle.

    Kirchhausen T

    Harvard Medical School, 200 Longwood Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. kirchhausen@crystal.harvard.edu

    Cargo molecules have to be included in carrier vesicles of different forms and sizes to be transported between organelles. During this process, a limited set of proteins, including the coat proteins COPI, COPII and clathrin, carries out a programmed set of sequential interactions that lead to the budding of vesicles. A general model to explain the formation of coated vesicles is starting to emerge but the picture is more complex than we had imagined.

    Nature reviews. Molecular cell biology 2000;1;3;187-98

  • Preferential association of syntaxin 8 with the early endosome.

    Subramaniam VN, Loh E, Horstmann H, Habermann A, Xu Y, Coe J, Griffiths G and Hong W

    Membrane Biology Laboratory, Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, Singapore 117609, Singapore.

    Members of the syntaxin family play a fundamental role in vesicle docking and fusion of diverse transport events. We have molecularly characterized syntaxin 8, a novel member of the syntaxin family. The nucleotide sequence of cloned rat cDNA predicts a polypeptide of 236 residues with a carboxyl-terminal 18-residue hydrophobic domain that may function as a membrane anchor. Characteristic of syntaxins, syntaxin 8 also contain regions that have the potential to form coiled-coil structures. Among the known syntaxins, syntaxin 8 is most homologous to syntaxin 6 which is predominantly associated with the trans-Golgi network (TGN). The syntaxin 8 transcript is detected in all rat tissues examined by northern blot. Antibodies against recombinant syntaxin 8 recognize a 27 kDa protein that is enriched in membrane fractions containing the Golgi apparatus and the endosomal/lysosomal compartments. Syntaxin 8 in membrane extract could be incorporated into a 20S protein complex in a way that is dependent on the soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF) and soluble NSF attachment protein ((alpha)-SNAP), suggesting that syntaxin 8 is indeed a SNAP receptor (SNARE). Indirect immunofluorescence microscopy reveals that the majority of syntaxin 8 is localized to the early endosome marked by Rab5. This is corroborated by immunogold labeling experiments showing enrichment of syntaxin 8 in the early endosome and its co-labeling with Rab5.

    Journal of cell science 2000;113 ( Pt 6);997-1008

  • Secretory protein trafficking and organelle dynamics in living cells.

    Lippincott-Schwartz J, Roberts TH and Hirschberg K

    Cell Biology and Metabolism Branch, NICHD, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA. jlippin@helix.nih.gov

    Green fluorescent protein chimerae acting as reporters for protein localization and trafficking within the secretory membrane system of living cells have been used in a wide variety of applications, including time-lapse imaging, double-labeling, energy transfer, quantitation, and photobleaching experiments. Results from this work are clarifying the steps involved in the formation, translocation, and fusion of transport intermediates; the organization and biogenesis of organelles; and the mechanisms of protein retention, sorting, and recycling in the secretory pathway. In so doing, they are broadening our thinking about the temporal and spatial relationships among secretory organelles and the membrane trafficking pathways that operate between them.

    Annual review of cell and developmental biology 2000;16;557-89

  • alpha-soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein is expressed in pancreatic beta cells and functions in insulin but not gamma-aminobutyric acid secretion.

    Nagamatsu S, Watanabe T, Nakamichi Y, Yamamura C, Tsuzuki K and Matsushima S

    Department of Biochemistry, Kyorin University School of Medicine, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8611 Japan. shinya@kyorin-u.ac.jp

    The function of soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive attachment protein-alpha (alpha-SNAP) in exocytosis still remains obscure. This study was conducted to determine the physiological role of alpha-SNAP in the secretion of insulin and gamma-aminobutryric acid (GABA) from pancreatic beta cells. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis of total RNA isolated from rat islets disclosed alpha-SNAP, but not beta-SNAP, mRNA expression, and an immunofluorescence study of rat pancreas showed that alpha-SNAP was present predominantly in the cytoplasm of the islets of Langerhans. alpha-SNAP overexpression in rat islets enhanced insulin release relative to the control levels. An in vitro binding study showed that both wild-type alpha-SNAP and C-terminal-deleted alpha-SNAP mutant (1-285) can bind to syntaxin 1A. alpha-SNAP mutant (1-285) was overexpressed to evaluate its activity as dominant-negative effector on insulin release. Overexpression of alpha-SNAP mutant (1-285) in rat islets and MIN6 cells decreased glucose-stimulated insulin release to about 50% of the control levels. Suppression of endogeneous alpha-SNAP in MIN6 cells by treatment with an antisense phosphorothioate oligonucleotide resulted in inhibition of insulin release. In order to examine if alpha-SNAP functions in exocytosis from synaptic-like microvesicles in pancreatic beta cells, the functional role of alpha-SNAP in GABA release from MIN6 cells was studied. The data showed no effect of alpha-SNAP mutant (1-285) overexpression on GABA release. We conclude that 1) alpha-SNAP plays a crucial role in insulin exocytosis via large dense core vesicles, but not GABA released via synaptic-like microvesicles, in pancreatic beta cells; and 2) the interaction of alpha-SNAP and syntaxin 1A may play an important role in the insulin exocytotic process.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1999;274;12;8053-60

  • Syntaxin 13 mediates cycling of plasma membrane proteins via tubulovesicular recycling endosomes.

    Prekeris R, Klumperman J, Chen YA and Scheller RH

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Molecular and Cellular Physiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305-5428, USA.

    Endocytosis-mediated recycling of plasma membrane is a critical vesicle trafficking step important in diverse biological processes. The membrane trafficking decisions and sorting events take place in a series of heterogeneous and highly dynamic organelles, the endosomes. Syntaxin 13, a recently discovered member of the syntaxin family, has been suggested to play a role in mediating endosomal trafficking. To better understand the function of syntaxin 13 we examined its intracellular distribution in nonpolarized cells. By confocal immunofluorescence and electron microscopy, syntaxin 13 is primarily found in tubular early and recycling endosomes, where it colocalizes with transferrin receptor. Additional labeling is also present in endosomal vacuoles, where it is often found in clathrin-coated membrane areas. Furthermore, anti-syntaxin 13 antibody inhibits transferrin receptor recycling in permeabilized PC12 cells. Immunoprecipitation of syntaxin 13 revealed that, in Triton X-100 extracts, syntaxin 13 is present in a complex(es) comprised of betaSNAP, VAMP 2/3, and SNAP-25. This complex(es) binds exogenously added alphaSNAP and NSF and dissociates in the presence of ATP, but not ATPgammaS. These results support a role for syntaxin 13 in membrane fusion events during the recycling of plasma membrane proteins.

    The Journal of cell biology 1998;143;4;957-71

  • The AMPA receptor GluR2 C terminus can mediate a reversible, ATP-dependent interaction with NSF and alpha- and beta-SNAPs.

    Osten P, Srivastava S, Inman GJ, Vilim FS, Khatri L, Lee LM, States BA, Einheber S, Milner TA, Hanson PI and Ziff EB

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Biochemistry, NYU Medical Center, New York, New York 10016, USA.

    In this study, we demonstrate specific interaction of the GluR2 alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate (AMPA) receptor subunit C-terminal peptide with an ATPase N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein (NSF) and alpha- and beta-soluble NSF attachment proteins (SNAPs), as well as dendritic colocalization of these proteins. The assembly of the GluR2-NSF-SNAP complex is ATP hydrolysis reversible and resembles the binding of NSF and SNAP with the SNAP receptor (SNARE) membrane fusion apparatus. We provide evidence that the molar ratio of NSF to SNAP in the GluR2-NSF-SNAP complex is similar to that of the t-SNARE syntaxin-NSF-SNAP complex. NSF is known to disassemble the SNARE protein complex in a chaperone-like interaction driven by ATP hydrolysis. We propose a model in which NSF functions as a chaperone in the molecular processing of the AMPA receptor.

    Funded by: NIA NIH HHS: AG13620; NIMH NIH HHS: MH42834

    Neuron 1998;21;1;99-110

  • Endobrevin, a novel synaptobrevin/VAMP-like protein preferentially associated with the early endosome.

    Wong SH, Zhang T, Xu Y, Subramaniam VN, Griffiths G and Hong W

    Membrane Biology Laboratory, Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, Singapore 117609, Singapore.

    Synaptobrevins/vesicle-associated membrane proteins (VAMPs) together with syntaxins and a synaptosome-associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP-25) are the main components of a protein complex involved in the docking and/or fusion of synaptic vesicles with the presynaptic membrane. We report here the molecular, biochemical, and cell biological characterization of a novel member of the synaptobrevin/VAMP family. The amino acid sequence of endobrevin has 32, 33, and 31% identity to those of synaptobrevin/VAMP-1, synaptobrevin/VAMP-2, and cellubrevin, respectively. Membrane fractionation studies demonstrate that endobrevin is enriched in membrane fractions that are also enriched in the asialoglycoprotein receptor. Indirect immunofluorescence microscopy establishes that endobrevin is primarily associated with the perinuclear vesicular structures of the early endocytic compartment. The preferential association of endobrevin with the early endosome was further established by electron microscopy (EM) immunogold labeling. In vitro binding assays show that endobrevin interacts with immobilized recombinant alpha-SNAP fused to glutathione S-transferase (GST). Our results highlight the general importance of members of the synaptobrevin/VAMP protein family in membrane traffic and provide new avenues for future functional and mechanistic studies of this protein as well as the endocytotic pathway.

    Molecular biology of the cell 1998;9;6;1549-63

  • Syntaxin 12, a member of the syntaxin family localized to the endosome.

    Tang BL, Tan AE, Lim LK, Lee SS, Low DY and Hong W

    Membrane Biology Laboratory, Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, Singapore 117609, Republic of Singapore.

    We have cloned a new member of the syntaxin family of proteins. The open reading frame encodes a polypeptide of 272 amino acids with potential coiled-coil domains and a C-terminal hydrophobic tail. Northern blot analysis showed that the transcript is fairly ubiquitous. A soluble recombinant form of the polypeptide without the hydrophobic region binds to alpha-SNAP (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein) and syndet/SNAP-23 in vitro. Polyclonal antibody raised against the recombinant protein recognized a 39-kDa protein in the membrane fraction of cell lysates. Indirect immunofluorescence studies using the polyclonal antibody showed that the protein is localized to intracellular membrane structures. Selective permeabilization studies with digitonin and saponin indicate that the epitope(s) recognized by the antibody is expose to the cytoplasm, consistent with the predicted orientation characteristic of SNAP receptor molecules. Morphological alterations of the staining pattern of the protein with brefeldin A and wortmannin treatment indicate that the protein is localize to the endosome. The cDNA we have cloned apparently corresponded to three previously described expressed sequence tags named as syntaxins 12, 13, and 14, respectively. We therefore propose to retain the name syntaxin 12 for this protein.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1998;273;12;6944-50

  • Syntaxin 5 is a common component of the NSF- and p97-mediated reassembly pathways of Golgi cisternae from mitotic Golgi fragments in vitro.

    Rabouille C, Kondo H, Newman R, Hui N, Freemont P and Warren G

    Cell Biology Laboratory, Imperial Cancer Research Fund, London, United Kingdom.

    A cell-free system that mimics the reassembly of Golgi stacks at the end of mitosis requires two ATPases, NSF and p97, to rebuild Golgi cisternae. Morphological studies now show that alpha-SNAP, a component of the NSF pathway, can inhibit the p97 pathway, whereas p47, a component of the p97 pathway, can inhibit the NSF pathway. Anti-syntaxin 5 antibodies and a soluble, recombinant syntaxin 5 inhibited both pathways, suggesting that this t-SNARE is a common component. Biochemical studies confirmed this, showing that p47 binds directly to syntaxin 5 and competes for binding with alpha-SNAP. p47 also mediates the binding of p97 to syntaxin 5 and so plays an analogous role to alpha-SNAP, which mediates the binding of NSF.

    Cell 1998;92;5;603-10

  • Syntaxin 7, a novel syntaxin member associated with the early endosomal compartment.

    Wong SH, Xu Y, Zhang T and Hong W

    Membrane Biology Laboratory, Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, Singapore 119076, Singapore.

    Members of the syntaxin family are key molecules involved in diverse vesicle docking/fusion events. We report here the molecular, biochemical, and cell biological characterizations of a novel member (syntaxin 7) of the syntaxin family. Syntaxin 7 is structurally related to all known syntaxins. Within a 79-residue region preceding the C-terminal hydrophobic tail, syntaxin 7 is 35, 34, 34, 34, 25, and 19% identical to syntaxins 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6, respectively. Northern blot analysis showed that syntaxin 7 is widely expressed. Indirect immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that syntaxin 7 is primarily associated with the early endosome. In vitro binding assays established that syntaxin 7 in membrane extracts interacts with immobilized recombinant alpha-soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment proteins fused to glutathione S-transferase. Our results highlight the general importance of members of the syntaxin family in protein trafficking and provide new avenues for future functional and mechanistic studies of this first endosomal syntaxin as well as the endocytotic pathway.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1998;273;1;375-80

  • Stimulation of NSF ATPase activity by alpha-SNAP is required for SNARE complex disassembly and exocytosis.

    Barnard RJ, Morgan A and Burgoyne RD

    The Physiological Laboratory, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3BX, UK.

    N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein (NSF) and alpha-SNAP play key roles in vesicular traffic through the secretory pathway. In this study, NH2- and COOH-terminal truncation mutants of alpha-SNAP were assayed for ability to bind NSF and stimulate its ATPase activity. Deletion of up to 160 NH2-terminal amino acids had little effect on the ability of alpha-SNAP to stimulate the ATPase activity of NSF. However, deletion of as few as 10 COOH-terminal amino acids resulted in a marked decrease. Both NH2-terminal (1-160) and COOH-terminal (160-295) fragments of alpha-SNAP were able to bind to NSF, suggesting that alpha-SNAP contains distinct NH2- and COOH-terminal binding sites for NSF. Sequence alignment of known SNAPs revealed only leucine 294 to be conserved in the final 10 amino acids of alpha-SNAP. Mutation of leucine 294 to alanine (alpha-SNAP(L294A)) resulted in a decrease in the ability to stimulate NSF ATPase activity but had no effect on the ability of this mutant to bind NSF. alpha-SNAP (1-285) and alpha-SNAP (L294A) were unable to stimulate Ca2+-dependent exocytosis in permeabilized chromaffin cells. In addition, alpha-SNAP (1-285), and alpha-SNAP (L294A) were able to inhibit the stimulation of exocytosis by exogenous alpha-SNAP. alpha-SNAP, alpha-SNAP (1-285), and alpha-SNAP (L294A) were all able to become incorporated into a 20S complex and recruit NSF. In the presence of MgATP, alpha-SNAP (1-285) and alpha-SNAP (L294A) were unable to fully disassemble the 20S complex and did not allow vesicle-associated membrane protein dissociation to any greater level than seen in control incubations. These findings imply that alpha-SNAP stimulation of NSF ATPase activity may be required for 20S complex disassembly and for the alpha-SNAP stimulation of exocytosis.

    Funded by: Wellcome Trust

    The Journal of cell biology 1997;139;4;875-83

  • A SNARE involved in protein transport through the Golgi apparatus.

    Lowe SL, Peter F, Subramaniam VN, Wong SH and Hong W

    Membrane Biology Laboratory, Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, Singapore.

    In eukaryotic cells, the Golgi apparatus receives newly synthesized proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and delivers them after covalent modification to their destination in the cell. These proteins move from the inside (cis) face to the plasma-membrane side (trans) of the Golgi, through a stack of cisternae, towards the trans-Golgi network (TGN), but very little is known about how proteins are moved through the Golgi compartments. In a model known as the maturation model, no special transport process was considered necessary, with protein movement along the Golgi being achieved by maturation of the cisternae. Alternatively, proteins could be transported by vesicles or membrane tubules. Although little is known about membrane-tubule-mediated transport, the molecular mechanism for vesicle-mediated transport is quite well understood, occurring through docking of SNAREs on the vesicle with those on the target membrane. We have now identified a protein of relative molecular mass 27K which is associated with the Golgi apparatus. The cytoplasmic domain of this protein or antibodies raised against it quantitatively inhibit transport in vitro from the ER to the trans-Golgi/TGN, acting at a stage between the cis/medial- and the trans-Golgi/TGN. This protein, which behaves like a SNARE and has been named GS27 (for Golgi SNARE of 27K), is identical to membrin, a protein implicated earlier in ER-to-Golgi transport. Our results suggest that protein movement from medial- to the trans-Golgi/TGN depends on SNARE-mediated vesicular transport.

    Nature 1997;389;6653;881-4

  • N-Ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF) and alpha-soluble NSF attachment proteins (SNAP) mediate dissociation of GS28-syntaxin 5 Golgi SNAP receptors (SNARE) complex.

    Subramaniam VN, Loh E and Hong W

    Membrane Biology Laboratory, Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, 15 Lower Kent Ridge Road, Singapore 119076, Singapore.

    Golgi soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (SNAREs) GS28 and syntaxin 5 can be reciprocally coimmunoprecipitated from Golgi extracts, suggesting that they exist in a protein complex. When Golgi extract is preincubated with soluble NSF attachment proteins (alpha-SNAP) and N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF) under conditions that allow ATP hydrolysis by NSF, GS28 and syntaxin 5 become dissociated. GS28 and syntaxin 5 remain in a protein complex when Golgi extract is preincubated with similar amounts of alpha-SNAP and NSF under conditions that prevent ATP hydrolysis by NSF, suggesting that ATP hydrolysis by NSF is necessary for dissociating the GS28-syntaxin 5 complex. Since preincubation of Golgi extract with either alpha-SNAP or NSF alone has no effect on the GS28-syntaxin 5 complex, a concerted action of alpha-SNAP and NSF therefore mediates the dissociation of the GS28-syntaxin 5 complex. Furthermore, GS28 but not syntaxin 5 is capable of binding to immobilized alpha-SNAP when the GS28-syntaxin 5 complex is dissociated.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1997;272;41;25441-4

  • Regulated secretion in platelets: identification of elements of the platelet exocytosis machinery.

    Lemons PP, Chen D, Bernstein AM, Bennett MK and Whiteheart SW

    Department of Biochemistry, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington 40536, USA.

    To further characterize the molecular mechanisms of platelet function, we have sought to identify some of the proteins that mediate the secretory events of the platelet release reaction. We report that platelets contain the general elements of the membrane transport apparatus: N-ethylmaleimide sensitive fusion protein (NSF), p115/transcytosis-associated protein (p115/TAP), and the soluble NSF attachment proteins (alpha- and, gamma-SNAP). The cDNAs encoding two of these proteins, alpha- and gamma-SNAP, have been cloned from a human platelet-derived cDNA library. Platelet membrane extracts possess SNAP receptor (SNARE) activity, suggesting that the class of proteins (SNAREs) proposed to provide the specificity for vesicle docking and membrane fusion are present in platelets. To identify these proteins, we have used specific antibodies against known SNAREs to probe platelet extracts. Syntaxin 2 and 4 can be readily detected in platelet membrane preparations and are shown to participate in 20 S complex formation. Syntaxin 1, 3, and 5 could not be detected. Other known SNARE and SNARE-associated proteins such as vesicle-associated membrane protein (VAMP)/synaptobrevin 2, SNAP-25, synaptophysin, or synaptotagmin I could not be immunochemically detected in platelet membrane preparations. The presence of both the general transport proteins (NSF and SNAPs) and specific transport proteins (syntaxin 2 and 4) indicates that platelet exocytosis uses a molecular mechanism similar to other secretory cells such as neurons. However, the subcellular concentrations of these proteins suggest that, unlike neuronal secretion, granule-to plasma membrane docking may be the limiting step in platelet exocytosis.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL 56652

    Blood 1997;90;4;1490-500

  • Identification of SNAP receptors in rat adipose cell membrane fractions and in SNARE complexes co-immunoprecipitated with epitope-tagged N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein.

    Timmers KI, Clark AE, Omatsu-Kanbe M, Whiteheart SW, Bennett MK, Holman GD and Cushman SW

    Experimental Diabetes, Metabolism and Nutrition Section, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

    The vesicle-associated membrane proteins [VAMPs; vesicle SNAP receptors (v-SNAREs)] present on GLUT4-enriched vesicles prepared from rat adipose cells [Cain, Trimble and Lienhard (1992) J. Biol. Chem. 267, 11681-11684] have been identified as synaptobrevin 2 (VAMP 2) and cellubrevin (VAMP 3) by using isoform-specific antisera. Additional antisera identify syntaxins 2 and 4 as the predominant target membrane SNAP receptors (t-SNAREs) in the plasma membranes (PM), with syntaxin 3 at one-twentieth the level. Syntaxins 2 and 4 are enriched 5-10-fold in PM compared with low-density microsomes (LDM). Insulin treatment results in an 11-fold increase in immunodetectable GLUT4 in PM and smaller (approx. 2-fold) increases in VAMP 2 and VAMP 3, whereas the subcellular distributions of the syntaxins are not altered by insulin treatment. To determine which of the SNAP receptors (SNAREs) in PM might participate in SNARE complexes with proteins from GLUT4 vesicles, complexes were immunoprecipitated with anti-myc antibody from solubilized membranes after the addition of myc-epitope-tagged N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein (NSF) and recombinant alpha-soluble NSF attachment protein (alpha-SNAP). These complexes contain VAMPs 2 and 3 and syntaxin 4, but not syntaxins 2 or 3. Complex formation requires ATP and is disrupted by ATP hydrolysis. When all membrane fractions are prepared from basal cells, few or no VAMPs and no syntaxin 4 are immunoprecipitated in SNARE complexes obtained from LDM alone (or from immunoisolated GLUT4 vesicles). The content of syntaxin 4 depends on the presence of PM, and participation of VAMPs 2 and 3 is enhanced 4-6-fold by the addition of solubilized GLUT4 vesicles to PM. The latter increase is greater than can be explained by the 2-fold higher levels of VAMPs added to the reaction mixture. When all membrane fractions are prepared from insulin-stimulated cells, SNARE complexes formed from PM alone contain similar levels of syntaxin 4 but 5-6-fold higher levels of VAMPs 2 and 3 compared with PM alone from basal cells. Addition of GLUT4 vesicle proteins to PM from insulin-treated cells results in a further 2-fold increase in VAMP 2 recovered in SNARE complexes. Therefore the VAMPs in PM of insulin-treated but not basal cells, and in GLUT4-vesicles from cells in either condition, are in a form that readily forms a SNARE complex with PM t-SNAREs and NSF. Insulin seems to activate PM and/or GLUT4 vesicles so as to increase the efficiency of SNARE complex formation.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: R01 HL056652

    The Biochemical journal 1996;320 ( Pt 2);429-36

  • A v-SNARE implicated in intra-Golgi transport.

    Nagahama M, Orci L, Ravazzola M, Amherdt M, Lacomis L, Tempst P, Rothman JE and Söllner TH

    Cellular Biochemistry and Biophysics Program, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York 10021, USA.

    We report the identification of a putative v-SNARE (GOS-28), localized primarily to transport vesicles at the terminal rims of Golgi stacks. In vitro, GOS-28, A Golgi SNARE of 28 kD, is efficiently packaged into Golgi-derived vesicles, which are most likely COPI coated. Antibodies directed against GOS-28 block its ability to bind alpha-SNAP, partially inhibit transport from the cis to the medial cisternae, and do not inhibit budding of COP-coated vesicles, but do accumulate docked uncoated vesicles.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: 5 P30 CA08748-29

    The Journal of cell biology 1996;133;3;507-16

  • Complexins: cytosolic proteins that regulate SNAP receptor function.

    McMahon HT, Missler M, Li C and Südhof TC

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Texas Southwestern Medical School, Dallas 75235, USA.

    A family of proteins called complexins was discovered that compete with alpha-SNAP, but not synaptotagmin, for SNAP receptor binding. Complexins I and II are highly homologous hydrophilic proteins that are tightly conserved, with 100% identity among mouse, rat, and human complexin II. They are enriched in neurons where they colocalize with syntaxin and SNAP-25; in addition, complexin II is expressed ubiquitously at low levels. Complexins bind weakly to syntaxin alone and not at all to synaptobrevin and SNAP-25, but strongly to the SNAP receptor-core complex composed of these three molecules. They compete with alpha-SNAP for binding to the core complex but not with other interacting molecules, including synaptotagmin I, suggesting that the complexins regulate the sequential interactions of alpha-SNAP and synaptotagmins with the SNAP receptor during exocytosis.

    Cell 1995;83;1;111-9

  • The N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein and alpha-SNAP induce a conformational change in syntaxin.

    Hanson PI, Otto H, Barton N and Jahn R

    Department of Pharmacology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06510, USA.

    The N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein (NSF) plays an essential role in intracellular membrane fusion events and has been implicated in the exocytosis of synaptic vesicles. NSF binds through soluble NSF attachment proteins (SNAPs) to a complex of neuronal membrane proteins comprised of synaptobrevin, syntaxin, and SNAP-25. Disassembly of this complex by NSF is thought to be a critical step in the molecular events which lead to vesicle fusion with the plasma membrane. Here we have studied the interaction of alpha-SNAP and NSF with individual components of this complex and have identified syntaxin as a primary substrate for NSF/alpha-SNAP. We find that alpha-SNAP binds directly to syntaxin 1A as well as weakly to SNAP-25, while it does not bind to synaptobrevin II. NSF binds to syntaxin through alpha-SNAP and in the presence of ATP catalyzes a conformational rearrangement which abolishes binding of itself and alpha-SNAP. This reaction leads to the previously described disassembly of the fusion complex, since synaptobrevin binding to syntaxin is also reduced. alpha-SNAP binds to a carboxyl-terminal syntaxin fragment (residues 194-288) that also binds synaptobrevin and SNAP-25. However, NSF action on this syntaxin fragment has no effect on the binding of alpha-SNAP or synaptobrevin. This suggests that the conformational change normally induced by NSF in syntaxin depends on an interaction between carboxyl- and amino-terminal domains of syntaxin.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1995;270;28;16955-61

  • SNAP family of NSF attachment proteins includes a brain-specific isoform.

    Whiteheart SW, Griff IC, Brunner M, Clary DO, Mayer T, Buhrow SA and Rothman JE

    Rockefeller Research Laboratory, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10021.

    The soluble NSF attachment proteins (SNAPs) enable N-ethyl-maleimide-sensitive fusion protein (NSF) to bind to target membranes. Here we report the cloning and sequencing of complementary DNAs encoding alpha-, beta- and gamma-SNAPs. Two of these proteins, alpha and gamma, are found in a wide range of tissues, and act synergistically in intra-Golgi transport. The third, beta, is a brain-specific isoform of alpha-SNAP. Thus, NSF and SNAPs appear to be general components of the intracellular membrane fusion apparatus, and their action at specific sites of fusion must be controlled by SNAP receptors particular to the membranes being fused, as described in the accompanying article.

    Nature 1993;362;6418;353-5

  • Soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion attachment proteins (SNAPs) bind to a multi-SNAP receptor complex in Golgi membranes.

    Whiteheart SW, Brunner M, Wilson DW, Wiedmann M and Rothman JE

    Program of Cellular Biochemistry and Biophysics, Rockefeller Research Laboratories, Sloan-Kettering Institute, New York, New York 10021.

    Soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion attachment proteins (SNAPs) are required for the binding of N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein (NSF) to Golgi membranes and are, therefore, required for intra-Golgi transport. We report the existence of distinct alpha/beta-SNAP and gamma-SNAP-binding sites in Golgi membranes that appear to be part of the same receptor complex. Cross-linking studies with alpha-SNAP demonstrate that an integral membrane protein of between 30-40 kDa is the alpha-SNAP binding component of the multi-SNAP receptor complex. These data suggest that SNAPs function by independently binding to a multi-SNAP membrane-receptor complex, thereby activating them to serve as adaptors for the targeting of NSF.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK27044

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1992;267;17;12239-43

  • A multisubunit particle implicated in membrane fusion.

    Wilson DW, Whiteheart SW, Wiedmann M, Brunner M and Rothman JE

    Program in Cellular Biochemistry and Biophysics, Rockefeller Research Laboratory, Sloan-Kettering Institute, New York 10021.

    The N-ethylmaleimide sensitive fusion protein (NSF) is required for fusion of lipid bilayers at many locations within eukaryotic cells. Binding of NSF to Golgi membranes is known to require an integral membrane receptor and one or more members of a family of related soluble NSF attachment proteins (alpha-, beta-, and gamma-SNAPs). Here we demonstrate the direct interaction of NSF, SNAPs and an integral membrane component in a detergent solubilized system. We show that NSF only binds to SNAPs in the presence of the integral receptor, resulting in the formation of a multisubunit protein complex with a sedimentation coefficient of 20S. Particle assembly reveals striking differences between members of the SNAP protein family; gamma-SNAP associates with the complex via a binding site distinct from that used by alpha- and beta-SNAPs, which are themselves equivalent, alternative subunits of the particle. Once formed, the 20S particle is subsequently able to disassemble in a process coupled to the hydrolysis of ATP. We suggest how cycles of complex assembly and disassembly could help confer specificity to the generalized NSF-dependent fusion apparatus.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK27044

    The Journal of cell biology 1992;117;3;531-8

OMIM - other

Gene lists (7)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000011 G2C Homo sapiens Human clathrin Human orthologues of mouse clathrin coated vesicle genes adapted from Collins et al (2006) 150
L00000012 G2C Homo sapiens Human Synaptosome Human orthologues of mouse synaptosome adapted from Collins et al (2006) 152
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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