G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
adaptor-related protein complex 1, beta 1 subunit
G00000668 (Mus musculus)

Databases (8)

Curated Gene
OTTHUMG00000030947 (Vega human gene)
ENSG00000100280 (Ensembl human gene)
162 (Entrez Gene)
1084 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
AP1B1 (GeneCards)
600157 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
Protein Sequence
Q10567 (UniProt)

Synonyms (2)

  • AP105A
  • BAM22

Literature (44)

Pubmed - other

  • A genome-wide association study of carotid atherosclerosis in HIV-infected men.

    Shrestha S, Irvin MR, Taylor KD, Wiener HW, Pajewski NM, Haritunians T, Delaney JA, Schambelan M, Polak JF, Arnett DK, Chen YD and Grunfeld C

    Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1665 University Blvd., Birmingham, AL 35294-0022, USA. sshresth@uab.edu

    Background: The role of host genetics in the development of subclinical atherosclerosis in the context of HIV-infected persons who are being treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is not well understood.

    Methods: The present genome-wide association study (GWAS) is based on 177 HIV-positive Caucasian males receiving HAART who participated in the Fat Redistribution and Metabolic Change in HIV Infection (FRAM) Study. Common and internal carotid intima-media thicknesses (cIMT) measured by B-mode ultrasound were used as a subclinical measure of atherosclerosis. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were assayed using the Illumina HumanCNV370-quad beadchip. Copy Number Variants (CNV) were inferred using a hidden Markov Model (PennCNV). Regression analyses were used to assess the association of common and internal cIMT with individual SNPs and CNVs, adjusting for age, duration of antiretroviral treatment, and principal components to account for potential population stratification.

    Results: Two SNPs in tight linkage disequilibrium, rs2229116 (a missense, nonsynonymous polymorphism (IIe to Val)) and rs7177922, located in the ryanodine receptor (RYR3) gene on chromosome 15 were significantly associated with common cIMT (P-value < 1.61 x 10). The RYR gene family has been known to play a role in the etiology of cardiovascular disease and has been shown to be regulated by HIV TAT protein.

    Conclusion: These results suggest that in the context of HIV infection and HAART, a functional SNP in a biologically plausible candidate gene, RYR3, is associated with increased common carotid IMT, which is a surrogate for atherosclerosis.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: M01 RR000036, M01 RR000036-43, M01 RR000051, M01 RR000051-46, M01 RR000052, M01 RR000052-46, M01 RR000054, M01 RR000054-39, M01 RR000083, M01 RR000083-44, M01 RR000425, M01 RR000425-36, M01 RR000633-34, M01 RR000865, M01 RR000865-29, M01-RR00036, M01-RR00425, RR00051, RR00052, RR00054, RR00083, RR00636, RR00865, UL1 RR024131, UL1 RR024131-03; NHLBI NIH HHS: HL53359, HL74814, R01 HL053359-07, R01 HL074814, R01 HL074814-04; NIAID NIH HHS: K23 AI066943, K23 AI066943-05, K23 AI66943; NIDDK NIH HHS: DK063491, P30 DK063491, P30 DK063491-09, R01 DK033651, R01 DK057508, R01 DK057508-01, R01 DK57508

    AIDS (London, England) 2010;24;4;583-92

  • Role of activation of PIP5Kgamma661 by AP-2 complex in synaptic vesicle endocytosis.

    Nakano-Kobayashi A, Yamazaki M, Unoki T, Hongu T, Murata C, Taguchi R, Katada T, Frohman MA, Yokozeki T and Kanaho Y

    Department of Physiological Chemistry, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences and Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Japan.

    Synaptic vesicles (SVs) are retrieved by clathrin-mediated endocytosis at the nerve terminals. Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2] drives this event by recruiting the components of the endocytic machinery. However, the molecular mechanisms that result in local generation of PI(4,5)P2 remain unclear. We demonstrate here that AP-2 complex directly interacts with phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase gamma661 (PIP5Kgamma661), the major PI(4,5)P2-producing enzyme in the brain. The beta2 subunit of AP-2 was found to bind to the C-terminal tail of PIP5Kgamma661 and cause PIP5Kgamma661 activation. The interaction is regulated by PIP5Kgamma661 dephosphorylation, which is triggered by depolarization in mouse hippocampal neurons. Finally, overexpression of the PIP5Kgamma661 C-terminal region in hippocampal neurons suppresses depolarization-dependent SV endocytosis. These findings provide evidence for the molecular mechanism through which PIP5Kgamma661 locally generates PI(4,5)P2 in hippocampal neurons and suggest a model in which the interaction trigger SV endocytosis.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: R01 GM071520, R01 GM71520

    The EMBO journal 2007;26;4;1105-16

  • HIV-1 Nef stabilizes AP-1 on membranes without inducing ARF1-independent de novo attachment.

    Coleman SH, Hitchin D, Noviello CM and Guatelli JC

    Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, CA 92093-0679, USA.

    HIV-1 Nef affects the trafficking of numerous cellular proteins to optimize viral replication and evade host defenses. The adaptor protein (AP) complexes, which form part of the cytoplasmic coat of endosomal vesicles, are key cellular co-factors for Nef. Nef binds these complexes and alters their physiologic cycle of attachment and release from membranes. Specifically, while AP-1 normally becomes cytosolic when attachment events are blocked by inhibition of the GTPase cycle of ADP-ribosylation factor-1 (ARF1), the complex remains membrane-associated in Nef-expressing cells. To investigate the mechanism of this effect, we used a permeabilized cell system to detect the de novo attachment of exogenous AP-1 to endosomal membranes. Nef did not mediate de novo attachment independently of ARF1, despite its ability to maintain the association of AP-1 with endosomal membranes when the activity of ARF1 was blocked. We conclude that Nef stabilizes AP complexes on endosomal membranes after ARF1-dependent attachment. This stabilization may facilitate coat formation and stimulate the trafficking of multiple cellular proteins.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: RR04050; NIAID NIH HHS: AI36214, AI38201

    Virology 2006;345;1;148-55

  • Diversification of transcriptional modulation: large-scale identification and characterization of putative alternative promoters of human genes.

    Kimura K, Wakamatsu A, Suzuki Y, Ota T, Nishikawa T, Yamashita R, Yamamoto J, Sekine M, Tsuritani K, Wakaguri H, Ishii S, Sugiyama T, Saito K, Isono Y, Irie R, Kushida N, Yoneyama T, Otsuka R, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Kondo H, Wagatsuma M, Murakawa K, Ishida S, Ishibashi T, Takahashi-Fujii A, Tanase T, Nagai K, Kikuchi H, Nakai K, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Life Science Research Laboratory, Central Research Laboratory, Hitachi, Ltd., Kokubunji, Tokyo, 185-8601, Japan.

    By analyzing 1,780,295 5'-end sequences of human full-length cDNAs derived from 164 kinds of oligo-cap cDNA libraries, we identified 269,774 independent positions of transcriptional start sites (TSSs) for 14,628 human RefSeq genes. These TSSs were clustered into 30,964 clusters that were separated from each other by more than 500 bp and thus are very likely to constitute mutually distinct alternative promoters. To our surprise, at least 7674 (52%) human RefSeq genes were subject to regulation by putative alternative promoters (PAPs). On average, there were 3.1 PAPs per gene, with the composition of one CpG-island-containing promoter per 2.6 CpG-less promoters. In 17% of the PAP-containing loci, tissue-specific use of the PAPs was observed. The richest tissue sources of the tissue-specific PAPs were testis and brain. It was also intriguing that the PAP-containing promoters were enriched in the genes encoding signal transduction-related proteins and were rarer in the genes encoding extracellular proteins, possibly reflecting the varied functional requirement for and the restricted expression of those categories of genes, respectively. The patterns of the first exons were highly diverse as well. On average, there were 7.7 different splicing types of first exons per locus partly produced by the PAPs, suggesting that a wide variety of transcripts can be achieved by this mechanism. Our findings suggest that use of alternate promoters and consequent alternative use of first exons should play a pivotal role in generating the complexity required for the highly elaborated molecular systems in humans.

    Genome research 2006;16;1;55-65

  • Chromosome-wide mapping of estrogen receptor binding reveals long-range regulation requiring the forkhead protein FoxA1.

    Carroll JS, Liu XS, Brodsky AS, Li W, Meyer CA, Szary AJ, Eeckhoute J, Shao W, Hestermann EV, Geistlinger TR, Fox EA, Silver PA and Brown M

    Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, 44 Binney Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    Estrogen plays an essential physiologic role in reproduction and a pathologic one in breast cancer. The completion of the human genome has allowed the identification of the expressed regions of protein-coding genes; however, little is known concerning the organization of their cis-regulatory elements. We have mapped the association of the estrogen receptor (ER) with the complete nonrepetitive sequence of human chromosomes 21 and 22 by combining chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) with tiled microarrays. ER binds selectively to a limited number of sites, the majority of which are distant from the transcription start sites of regulated genes. The unbiased sequence interrogation of the genuine chromatin binding sites suggests that direct ER binding requires the presence of Forkhead factor binding in close proximity. Furthermore, knockdown of FoxA1 expression blocks the association of ER with chromatin and estrogen-induced gene expression demonstrating the necessity of FoxA1 in mediating an estrogen response in breast cancer cells.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: F32 CA108380-02; NHGRI NIH HHS: K22 HG02488-01A1; NIDDK NIH HHS: T90 DK070078-01

    Cell 2005;122;1;33-43

  • Identification of novel CBP interacting proteins in embryonic orofacial tissue.

    Yin X, Warner DR, Roberts EA, Pisano MM and Greene RM

    Department of Molecular, Cellular and Craniofacial Biology, University of Louisville Birth Defects Center, ULSD Louisville, KY 40292, USA.

    cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB)-binding protein (CBP) plays an important role as a general co-integrator of multiple signaling pathways and interacts with a large number of transcription factors and co-factors, through its numerous protein-binding domains. To identify nuclear factors associated with CBP in developing orofacial tissue, a yeast two-hybrid screen of a cDNA library derived from orofacial tissue from gestational day 11 to 13 mouse embryos was conducted. Using the carboxy terminus (amino acid residues 1676-2441) of CBP as bait, several novel proteins that bind CBP were identified, including an Msx-interacting-zinc finger protein, CDC42 interaction protein 4/thyroid hormone receptor interactor 10, SH3-domain GRB2-like 1, CCR4-NOT transcription complex subunit 3, adaptor protein complex AP-1 beta1 subunit, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2B subunit 1 (alpha), and cyclin G-associated kinase. Results of the yeast two-hybrid screen were confirmed by glutathione S-transferase pull-down assays. The identification of these proteins as novel CBP-binding partners allows exploration of new mechanisms by which CBP regulates and integrates diverse cell signaling pathways.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: P20 RR 017702; NIDCR NIH HHS: R01 DE 05550

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2005;329;3;1010-7

  • Leucine-specific, functional interactions between human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Nef and adaptor protein complexes.

    Coleman SH, Van Damme N, Day JR, Noviello CM, Hitchin D, Madrid R, Benichou S and Guatelli JC

    Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0679, USA.

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 virulence protein Nef interacts with the endosomal sorting machinery via a leucine-based motif. Similar sequences within the cytoplasmic domains of cellular transmembrane proteins bind to the adaptor protein (AP) complexes of coated vesicles to modulate protein traffic, but the molecular basis of the interactions between these motifs and the heterotetrameric complexes is controversial. To identify the target of the Nef leucine motif, the native sequence was replaced with either leucine- or tyrosine-based AP-binding sequences from cellular proteins, and the interactions with AP subunits were correlated with function. Tyrosine motifs predictably modulated the interactions between Nef and the mu subunits of AP-1, AP-2, and AP-3; heterologous leucine motifs caused little change in these interactions. Conversely, leucine motifs mediated a ternary interaction between Nef and hemicomplexes containing the sigma1 plus gamma subunits of AP-1 or the sigma3 plus delta subunits of AP-3, whereas tyrosine motifs did not. Similarly, only leucine motifs supported the Nef-mediated association of AP-1 and AP-3 with endosomal membranes in cells treated with brefeldin A. Functionally, Nef proteins containing leucine motifs down-regulated CD4 from the cell surface and enhanced viral replication, whereas those containing tyrosine motifs were inactive. Apparently, the interaction of Nef with the mu subunits of AP complexes is insufficient for function. A leucine-specific mode of interaction that likely involves AP hemicomplexes is further required for Nef activity. The mu and hemicomplex interactions may cooperate to yield high avidity binding of AP complexes to Nef. This binding likely underlies the unusual ability of Nef to induce the stabilization of these complexes on endosomal membranes, an activity that correlates with enhancement of viral replication.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: P41 RR004050, RR04050; NIAID NIH HHS: AI36214, AI38201, P30 AI036214, R01 AI038201, R21 AI038201

    Journal of virology 2005;79;4;2066-78

  • Yeast two-hybrid identification of prostatic proteins interacting with human sex hormone-binding globulin.

    Pope SN and Lee IR

    School of Biomedical Sciences, Curtin University of Technology, G.P.O. Box U1987, Perth, WA 6845, Australia.

    Yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) screening of a prostate cDNA library with the cDNA for sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) has been used to identify proteins through which SHBG may exert autocrine or paracrine effects on sex steroid target tissues. The library screen gave 230 positive interactions of which around 60 have been sequenced. Of the proteins identified to date from database (BLAST) searches of these sequences, SHBG is one of those occurring most frequently. Amongst the proteins of interest are the membrane-associated proteins flotillin-1 and PRV-1, the enzymes cathepsin D, kallikrein 4 and acid phosphatase, various metallothioneins and translation elongation factor 1 alpha. The significance of the interaction of SHBG with these proteins is discussed.

    The Journal of steroid biochemistry and molecular biology 2005;94;1-3;203-8

  • HIV-1 Nef disrupts MHC-I trafficking by recruiting AP-1 to the MHC-I cytoplasmic tail.

    Roeth JF, Williams M, Kasper MR, Filzen TM and Collins KL

    Graduate Program in Cellular and Molecular Biology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA.

    To avoid immune recognition by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 Nef disrupts the transport of major histocompatibility complex class I molecules (MHC-I) to the cell surface in HIV-infected T cells. However, the mechanism by which Nef does this is unknown. We report that Nef disrupts MHC-I trafficking by rerouting newly synthesized MHC-I from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) to lysosomal compartments for degradation. The ability of Nef to target MHC-I from the TGN to lysosomes is dependent on expression of the mu1 subunit of adaptor protein (AP) AP-1A, a cellular protein complex implicated in TGN to endolysosomal pathways. We demonstrate that in HIV-infected primary T cells, Nef promotes a physical interaction between endogenous AP-1 and MHC-I. Moreover, we present data that this interaction uses a novel AP-1 binding site that requires amino acids in the MHC-I cytoplasmic tail. In sum, our evidence suggests that binding of AP-1 to the Nef-MHC-I complex is an important step required for inhibition of antigen presentation by HIV.

    Funded by: NIAID NIH HHS: R01 AI046998, R01 AI46998; NIGMS NIH HHS: T32 GM007544

    The Journal of cell biology 2004;167;5;903-13

  • Functional proteomics mapping of a human signaling pathway.

    Colland F, Jacq X, Trouplin V, Mougin C, Groizeleau C, Hamburger A, Meil A, Wojcik J, Legrain P and Gauthier JM

    Hybrigenics SA, 75014 Paris, France. fcolland@hybrigenics.fr

    Access to the human genome facilitates extensive functional proteomics studies. Here, we present an integrated approach combining large-scale protein interaction mapping, exploration of the interaction network, and cellular functional assays performed on newly identified proteins involved in a human signaling pathway. As a proof of principle, we studied the Smad signaling system, which is regulated by members of the transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) superfamily. We used two-hybrid screening to map Smad signaling protein-protein interactions and to establish a network of 755 interactions, involving 591 proteins, 179 of which were poorly or not annotated. The exploration of such complex interaction databases is improved by the use of PIMRider, a dedicated navigation tool accessible through the Web. The biological meaning of this network is illustrated by the presence of 18 known Smad-associated proteins. Functional assays performed in mammalian cells including siRNA knock-down experiments identified eight novel proteins involved in Smad signaling, thus validating this integrated functional proteomics approach.

    Genome research 2004;14;7;1324-32

  • Genetic variations in humans associated with differences in the course of hepatitis C.

    Saito T, Ji G, Shinzawa H, Okumoto K, Hattori E, Adachi T, Takeda T, Sugahara K, Ito JI, Watanabe H, Saito K, Togashi H, Ishii K, Matsuura T, Inageda K, Muramatsu M and Kawata S

    Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine and Molecular Therapeutics, Yamagata University School of Medicine, 2-2-2 Iida-nishi, Yamagata 990-9585, Japan.

    The outcome of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection varies among individuals, but the genetic factors involved remain unknown. We conducted a population-based association study in which 238 Japanese individuals positive for anti-HCV antibody were genotyped for 269 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 103 candidate genes that might influence the course of infection. Altogether, 50 SNPs in 32 genes were listed. Genetic polymorphisms in IL4, IL8RB, IL10RA, PRL, ADA, NFKB1, GRAP2, CABIN1, IFNAR2, IFI27, IFI41, TNFRSF1A, ALDOB, AP1B1, SULT2B1, EGF, EGFR, TGFB1, LTBP2, and CD4 were associated with persistent viremia (P < 0.05), whereas those in IL1B, IL1RL1, IL2RB, IL12RB1, IL18R1, STAT5A, GRAP2, CABIN1, IFNAR1, Mx1, BMP8, FGL1, LTBP2, CD34, and CD80 were associated with different serum alanine aminotransferase levels in HCV carriers (P < 0.05). The sorted genes allow us to draw novel hypotheses for future studies of HCV infection to ultimately identify bona fide genes and their variations.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2004;317;2;335-41

  • A genome annotation-driven approach to cloning the human ORFeome.

    Collins JE, Wright CL, Edwards CA, Davis MP, Grinham JA, Cole CG, Goward ME, Aguado B, Mallya M, Mokrab Y, Huckle EJ, Beare DM and Dunham I

    The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge, CB10 1SA, UK.

    We have developed a systematic approach to generating cDNA clones containing full-length open reading frames (ORFs), exploiting knowledge of gene structure from genomic sequence. Each ORF was amplified by PCR from a pool of primary cDNAs, cloned and confirmed by sequencing. We obtained clones representing 70% of genes on human chromosome 22, whereas searching available cDNA clone collections found at best 48% from a single collection and 60% for all collections combined.

    Genome biology 2004;5;10;R84

  • HIV-1 Nef stabilizes the association of adaptor protein complexes with membranes.

    Janvier K, Craig H, Hitchin D, Madrid R, Sol-Foulon N, Renault L, Cherfils J, Cassel D, Benichou S and Guatelli J

    Institut Cochin, Department of Infectious Diseases, INSERM U567-CNRS UMR8104, Universite Paris V, 24 Rue du Faubourg Saint-Jacques, France.

    The maximal virulence of HIV-1 requires Nef, a virally encoded peripheral membrane protein. Nef binds to the adaptor protein (AP) complexes of coated vesicles, inducing an expansion of the endosomal compartment and altering the surface expression of cellular proteins including CD4 and class I major histocompatibility complex. Here, we show that Nef stabilizes the association of AP-1 and AP-3 with membranes. These complexes remained with Nef on juxtanuclear membranes despite the treatment of cells with brefeldin A, which induced the release of ADP-ribosylation factor 1 (ARF1) from these membranes to the cytosol. Nef also induced a persistent association of AP-1 and AP-3 with membranes despite the expression of dominant-negative ARF1 or the overexpression of an ARF1-GTPase activating protein. Mutational analysis indicated that the direct binding of Nef to the AP complexes is essential for this stabilization. The leucine residues of the EXXXLL motif found in Nef were required for binding to AP-1 and AP-3 in vitro and for the stabilization of these complexes on membranes in vivo, whereas the glutamic acid residue of this motif was required specifically for the binding and stabilization of AP-3. These data indicate that Nef mediates the persistent attachment of AP-1 and AP-3 to membranes by an ARF1-independent mechanism. The stabilization of these complexes on membranes may underlie the pleiotropic effects of Nef on protein trafficking within the endosomal system.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: RR04050; NIAID NIH HHS: AI36214, AI38201

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;10;8725-32

  • [The HIV nef and the Kaposi-sarcoma-associated virus K3/K5 proteins: "parasites"of the endocytosis pathway].

    Bénichou S and Benmerah A

    Département de Maladies Infectieuses, Inserm U.567, Cnrs UMR 8104, Institut Cochin, Bâtiment Gustave Roussy, 27, rue du Faubourg Saint-Jacques, 75014 Paris, France. benichou@cochin.inserm.fr

    The modulation of plasma membrane proteins involved in the communication with the immune system is a general mechanism developed by viruses to escape the immune response. Most of the studied examples have focused on viral proteins that missort cellular proteins during their biosynthesis. However, an increasing number of examples show that the down-modulation can also be achieved after membrane delivery by targeting into the endocytic pathway. For both human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), the proteins required for this process are identified, Nef and K3/K5 respectively. The extensive studies in this field have shown that the mechanisms by which these proteins "parasite" the endocytic pathway are completely different. Nef directly interacts with components of the cellular machinery involved in the vesicular transport between the endocytic compartments, mainly the clathrin adaptor complexes (AP), inducing the misrouting of numerous cellular proteins, including CD4, MHC-I, LIGHT, DC-SIGN, CD28 and MHC-II to the endosomal degradation compartment or the trans Golgi-network. The K3 and K5 proteins from KSHV act by inducing the ubiquitylation of the target proteins, such as CMH-I and B7.2, triggering their internalization and subsequent degradation by the highly conserved Tsg101/vps23 ubiquitin-dependent endosomal pathway. While these findings show that the strategies used by viruses to target cellular proteins to the endocytic pathway are extremely diverse, additional investigations are needed for the complete understanding of the specific roles of Nef and K3/K5 in the physiopathology of HIV and KSHV infections, respectively. In addition, these viral factors represent valuable tools to study the pathway they are perturbing.

    Medecine sciences : M/S 2003;19;1;100-6

  • The beta2-adaptin clathrin adaptor interacts with the mitotic checkpoint kinase BubR1.

    Cayrol C, Cougoule C and Wright M

    Institut de Pharmacologie et de Biologie Structurale du CNRS-UMR 5089, 205 route de Narbonne, 31077 Toulouse, France. Corinne.Cayrol@ipbs.fr

    The adaptor AP2 is a heterotetrameric complex that associates with clathrin and regulatory proteins to mediate rapid endocytosis from the plasma membrane. Here, we report the identification of the mitotic checkpoint kinase BubR1 as a novel binding partner of beta2-adaptin, one of the AP2 large subunits. Using two-hybrid experiments and in vitro binding assays, we show that beta2-adaptin binds to BubR1 through its amino-terminal beta2-'trunk' domain, while the beta2-binding region of BubR1 maps to the carboxy-terminal kinase domain. Subcellular immunolocalization studies suggest that the interaction between BubR1 and beta2-adaptin could take place in the cytosol at any time during the cell cycle. In addition, we found that BubR1 and the BubR1-related kinase, Bub1, also bind to beta-adaptins of other AP complexes. Together, these results support a model in which the mitotic checkpoint kinases BubR1 and BuB1, by binding to beta-adaptins, may play novel roles in the regulation of vesicular intracellular traffic.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2002;298;5;720-30

  • Clint: a novel clathrin-binding ENTH-domain protein at the Golgi.

    Kalthoff C, Groos S, Kohl R, Mahrhold S and Ungewickell EJ

    Department of Cell Biology, Center of Anatomy, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany.

    We have characterized a novel clathrin-binding 68-kDa epsin N-terminal homology domain (ENTH-domain) protein that we name clathrin interacting protein localized in the trans-Golgi region (Clint). It localizes predominantly to the Golgi region of epithelial cells as well as to more peripheral vesicular structures. Clint colocalizes with AP-1 and clathrin only in the perinuclear area. Recombinantly expressed Clint interacts directly with the gamma-appendage domain of AP-1, with the clathrin N-terminal domain through the peptide motif (423)LFDLM, with the gamma-adaptin ear homology domain of Golgi-localizing, gamma-adaptin ear homology domain 2, with the appendage domain of beta2-adaptin and to a lesser extent with the appendage domain of alpha-adaptin. Moreover, the Clint ENTH-domain asssociates with phosphoinositide-containing liposomes. A significant amount of Clint copurifies with rat liver clathrin-coated vesicles. In rat kidney it is preferentially expressed in the apical region of epithelial cells that line the collecting duct. Clathrin and Clint also colocalize in the apical region of enterocytes along the villi of the small intestine. Apart from the ENTH-domain Clint has no similarities with the epsins AP180/CALM or Hip1/1R. A notable feature of Clint is a carboxyl-terminal methionine-rich domain (Met(427)-Met(605)), which contains >17% methionine. Our results suggest that Clint might participate in the formation of clathrin-coated vesicles at the level of the trans-Golgi network and remains associated with the vesicles longer than clathrin and adaptors.

    Molecular biology of the cell 2002;13;11;4060-73

  • Differential roles of arrestin-2 interaction with clathrin and adaptor protein 2 in G protein-coupled receptor trafficking.

    Kim YM and Benovic JL

    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Kimmel Cancer Center, Thomas Jefferson University, 233 South 10th Street, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA.

    The non-visual arrestins, arrestin-2 and arrestin-3, play a critical role in regulating the signaling and trafficking of many G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Molecular insight into the role of arrestins in GPCR trafficking has suggested that arrestin interaction with clathrin, beta(2)-adaptin (the beta-subunit of the adaptor protein AP2), and phosphoinositides contributes to this process. In the present study, we have attempted to better define the molecular basis and functional role of arrestin-2 interaction with clathrin and beta(2)-adaptin. Site-directed mutagenesis revealed that the C-terminal region of arrestin-2 mediated beta(2)-adaptin and clathrin interaction with Phe-391 and Arg-395 having an essential role in beta(2)-adaptin binding and LIELD (residues 376-380) having an essential role in clathrin binding. Interestingly, arrestin-2-R169E, an activated form of arrestin that binds to GPCRs in a phosphorylation-independent manner, has significantly enhanced binding to beta(2)-adaptin and clathrin. This suggests that receptor-induced conformational changes in the C-terminal tail of arrestin-2 will likely play a major role in mediating arrestin interaction with clathrin-coated pits. In an effort to clarify the role of these interactions in GPCR trafficking we generated arrestin mutants that were completely and selectively defective in either clathrin (arrestin-2-DeltaLIELD) or beta(2)-adaptin (arrestin-2-F391A) interaction. Analysis of these mutants in COS-1 cells revealed that arrestin/clathrin interaction was essential for agonist-promoted internalization of the beta(2)-adrenergic receptor, while arrestin/beta(2)-adaptin interaction appeared less critical. Arrestin-2 mutants defective in both clathrin and beta(2)-adaptin binding functioned as effective dominant negatives in HEK293 cells and significantly attenuated beta(2)-adrenergic receptor internalization. These mutants should prove useful in better defining the role of arrestins in mediating receptor trafficking.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL 67663; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM 47419

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;34;30760-8

  • Molecular mechanism of transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1-induced glutathione depletion in alveolar epithelial cells. Involvement of AP-1/ARE and Fra-1.

    Jardine H, MacNee W, Donaldson K and Rahman I

    Edinburgh Lung and the Environment Group Initiative/Colt Research Laboratories, Medical Research Council Centre for Inflammation Research, University of Edinburgh Medical School, Edinburgh EH8 9AG, United Kingdom.

    Glutathione (GSH) is a ubiquitous antioxidant in lung epithelial cells and lung lining fluid. Transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1) is a pleiotropic cytokine involved in cellular proliferation and differentiation. The level of TGF-beta1 is elevated in many chronic inflammatory lung disorders associated with oxidant/antioxidant imbalance. In this study, we show that TGF-beta1 depletes GSH by down-regulating expression of the enzyme responsible for its formation, gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (gamma-GCS) and induces reactive oxygen species production in type II alveolar epithelial cells (A549). To investigate the molecular mechanisms of inhibition of glutathione synthesis, we employed reporters containing fragments from the promoter region of the gamma-GCS heavy subunit (h), the gene that encodes the catalytic subunit of gamma-GCS. We found that TGF-beta1 reduced the expression of the long gamma-GCSh construct (-3802/GCSh-5'-Luc), suggesting that an antioxidant response element (ARE) may be responsible for mediating the TGF-beta1 effect. Interestingly, the electrophoretic mobility shift assay revealed that the DNA binding activity of both activator protein-1 (AP-1) and ARE was increased in TGF-beta1-treated epithelial cells. The gamma-GCSh ARE contains a perfect AP-1 site embedded within it, and mutation of this internal AP-1 sequence, but not the surrounding ARE, prevented DNA binding. Further studies revealed that c-Jun and Fra-1 dimers, members of the AP-1 family previously shown to exert a negative effect on phase II gene expression, bound to the ARE sequence. We propose a novel mechanism of gamma-GCSh down-regulation by TGF-beta1 that involves the binding of c-Jun and Fra-1 dimers to the distal promoter. The findings of this study provide important information, which may be used for the modulation of glutathione biosynthesis in inflammation.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;24;21158-66

  • Regulation of arrestin-3 phosphorylation by casein kinase II.

    Kim YM, Barak LS, Caron MG and Benovic JL

    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Kimmel Cancer Center, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19107, USA.

    Arrestins play an important role in regulating the function of G protein-coupled receptors including receptor desensitization, internalization, down-regulation, and signaling via nonreceptor tyrosine kinases and mitogen-activated protein kinases. Previous studies have revealed that arrestins themselves are also subject to regulation. In the present study, we focused on identifying potential mechanisms involved in regulating the function of arrestin-3. Using metabolic labeling, phosphoamino acid analysis, and mutagenesis studies, we found that arrestin-3 is constitutively phosphorylated at Thr-382 and becomes dephosphorylated upon beta(2)-adrenergic receptor activation in COS-1 cells. Casein kinase II (CKII) appears to be the major kinase mediating arrestin-3 phosphorylation, since 1) Thr-382 is contained within a canonical consensus sequence for CKII phosphorylation and 2) wild type arrestin-3 but not a T382A mutant is phosphorylated by CKII in vitro. Functional analysis reveals that mutants mimicking the phosphorylated (T382E) and dephosphorylated (T382A or T382V) states of arrestin-3 promote beta(2)-adrenergic receptor internalization and bind clathrin, beta-adaptin, and Src to comparable levels as wild type arrestin-3. This suggests that the phosphorylation of arrestin-3 does not directly regulate interaction with endocytic (clathrin, beta-adaptin) or signaling (Src) components and is in contrast to arrestin-2, where phosphorylation appears to regulate interaction with clathrin and Src. However, additional analysis reveals that arrestin-3 phosphorylation may regulate formation of a large arrestin-3-containing protein complex. Differences between the regulatory roles of arrestin-2 and -3 phosphorylation may contribute to the different cellular functions of these proteins in G protein-coupled receptor signaling and regulation.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;19;16837-46

  • Site-specific cross-linking reveals a differential direct interaction of class 1, 2, and 3 ADP-ribosylation factors with adaptor protein complexes 1 and 3.

    Austin C, Boehm M and Tooze SA

    Secretory Pathways Laboratory, Cancer Research UK London Research Institute, 44 Lincoln's Inn Fields, London WC2A 3PX, England.

    We have used a site-specific photo-cross-linking approach to identify direct interactions between clathrin adaptor protein (AP)1 complexes and small GTPases of the ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) family and to explore the specificity of this interaction on immature secretory granule (ISG) membranes. ISG membranes are a well-characterized, highly enriched preparation of membranes that has previously been shown to have the membrane-associated factors for ARF1 recruitment that are not present on artificial liposomes. All three classes of ARF proteins could be recruited to ISG membranes, displaying differential requirements for GTPgammaS. We found that ARF1, ARF5, and ARF6 interacted directly with the beta1-adaptin subunit of AP-1 in the presence of GTPgammaS. Furthermore, we observed a direct interaction between the switch 1 region of ARF1 and the N-terminal trunk domains of gamma- and beta1-adaptin. In addition, both ARF1 and ARF6 but not ARF5 interacted directly with the beta3- and delta-adaptin subunits of AP-3. No interaction was observed between AP-2 and any of the ARF proteins. Our results delineate the specificity and provide evidence of a direct interaction between different ARF proteins and the AP complexes AP-1 and AP-3 on natural ISG membranes and show that residues in the switch 1 region of ARF proteins can selectively bind to the trunk domains of these complexes.

    Biochemistry 2002;41;14;4669-77

  • GGAs: roles of the different domains and comparison with AP-1 and clathrin.

    Hirst J, Lindsay MR and Robinson MS

    University of Cambridge, Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Wellcome Trust Centre for the Study of Molecular Mechanisms in Disease, Cambridge CB2 2XY, United Kingdom.

    We have previously identified a novel family of proteins called the GGAs (Golgi-localized, gamma-ear-containing, ADP-ribosylation factor-binding proteins). These proteins consist of an NH(2)-terminal VHS domain, followed by a GAT domain, a variable domain, and a gamma-adaptin ear homology domain. Studies from our own laboratory and others, making use of both yeast and mammals cells, indicate that the GGAs facilitate trafficking from the trans-Golgi network to endosomes. Here we have further investigated the function of the GGAs. We find that GGA-deficient yeast are not only defective in vacuolar protein sorting but they are also impaired in their ability to process alpha-factor. Using deletion mutants and chimeras, we show that the VHS domain is required for GGA function and that the VHS domain from Vps27p will not substitute for the GGA VHS domain. In contrast, the gamma-adaptin ear homology domain contributes to GGA function but is not absolutely required, and full function can be restored by replacing the GGA ear domain with the gamma-adaptin ear domain. Deleting the gamma-adaptin gene together with the two GGA genes exacerbates the phenotype in yeast, suggesting that they function on parallel pathways. In mammalian cells, the association of GGAs with the membrane is extremely unstable, which may account for their absence from purified clathrin-coated vesicles. Double- and triple-labeling immunofluorescence experiments indicate that the GGAs and AP-1 are associated with distinct populations of clathrin-coated vesicles budding from the trans-Golgi network. Together with results from other studies, our findings suggest that the GGAs act as monomeric adaptors, with the four domains involved in cargo selection, membrane localization, clathrin binding, and accessory protein recruitment.

    Molecular biology of the cell 2001;12;11;3573-88

  • Gamma subunit of the AP-1 adaptor complex binds clathrin: implications for cooperative binding in coated vesicle assembly.

    Doray B and Kornfeld S

    Washington University School of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, USA.

    The heterotetrameric AP-1 adaptor complex is involved in the assembly of clathrin-coated vesicles originating from the trans-Golgi network (TGN). The beta 1 subunit of AP-1 is known to contain a consensus clathrin binding sequence, LLNLD (the so-called clathrin box motif), in its hinge segment through which the beta chain interacts with the N-terminal domains of clathrin trimers. Here, we report that the hinge region of the gamma subunit of human and mouse AP-1 contains two copies of a new variant, LLDLL, of the clathrin box motif that also bind to the terminal domain of the clathrin heavy chain. High-affinity binding of the gamma hinge to clathrin trimers requires both LLDLL sequences to be present and the spacing between them to be maintained. We also identify an independent clathrin-binding site within the appendage domain of the gamma subunit that interacts with a region of clathrin other than the N-terminal domain. Clathrin polymerization is promoted by glutathione S-transferase (GST)-gamma hinge, but not by GST-gamma appendage. However, the hinge and appendage domains of gamma function in a cooperative manner to recruit and polymerize clathrin, suggesting that clathrin lattice assembly at the TGN involves multivalent binding of clathrin by the gamma and beta1 subunits of AP-1.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R01 CA-08759, R37 CA008759

    Molecular biology of the cell 2001;12;7;1925-35

  • Structure--function relationships in HIV-1 Nef.

    Geyer M, Fackler OT and Peterlin BM

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California, San Francisco 94143-0703, CA, USA. mgeyer@cc.ucsf.edu

    The accessory Nef protein of HIV and SIV is essential for viral pathogenesis, yet it is perplexing in its multitude of molecular functions. In this review we analyse the structure-function relationships of motifs recently proposed to play roles in aspects of Nef modification, signalling and trafficking, and thereby to impinge on the ability of the virus to survive in, and to manipulate, its cellular host. Based on the full-length structure assembly of HIV Nef, we correlate surface accessibility with secondary structure elements and sequence conservation. Motifs involved in Nef-mediated CD4 and MHC I downregulation are located in flexible regions of Nef, suggesting that the formation of the transient trafficking complexes involved in these processes depends on the recognition of primary sequences. In contrast, the interaction sites for signalling molecules that contain SH3 domains or the p21-activated kinases are associated with the well folded core domain, suggesting the recognition of highly structured protein surfaces.

    EMBO reports 2001;2;7;580-5

  • Similar subunit interactions contribute to assembly of clathrin adaptor complexes and COPI complex: analysis using yeast three-hybrid system.

    Takatsu H, Futatsumori M, Yoshino K, Yoshida Y, Shin HW and Nakayama K

    Institute of Biological Sciences and Gene Experiment Center, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Tsukuba Science City, 305-8572, Japan.

    Clathrin adaptor protein (AP) complexes are heterotetramers composed of two large, one medium, and one small subunits. By exploiting the yeast three-hybrid system, we have found that an interaction between the two large subunits of the AP-1 complex, gamma-adaptin and beta1-adaptin, is markedly enhanced in the presence of the small subunit, sigma1. Similarly, two large subunits of the AP-4 complex, epsilon-adaptin and beta4-adaptin, are found to interact with each other only in the presence of the small subunit, sigma4. Furthermore, we have found that an interaction between two large subunits of the COPI F subcomplex, gamma-COP and beta-COP, is detectable only in the presence of zeta-COP. Because these COPI subunits have common ancestral origins to the corresponding AP subunits, these three-hybrid data, taken together with the previous two-hybrid data, suggest that the AP complexes and the COPI F subcomplex assemble by virtue of similar subunit interactions.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2001;284;4;1083-9

  • Three ways to make a vesicle.

    Kirchhausen T

    Harvard Medical School, 200 Longwood Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. kirchhausen@crystal.harvard.edu

    Cargo molecules have to be included in carrier vesicles of different forms and sizes to be transported between organelles. During this process, a limited set of proteins, including the coat proteins COPI, COPII and clathrin, carries out a programmed set of sequential interactions that lead to the budding of vesicles. A general model to explain the formation of coated vesicles is starting to emerge but the picture is more complex than we had imagined.

    Nature reviews. Molecular cell biology 2000;1;3;187-98

  • A novel motor, KIF13A, transports mannose-6-phosphate receptor to plasma membrane through direct interaction with AP-1 complex.

    Nakagawa T, Setou M, Seog D, Ogasawara K, Dohmae N, Takio K and Hirokawa N

    Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan.

    Intracellular transport mediated by kinesin superfamily proteins (KIFs) is a highly regulated process. The molecular mechanism of KIFs binding to their respective cargoes remains unclear. We report that KIF13A is a novel plus end-directed microtubule-dependent motor protein and associates with beta 1-adaptin, a subunit of the AP-1 adaptor complex. The cargo vesicles of KIF13A contained AP-1 and mannnose-6-phosphate receptor (M6PR). Overexpression of KIF13A resulted in mislocalization of the AP-1 and the M6PR. Functional blockade of KIF13A reduced cell surface expression of the M6PR. Thus, KIF13A transports M6PR-containing vesicles and targets the M6PR from TGN to the plasma membrane via direct interaction with the AP-1 adaptor complex.

    Cell 2000;103;4;569-81

  • The calcineurin-binding protein cain is a negative regulator of synaptic vesicle endocytosis.

    Lai MM, Luo HR, Burnett PE, Hong JJ and Snyder SH

    Department of Neuroscience, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA.

    During neurotransmitter release, exocytosed neurotransmitter vesicles are recycled by endocytosis, which involves the assembly of a complex of endocytic proteins. Assembly of endocytic proteins into a functional complex depends on their dephosphorylation by calcineurin, a calcium-sensitive protein phosphatase and the inhibitory target of immunosuppressive drugs cyclosporin A and FK506. Cain is a recently identified protein inhibitor of calcineurin. We now provide evidence that cain is a component of the endocytic protein complex. The proline-rich region of cain forms a stable association with the SH3 domain of amphiphysin 1. Using a transferrin uptake assay, we found that overexpression of cain in HEK293 cells blocks endocytosis as potently as expression of a dominant negative dynamin 1 construct. The use of other calcineurin inhibitors such as cyclosporin A and FK506 also blocks endocytosis. Since binding of cain to amphiphysin 1 does not affect amphiphysin's interaction with other endocytic proteins, our results suggest that cain negatively regulates synaptic vesicle endocytosis by inhibiting calcineurin activity, rather than sterically interfering with the assembly of the endocytic protein complex.

    Funded by: NIDA NIH HHS: DA-00074; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM-07309; NIMH NIH HHS: MH-18501

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2000;275;44;34017-20

  • Shotgun sequencing of the human transcriptome with ORF expressed sequence tags.

    Dias Neto E, Correa RG, Verjovski-Almeida S, Briones MR, Nagai MA, da Silva W, Zago MA, Bordin S, Costa FF, Goldman GH, Carvalho AF, Matsukuma A, Baia GS, Simpson DH, Brunstein A, de Oliveira PS, Bucher P, Jongeneel CV, O'Hare MJ, Soares F, Brentani RR, Reis LF, de Souza SJ and Simpson AJ

    Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, São Paulo 01509-010, Brazil.

    Theoretical considerations predict that amplification of expressed gene transcripts by reverse transcription-PCR using arbitrarily chosen primers will result in the preferential amplification of the central portion of the transcript. Systematic, high-throughput sequencing of such products would result in an expressed sequence tag (EST) database consisting of central, generally coding regions of expressed genes. Such a database would add significant value to existing public EST databases, which consist mostly of sequences derived from the extremities of cDNAs, and facilitate the construction of contigs of transcript sequences. We tested our predictions, creating a database of 10,000 sequences from human breast tumors. The data confirmed the central distribution of the sequences, the significant normalization of the sequence population, the frequent extension of contigs composed of existing human ESTs, and the identification of a series of potentially important homologues of known genes. This approach should make a significant contribution to the early identification of important human genes, the deciphering of the draft human genome sequence currently being compiled, and the shotgun sequencing of the human transcriptome.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2000;97;7;3491-6

  • Clathrin.

    Kirchhausen T

    Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. Kirchhausen@crystal.harvard.edu

    Clathrin was discovered nearly 25 years ago. Since then, a large number of other proteins that participate in the process by which clathrin-coated vesicles retrieve synaptic membranes or take up endocytic receptors have been identified. The functional relationships among these disparate components remain, in many cases, obscure. High-resolution structures of parts of clathrin, determined by X-ray crystallography, and lower-resolution images of assembled coats, determined by electron cryomicroscopy, now provide the information necessary to integrate various lines of evidence and to design experiments that test specific mechanistic notions. This review summarizes and illustrates the recent structural results and outlines what is known about coated-vesicle assembly in the context of this information.

    Annual review of biochemistry 2000;69;699-727

  • Secretory protein trafficking and organelle dynamics in living cells.

    Lippincott-Schwartz J, Roberts TH and Hirschberg K

    Cell Biology and Metabolism Branch, NICHD, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA. jlippin@helix.nih.gov

    Green fluorescent protein chimerae acting as reporters for protein localization and trafficking within the secretory membrane system of living cells have been used in a wide variety of applications, including time-lapse imaging, double-labeling, energy transfer, quantitation, and photobleaching experiments. Results from this work are clarifying the steps involved in the formation, translocation, and fusion of transport intermediates; the organization and biogenesis of organelles; and the mechanisms of protein retention, sorting, and recycling in the secretory pathway. In so doing, they are broadening our thinking about the temporal and spatial relationships among secretory organelles and the membrane trafficking pathways that operate between them.

    Annual review of cell and developmental biology 2000;16;557-89

  • Substrate specificities and identification of putative substrates of ATM kinase family members.

    Kim ST, Lim DS, Canman CE and Kastan MB

    Department of Hematology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA.

    Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) phosphorylates p53 protein in response to ionizing radiation, but the complex phenotype of AT cells suggests that it must have other cellular substrates as well. To identify substrates for ATM and the related kinases ATR and DNA-PK, we optimized in vitro kinase assays and developed a rapid peptide screening method to determine general phosphorylation consensus sequences. ATM and ATR require Mn(2+), but not DNA ends or Ku proteins, for optimal in vitro activity while DNA-PKCs requires Mg(2+), DNA ends, and Ku proteins. From p53 peptide mutagenesis analysis, we found that the sequence S/TQ is a minimal essential requirement for all three kinases. In addition, hydrophobic amino acids and negatively charged amino acids immediately NH(2)-terminal to serine or threonine are positive determinants and positively charged amino acids in the region are negative determinants for substrate phosphorylation. We determined a general phosphorylation consensus sequence for ATM and identified putative in vitro targets by using glutathione S-transferase peptides as substrates. Putative ATM in vitro targets include p95/nibrin, Mre11, Brca1, Rad17, PTS, WRN, and ATM (S440) itself. Brca2, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, and DNA-5B peptides were phosphorylated specifically by ATR, and DNA Ligase IV is a specific in vitro substrate of DNA-PK.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA21765, CA71387; NIEHS NIH HHS: ES0577

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1999;274;53;37538-43

  • A novel clathrin adaptor complex mediates basolateral targeting in polarized epithelial cells.

    Fölsch H, Ohno H, Bonifacino JS and Mellman I

    Department of Cell Biology, and Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520-8002, USA.

    Although polarized epithelial cells are well known to maintain distinct apical and basolateral plasma membrane domains, the mechanisms responsible for targeting membrane proteins to the apical or basolateral surfaces have remained elusive. We have identified a novel form of the AP-1 clathrin adaptor complex that contains as one of its subunits mu1B, an epithelial cell-specific homolog of the ubiquitously expressed mu1A. LLC-PK1 kidney epithelial cells do not express mu1B and missort many basolateral proteins to the apical surface. Stable expression of mu1B selectively restored basolateral targeting, improved the overall organization of LLC-PK1 monolayers, and had no effect on apical targeting. We conclude that basolateral sorting is mediated by an epithelial cell-specific version of the AP-1 complex containing mu1B.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM-29765

    Cell 1999;99;2;189-98

  • The beta2-adrenergic receptor/betaarrestin complex recruits the clathrin adaptor AP-2 during endocytosis.

    Laporte SA, Oakley RH, Zhang J, Holt JA, Ferguson SS, Caron MG and Barak LS

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute Laboratories and Department of Cell Biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA.

    betaarrestins mediate the desensitization of the beta2-adrenergic receptor (beta2AR) and many other G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Additionally, betaarrestins initiate the endocytosis of these receptors via clathrin coated-pits and interact directly with clathrin. Consequently, it has been proposed that betaarrestins serve as clathrin adaptors for the GPCR family by linking these receptors to clathrin lattices. AP-2, the heterotetrameric clathrin adaptor protein, has been demonstrated to mediate the internalization of many types of plasma membrane proteins other than GPCRs. AP-2 interacts with the clathrin heavy chain and cytoplasmic domains of receptors such as those for epidermal growth factor and transferrin. In the present study we demonstrate the formation of an agonist-induced multimeric complex containing a GPCR, betaarrestin 2, and the beta2-adaptin subunit of AP-2. beta2-Adaptin binds betaarrestin 2 in a yeast two-hybrid assay and coimmunoprecipitates with betaarrestins and beta2AR in an agonist-dependent manner in HEK-293 cells. Moreover, beta2-adaptin translocates from the cytosol to the plasma membrane in response to the beta2AR agonist isoproterenol and colocalizes with beta2AR in clathrin-coated pits. Finally, expression of betaarrestin 2 minigene constructs containing the beta2-adaptin interacting region inhibits beta2AR endocytosis. These findings point to a role for AP-2 in GPCR endocytosis, and they suggest that AP-2 functions as a clathrin adaptor for the endocytosis of diverse classes of membrane receptors.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL 03422; NINDS NIH HHS: NS 19576, R01 NS019576

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1999;96;7;3712-7

  • A dileucine motif in HIV-1 Nef acts as an internalization signal for CD4 downregulation and binds the AP-1 clathrin adaptor.

    Bresnahan PA, Yonemoto W, Ferrell S, Williams-Herman D, Geleziunas R and Greene WC

    Gladstone Institute of Virology and Immunology, University of California, San Francisco 94141, USA.

    Human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) Nef downregulates surface expression of CD4, an integral component of the functional HIV receptor complex, through accelerated endocytosis of surface receptors and diminished transport of CD4 from the Golgi network to the plasma membrane. HIV-1 Nef also diminishes surface expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I antigens. In the case of HIV-2 and simian immunodeficiency virus 1 (SIV-1) Nef, aminoterminal tyrosine-based motifs mediate the binding of Nef to the AP-1 and AP-2 adaptors and this interaction appears to be required for CD4 downregulation. As these tyrosine motifs are not present in the HIV-1 Nef protein, the molecular basis for the presumed interaction of Nef with components of the endocytic machinery is unknown. Here, we identify a highly conserved dileucine motif in HIV-1 Nef that is required for downregulation of CD4. This motif acts as an internalization signal in the context of a CD8-Nef chimera or in a fusion of the interleukin-2 receptor alpha with an 11-amino-acid region from Nef containing the dileucine motif. Finally, HIV-1 Nef binds to the AP-1 adaptor, both in vitro and in vivo, in a dileucine-dependent manner. We conclude that this conserved dileucine motif in HIV-1 Nef serves as a key interface for interaction with components of the host protein trafficking machinery. Our findings also reveal an evolutionary difference between HIV-1 and HIV-2/SIV in which the Nef proteins utilize structurally distinct motifs for binding cellular adaptors.

    Funded by: NIAID NIH HHS: AI01283, R01-AI28240-10

    Current biology : CB 1998;8;22;1235-8

  • A dileucine motif in HIV-1 Nef is essential for sorting into clathrin-coated pits and for downregulation of CD4.

    Greenberg M, DeTulleo L, Rapoport I, Skowronski J and Kirchhausen T

    Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, New York 11724, USA.

    Nef, a approximately 200 residue multifunctional regulatory protein of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), interacts with components of host cell signal transduction and clathrin-dependent protein sorting pathways. The downregulation of surface CD4 molecules and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I antigens by Nef is believed to be important in AIDS pathogenesis [1-7]. Nef contains a globular core domain and two disordered segments--a myristylated arm at the amino terminus and a carboxy-terminal loop projecting from the globular core [8,9]. Here, we aimed to determine the sorting signals in HIV-1 Nef that were responsible for its involvement in the clathrin-mediated pathway. We found that a sequence in the carboxy-terminal disordered loop of Nef is essential for downregulation of CD4. This sequence resembles the dileucine motif, one of two well-characterized sorting signals that target membrane proteins to clathrin-coated vesicles. The dileucine-motif-containing segment of Nef bound directly and specifically to the beta-adaptin subunit of the clathrin adaptor complexes AP-1 and AP-2, which are responsible for recruiting sorted proteins into coated pits. Unlike wild-type Nef, a mutant form of Nef that lacked the dileucine motif did not localize to clathrin-coated pits and did not downregulate CD4 expression, although it could downregulate MHC class I surface expression. Thus, the dileucine motif in HIV-1 is required for CD4 downregulation and for interaction with clathrin adaptor complexes.

    Funded by: NIAID NIH HHS: AI42561; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM36548

    Current biology : CB 1998;8;22;1239-42

  • Identification and characterization of novel clathrin adaptor-related proteins.

    Takatsu H, Sakurai M, Shin HW, Murakami K and Nakayama K

    Institute of Biological Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba Science City, Ibaraki 305-8572, Japan.

    We have identified a human approximately 87-kDa protein, designated as gamma2-adaptin, that is similar to gamma-adaptin (called gamma1-adaptin in this paper), a large chain of the AP-1 clathrin-associated adaptor complex, not only in the primary structure (60% amino acid identity) but also in the domain organization. Northern blot analysis has shown that its mRNA is expressed in a variety of tissues. Analysis using a yeast two-hybrid system has revealed that, similarly to gamma1-adaptin, gamma2-adaptin is capable of interacting not only with the sigma1 chain (called as sigma1A in this paper), the small chain of the AP-1 complex, but also with a novel sigma1-like protein, designated as sigma1B, which shows an 87% amino acid identity to sigma1A; and that, unlike gamma1-adaptin, it is unable to interact with beta1-adaptin, another large chain of the AP-1 complex. Immunofluorescence microscopy analysis has revealed that gamma2-adaptin is localized to paranuclear vesicular structures that are not superimposed on structures containing gamma1-adaptin. Furthermore, unlike gamma1-adaptin, gamma2-adaptin is recruited onto membranes in the presence of a fungal antibiotic, brefeldin A. These data suggest that gamma2-adaptin constitute a novel adaptor-related complex that participates in a transport step different from that of AP-1.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1998;273;38;24693-700

  • Interaction of HIV-1 Nef with the cellular dileucine-based sorting pathway is required for CD4 down-regulation and optimal viral infectivity.

    Craig HM, Pandori MW and Guatelli JC

    Department of Medicine, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0679, USA.

    The HIV-1 Nef protein is important for pathogenesis, enhances viral infectivity, and regulates the sorting of at least two cellular transmembrane proteins, CD4 and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I. Although several lines of evidence support the hypothesis that the Nef protein interacts directly with the cellular protein sorting machinery, the sorting signal in HIV-1 Nef has not been identified. By using a competition assay that functionally discriminates between dileucine-based and tyrosine-based sorting signals, we have categorized the motif through which Nef interacts with the sorting machinery as dileucine-based. Inspection of diverse Nef proteins from HIV-1, HIV-2, and simian immunodeficiency virus revealed a well-conserved sequence in the central region of the C-terminal, solvent-exposed loop of Nef (E/DXXXLphi) that conforms to the consensus sequence of the dileucine-based sorting motifs found in cellular transmembrane proteins. This sequence in NefNL4-3, ENTSLL, functioned as an endocytosis signal when appended to the cytoplasmic tail of a heterologous protein. The leucine residues in this motif were required for the interaction of full-length Nef with the dileucine-based sorting pathway and were required for Nef-mediated down-regulation of CD4. These leucine residues were also required for optimal viral infectivity. These data indicate that a dileucine-based sorting signal in Nef is utilized to address the cellular sorting machinery. The data also suggest that an influence on the distribution of cellular transmembrane proteins may mechanistically unite two previously distinct properties of Nef: down-regulation of CD4 and enhancement of viral infectivity.

    Funded by: NIAID NIH HHS: AI36214, AI38201, P30 AI036214, R01 AI038201, R21 AI038201

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1998;95;19;11229-34

  • ATM binds to beta-adaptin in cytoplasmic vesicles.

    Lim DS, Kirsch DG, Canman CE, Ahn JH, Ziv Y, Newman LS, Darnell RB, Shiloh Y and Kastan MB

    Oncology Center, The Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA.

    Inherited mutations in the ATM gene lead to a complex clinical phenotype characterized by neuronal degeneration, oculocutaneous telangiectasias, immune dysfunction, and cancer predisposition. Using the yeast two-hybrid system, we demonstrate that ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) binds to beta-adaptin, one of the components of the AP-2 adaptor complex, which is involved in clathrin-mediated endocytosis of receptors. The interaction between ATM and beta-adaptin was confirmed in vitro, and coimmunoprecipitation and colocalization studies show that the proteins also associate in vivo. ATM also interacts in vitro with beta-NAP, a neuronal-specific beta-adaptin homolog that was identified as an autoantigen in a patient with cerebellar degeneration. Our data describing the association of ATM with beta-adaptin in vesicles indicate that ATM may play a role in intracellular vesicle and/or protein transport mechanisms.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA71387, R01 CA071387; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM07309, T32 GM007309

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1998;95;17;10146-51

  • Clathrin interacts specifically with amphiphysin and is displaced by dynamin.

    McMahon HT, Wigge P and Smith C

    Neurobiology Division, MRC-LMB, Cambridge, UK. hmm@mrc-lmb.cam.ac.uk

    Amphiphysin is an SH3 domain protein that has been implicated in synaptic vesicle endocytosis. We have recently cloned a second amphiphysin isoform, Amph2 (sequence submitted to GenBank, Y13380). Proteins capable of forming a complex with amphiphysin were isolated from rat brain by using recombinant GST-Amph2 for binding experiments. As well as interacting with dynamin I, the full-length protein bound to a weaker 180-kDa band. Immunoblotting demonstrated this protein to be clathrin. To address whether this is a direct interaction, the clathrin binding to amphiphysin was reconstituted in vitro with purified proteins. The N-terminal domain of Amph2 is sufficient for clathrin binding. Dynamin, which interacts with the SH3 domain of Amph2, displaces clathrin from the N-terminus. We propose a model that may explain how clathrin and dynamin are recruited to non-overlapping sites of the coated pit.

    FEBS letters 1997;413;2;319-22

  • Identification of new members of the Gas2 and Ras families in the 22q12 chromosome region.

    Zucman-Rossi J, Legoix P and Thomas G

    INSERM U434 Génétique des Tumeurs, Institut Curie, Section de Recherche, Paris, France. Jessica.Zucman-rossi@curie.fr

    Monitoring of loss of heterozygosity in human tumors has suggested that the 22q12 region may contain another tumor suppressor gene(s) in addition to the NF2 gene. The genomic sequencing of a 40-kb region bounded by the EWS and BAM22 genes and containing a CpG-rich region has identified two new genes in the q12 region of chromosome 22. One of them, GAR22, is closely related to mouse Gas2, a gene isolated as being negatively regulated by serum and growth factors and exhibiting a high expression in growth arrested mouse fibroblasts. The other, RRP22, belongs to the Ras superfamily, in which it defines a new subgroup. Its expression appears to be strictly limited to the central nervous system. Growth-arrest-specific and Ras-related genes are likely candidates to be involved in tumorigenic processes. Although no mutation was observed in a small set of meningiomas and schwannomas, alteration of these new genes should now be searched in other tumors with frequent allelic losses on chromosome 22 not associated with NF2 mutation.

    Genomics 1996;38;3;247-54

  • Structure of the promoter and genomic organization of the human beta'-adaptin gene (BAM22) from chromosome 22q12.

    Peyrard M, Pan HQ, Kedra D, Fransson I, Swahn S, Hartman K, Clifton SW, Roe BA and Dumanski JP

    Department of Molecular Medicine, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm, S-171 76, Sweden.

    Adaptins are major structural components of heterotetrameric protein complexes called adaptors, which are essential in intracellular receptor transport via clathrin-coated vesicles. beta-adaptins constitute one of three known classes (alpha, beta, gamma) of adaptins, including beta and beta' subtypes. We previously cloned the human beta'-adaptin gene (BAM22) (GDB symbol, ADTB1) from chromosome 22q12 and proposed its involvement in the development of meningiomas. Here we describe the genomic organization of this gene, which consists of 22 exons spanning over approximately 100 kb. We also report results from point mutation screening of 7 randomly chosen exons analyzed in 110 sporadic meningiomas. As part of the genomic characterization of the BAM22 locus, we sequenced 40 kb covering exons 1-4 and 12 kb upstream from the start of gene transcription. Analysis of the sequence suggests that the BAM22 gene has a CG-rich promoter.

    Genomics 1996;36;1;112-7

  • Targeting signals and subunit interactions in coated vesicle adaptor complexes.

    Page LJ and Robinson MS

    Department of Clinical Biochemistry, University of Cambridge, Addenbrooke's Hospital, England.

    There are two clathrin-coated vesicle adaptor complexes in the cell, one associated with the plasma membrane and one associated with the TGN. The subunit composition of the plasma membrane adaptor complex is alpha-adaptin, beta-adaptin, AP50, and AP17; while that of the TGN adaptor complex is gamma-adaptin, beta'-adaptin, AP47, and AP19. To search for adaptor targeting signals, we have constructed chimeras between alpha-adaptin and gamma-adaptin within their NH2-terminal domains. We have identified stretches of sequence in the two proteins between amino acids approximately 130 and 330-350 that are essential for targeting. Immunoprecipitation reveals that this region determines whether a construct coassemblies with AP50 and AP17, or with AP47 and AP19. These observations suggest that these other subunits may play an important role in targeting. In contrast, beta- and beta'-adaptins are clearly not involved in this event. Chimeras between the alpha- and gamma-adaptin COOH-terminal domains reveal the presence of a second targeting signal. We have further investigated the interactions between the adaptor subunits using the yeast two-hybrid system. Interactions can be detected between the beta/beta'-adaptins and the alpha/gamma-adaptins, between the beta/beta'-adaptins and the AP50/AP47 subunits, between alpha-adaptin and AP17, and between gamma-adaptin and AP19. These results indicate that the adaptor subunits act in concert to target the complex to the appropriate membrane.

    Funded by: Wellcome Trust

    The Journal of cell biology 1995;131;3;619-30

  • Characterization of a new member of the human beta-adaptin gene family from chromosome 22q12, a candidate meningioma gene.

    Peyrard M, Fransson I, Xie YG, Han FY, Ruttledge MH, Swahn S, Collins JE, Dunham I, Collins VP and Dumanski JP

    Department of Molecular Medicine, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.

    A 140 kb homozygous deletion from 22q12 in one meningioma directed us towards the cloning and characterization of a new member of the human beta-adaptin gene family (named BAM22). Adaptins are essential for the formation of clathrin coated vesicles in the course of intracellular transport of receptor-ligand complexes. The BAM22 gene is totally inactivated in the tumor with homozygous deletion. Northern blot analysis of 70 sporadic meningiomas showed specific loss of expression in 8 tumors, suggesting inactivation of BAM22. Based on this, we propose BAM22 as a second chromosome 22 locus important in meningioma development, after the neurofibromatosis type 2 gene.

    Human molecular genetics 1994;3;8;1393-9

Gene lists (8)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000011 G2C Homo sapiens Human clathrin Human orthologues of mouse clathrin coated vesicle genes adapted from Collins et al (2006) 150
L00000012 G2C Homo sapiens Human Synaptosome Human orthologues of mouse synaptosome adapted from Collins et al (2006) 152
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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