G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
CAP-GLY domain containing linker protein 2
G00000679 (Mus musculus)

Databases (7)

Curated Gene
OTTHUMG00000022980 (Vega human gene)
ENSG00000106665 (Ensembl human gene)
7461 (Entrez Gene)
1096 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
603432 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:2586 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
Q9UDT6 (UniProt)

Synonyms (5)

  • CLIP
  • CLIP-115
  • KIAA0291
  • WSCR3
  • WSCR4

Literature (14)

Pubmed - other

  • Global, in vivo, and site-specific phosphorylation dynamics in signaling networks.

    Olsen JV, Blagoev B, Gnad F, Macek B, Kumar C, Mortensen P and Mann M

    Center for Experimental BioInformatics, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5230 Odense, Denmark.

    Cell signaling mechanisms often transmit information via posttranslational protein modifications, most importantly reversible protein phosphorylation. Here we develop and apply a general mass spectrometric technology for identification and quantitation of phosphorylation sites as a function of stimulus, time, and subcellular location. We have detected 6,600 phosphorylation sites on 2,244 proteins and have determined their temporal dynamics after stimulating HeLa cells with epidermal growth factor (EGF) and recorded them in the Phosida database. Fourteen percent of phosphorylation sites are modulated at least 2-fold by EGF, and these were classified by their temporal profiles. Surprisingly, a majority of proteins contain multiple phosphorylation sites showing different kinetics, suggesting that they serve as platforms for integrating signals. In addition to protein kinase cascades, the targets of reversible phosphorylation include ubiquitin ligases, guanine nucleotide exchange factors, and at least 46 different transcriptional regulators. The dynamic phosphoproteome provides a missing link in a global, integrative view of cellular regulation.

    Cell 2006;127;3;635-48

  • Transcriptional maps of 10 human chromosomes at 5-nucleotide resolution.

    Cheng J, Kapranov P, Drenkow J, Dike S, Brubaker S, Patel S, Long J, Stern D, Tammana H, Helt G, Sementchenko V, Piccolboni A, Bekiranov S, Bailey DK, Ganesh M, Ghosh S, Bell I, Gerhard DS and Gingeras TR

    Affymetrix Inc., Santa Clara, CA 95051, USA.

    Sites of transcription of polyadenylated and nonpolyadenylated RNAs for 10 human chromosomes were mapped at 5-base pair resolution in eight cell lines. Unannotated, nonpolyadenylated transcripts comprise the major proportion of the transcriptional output of the human genome. Of all transcribed sequences, 19.4, 43.7, and 36.9% were observed to be polyadenylated, nonpolyadenylated, and bimorphic, respectively. Half of all transcribed sequences are found only in the nucleus and for the most part are unannotated. Overall, the transcribed portions of the human genome are predominantly composed of interlaced networks of both poly A+ and poly A- annotated transcripts and unannotated transcripts of unknown function. This organization has important implications for interpreting genotype-phenotype associations, regulation of gene expression, and the definition of a gene.

    Science (New York, N.Y.) 2005;308;5725;1149-54

  • Mutant small heat-shock protein 27 causes axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease and distal hereditary motor neuropathy.

    Evgrafov OV, Mersiyanova I, Irobi J, Van Den Bosch L, Dierick I, Leung CL, Schagina O, Verpoorten N, Van Impe K, Fedotov V, Dadali E, Auer-Grumbach M, Windpassinger C, Wagner K, Mitrovic Z, Hilton-Jones D, Talbot K, Martin JJ, Vasserman N, Tverskaya S, Polyakov A, Liem RK, Gettemans J, Robberecht W, De Jonghe P and Timmerman V

    Department of Psychiatry, New York State Psychiatric Institute/Research Foundation for Mental Hygiene, Unit 28, 1051 Riverside Drive, New York, New York 10032, USA. Evgrafo@pi.cpmc.columbia.edu

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) is the most common inherited neuromuscular disease and is characterized by considerable clinical and genetic heterogeneity. We previously reported a Russian family with autosomal dominant axonal CMT and assigned the locus underlying the disease (CMT2F; OMIM 606595) to chromosome 7q11-q21 (ref. 2). Here we report a missense mutation in the gene encoding 27-kDa small heat-shock protein B1 (HSPB1, also called HSP27) that segregates in the family with CMT2F. Screening for mutations in HSPB1 in 301 individuals with CMT and 115 individuals with distal hereditary motor neuropathies (distal HMNs) confirmed the previously observed mutation and identified four additional missense mutations. We observed the additional HSPB1 mutations in four families with distal HMN and in one individual with CMT neuropathy. Four mutations are located in the Hsp20-alpha-crystallin domain, and one mutation is in the C-terminal part of the HSP27 protein. Neuronal cells transfected with mutated HSPB1 were less viable than cells expressing the wild-type protein. Cotransfection of neurofilament light chain (NEFL) and mutant HSPB1 resulted in altered neurofilament assembly in cells devoid of cytoplasmic intermediate filaments.

    Nature genetics 2004;36;6;602-6

  • Proteomic identification of brain proteins that interact with dynein light chain LC8.

    Navarro-Lérida I, Martínez Moreno M, Roncal F, Gavilanes F, Albar JP and Rodríguez-Crespo I

    Departamento de Bioquímicay Biología Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain. nacho@bbml.ucm.es

    Cytoplasmic dynein is a large minus end-directed microtubule motor that translocates cargos towards the minus end of microtubules. Light chain 8 of the dynein machinery (LC8) has been reported to interact with a large variety of proteins that possess K/RSTQT or GIQVD motifs in their sequence, hence permitting their transport in a retrograde manner. Yeast two-hybrid analysis has revealed that in brain, LC8 associates directly with several proteins such as neuronal nitric oxide synthase, guanylate kinase domain-associated protein and gephyrin. In this work, we report the identification of over 40 polypeptides, by means of a proteomic approach, that interact with LC8 either directly or indirectly. Many of the neuronal proteins that we identified cluster at the post-synaptic terminal, and some of them such as phosphofructokinase, lactate dehydrogenase or aldolase are directly involved in glutamate metabolism. Other pool of proteins identified displayed the LC8 consensus binding motif. Finally, recombinant LC8 was produced and a library of overlapping dodecapeptides (pepscan) was employed to map the LC8 binding site of some of the proteins that were previously identified using the proteomic approach, hence confirming binding to the consensus binding sites.

    Proteomics 2004;4;2;339-46

  • The DNA sequence of human chromosome 7.

    Hillier LW, Fulton RS, Fulton LA, Graves TA, Pepin KH, Wagner-McPherson C, Layman D, Maas J, Jaeger S, Walker R, Wylie K, Sekhon M, Becker MC, O'Laughlin MD, Schaller ME, Fewell GA, Delehaunty KD, Miner TL, Nash WE, Cordes M, Du H, Sun H, Edwards J, Bradshaw-Cordum H, Ali J, Andrews S, Isak A, Vanbrunt A, Nguyen C, Du F, Lamar B, Courtney L, Kalicki J, Ozersky P, Bielicki L, Scott K, Holmes A, Harkins R, Harris A, Strong CM, Hou S, Tomlinson C, Dauphin-Kohlberg S, Kozlowicz-Reilly A, Leonard S, Rohlfing T, Rock SM, Tin-Wollam AM, Abbott A, Minx P, Maupin R, Strowmatt C, Latreille P, Miller N, Johnson D, Murray J, Woessner JP, Wendl MC, Yang SP, Schultz BR, Wallis JW, Spieth J, Bieri TA, Nelson JO, Berkowicz N, Wohldmann PE, Cook LL, Hickenbotham MT, Eldred J, Williams D, Bedell JA, Mardis ER, Clifton SW, Chissoe SL, Marra MA, Raymond C, Haugen E, Gillett W, Zhou Y, James R, Phelps K, Iadanoto S, Bubb K, Simms E, Levy R, Clendenning J, Kaul R, Kent WJ, Furey TS, Baertsch RA, Brent MR, Keibler E, Flicek P, Bork P, Suyama M, Bailey JA, Portnoy ME, Torrents D, Chinwalla AT, Gish WR, Eddy SR, McPherson JD, Olson MV, Eichler EE, Green ED, Waterston RH and Wilson RK

    Genome Sequencing Center, Washington University School of Medicine, Campus Box 8501, 4444 Forest Park Avenue, St Louis, Missouri 63108, USA.

    Human chromosome 7 has historically received prominent attention in the human genetics community, primarily related to the search for the cystic fibrosis gene and the frequent cytogenetic changes associated with various forms of cancer. Here we present more than 153 million base pairs representing 99.4% of the euchromatic sequence of chromosome 7, the first metacentric chromosome completed so far. The sequence has excellent concordance with previously established physical and genetic maps, and it exhibits an unusual amount of segmentally duplicated sequence (8.2%), with marked differences between the two arms. Our initial analyses have identified 1,150 protein-coding genes, 605 of which have been confirmed by complementary DNA sequences, and an additional 941 pseudogenes. Of genes confirmed by transcript sequences, some are polymorphic for mutations that disrupt the reading frame.

    Nature 2003;424;6945;157-64

  • Targeted mutation of Cyln2 in the Williams syndrome critical region links CLIP-115 haploinsufficiency to neurodevelopmental abnormalities in mice.

    Hoogenraad CC, Koekkoek B, Akhmanova A, Krugers H, Dortland B, Miedema M, van Alphen A, Kistler WM, Jaegle M, Koutsourakis M, Van Camp N, Verhoye M, van der Linden A, Kaverina I, Grosveld F, De Zeeuw CI and Galjart N

    MGC Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, Erasmus University, P.O. Box 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

    Williams syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by the hemizygous deletion of 1.6 Mb on human chromosome 7q11.23. This region comprises the gene CYLN2, encoding CLIP-115, a microtubule-binding protein of 115 kD. Using a gene-targeting approach, we provide evidence that mice with haploinsufficiency for Cyln2 have features reminiscent of Williams syndrome, including mild growth deficiency, brain abnormalities, hippocampal dysfunction and particular deficits in motor coordination. Absence of CLIP-115 also leads to increased levels of CLIP-170 (a closely related cytoplasmic linker protein) and dynactin at the tips of growing microtubules. This protein redistribution may affect dynein motor regulation and, together with the loss of CLIP-115-specific functions, underlie neurological alterations in Williams syndrome.

    Nature genetics 2002;32;1;116-27

  • Construction of expression-ready cDNA clones for KIAA genes: manual curation of 330 KIAA cDNA clones.

    Nakajima D, Okazaki N, Yamakawa H, Kikuno R, Ohara O and Nagase T

    Kazusa DNA Research Institute, Kisarazu, Chiba, Japan.

    We have accumulated information on protein-coding sequences of uncharacterized human genes, which are known as KIAA genes, through cDNA sequencing. For comprehensive functional analysis of the KIAA genes, it is necessary to prepare a set of cDNA clones which direct the synthesis of functional KIAA gene products. However, since the KIAA cDNAs were derived from long mRNAs (> 4 kb), it was not expected that all of them were full-length. Thus, as the first step toward preparing these clones, we evaluated the integrity of protein-coding sequences of KIAA cDNA clones through comparison with homologous protein entries in the public database. As a result, 1141 KIAA cDNAs had at least one homologous entry in the database, and 619 of them (54%) were found to be truncated at the 5' and/or 3' ends. In this study, 290 KIAA cDNA clones were tailored to be full-length or have considerably longer sequences than the original clones by isolating additional cDNA clones and/or connected parts of additional cDNAs or PCR products of the missing portion to the original cDNA clone. Consequently, 265, 8, and 17 predicted CDSs of KIAA cDNA clones were increased in the amino-, carboxy-, and both terminal sequences, respectively. In addition, 40 cDNA clones were modified to remove spurious interruption of protein-coding sequences. The total length of the resultant extensions at amino- and carboxy-terminals of KIAA gene products reached 97,000 and 7,216 amino acid residues, respectively, and various protein domains were found in these extended portions.

    DNA research : an international journal for rapid publication of reports on genes and genomes 2002;9;3;99-106

  • Clasps are CLIP-115 and -170 associating proteins involved in the regional regulation of microtubule dynamics in motile fibroblasts.

    Akhmanova A, Hoogenraad CC, Drabek K, Stepanova T, Dortland B, Verkerk T, Vermeulen W, Burgering BM, De Zeeuw CI, Grosveld F and Galjart N

    MGC Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, Erasmus University, P.O. Box 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

    CLIP-170 and CLIP-115 are cytoplasmic linker proteins that associate specifically with the ends of growing microtubules and may act as anti-catastrophe factors. Here, we have isolated two CLIP-associated proteins (CLASPs), which are homologous to the Drosophila Orbit/Mast microtubule-associated protein. CLASPs bind CLIPs and microtubules, colocalize with the CLIPs at microtubule distal ends, and have microtubule-stabilizing effects in transfected cells. After serum induction, CLASPs relocalize to distal segments of microtubules at the leading edge of motile fibroblasts. We provide evidence that this asymmetric CLASP distribution is mediated by PI3-kinase and GSK-3 beta. Antibody injections suggest that CLASP2 is required for the orientation of stabilized microtubules toward the leading edge. We propose that CLASPs are involved in the local regulation of microtubule dynamics in response to positional cues.

    Cell 2001;104;6;923-35

  • A structural framework for deciphering the link between I-Ag7 and autoimmune diabetes.

    Corper AL, Stratmann T, Apostolopoulos V, Scott CA, Garcia KC, Kang AS, Wilson IA and Teyton L

    Department of Molecular Biology and Skaggs Institute for Chemical Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.

    Susceptibility to murine and human insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus correlates strongly with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II I-A or HLA-DQ alleles that lack an aspartic acid at position beta57. I-Ag7 lacks this aspartate and is the only class II allele expressed by the nonobese diabetic mouse. The crystal structure of I-Ag7 was determined at 2.6 angstrom resolution as a complex with a high-affinity peptide from the autoantigen glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) 65. I-Ag7 has a substantially wider peptide-binding groove around beta57, which accounts for distinct peptide preferences compared with other MHC class II alleles. Loss of Asp(beta57) leads to an oxyanion hole in I-Ag7 that can be filled by peptide carboxyl residues or, perhaps, through interaction with the T cell receptor.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA58896; NIDDK NIH HHS: DK55037

    Science (New York, N.Y.) 2000;288;5465;505-11

  • The murine CYLN2 gene: genomic organization, chromosome localization, and comparison to the human gene that is located within the 7q11.23 Williams syndrome critical region.

    Hoogenraad CC, Eussen BH, Langeveld A, van Haperen R, Winterberg S, Wouters CH, Grosveld F, De Zeeuw CI and Galjart N

    MGC Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, Erasmus University, Rotterdam, 3000 DR, The Netherlands.

    Cytoplasmic linker proteins (CLIPs) have been proposed to mediate the interaction between specific membranous organelles and microtubules. We have recently characterized a novel member of this family, called CLIP-115. This protein is most abundantly expressed in the brain and was found to associate both with microtubules and with an organelle called the dendritic lamellar body. CLIP-115 is highly homologous to CLIP-170, or restin, which is a protein involved in the binding of endosomes to microtubules. Using the rat cDNA as a probe we have isolated overlapping cosmids containing the complete murine and part of the human CYLN2 (cytoplasmic linker-2) genes, which encode CLIP-115. The murine gene spans 60 kb and consists of 17 exons, and its promoter is embedded in a CpG island. Murine CYLN2 maps to the telomeric end of mouse chromosome 5. The human CYLN2 gene is localized to a syntenic region on chromosome 7q11.23, which is commonly deleted in Williams syndrome. It spans at least 140 kb at the 3' end of the deletion. Human CYLN2 is very likely identical to the previously characterized, incomplete WSCR4 and WSCR3 transcription units.

    Genomics 1998;53;3;348-58

  • Toward a complete human genome sequence.

    Sanger Center and Genome Sequencing Center

    Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SA, UK;

    We have begun a joint program as part of a coordinated international effort to determine a complete human genome sequence. Our strategy is to map large-insert bacterial clones and to sequence each clone by a random shotgun approach followed by directed finishing. As of September 1998, we have identified the map positions of bacterial clones covering approximately 860 Mb for sequencing and completed >98 Mb ( approximately 3.3%) of the human genome sequence. Our progress and sequencing data can be accessed via the World Wide Web (http://webace.sanger.ac.uk/HGP/ or http://genome.wustl.edu/gsc/).

    Genome research 1998;8;11;1097-108

  • Construction and characterization of human brain cDNA libraries suitable for analysis of cDNA clones encoding relatively large proteins.

    Ohara O, Nagase T, Ishikawa K, Nakajima D, Ohira M, Seki N and Nomura N

    Kazusa DNA Research Institute, Chiba, Japan. ohara@kazusa.or.jp

    Analysis of proteins registered in the PIR protein database implied that most of relatively large proteins are related to important functions in higher multicellular organisms, but not many large proteins have been registered to date. To establish a protocol for efficient analysis of cDNA clones coding for large proteins, we constructed a series of strictly size-fractionated cDNA libraries of human brain, where the average insert sizes of cDNA clones ranged from 3.3 kb to 10 kb. As judged by hybridization analysis with probes derived from mRNAs of known sizes, the libraries with insert sizes up to 7 kb, at least, contained the clones corresponding to full-length transcripts in addition to truncated products of longer transcripts, but few chimeric clones. Using one of the fractionated libraries with an average insert size of 7 kb, the single-pass sequences from both the ends of randomly sampled clones were determined and sarched against DNA databases. Approximately 90% of the clones were found to be new with respect to their 5'-sequences while their 3'-sequences were frequently similar to the registered expression sequence tags. Examination of the protein-coding capacity in an in vitro transcription/translation system showed that about 20% of the clones direct the synthesis of proteins with apparent molecular masses larger than 50 kDa. The set of libraries constructed here should be very useful for the accumulation of sequence data on large proteins in the human brain.

    DNA research : an international journal for rapid publication of reports on genes and genomes 1997;4;1;53-9

  • Identification of genes from a 500-kb region at 7q11.23 that is commonly deleted in Williams syndrome patients.

    Osborne LR, Martindale D, Scherer SW, Shi XM, Huizenga J, Heng HH, Costa T, Pober B, Lew L, Brinkman J, Rommens J, Koop B and Tsui LC

    Department of Genetics, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a multisystem developmental disorder caused by the deletion of contiguous genes at 7q11.23. Hemizygosity of the elastin (ELN) gene can account for the vascular and connective tissue abnormalities observed in WS patients, but the genes that contribute to features such as infantile hypercalcemia, dysmorphic facies, and mental retardation remain to be identified. In addition, the size of the genomic interval commonly deleted in WS patients has not been established. In this study we report the characterization of a 500-kb region that was determined to be deleted in our collection of WS patients. A detailed physical map consisting of cosmid, P1 artificial chromosomes, and yeast artificial chromosomes was constructed and used for gene isolation experiments. Using the techniques of direct cDNA selection and genomic DNA sequencing, three known genes (ELN, LIMK1, and RFC2), a novel gene (WSCR1) with homology to RNA-binding proteins, a gene with homology to restin, and four other putative transcription units were identified. LIMK1 is a protein kinase with two repeats of the LIM/double zinc finger motif, and it is highly expressed in brain. RFC2 is the 40-kDa ATP-binding subunit of replication factor C, which is known to play a role in the elongation of DNA catalyzed by DNA polymerase delta and epsilon. LIMK1 and WSCR1 may be particularly relevant when explaining cognitive defects observed in WS patients.

    Genomics 1996;36;2;328-36

Gene lists (6)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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