G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
adaptor-related protein complex 3, beta 2 subunit
G00000693 (Mus musculus)

Databases (7)

Curated Gene
OTTHUMG00000138828 (Vega human gene)
8120 (Entrez Gene)
1090 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
AP3B2 (GeneCards)
602166 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
Protein Sequence
Q13367 (UniProt)

Synonyms (1)


Literature (14)

Pubmed - other

  • Association analysis between schizophrenia and the AP-3 complex genes.

    Hashimoto R, Ohi K, Okada T, Yasuda Y, Yamamori H, Hori H, Hikita T, Taya S, Saitoh O, Kosuga A, Tatsumi M, Kamijima K, Kaibuchi K, Takeda M and Kunugi H

    The Osaka-Hamamatsu Joint Research Center for Child Mental Development, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka, Japan. hashimor@psy.med.osaka-u.ac.jp

    A susceptibility gene for schizophrenia, dysbindin, is a component of BLOC-1, which interacts with the adaptor protein (AP)-3 complex. As a direct interaction between dysbindin and AP-3 complex was reported, we examined a possible association between 16 SNPs in the AP3 complex genes and schizophrenia using 432 cases and 656 controls. Nominal association between rs6688 in the AP3M1 gene and schizophrenia (chi(2)=6.33, P=0.012, odds ratio=0.80) was no longer positive after correction for multiple testing (corrected P=0.192). The present results suggest that AP3 complex genes might not play a major role in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia in this population.

    Neuroscience research 2009;65;1;113-5

  • Characterization of AP3B2_v2, a novel splice variant of human AP3B2.

    Chen C, Zou X, Ji C, Zhao S, Lv L, Gu S, Xie Y and Mao Y

    State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, School of Life Sciences, Institute of Genetics, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200433, People's Republic of China.

    A novel splice variant of human AP3B2, named AP3B2_v2, was isolated through the large-scale sequencing analysis of a human fetal brain cDNA library. The AP3B2_v2 cDNA is 1171 bp in length. Sequence analysis revealed AP3B2_v2 missed 22 exons that existed in AP3B2_v1, leading to a different putative protein. The deduced proteins were 145 amino acids (designated as AP3B2_v2) and 1082 amino acids (AP3B2_v1) in length, sharing the C-terminal 145 amino acids. RT-PCR analysis showed that human AP3B2_v2 were expressed in several human adult tissues analyzed. The expression levels of AP3B2_v2 were relatively high in brain and testis. In contrast, low levels of expression were detected in kidney, pancreas, spleen, thymus, prostate, ovary and small intestine.

    DNA sequence : the journal of DNA sequencing and mapping 2007;18;3;165-8

  • Regulation of large dense-core vesicle volume and neurotransmitter content mediated by adaptor protein 3.

    Grabner CP, Price SD, Lysakowski A, Cahill AL and Fox AP

    Department of Neurobiology, Pharmacology, and Physiology, University of Chicago, 947 East 58th Street, Chicago, IL 60637, USA.

    Adaptor protein 3 (AP-3) is a vesicle-coat protein that forms a heterotetrameric complex. Two types of AP-3 subunits are found in mammalian cells. Ubiquitous AP-3 subunits are expressed in all tissues of the body, including the brain. In addition, there are neuronal AP-3 subunits that are thought to serve neuron-specific functions such as neurotransmitter release. In this study, we show that overexpression of neuronal AP-3 in mouse chromaffin cells results in a striking decrease in the neurotransmitter content of individual vesicles (quantal size), whereas deletion of all AP-3 produces a dramatic increase in quantal size; these changes were correlated with alterations in dense-core vesicle size. AP-3 appears to localize in the trans-Golgi network and possibly immature secretory vesicles, where it may be involved in the formation of neurosecretory vesicles.

    Funded by: NIDCD NIH HHS: R01 DC002521, R01 DC002521-11A1

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2006;103;26;10035-40

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.

    Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, Otsuki T, Sugiyama T, Irie R, Wakamatsu A, Hayashi K, Sato H, Nagai K, Kimura K, Makita H, Sekine M, Obayashi M, Nishi T, Shibahara T, Tanaka T, Ishii S, Yamamoto J, Saito K, Kawai Y, Isono Y, Nakamura Y, Nagahari K, Murakami K, Yasuda T, Iwayanagi T, Wagatsuma M, Shiratori A, Sudo H, Hosoiri T, Kaku Y, Kodaira H, Kondo H, Sugawara M, Takahashi M, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Furuya T, Kikkawa E, Omura Y, Abe K, Kamihara K, Katsuta N, Sato K, Tanikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ninomiya K, Ishibashi T, Yamashita H, Murakawa K, Fujimori K, Tanai H, Kimata M, Watanabe M, Hiraoka S, Chiba Y, Ishida S, Ono Y, Takiguchi S, Watanabe S, Yosida M, Hotuta T, Kusano J, Kanehori K, Takahashi-Fujii A, Hara H, Tanase TO, Nomura Y, Togiya S, Komai F, Hara R, Takeuchi K, Arita M, Imose N, Musashino K, Yuuki H, Oshima A, Sasaki N, Aotsuka S, Yoshikawa Y, Matsunawa H, Ichihara T, Shiohata N, Sano S, Moriya S, Momiyama H, Satoh N, Takami S, Terashima Y, Suzuki O, Nakagawa S, Senoh A, Mizoguchi H, Goto Y, Shimizu F, Wakebe H, Hishigaki H, Watanabe T, Sugiyama A, Takemoto M, Kawakami B, Yamazaki M, Watanabe K, Kumagai A, Itakura S, Fukuzumi Y, Fujimori Y, Komiyama M, Tashiro H, Tanigami A, Fujiwara T, Ono T, Yamada K, Fujii Y, Ozaki K, Hirao M, Ohmori Y, Kawabata A, Hikiji T, Kobatake N, Inagaki H, Ikema Y, Okamoto S, Okitani R, Kawakami T, Noguchi S, Itoh T, Shigeta K, Senba T, Matsumura K, Nakajima Y, Mizuno T, Morinaga M, Sasaki M, Togashi T, Oyama M, Hata H, Watanabe M, Komatsu T, Mizushima-Sugano J, Satoh T, Shirai Y, Takahashi Y, Nakagawa K, Okumura K, Nagase T, Nomura N, Kikuchi H, Masuho Y, Yamashita R, Nakai K, Yada T, Nakamura Y, Ohara O, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Helix Research Institute, 1532-3 Yana, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0812, Japan.

    As a base for human transcriptome and functional genomics, we created the "full-length long Japan" (FLJ) collection of sequenced human cDNAs. We determined the entire sequence of 21,243 selected clones and found that 14,490 cDNAs (10,897 clusters) were unique to the FLJ collection. About half of them (5,416) seemed to be protein-coding. Of those, 1,999 clusters had not been predicted by computational methods. The distribution of GC content of nonpredicted cDNAs had a peak at approximately 58% compared with a peak at approximately 42%for predicted cDNAs. Thus, there seems to be a slight bias against GC-rich transcripts in current gene prediction procedures. The rest of the cDNAs unique to the FLJ collection (5,481) contained no obvious open reading frames (ORFs) and thus are candidate noncoding RNAs. About one-fourth of them (1,378) showed a clear pattern of splicing. The distribution of GC content of noncoding cDNAs was narrow and had a peak at approximately 42%, relatively low compared with that of protein-coding cDNAs.

    Nature genetics 2004;36;1;40-5

  • Centaurin-alpha 1 associates in vitro and in vivo with nucleolin.

    Dubois T, Zemlickova E, Howell S and Aitken A

    Division of Biomedical and Clinical Laboratory Sciences, The University of Edinburgh, Hugh Robson Building, George Square, Edinburgh EH8 9XD, UK. thierry.dubois@curie.fr

    Centaurin-alpha(1) was originally described as a binding partner for phosphoinositides. In spite of the presence of a putative ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) GTPase-activating protein (GAP) domain, no ARF-GAP activity has been attributed to centaurin-alpha(1) so far. Thus the function of this protein remains to be determined. In order to better understand its intracellular role, we aimed to identify centaurin-alpha(1) partners. Using affinity chromatography followed by mass spectrometry analysis, we identified several potential centaurin-alpha(1) protein partners. Nucleolin, a nucleolar protein involved in ribosome biosynthesis, was the main centaurin-alpha(1) interacting protein. The interaction between centaurin-alpha(1) and nucleolin was confirmed by Western blot analysis and GST pull down assays. Moreover, we have shown that ectopically expressed centaurin-alpha(1) associates in vivo with endogenous nucleolin in human embryonic kidney 293 cells. In addition, the association between nucleolin and centaurin-alpha(1) was disrupted by RNAse treatment, indicating that RNA integrity was necessary for their binding. This suggested that centaurin-alpha(1) was part of a ribonucleoprotein complex.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2003;301;2;502-8

  • Regulation of arrestin-3 phosphorylation by casein kinase II.

    Kim YM, Barak LS, Caron MG and Benovic JL

    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Kimmel Cancer Center, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19107, USA.

    Arrestins play an important role in regulating the function of G protein-coupled receptors including receptor desensitization, internalization, down-regulation, and signaling via nonreceptor tyrosine kinases and mitogen-activated protein kinases. Previous studies have revealed that arrestins themselves are also subject to regulation. In the present study, we focused on identifying potential mechanisms involved in regulating the function of arrestin-3. Using metabolic labeling, phosphoamino acid analysis, and mutagenesis studies, we found that arrestin-3 is constitutively phosphorylated at Thr-382 and becomes dephosphorylated upon beta(2)-adrenergic receptor activation in COS-1 cells. Casein kinase II (CKII) appears to be the major kinase mediating arrestin-3 phosphorylation, since 1) Thr-382 is contained within a canonical consensus sequence for CKII phosphorylation and 2) wild type arrestin-3 but not a T382A mutant is phosphorylated by CKII in vitro. Functional analysis reveals that mutants mimicking the phosphorylated (T382E) and dephosphorylated (T382A or T382V) states of arrestin-3 promote beta(2)-adrenergic receptor internalization and bind clathrin, beta-adaptin, and Src to comparable levels as wild type arrestin-3. This suggests that the phosphorylation of arrestin-3 does not directly regulate interaction with endocytic (clathrin, beta-adaptin) or signaling (Src) components and is in contrast to arrestin-2, where phosphorylation appears to regulate interaction with clathrin and Src. However, additional analysis reveals that arrestin-3 phosphorylation may regulate formation of a large arrestin-3-containing protein complex. Differences between the regulatory roles of arrestin-2 and -3 phosphorylation may contribute to the different cellular functions of these proteins in G protein-coupled receptor signaling and regulation.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;19;16837-46

  • The AP-3 complex required for endosomal synaptic vesicle biogenesis is associated with a casein kinase Ialpha-like isoform.

    Faundez VV and Kelly RB

    Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Hormone Research Institute, University of California, San Francisco 94143-0534, USA.

    The formation of small vesicles is mediated by cytoplasmic coats the assembly of which is regulated by the activity of GTPases, kinases, and phosphatases. A heterotetrameric AP-3 adaptor complex has been implicated in the formation of synaptic vesicles from PC12 endosomes (). When the small GTPase ARF1 is prevented from hydrolyzing GTP, we can reconstitute AP-3 recruitment to synaptic vesicle membranes in an assembly reaction that requires temperatures above 15 degrees C and the presence of ATP suggesting that an enzymatic step is involved in the coat assembly. We have now found an enzymatic reaction, the phosphorylation of the AP-3 adaptor complex, that is linked with synaptic vesicle coating. Phosphorylation occurs in the beta3 subunit of the complex by a kinase similar to casein kinase 1alpha. The kinase copurifies with neuronal-specific AP-3. In vitro, purified casein kinase I selectively phosphorylates the beta3A and beta3B subunit at its hinge domain. Inhibiting the kinase hinders the recruitment of AP-3 to synaptic vesicles. The same inhibitors that prevent coat assembly in vitro also inhibit the formation of synaptic vesicles in PC12 cells. The data suggest, therefore, that the mechanism of AP-3-mediated vesiculation from neuroendocrine endosomes requires the phosphorylation of the adaptor complex at a step during or after AP-3 recruitment to membranes.

    Funded by: NIDA NIH HHS: DA10154, P01 DA010154; NINDS NIH HHS: NS09878, NS15927, R01 NS015927

    Molecular biology of the cell 2000;11;8;2591-604

  • ATM binds to beta-adaptin in cytoplasmic vesicles.

    Lim DS, Kirsch DG, Canman CE, Ahn JH, Ziv Y, Newman LS, Darnell RB, Shiloh Y and Kastan MB

    Oncology Center, The Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA.

    Inherited mutations in the ATM gene lead to a complex clinical phenotype characterized by neuronal degeneration, oculocutaneous telangiectasias, immune dysfunction, and cancer predisposition. Using the yeast two-hybrid system, we demonstrate that ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) binds to beta-adaptin, one of the components of the AP-2 adaptor complex, which is involved in clathrin-mediated endocytosis of receptors. The interaction between ATM and beta-adaptin was confirmed in vitro, and coimmunoprecipitation and colocalization studies show that the proteins also associate in vivo. ATM also interacts in vitro with beta-NAP, a neuronal-specific beta-adaptin homolog that was identified as an autoantigen in a patient with cerebellar degeneration. Our data describing the association of ATM with beta-adaptin in vesicles indicate that ATM may play a role in intracellular vesicle and/or protein transport mechanisms.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA71387, R01 CA071387; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM07309, T32 GM007309

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1998;95;17;10146-51

  • Association of the AP-3 adaptor complex with clathrin.

    Dell'Angelica EC, Klumperman J, Stoorvogel W and Bonifacino JS

    Cell Biology and Metabolism Branch, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

    A heterotetrameric complex termed AP-3 is involved in signal-mediated protein sorting to endosomal-lysosomal organelles. AP-3 has been proposed to be a component of a nonclathrin coat. In vitro binding assays showed that mammalian AP-3 did associate with clathrin by interaction of the appendage domain of its beta3 subunit with the amino-terminal domain of the clathrin heavy chain. The beta3 appendage domain contained a conserved consensus motif for clathrin binding. AP-3 colocalized with clathrin in cells as observed by immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy. Thus, AP-3 function in protein sorting may depend on clathrin.

    Science (New York, N.Y.) 1998;280;5362;431-4

  • AP-3: an adaptor-like protein complex with ubiquitous expression.

    Dell'Angelica EC, Ohno H, Ooi CE, Rabinovich E, Roche KW and Bonifacino JS

    Cell Biology and Metabolism Branch, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

    We have identified two closely related human proteins (sigma3A and sigma3B) that are homologous to the small chains, sigma1 and sigma2, of clathrin-associated adaptor complexes. Northern and Western blot analyses demonstrate that the products of both the sigma3A and sigma3B genes are expressed in a wide variety of tissues and cell lines. sigma3A and sigma3B are components of a large complex, named AP-3, that also contains proteins of apparent molecular masses of 47, 140 and 160 kDa. In non-neuronal cells, the 47 kDa protein most likely corresponds to the medium chain homolog p47A, and the 140 kDa protein is a homolog of the neuron-specific protein beta-NAP. Like other members of the medium-chain family, the p47A chain is capable of interacting with the tyrosine-based sorting signal YQRL from TGN38. Immunofluorescence microscopy analyses show that the sigma3-containing complex is present both in the area of the TGN and in peripheral structures, some of which contain the transferrin receptor. These results suggest that the sigma3 chains are components of a novel, ubiquitous adaptor-like complex involved in the recognition of tyrosine-based sorting signals.

    The EMBO journal 1997;16;5;917-28

  • Beta-NAP, a cerebellar degeneration antigen, is a neuron-specific vesicle coat protein.

    Newman LS, McKeever MO, Okano HJ and Darnell RB

    Laboratory of Neuro-Oncology, Rockefeller University, New York, New York 10021, USA.

    We have identified a target antigen in autoimmune cerebellar degeneration, beta-NAP, that is closely related to the beta-adaptin and beta-COP coat proteins. Beta-NAP is a nonclathrin-associated phosphoprotein expressed exclusively in neurons, from E12 through adulthood. Beta-NAP is present in the neuronal soma and nerve terminal as soluble and membrane-bound pools and is associated with a discrete set of nerve-terminal vesicles. These results establish beta-NAP as a neuron-specific vesicle coat protein. We propose a model in which beta-NAP mediates vesicle transport between the soma and the axon terminus and suggest that beta-NAP may represent a general class of coat proteins that mediates apical transport in polarized cells.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: 5T32 GM07739; NINDS NIH HHS: K08 NS01461

    Cell 1995;82;5;773-83

  • Antiserum from a patient with cerebellar degeneration identifies a novel protein in Purkinje cells, cortical neurons, and neuroectodermal tumors.

    Darnell RB, Furneaux HM and Posner JB

    Department of Neurology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10021.

    The serum and cerebrospinal fluid of a patient (NB) with subacute cerebellar degeneration were found to contain a novel antineuronal autoantibody (anti-Nb). Using this antibody, we have identified and characterized antigens present in a subset of neurons in the CNS and in some neuroectodermal tumor lines. Anti-Nb antibody bound to antigens of Mr 150, 120, and 65 kDa in Western blots using extracts of human cerebellar Purkinje cells or human cerebral cortical neurons. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated relatively specific binding of anti-Nb IgG to Purkinje cells in sections of human cerebellum and to some neocortical neurons, especially those in layer VI. Because of the association of cerebellar degeneration with occult malignancies, we screened a number of tumor cell lines for immunoreactivity to anti-Nb antibody; only tumor lines of neuroectodermal origin (melanoma, small-cell lung cancer, and neuroblastoma) expressed the Nb antigen. Anti-Nb antibody thus identifies neuronal and tumor cell antigens that appear to be unique in size and distribution of expression.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: NS 26064

    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 1991;11;5;1224-30

Gene lists (6)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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