G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
protein kinase C and casein kinase substrate in neurons 1
G00000681 (Mus musculus)

Databases (8)

Curated Gene
OTTHUMG00000014547 (Vega human gene)
ENSG00000124507 (Ensembl human gene)
29993 (Entrez Gene)
300 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
PACSIN1 (GeneCards)
606512 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:8570 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
Q9BY11 (UniProt)

Synonyms (1)

  • SDPI

Literature (22)

Pubmed - other

  • Molecular mechanism of membrane constriction and tubulation mediated by the F-BAR protein Pacsin/Syndapin.

    Wang Q, Navarro MV, Peng G, Molinelli E, Goh SL, Judson BL, Rajashankar KR and Sondermann H

    Department of Molecular Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA.

    Peripheral membrane proteins of the Bin/amphiphysin/Rvs (BAR) and Fer-CIP4 homology-BAR (F-BAR) family participate in cellular membrane trafficking and have been shown to generate membrane tubules. The degree of membrane bending appears to be encoded in the structure and immanent curvature of the particular protein domains, with BAR and F-BAR domains inducing high- and low-curvature tubules, respectively. In addition, oligomerization and the formation of ordered arrays influences tubule stabilization. Here, the F-BAR domain-containing protein Pacsin was found to possess a unique activity, creating small tubules and tubule constrictions, in addition to the wide tubules characteristic for this subfamily. Based on crystal structures of the F-BAR domain of Pacsin and mutagenesis studies, vesiculation could be linked to the presence of unique structural features distinguishing it from other F-BAR proteins. Tubulation was suppressed in the context of the full-length protein, suggesting that Pacsin is autoinhibited in solution. The regulated deformation of membranes and promotion of tubule constrictions by Pacsin suggests a more versatile function of these proteins in vesiculation and endocytosis beyond their role as scaffold proteins.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: P41 RR001646, P41 RR015301, RR-01646, RR-15301; NIBIB NIH HHS: P30 EB009998; NIGMS NIH HHS: DMR0225180

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2009;106;31;12700-5

  • Replication of a genome-wide case-control study of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Ng D, Hu N, Hu Y, Wang C, Giffen C, Tang ZZ, Han XY, Yang HH, Lee MP, Goldstein AM and Taylor PR

    Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, 6120 Executive Boulevard, Rm 7112, Bethesda, MD 20892-7236, USA. davidng@mail.nih.gov

    In a previous pilot case-control study of individuals diagnosed with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and matched controls from a high-risk area in China, we identified 38 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with ESCC located in or near one of 33 genes. In our study, we attempted to replicate the results of these 38 gene-related SNPs in a new sample of 300 ESCC cases and 300 matched controls from the same study conducted in Shanxi Province, China. Among 36 evaluable SNPs, 4 were significant in one or more analyses, including SNPs located in EPHB1, PGLYRP2, PIK3C3 and SLC9A9, although the odds ratios (ORs) for these genotypes were modest. Associations were found with EPHB1/rs1515366 (OR 0.92, 95% CI 0.86-0.99; p = 0.019), PIK3C3/rs52911 (OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.88-0.99; p = 0.02) and PGLYRP2/rs959117 (OR 0.93, 95% CI, 0.86-1.01; p = 0.061) in general linear models (additive mode); and the genotype distribution differed between cases and controls for SLC9A9/rs956062 (p = 0.024). To examine these 4 genes in more detail, 40 HapMap-based tag SNPs from these 4 genes were evaluated in the same subjects and 7 additional SNPs associated with ESCC were identified. Further confirmation of these findings in other populations and other studies are needed to determine if the signals from these SNPs are indirectly associated due to linkage disequilibrium, or are directly related to biologic function and the development of ESCC.

    Funded by: Intramural NIH HHS: Z99 HG999999

    International journal of cancer 2008;123;7;1610-5

  • PACSINs bind to the TRPV4 cation channel. PACSIN 3 modulates the subcellular localization of TRPV4.

    Cuajungco MP, Grimm C, Oshima K, D'hoedt D, Nilius B, Mensenkamp AR, Bindels RJ, Plomann M and Heller S

    Department of Otolaryngology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305, USA.

    TRPV4 is a cation channel that responds to a variety of stimuli including mechanical forces, temperature, and ligand binding. We set out to identify TRPV4-interacting proteins by performing yeast two-hybrid screens, and we isolated with the avian TRPV4 amino terminus the chicken orthologues of mammalian PACSINs 1 and 3. The PACSINs are a protein family consisting of three members that have been implicated in synaptic vesicular membrane trafficking and regulation of dynamin-mediated endocytotic processes. In biochemical interaction assays we found that all three murine PACSIN isoforms can bind to the amino terminus of rodent TRPV4. No member of the PACSIN protein family was able to biochemically interact with TRPV1 and TRPV2. Co-expression of PACSIN 3, but not PACSINs 1 and 2, shifted the ratio of plasma membrane-associated versus cytosolic TRPV4 toward an apparent increase of plasma membrane-associated TRPV4 protein. A similar shift was also observable when we blocked dynamin-mediated endocytotic processes, suggesting that PACSIN 3 specifically affects the endocytosis of TRPV4, thereby modulating the subcellular localization of the ion channel. Mutational analysis shows that the interaction of the two proteins requires both a TRPV4-specific proline-rich domain upstream of the ankyrin repeats of the channel and the carboxyl-terminal Src homology 3 domain of PACSIN 3. Such a functional interaction could be important in cell types that show distribution of both proteins to the same subcellular regions such as renal tubule cells where the proteins are associated with the luminal plasma membrane.

    Funded by: NIDCD NIH HHS: DC04563

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2006;281;27;18753-62

  • The LIFEdb database in 2006.

    Mehrle A, Rosenfelder H, Schupp I, del Val C, Arlt D, Hahne F, Bechtel S, Simpson J, Hofmann O, Hide W, Glatting KH, Huber W, Pepperkok R, Poustka A and Wiemann S

    Division Molecular Genome Analysis, German Cancer Research Center, Im Neuenheimer Feld 580, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany. a.mehrle@dkfz.de

    LIFEdb (http://www.LIFEdb.de) integrates data from large-scale functional genomics assays and manual cDNA annotation with bioinformatics gene expression and protein analysis. New features of LIFEdb include (i) an updated user interface with enhanced query capabilities, (ii) a configurable output table and the option to download search results in XML, (iii) the integration of data from cell-based screening assays addressing the influence of protein-overexpression on cell proliferation and (iv) the display of the relative expression ('Electronic Northern') of the genes under investigation using curated gene expression ontology information. LIFEdb enables researchers to systematically select and characterize genes and proteins of interest, and presents data and information via its user-friendly web-based interface.

    Nucleic acids research 2006;34;Database issue;D415-8

  • Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network.

    Rual JF, Venkatesan K, Hao T, Hirozane-Kishikawa T, Dricot A, Li N, Berriz GF, Gibbons FD, Dreze M, Ayivi-Guedehoussou N, Klitgord N, Simon C, Boxem M, Milstein S, Rosenberg J, Goldberg DS, Zhang LV, Wong SL, Franklin G, Li S, Albala JS, Lim J, Fraughton C, Llamosas E, Cevik S, Bex C, Lamesch P, Sikorski RS, Vandenhaute J, Zoghbi HY, Smolyar A, Bosak S, Sequerra R, Doucette-Stamm L, Cusick ME, Hill DE, Roth FP and Vidal M

    Center for Cancer Systems Biology and Department of Cancer Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, 44 Binney Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    Systematic mapping of protein-protein interactions, or 'interactome' mapping, was initiated in model organisms, starting with defined biological processes and then expanding to the scale of the proteome. Although far from complete, such maps have revealed global topological and dynamic features of interactome networks that relate to known biological properties, suggesting that a human interactome map will provide insight into development and disease mechanisms at a systems level. Here we describe an initial version of a proteome-scale map of human binary protein-protein interactions. Using a stringent, high-throughput yeast two-hybrid system, we tested pairwise interactions among the products of approximately 8,100 currently available Gateway-cloned open reading frames and detected approximately 2,800 interactions. This data set, called CCSB-HI1, has a verification rate of approximately 78% as revealed by an independent co-affinity purification assay, and correlates significantly with other biological attributes. The CCSB-HI1 data set increases by approximately 70% the set of available binary interactions within the tested space and reveals more than 300 new connections to over 100 disease-associated proteins. This work represents an important step towards a systematic and comprehensive human interactome project.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R33 CA132073; NHGRI NIH HHS: P50 HG004233, R01 HG001715, RC4 HG006066, U01 HG001715; NHLBI NIH HHS: U01 HL098166

    Nature 2005;437;7062;1173-8

  • A human protein-protein interaction network: a resource for annotating the proteome.

    Stelzl U, Worm U, Lalowski M, Haenig C, Brembeck FH, Goehler H, Stroedicke M, Zenkner M, Schoenherr A, Koeppen S, Timm J, Mintzlaff S, Abraham C, Bock N, Kietzmann S, Goedde A, Toksöz E, Droege A, Krobitsch S, Korn B, Birchmeier W, Lehrach H and Wanker EE

    Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine, 13092 Berlin-Buch, Germany.

    Protein-protein interaction maps provide a valuable framework for a better understanding of the functional organization of the proteome. To detect interacting pairs of human proteins systematically, a protein matrix of 4456 baits and 5632 preys was screened by automated yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) interaction mating. We identified 3186 mostly novel interactions among 1705 proteins, resulting in a large, highly connected network. Independent pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation assays validated the overall quality of the Y2H interactions. Using topological and GO criteria, a scoring system was developed to define 911 high-confidence interactions among 401 proteins. Furthermore, the network was searched for interactions linking uncharacterized gene products and human disease proteins to regulatory cellular pathways. Two novel Axin-1 interactions were validated experimentally, characterizing ANP32A and CRMP1 as modulators of Wnt signaling. Systematic human protein interaction screens can lead to a more comprehensive understanding of protein function and cellular processes.

    Cell 2005;122;6;957-68

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • From ORFeome to biology: a functional genomics pipeline.

    Wiemann S, Arlt D, Huber W, Wellenreuther R, Schleeger S, Mehrle A, Bechtel S, Sauermann M, Korf U, Pepperkok R, Sültmann H and Poustka A

    Molecular Genome Analysis, German Cancer Research Center, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany. s.wiemann@dkfz.de

    As several model genomes have been sequenced, the elucidation of protein function is the next challenge toward the understanding of biological processes in health and disease. We have generated a human ORFeome resource and established a functional genomics and proteomics analysis pipeline to address the major topics in the post-genome-sequencing era: the identification of human genes and splice forms, and the determination of protein localization, activity, and interaction. Combined with the understanding of when and where gene products are expressed in normal and diseased conditions, we create information that is essential for understanding the interplay of genes and proteins in the complex biological network. We have implemented bioinformatics tools and databases that are suitable to store, analyze, and integrate the different types of data from high-throughput experiments and to include further annotation that is based on external information. All information is presented in a Web database (http://www.dkfz.de/LIFEdb). It is exploited for the identification of disease-relevant genes and proteins for diagnosis and therapy.

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2136-44

  • A novel dynamin-associating molecule, formin-binding protein 17, induces tubular membrane invaginations and participates in endocytosis.

    Kamioka Y, Fukuhara S, Sawa H, Nagashima K, Masuda M, Matsuda M and Mochizuki N

    Department of Structural Analysis, National Cardiovascular Center Research Institute, 5-7-1 Fujishirodai, Suita, Osaka 565-8565, Japan.

    Dynamin associates with a variety of SH3 domain-containing molecules via a C-terminal proline-rich motif and takes part, with them, in endocytic processes. Here, we have investigated a new dynamin-associating molecule, formin-binding protein 17 (FBP17), involved in deforming the plasma membrane and in endocytosis. FBP17 formed tubular invaginations originating from the plasma membrane. Its N-terminal Fer/CIP4 homology domain, a coiled-coil domain, and a proline-rich motif were required for tubular invagination and self-assembly, by which tubular invagination might be induced. Using anti-FBP17 antibody, we detected positive immunoreactions in the testis that were restricted to the germ cells. We also detected FBP17 in the brain by immunoblotting and in situ hybridization. When COS cells expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein-tagged FBP17 were incubated with fluorescently labeled transferrin, epidermal growth factor, and cholera toxin, these molecules co-localized with FBP17-induced tubular invaginations, suggesting that FBP17 is involved in dynamin-mediated endocytosis in both a clathrin-dependent and -independent manner. These observations therefore indicate that FBP17 interacts with dynamin and regulates endocytosis by forming vesicotubular structures.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2004;279;38;40091-9

  • PACSIN 1 interacts with huntingtin and is absent from synaptic varicosities in presymptomatic Huntington's disease brains.

    Modregger J, DiProspero NA, Charles V, Tagle DA and Plomann M

    Institute for Biochemistry II, University of Cologne, D-50931 Cologne, Germany.

    Huntington's disease (HD) is caused by a pathological expansion of a CAG repeat in the first exon of the gene coding for huntingtin, resulting in an abnormally long polyglutamine stretch. Despite its widespread expression, mutant huntingtin leads to selective neuronal loss in the striatum and cortex. Here we report that the neurospecific phosphoprotein PACSIN 1, which has been implicated as playing a central role in synaptic vesicle recycling, interacts with huntingtin via its C-terminal SH3 domain. Moreover, two other isoforms, PACSIN 2 and 3, which show a wider tissue distribution including the brain, do not interact with huntingtin despite a highly conserved SH3 domain. Furthermore, this interaction is repeat-length-dependent and is enhanced with mutant huntingtin, possibly causing the sequestration of PACSIN 1. Normally, PACSIN 1 is located along neurites and within synaptic boutons, but in HD patient neurons, there is a progressive loss of PACSIN 1 immunostaining in synaptic varicosities, beginning in presymptomatic and early-stage HD. Further, PACSIN 1 immunostaining of HD patient tissue reveals a more cytoplasmic distribution of the protein, with particular concentration in the perinuclear region coincident with mutant huntingtin. Thus, the specific interaction of huntingtin with the neuronal PACSIN isoform, PACSIN 1, and its altered intracellular distribution in pathological tissue, together with the observed differences in the binding behavior, suggest a role for PACSIN 1 during early stages of the selective neuropathology of HD.

    Funded by: NIMH NIH HHS: MH/NS 31862

    Human molecular genetics 2002;11;21;2547-58

  • Construction of expression-ready cDNA clones for KIAA genes: manual curation of 330 KIAA cDNA clones.

    Nakajima D, Okazaki N, Yamakawa H, Kikuno R, Ohara O and Nagase T

    Kazusa DNA Research Institute, Kisarazu, Chiba, Japan.

    We have accumulated information on protein-coding sequences of uncharacterized human genes, which are known as KIAA genes, through cDNA sequencing. For comprehensive functional analysis of the KIAA genes, it is necessary to prepare a set of cDNA clones which direct the synthesis of functional KIAA gene products. However, since the KIAA cDNAs were derived from long mRNAs (> 4 kb), it was not expected that all of them were full-length. Thus, as the first step toward preparing these clones, we evaluated the integrity of protein-coding sequences of KIAA cDNA clones through comparison with homologous protein entries in the public database. As a result, 1141 KIAA cDNAs had at least one homologous entry in the database, and 619 of them (54%) were found to be truncated at the 5' and/or 3' ends. In this study, 290 KIAA cDNA clones were tailored to be full-length or have considerably longer sequences than the original clones by isolating additional cDNA clones and/or connected parts of additional cDNAs or PCR products of the missing portion to the original cDNA clone. Consequently, 265, 8, and 17 predicted CDSs of KIAA cDNA clones were increased in the amino-, carboxy-, and both terminal sequences, respectively. In addition, 40 cDNA clones were modified to remove spurious interruption of protein-coding sequences. The total length of the resultant extensions at amino- and carboxy-terminals of KIAA gene products reached 97,000 and 7,216 amino acid residues, respectively, and various protein domains were found in these extended portions.

    DNA research : an international journal for rapid publication of reports on genes and genomes 2002;9;3;99-106

  • Rich, a rho GTPase-activating protein domain-containing protein involved in signaling by Cdc42 and Rac1.

    Richnau N and Aspenström P

    Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Biomedical Center, Box 595, S-751 24 Uppsala, Sweden.

    A previously unidentified Rho GTPase-activating protein (GAP) domain-containing protein was found in a yeast two-hybrid screen for cDNAs encoding proteins binding to the Src homology 3 domain of Cdc42-interacting protein 4 (CIP4). The protein was named RICH-1 (RhoGAP interacting with CIP4 homologues), and, in addition to the RhoGAP domain, it contained an N-terminal domain with endophilin homology and a C-terminal proline-rich domain. Transient transfections of RICH-1 indicated that it bound to CIP4 in vivo, as shown by co-immunoprecipitation experiments, as well as co-localization assays. In vitro assays demonstrated that the RhoGAP domain of RICH-1 catalyzed GTP hydrolysis on Cdc42 and Rac1, but not on RhoA. Ectopic expression of the RhoGAP domain as well as the full-length protein interfered with platelet-derived growth factor BB-induced membrane ruffling, but not with serum-induced stress fiber formation, further emphasizing the notion that, in vivo, RICH-1 is a GAP for Cdc42 and Rac1.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2001;276;37;35060-70

  • The Ras/Rac guanine nucleotide exchange factor mammalian Son-of-sevenless interacts with PACSIN 1/syndapin I, a regulator of endocytosis and the actin cytoskeleton.

    Wasiak S, Quinn CC, Ritter B, de Heuvel E, Baranes D, Plomann M and McPherson PS

    Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, Montreal H3A 2B4, Quebec, Canada.

    Mammalian Son-of-sevenless (mSos) functions as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Ras and Rac, thus regulating signaling to mitogen-activated protein kinases and actin dynamics. In the current study, we have identified a new mSos-binding protein of 50 kDa (p50) that interacts with the mSos1 proline-rich domain. Mass spectrometry analysis and immunodepletion studies reveal p50 as PACSIN 1/syndapin I, a Src homology 3 domain-containing protein functioning in endocytosis and regulation of actin dynamics. In addition to PACSIN 1, which is neuron-specific, mSos also interacts with PACSIN 2, which is expressed in neuronal and nonneuronal tissues. PACSIN 2 shows enhanced binding to the mSos proline-rich domain in pull-down assays from brain extracts as compared with lung extracts, suggesting a tissue-specific regulation of the interaction. Proline to leucine mutations within the Src homology 3 domains of PACSIN 1 and 2 abolish their binding to mSos, demonstrating the specificity of the interactions. In situ, PACSIN 1 and mSos1 are co-expressed in growth cones and actin-rich filopodia in hippocampal and dorsal root ganglion neurons, and the two proteins co-immunoprecipitate from brain extracts. Moreover, epidermal growth factor treatment of COS-7 cells causes co-localization of PACSIN 1 and mSos1 in actin-rich membrane ruffles, and their interaction is regulated through epidermal growth factor-stimulated mSos1 phosphorylation. These data suggest that PACSINs may function with mSos1 in regulation of actin dynamics.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: NS22807

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2001;276;28;26622-8

  • Selection of ligands by panning of domain libraries displayed on phage lambda reveals new potential partners of synaptojanin 1.

    Zucconi A, Dente L, Santonico E, Castagnoli L and Cesareni G

    Department of Biology, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome, Via della Ricerca Scientifica, 00133, Italy.

    One of the goals of functional genomics is the description of reliable and complete protein interaction networks. To facilitate ligand discovery from complex protein mixtures, we have developed an improved approach that is affected by a negligible fraction of false positives. We have combined a novel technique based on the display of cDNA libraries on the capsid of bacteriophage lambda and an efficient plaque assay to reveal phage displaying ligands that are enriched after only a couple of affinity purification steps. We show that the lambda display system has a unique ability to display, at high density, proteins ranging in size from a few to at least 300 amino acid residues. This characteristic permits attenuation of the size bias in the selection procedure and, at the same time, offers a sensitive plaque assay that permits us to do away with the ligand background without unduly increasing the number of selection cycles. By using a proline-rich fragment of the synaptojanin 1 protein as a bait, we have identified, in a brain cDNA display library, seven ligands all containing either SH3 or WW domains. Four of these correspond to proteins that have already been validated as physiological partners, while the remaining three are new partners, whose physiological relevance remains to be established. Two different proline-rich regions of the p21-activated protein kinase 1 (Pak1) and WAVE/SCAR2 protein retrieve from the library different proteins containing SH3 or WW domains.

    Funded by: Telethon: 902

    Journal of molecular biology 2001;307;5;1329-39

  • Toward a catalog of human genes and proteins: sequencing and analysis of 500 novel complete protein coding human cDNAs.

    Wiemann S, Weil B, Wellenreuther R, Gassenhuber J, Glassl S, Ansorge W, Böcher M, Blöcker H, Bauersachs S, Blum H, Lauber J, Düsterhöft A, Beyer A, Köhrer K, Strack N, Mewes HW, Ottenwälder B, Obermaier B, Tampe J, Heubner D, Wambutt R, Korn B, Klein M and Poustka A

    Molecular Genome Analysis, German Cancer Research Center, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany. s.wiemann@dkfz.de

    With the complete human genomic sequence being unraveled, the focus will shift to gene identification and to the functional analysis of gene products. The generation of a set of cDNAs, both sequences and physical clones, which contains the complete and noninterrupted protein coding regions of all human genes will provide the indispensable tools for the systematic and comprehensive analysis of protein function to eventually understand the molecular basis of man. Here we report the sequencing and analysis of 500 novel human cDNAs containing the complete protein coding frame. Assignment to functional categories was possible for 52% (259) of the encoded proteins, the remaining fraction having no similarities with known proteins. By aligning the cDNA sequences with the sequences of the finished chromosomes 21 and 22 we identified a number of genes that either had been completely missed in the analysis of the genomic sequences or had been wrongly predicted. Three of these genes appear to be present in several copies. We conclude that full-length cDNA sequencing continues to be crucial also for the accurate identification of genes. The set of 500 novel cDNAs, and another 1000 full-coding cDNAs of known transcripts we have identified, adds up to cDNA representations covering 2%--5 % of all human genes. We thus substantially contribute to the generation of a gene catalog, consisting of both full-coding cDNA sequences and clones, which should be made freely available and will become an invaluable tool for detailed functional studies.

    Genome research 2001;11;3;422-35

  • PACSIN 3 is a novel SH3 domain cytoplasmic adapter protein of the pacsin-syndapin-FAP52 gene family.

    Sumoy L, Pluvinet R, Andreu N, Estivill X and Escarceller M

    Institut de Recerca Oncològica-IRO, Departament de Genètica Molecular, Hospital Duran i Reynals, Av. Gran Via s/n km 2,7, 08907 L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain. lsumoy@iro.es

    Pacsins are cytoplasmic adapter proteins with an N-terminal FHC, a central coiled coil, and a C-terminal SH3 domain and several potential phosphorylation sites. Two murine Pacsin genes have been reported to date: Pacsin 1 (equivalent to rat Syndapin I), and Pacsin 2 (like rat Syndapin II and chicken focal adhesion protein FAP52). Rat syndapins have been well characterized as part of a synapse dynamin-associated protein complex involved in endocytosis and actin dynamics. Here we describe PACSIN 3, a third member of the pacsin gene family in humans and mice, which encodes a 424 amino acid cytoplasmic protein and has a ubiquitously expressed mRNA. Intracellular distribution was assessed by overexpression of exogenous tagged pacsin 3 protein. In addition, we report the cDNA sequence of human PACSIN 1, a gene encoding a 444 amino acid protein and its chromosome assignment to 6p21. PACSIN 1 mRNA is most abundant in brain, and is also present in heart, pancreas and liver. The close sequence conservation between the three pacsin gene products suggests they could be performing similar functions participating in the different tissues where these are expressed.

    Gene 2001;262;1-2;199-205

  • All three PACSIN isoforms bind to endocytic proteins and inhibit endocytosis.

    Modregger J, Ritter B, Witter B, Paulsson M and Plomann M

    Institute for Biochemistry II, Medical Faculty, University of Cologne, D-50931 Cologne, Germany.

    The PACSINs are a family of cytoplasmic phosphoproteins that play a role in vesicle formation and transport. We report the cloning and cDNA sequencing of PACSIN 3 and the analysis of all three PACSIN isoforms with regard to tissue distribution, ligand binding properties and influence on endocytosis. PACSIN 3 differs from the other family members in having a short proline-rich region and lacking asparagine-proline-phenylalanine motifs. In contrast to the neurospecific PACSIN 1 and the ubiquitously expressed PACSIN 2, PACSIN 3 is mainly detected in lung and muscle tissues. All isoforms potentially oligomerize and bind to dynamin, synaptojanin 1 and N-WASP via their Src homology 3 domains. The PACSIN proteins colocalize with dynamin, but not with clathrin, implying a specific role with a distinct subpopulation of dynamin at defined cellular sites. Transferrin endocytosis is blocked in a dose-dependent manner in cells overexpressing the PACSIN variants, but the inhibitory effect can be abolished by mutating specific amino acid residues in the Src homology 3 domains. These characteristics of the PACSIN protein family suggest a general function in recruitment of the interacting proteins to sites of endocytosis.

    Journal of cell science 2000;113 Pt 24;4511-21

  • DNA cloning using in vitro site-specific recombination.

    Hartley JL, Temple GF and Brasch MA

    Life Technologies, Inc., Rockville, Maryland 20850, USA. jhartley@lifetech.com

    As a result of numerous genome sequencing projects, large numbers of candidate open reading frames are being identified, many of which have no known function. Analysis of these genes typically involves the transfer of DNA segments into a variety of vector backgrounds for protein expression and functional analysis. We describe a method called recombinational cloning that uses in vitro site-specific recombination to accomplish the directional cloning of PCR products and the subsequent automatic subcloning of the DNA segment into new vector backbones at high efficiency. Numerous DNA segments can be transferred in parallel into many different vector backgrounds, providing an approach to high-throughput, in-depth functional analysis of genes and rapid optimization of protein expression. The resulting subclones maintain orientation and reading frame register, allowing amino- and carboxy-terminal translation fusions to be generated. In this paper, we outline the concepts of this approach and provide several examples that highlight some of its potential.

    Genome research 2000;10;11;1788-95

  • Systematic subcellular localization of novel proteins identified by large-scale cDNA sequencing.

    Simpson JC, Wellenreuther R, Poustka A, Pepperkok R and Wiemann S

    Department of Cell Biology and Biophysics, EMBL Heidelberg, Germany.

    As a first step towards a more comprehensive functional characterization of cDNAs than bioinformatic analysis, which can only make functional predictions for about half of the cDNAs sequenced, we have developed and tested a strategy that allows their systematic and fast subcellular localization. We have used a novel cloning technology to rapidly generate N- and C-terminal green fluorescent protein fusions of cDNAs to examine the intracellular localizations of > 100 expressed fusion proteins in living cells. The entire analysis is suitable for automation, which will be important for scaling up throughput. For > 80% of these new proteins a clear intracellular localization to known structures or organelles could be determined. For the cDNAs where bioinformatic analyses were able to predict possible identities, the localization was able to support these predictions in 75% of cases. For those cDNAs where no homologies could be predicted, the localization data represent the first information.

    EMBO reports 2000;1;3;287-92

  • Prediction of the coding sequences of unidentified human genes. XVI. The complete sequences of 150 new cDNA clones from brain which code for large proteins in vitro.

    Nagase T, Kikuno R, Ishikawa KI, Hirosawa M and Ohara O

    Kazusa DNA Research Institute, Kisarazu, Chiba, Japan. nagase@kazusa.or.jp

    We have carried out a human cDNA sequencing project to accumulate information regarding the coding sequences of unidentified human genes. As an extension of the preceding reports, we herein present the entire sequences of 150 cDNA clones of unknown human genes, named KIAA1294 to KIAA1443, from two sets of size-fractionated human adult and fetal brain cDNA libraries. The average sizes of the inserts and corresponding open reading frames of cDNA clones analyzed here reached 4.8 kb and 2.7 kb (910 amino acid residues), respectively. From sequence similarities and protein motifs, 73 predicted gene products were functionally annotated and 97% of them were classified into the following four functional categories: cell signaling/communication, nucleic acid management, cell structure/motility and protein management. Additionally, the chromosomal loci of the genes were assigned by using human-rodent hybrid panels for those genes whose mapping data were not available in the public databases. The expression profiles of the genes were also studied in 10 human tissues, 8 brain regions, spinal cord, fetal brain and fetal liver by reverse transcription-coupled polymerase chain reaction, products of which were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    DNA research : an international journal for rapid publication of reports on genes and genomes 2000;7;1;65-73

  • Syndapin I, a synaptic dynamin-binding protein that associates with the neural Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein.

    Qualmann B, Roos J, DiGregorio PJ and Kelly RB

    Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics and the Hormone Research Institute, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143-0534, USA.

    The GTPase dynamin has been clearly implicated in clathrin-mediated endocytosis of synaptic vesicle membranes at the presynaptic nerve terminal. Here we describe a novel 52-kDa protein in rat brain that binds the proline-rich C terminus of dynamin. Syndapin I (synaptic, dynamin-associated protein I) is highly enriched in brain where it exists in a high molecular weight complex. Syndapin I can be involved in multiple protein-protein interactions via a src homology 3 (SH3) domain at the C terminus and two predicted coiled-coil stretches. Coprecipitation studies and blot overlay analyses revealed that syndapin I binds the brain-specific proteins dynamin I, synaptojanin, and synapsin I via an SH3 domain-specific interaction. Coimmunoprecipitation of dynamin I with antibodies recognizing syndapin I and colocalization of syndapin I with dynamin I at vesicular structures in primary neurons indicate that syndapin I associates with dynamin I in vivo and may play a role in synaptic vesicle endocytosis. Furthermore, syndapin I associates with the neural Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein, an actin-depolymerizing protein that regulates cytoskeletal rearrangement. These characteristics of syndapin I suggest a molecular link between cytoskeletal dynamics and synaptic vesicle recycling in the nerve terminal.

    Funded by: NIDA NIH HHS: DA-10154, P01 DA010154; NINDS NIH HHS: NS-09878, NS-15927, R01 NS015927

    Molecular biology of the cell 1999;10;2;501-13

Gene lists (7)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000011 G2C Homo sapiens Human clathrin Human orthologues of mouse clathrin coated vesicle genes adapted from Collins et al (2006) 150
L00000012 G2C Homo sapiens Human Synaptosome Human orthologues of mouse synaptosome adapted from Collins et al (2006) 152
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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