G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
clathrin, light chain B
G00000658 (Mus musculus)

Databases (8)

ENSG00000175416 (Ensembl human gene)
1212 (Entrez Gene)
1079 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
CLTB (GeneCards)
118970 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:2091 (HGNC)
Protein Expression
3692 (human protein atlas)
Protein Sequence
P09497 (UniProt)

Synonyms (1)

  • Lcb

Literature (18)

Pubmed - other

  • Alterations in oligodendrocyte proteins, calcium homeostasis and new potential markers in schizophrenia anterior temporal lobe are revealed by shotgun proteome analysis.

    Martins-de-Souza D, Gattaz WF, Schmitt A, Rewerts C, Marangoni S, Novello JC, Maccarrone G, Turck CW and Dias-Neto E

    Laboratório de Neurociências, Faculdade de Medicina da USP, Instituto de Psiquiatria, Universidade de São Paulo, Rua Dr. Ovídio Pires de Campos, No 785, s/n Consolação, São Paulo, SP, CEP 05403-010, Brazil. danms90@gmail.com

    Global proteomic analysis of post-mortem anterior temporal lobe samples from schizophrenia patients and non-schizophrenia individuals was performed using stable isotope labeling and shotgun proteomics. Our analysis resulted in the identification of 479 proteins, 37 of which showed statistically significant differential expression. Pathways affected by differential protein expression include transport, signal transduction, energy pathways, cell growth and maintenance and protein metabolism. The collection of protein alterations identified here reinforces the importance of myelin/oligodendrocyte and calcium homeostasis in schizophrenia, and reveals a number of new potential markers that may contribute to the understanding of the pathogenesis of this complex disease.

    Journal of neural transmission (Vienna, Austria : 1996) 2009;116;3;275-89

  • Differential control of clathrin subunit dynamics measured with EW-FRAP microscopy.

    Loerke D, Wienisch M, Kochubey O and Klingauf J

    Department of Membrane Biophysics, Max-Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Am Fassberg 11, D-37077 Goettingen, Germany.

    The clathrin triskelion is composed of three light chain (LC) and three heavy chain (HC) subunits. Cellular control of clathrin function is thought to be aimed at the LC subunit, mainly on the basis of structural information. To test this hypothesis in vivo, we used evanescent-wave photobleaching recovery to study clathrin exchange from single pits using LC (LCa and LCb) and HC enhanced green fluorescent protein fusion constructs. The recovery signal was corrected for cytosolic diffusional background, yielding the pure exchange reaction times. For LCa, we measured an unbinding time constant tau(LEa) = 18.9 +/- 1.0 seconds at room temperature, faster than previously published; for LCb, we found tau(LCb) = 10.6 +/- 1.9 seconds and for HC tau(HC) = 15.9 +/- 1.0 seconds. Sucrose treatment, ATP or Ca(2+) depletion blocked exchange of LCa completely, but only partially of HC, lowering its time constant to tau = 10.0 +/- 0.9 seconds, identical to the one for LCb exchange. The latter was also not blocked by Ca(2+) depletion or sucrose. We conclude that HCs bound both to LCa and to LCb contribute side by side to pit formation in vivo, but the affinity of LCa-free HC in pits is reduced, and the Ca(2+)- and ATP-mediated control of clathrin function is lost.

    Traffic (Copenhagen, Denmark) 2005;6;10;918-29

  • A human protein-protein interaction network: a resource for annotating the proteome.

    Stelzl U, Worm U, Lalowski M, Haenig C, Brembeck FH, Goehler H, Stroedicke M, Zenkner M, Schoenherr A, Koeppen S, Timm J, Mintzlaff S, Abraham C, Bock N, Kietzmann S, Goedde A, Toksöz E, Droege A, Krobitsch S, Korn B, Birchmeier W, Lehrach H and Wanker EE

    Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine, 13092 Berlin-Buch, Germany.

    Protein-protein interaction maps provide a valuable framework for a better understanding of the functional organization of the proteome. To detect interacting pairs of human proteins systematically, a protein matrix of 4456 baits and 5632 preys was screened by automated yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) interaction mating. We identified 3186 mostly novel interactions among 1705 proteins, resulting in a large, highly connected network. Independent pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation assays validated the overall quality of the Y2H interactions. Using topological and GO criteria, a scoring system was developed to define 911 high-confidence interactions among 401 proteins. Furthermore, the network was searched for interactions linking uncharacterized gene products and human disease proteins to regulatory cellular pathways. Two novel Axin-1 interactions were validated experimentally, characterizing ANP32A and CRMP1 as modulators of Wnt signaling. Systematic human protein interaction screens can lead to a more comprehensive understanding of protein function and cellular processes.

    Cell 2005;122;6;957-68

  • Huntingtin-interacting protein 1 (Hip1) and Hip1-related protein (Hip1R) bind the conserved sequence of clathrin light chains and thereby influence clathrin assembly in vitro and actin distribution in vivo.

    Chen CY and Brodsky FM

    G. W. Hooper Foundation, Department of Biopharmaceutical Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143-0552, USA.

    Clathrin heavy and light chains form triskelia, which assemble into polyhedral coats of membrane vesicles that mediate transport for endocytosis and organelle biogenesis. Light chain subunits regulate clathrin assembly in vitro by suppressing spontaneous self-assembly of the heavy chains. The residues that play this regulatory role are at the N terminus of a conserved 22-amino acid sequence that is shared by all vertebrate light chains. Here we show that these regulatory residues and others in the conserved sequence mediate light chain interaction with Hip1 and Hip1R. These related proteins were previously found to be enriched in clathrin-coated vesicles and to promote clathrin assembly in vitro. We demonstrate Hip1R binding preference for light chains associated with clathrin heavy chain and show that Hip1R stimulation of clathrin assembly in vitro is blocked by mutations in the conserved sequence of light chains that abolish interaction with Hip1 and Hip1R. In vivo overexpression of a fragment of clathrin light chain comprising the Hip1R-binding region affected cellular actin distribution. Together these results suggest that the roles of Hip1 and Hip1R in affecting clathrin assembly and actin distribution are mediated by their interaction with the conserved sequence of clathrin light chains.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA09043; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM38093

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2005;280;7;6109-17

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • Adaptor and clathrin exchange at the plasma membrane and trans-Golgi network.

    Wu X, Zhao X, Puertollano R, Bonifacino JS, Eisenberg E and Greene LE

    Laboratory of Cell Biology, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.

    We previously demonstrated, using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching, that clathrin in clathrin-coated pits at the plasma membrane exchanges with free clathrin in the cytosol, suggesting that clathrin-coated pits are dynamic structures. We now investigated whether clathrin at the trans-Golgi network as well as the clathrin adaptors AP2 and AP1 in clathrin-coated pits at the plasma membrane and trans-Golgi network, respectively, also exchange with free proteins in the cytosol. We found that when the budding of clathrin-coated vesicle is blocked without significantly affecting the structure of clathrin-coated pits, both clathrin and AP2 at the plasma membrane and clathrin and AP1 at the trans-Golgi network exchange rapidly with free proteins in the cytosol. In contrast, when budding of clathrin-coated vesicles was blocked at the plasma membrane or trans-Golgi network by hypertonic sucrose or K(+) depletion, conditions that markedly affect the structure of clathrin-coated pits, clathrin exchange was blocked but AP2 at the plasma membrane and both AP1 and the GGA1 adaptor at the trans-Golgi network continue to rapidly exchange. We conclude that clathrin-coated pits are dynamic structures with rapid exchange of both clathrin and adaptors and that adaptors are able to exchange independently of clathrin when clathrin exchange is blocked.

    Molecular biology of the cell 2003;14;2;516-28

  • Clathrin light and heavy chain interface: alpha-helix binding superhelix loops via critical tryptophans.

    Chen CY, Reese ML, Hwang PK, Ota N, Agard D and Brodsky FM

    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Graduate Group in Biophysics, The G.W.Hooper Foundation, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143-0552, USA.

    Clathrin light chain subunits (LCa and LCb) contribute to regulation of coated vesicle formation to sort proteins during receptor-mediated endocytosis and organelle biogenesis. LC binding to clathrin heavy chain (HC) was characterized by genetic and structural approaches. The core interactions were mapped to HC residues 1267-1522 (out of 1675) and LCb residues 90-157 (out of 228), using yeast two-hybrid assays. The C-termini of both subunits also displayed interactions extending beyond the core domains. Mutations to helix breakers within the LCb core disrupted HC association. Further suppressor mutagenesis uncovered compensatory mutations in HC (K1415E or K1326E) capable of rescuing the binding defects of LCb mutations W127R or W105R plus W138R, thereby pinpointing contacts between HC and LCb. Mutant HC K1415E also rescued loss of binding by LCa W130R, indicating that both LCs interact similarly with HC. Based on circular dichroism data, mapping and mutagenesis, LCa and LCb were represented as alpha-helices, aligned along the HC and, using molecular dynamics, a structural model of their interaction was generated with novel implications for LC control of clathrin assembly.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM 08284, GM 38093, GM 55143, R01 GM038093, T32 GM008284

    The EMBO journal 2002;21;22;6072-82

  • HIP1 and HIP12 display differential binding to F-actin, AP2, and clathrin. Identification of a novel interaction with clathrin light chain.

    Legendre-Guillemin V, Metzler M, Charbonneau M, Gan L, Chopra V, Philie J, Hayden MR and McPherson PS

    Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2B4, Canada.

    Huntingtin-interacting protein 1 (HIP1) and HIP12 are orthologues of Sla2p, a yeast protein with essential functions in endocytosis and regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. We now report that HIP1 and HIP12 are major components of the clathrin coat that interact but differ in their ability to bind clathrin and the clathrin adaptor AP2. HIP1 contains a clathrin-box and AP2 consensus-binding sites that display high affinity binding to the terminal domain of the clathrin heavy chain and the ear domain of the AP2 alpha subunit, respectively. These consensus sites are poorly conserved in HIP12 and correspondingly, HIP12 does not bind to AP2 nor does it demonstrate high affinity clathrin binding. Moreover, HIP12 co-sediments with F-actin in contrast to HIP1, which exhibits no interaction with actin in vitro. Despite these differences, both proteins efficiently stimulate clathrin assembly through their central helical domain. Interestingly, in both HIP1 and HIP12, this domain binds directly to the clathrin light chain. Our data suggest that HIP1 and HIP12 play related yet distinct functional roles in clathrin-mediated endocytosis.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;22;19897-904

  • Clathrin self-assembly is mediated by a tandemly repeated superhelix.

    Ybe JA, Brodsky FM, Hofmann K, Lin K, Liu SH, Chen L, Earnest TN, Fletterick RJ and Hwang PK

    The G. W. Hooper Foundation, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of California San Francisco, 94143, USA.

    Clathrin is a triskelion-shaped cytoplasmic protein that polymerizes into a polyhedral lattice on intracellular membranes to form protein-coated membrane vesicles. Lattice formation induces the sorting of membrane proteins during endocytosis and organelle biogenesis by interacting with membrane-associated adaptor molecules. The clathrin triskelion is a trimer of heavy-chain subunits (1,675 residues), each binding a single light-chain subunit, in the hub domain (residues 1,074-1,675). Light chains negatively modulate polymerization so that intracellular clathrin assembly is adaptor-dependent. Here we report the atomic structure, to 2.6 A resolution, of hub residues 1,210-1,516 involved in mediating spontaneous clathrin heavy-chain polymerization and light-chain association. The hub fragment folds into an elongated coil of alpha-helices, and alignment analyses reveal a 145-residue motif that is repeated seven times along the filamentous leg and appears in other proteins involved in vacuolar protein sorting. The resulting model provides a three-dimensional framework for understanding clathrin heavy-chain self-assembly, light-chain binding and trimerization.

    Nature 1999;399;6734;371-5

  • The interaction of calmodulin with clathrin-coated vesicles, triskelions, and light chains. Localization of a binding site.

    Pley UM, Hill BL, Alibert C, Brodsky FM and Parham P

    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Stanford University School of Medicine, California 94305.

    The binding of clathrin-coated vesicles, clathrin triskelions, and free clathrin light chains to calmodulin-Sepharose was compared. When isolated from bovine brain, all three components bound to calmodulin-Sepharose in the presence of calcium and could be eluted by its removal. In contrast, coated vesicles and triskelions isolated from bovine adrenal gland did not bind to calmodulin-Sepharose, although the free light chains from adrenal gland bound as effectively as those from brain. As distinct isoforms of the clathrin light chains are expressed by brain and adrenal gland, these results implicate the clathrin light chains as the calmodulin-binding component of coated vesicles and triskelions. Furthermore, the insertion sequences found in the neuron-specific isoforms, although not necessary for the binding of free clathrin light chains to calmodulin, must facilitate the interaction of heavy chain-associated light chains with calmodulin. Recombinant mutants of LCa, with deletions spanning the entire sequence, were tested for binding to calmodulin-Sepharose. Those mutants retaining structural integrity, as assessed by the binding of a panel of monoclonal antibodies, exhibited varying amounts of calmodulin binding activity. However, deletion of the carboxyl-terminal 20 residues abolished calmodulin interaction. Thus, the carboxyl terminus of LCa appears to constitute a calmodulin-binding site. Peptides corresponding to the carboxyl terminus of LCa or LCb inhibited the interaction of the light chains with calmodulin, suggesting that this region forms the calmodulin-binding site of both LCa and LCb. The carboxyl-terminal peptides of LCa and LCb inhibited the interaction of light chains with calmodulin approximately 10-fold less effectively than a calmodulin-binding peptide derived from smooth muscle myosin light chain kinase, but much more effectively than a calmodulin-binding peptide derived from adenylate cyclase. This comparison places the clathrin light chain-calmodulin interaction within the physiological range seen for other calmodulin-binding proteins.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM38093

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1995;270;5;2395-402

  • Chromosomal location and some structural features of human clathrin light-chain genes (CLTA and CLTB).

    Ponnambalam S, Jackson AP, LeBeau MM, Pravtcheva D, Ruddle FH, Alibert C and Parham P

    Imperial Cancer Research Fund, Lincoln's Inn Fields, London, United Kingdom.

    Two human clathrin light-chain genes have been defined. The gene (CLTA) encoding the LCa light chain maps to the long arm of chromosome 12 at 12q23-q24 and that encoding the LCb light chain (CLTB) maps to the long arm of chromosome 4 at 4q2-q3. Isolation and characterization of partial genomic clones encoding human LCa and LCb reveal the neuron-specific insertions of the LCa and LCb proteins to be encoded by discrete exons, thus proving that clathrin light chains undergo alternate mRNA splicing to generate tissue-specific protein isoforms. The insertion sequence of LCb is encoded by a single exon and that of LCa by two exons. The first of the two neuron-specific LCa exons is homologous to the corresponding LCb exon. An intronic sequence of the LCb gene with similarity to the second neuron-specific exon of the LCa gene has been identified.

    Genomics 1994;24;3;440-4

  • The calcium-binding site of clathrin light chains.

    Näthke I, Hill BL, Parham P and Brodsky FM

    Department of Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, University of California, San Francisco 94143.

    Clathrin light chains are calcium-binding proteins (Mooibroek, M. J., Michiel, D. F., and Wang, J. H. (1987) J. Biol. Chem. 262, 25-28) and clathrin assembly can be modulated by calcium in vitro. Thus, intracellular calcium may play a regulatory role in the function of clathrin-coated vesicles. The structural basis for calcium's influence on clathrin-mediated processes has been defined using recombinant deletion mutants and isolated fragments of the light chains. A single calcium-binding site, formed by residues 85-96, is present in both mammalian light chains (LCa and LCb) and in the single yeast light chain. This sequence has structural similarity to the calcium-binding EF-hand loops of calmodulin and related proteins. In mammalian light chains, the calcium-binding sequence is flanked by domains that regulate clathrin assembly and disassembly.

    Funded by: NIAID NIH HHS: 1F32-AI107881; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM26691, GM38093

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1990;265;30;18621-7

  • Neuron-specific expression of high-molecular-weight clathrin light chain.

    Wong DH, Ignatius MJ, Parosky G, Parham P, Trojanowski JQ and Brodsky FM

    Department of Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, University of California, San Francisco.

    High-molecular-weight forms of clathrin light chains LCa and LCb contain inserted sequences and are expressed in brain tissue but have not been observed in peripheral tissues. Monoclonal antibodies specific for the high-molecular-weight form of LCb and all forms of LCa were used to analyze their expression in different species and different neuronal cell types. High-molecular-weight light chains were found in bovine, rat, mouse, chicken, and human brain, indicating a conserved pattern of expression. Neuron-specific expression of the high-molecular-weight light chains was suggested by analysis of human brain gray matter and white matter. The former contained a higher proportion of light chains with insertion sequences. Immunohistochemical analysis localized the high-molecular-weight form of LCb to synapses and neuronal perikarya, but not to glial cells. Immunofluorescent labeling of cultured chicken dorsal root ganglia confirmed expression in neurons but not Schwann cells. These results indicate that the high-molecular-weight forms of clathrin light chains are restricted in expression and found in neuronal cells.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA 36245; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM38093; NIMH NIH HHS: MH43880

    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 1990;10;9;3025-31

  • Structure of human clathrin light chains. Conservation of light chain polymorphism in three mammalian species.

    Jackson AP and Parham P

    Department of Cell Biology, Stanford University, California 94305.

    Complementary DNAs (cDNA) encoding the brain and non-brain forms of the human clathrin light chains LCa and LCb have been isolated, sequenced, and compared with their homologues in cow and rat. The significant differences that distinguish LCa from LCb and the brain from non-brain forms show remarkable preservation in all three species. These features include the position and sequence of the brain-specific inserts, a totally conserved region of 22 residues near the amino terminus, the LCb-specific phosphorylation site, the heavy chain binding site, and a distinctive pattern of cysteine residues near the carboxyl terminus. Unorthodox sequences for translation initiation and polyadenylation are found for LCb contrasting with LCa which exhibits orthodox regulatory sequences. Small insertions in human LCa revealed a duplicated sequence of 13 residues that flank the 22-residue conserved region. Only the carboxyl-terminal copy of this sequence is present in LCb. All sequences are consistent with the heavy chain binding site comprising an alpha-helical central region of the light chains. The hydrophobic face of this helix, which is presumed to interact with the heavy chain, is highly conserved between LCa and LCb, whereas the hydrophilic face shows considerable divergence. To help define the carboxyl-terminal limit of the heavy chain binding region, the epitope recognized by the CVC.6 monoclonal antibody was localized to residues 192-208 of LCa with glutamic acid 198 being of most importance. The faithful preservation of clathrin light chain polymorphism in three mammalian species provides evidence supporting a functional diversification of the brain and non-brain forms of LCa and LCb.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1988;263;32;16688-95

  • Identification of the phosphorylation sites of clathrin light chain LCb.

    Hill BL, Drickamer K, Brodsky FM and Parham P

    Department of Cell Biology, Stanford University, California 94305.

    Clathrin light chains, LCa and LCb, are products of two closely related genes whose mRNAs undergo differential splicing to result in at least four different light chain isoforms. The physiological significance of clathrin light chain diversity remains unclear. To date, the only evidence for a functional distinction of LCa and LCb is the preferential phosphorylation of LCb, which takes place at serine residues and is mediated by coated vesicle-associated casein kinase II. As a first step toward determining the function of light chain diversity, we have mapped the in vitro phosphorylation sites on LCb. We use [32P]ATP to phosphorylate LCb within coated vesicles, followed by sequencing of 32P-labeled chymotryptic peptides thereof, to identify serine residues at positions 11 and 13 as the phosphorylation sites. We find that phosphorylation of LCb within coated vesicles can be inhibited by four monoclonal antibodies specific for different epitopes of the clathrin light chains.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1988;263;12;5499-501

  • Clathrin-coated vesicles contain two protein kinase activities. Phosphorylation of clathrin beta-light chain by casein kinase II.

    Bar-Zvi D and Branton D

    Incubation of clathrin-coated vesicles with Mg2+-[gamma-32P]ATP results in the autophosphorylation of a 50-kDa polypeptide (pp50) (Pauloin, A., Bernier, I., and Jollès, P. (1982) Nature 298, 574-576). We describe here a second protein kinase that is associated with calf brain and liver coated vesicles. This kinase, which phosphorylates casein and phosvitin but not histone and protamine using either ATP or GTP, co-fractionates with coated vesicles as assayed by gel filtration, electrophoresis, and sedimentation. The enzyme can be extracted with 0.5 M Tris-HCl or 1 M NaCl, and can be separated from the pp50 kinase as well as the other major coat proteins. We identified this enzyme as casein kinase II based on physical and catalytic properties and by comparative studies with casein kinase II isolated from brain cytosol. It has a Stokes radius of 4.5 nm, a catalytic moiety of approximately 45 kDa, and labels a polypeptide of 26 kDa when the pure enzyme is assayed for autophosphorylation. Its activity is inhibited by heparin and not affected by cAMP, phospholipids, or calmodulin. This protein kinase preferentially phosphorylates clathrin beta-light chain. The phosphorylation is markedly stimulated by polylysine and inhibited by heparin. Isolated beta-light chain as well as beta-light chain in triskelions or in intact coated vesicles is phosphorylated. All of the phosphate (0.86 mol of Pi/mol of clathrin beta-light chain) is incorporated into phosphoserine.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM-31579

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1986;261;21;9614-21

  • Caliceal urodynamics.

    Puigvert A

    In this study the author emphasizes the existence of a muscular element that had not been described until now. This muscular element is situated around Malpighi's pyramid and its fibres are followed by the caliceal muscle and the elements that form Henle's peripapillar ring. The systolic and diastolic function of this peripyramidal muscle can be observed in the urographies, during the evacuation of the collector tubules of Bellini, and its synchronization with the next caliceal and pyelic musculature.

    Urologia internationalis 1975;30;4;282-96

Gene lists (7)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000011 G2C Homo sapiens Human clathrin Human orthologues of mouse clathrin coated vesicle genes adapted from Collins et al (2006) 150
L00000012 G2C Homo sapiens Human Synaptosome Human orthologues of mouse synaptosome adapted from Collins et al (2006) 152
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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