G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
cadherin 13, H-cadherin (heart)
G00000648 (Mus musculus)

Databases (9)

Curated Gene
OTTHUMG00000072884 (Vega human gene)
ENSG00000140945 (Ensembl human gene)
1012 (Entrez Gene)
1051 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
CDH13 (GeneCards)
601364 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:1753 (HGNC)
Protein Expression
1380 (human protein atlas)
Protein Sequence
P55290 (UniProt)

Synonyms (1)

  • CDHH

Literature (86)

Pubmed - other

  • Common genetic variation and performance on standardized cognitive tests.

    Cirulli ET, Kasperaviciūte D, Attix DK, Need AC, Ge D, Gibson G and Goldstein DB

    Center for Human Genome Variation, Duke Institute for Genome Sciences & Policy, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA.

    One surprising feature of the recently completed waves of genome-wide association studies is the limited impact of common genetic variation in individually detectable polymorphisms on many human traits. This has been particularly pronounced for studies on psychiatric conditions, which have failed to produce clear, replicable associations for common variants. One popular explanation for these negative findings is that many of these traits may be genetically heterogeneous, leading to the idea that relevant endophenotypes may be more genetically tractable. Aspects of cognition may be the most important endophenotypes for psychiatric conditions such as schizophrenia, leading many researchers to pursue large-scale studies on the genetic contributors of cognitive performance in the normal population as a surrogate for aspects of liability to disease. Here, we perform a genome-wide association study with two tests of executive function, Digit Symbol and Stroop Color-Word, in 1086 healthy volunteers and with an expanded cognitive battery in 514 of these volunteers. We show that, consistent with published studies of the psychiatric conditions themselves, no single common variant has a large effect (explaining >4-8% of the population variation) on the performance of healthy individuals on standardized cognitive tests. Given that these are important endophenotypes, our work is consistent with the idea that identifying rare genetic causes of psychiatric conditions may be more important for future research than identifying genetically homogenous endophenotypes.

    European journal of human genetics : EJHG 2010;18;7;815-20

  • Genome-wide association scan for five major dimensions of personality.

    Terracciano A, Sanna S, Uda M, Deiana B, Usala G, Busonero F, Maschio A, Scally M, Patriciu N, Chen WM, Distel MA, Slagboom EP, Boomsma DI, Villafuerte S, Sliwerska E, Burmeister M, Amin N, Janssens AC, van Duijn CM, Schlessinger D, Abecasis GR and Costa PT

    National Institute on Aging, NIH, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA. terraccianoa@mail.nih.gov

    Personality traits are summarized by five broad dimensions with pervasive influences on major life outcomes, strong links to psychiatric disorders and clear heritable components. To identify genetic variants associated with each of the five dimensions of personality we performed a genome-wide association (GWA) scan of 3972 individuals from a genetically isolated population within Sardinia, Italy. On the basis of the analyses of 362 129 single-nucleotide polymorphisms we found several strong signals within or near genes previously implicated in psychiatric disorders. They include the association of neuroticism with SNAP25 (rs362584, P=5 x 10(-5)), extraversion with BDNF and two cadherin genes (CDH13 and CDH23; Ps<5 x 10(-5)), openness with CNTNAP2 (rs10251794, P=3 x 10(-5)), agreeableness with CLOCK (rs6832769, P=9 x 10(-6)) and conscientiousness with DYRK1A (rs2835731, P=3 x 10(-5)). Effect sizes were small (less than 1% of variance), and most failed to replicate in the follow-up independent samples (N up to 3903), though the association between agreeableness and CLOCK was 1b46 supported in two of three replication samples (overall P=2 x 10(-5)). We infer that a large number of loci may influence personality traits and disorders, requiring larger sample sizes for the GWA approach to confidently identify associated genetic variants.

    Funded by: Intramural NIH HHS: Z99 AG999999, ZIA AG000180-25, ZIA AG000180-26, ZIA AG000196-03, ZIA AG000196-04; NIMH NIH HHS: R21 MH070793; PHS HHS: NIMH R21 MH070793

    Molecular psychiatry 2010;15;6;647-56

  • T-cadherin modulates endothelial barrier function.

    Andreeva AV, Han J, Kutuzov MA, Profirovic J, Tkachuk VA and Voyno-Yasenetskaya TA

    Department of Pharmacology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60612, USA. aandreev@uic.edu

    T-cadherin is an atypical member of the cadherin family, which lacks the transmembrane and intracellular domains and is attached to the plasma membrane via a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor. Unlike canonical cadherins, it is believed to function primarily as a signaling molecule. T-cadherin is highly expressed in endothelium. Using transendothelial electrical resistance measurements and siRNA-mediated depletion of T-cadherin in human umbilical vein endothelial cells, we examined its involvement in regulation of endothelial barrier. We found that in resting confluent monolayers adjusted either to 1% or 10% serum, T-cadherin depletion modestly, but consistently reduced transendothelial resistance. This was accompanied by increased phosphorylation of Akt and LIM kinase, reduced phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase, but no difference in tubulin acetylation and in phosphorylation of an actin filament severing protein cofilin and myosin light chain kinase. Serum stimulation elicited a biphasic increase in resistance with peaks at 0.5 and 4-5 h, which was suppressed by a PI3 kinase/Akt inhibitor wortmannin and a p38 inhibitor SB 239063. T-cadherin depletion increased transendothelial resistance between the two peaks and reduced the amplitude of the second peak. T-cadherin depletion abrogated serum-induced Akt phosphorylation at Thr308 and reduced phosphorylation at Ser473, reduced phosphorylation of cofilin, and accelerated tubulin deacetylation. Adiponectin slightly improved transendothelial resistance irrespectively of T-cadherin depletion. T-cadherin depletion also resulted in a reduced sensitivity and delayed responses to thrombin. These data implicate T-cadherin in regulation of endothelial barrier function, and suggest a complex signaling network that links T-cadherin and regulation of barrier function.

    Journal of cellular physiology 2010;223;1;94-102

  • T-cadherin modulates tumor-associated molecules in gallbladder cancer cells.

    Adachi Y, Takeuchi T, Nagayama T and Furihata M

    Department of Pathology, Kochi Medical School, Nankoku 783-8505, Japan.

    T-cadherin is believed to act against carcinogenesis in various tissues; however, its tumor-suppressor mechanism remains largely unclear. Using subtractive mRNA hybridization and immunoblotting, the present study identified several cancer-associated molecules whose expression was modified by T-cadherin in gallbladder cancer cells. Restoration of T-cadherin decreased the expression of Akt3 and phosphorylated Akt molecules. SET7/9, which stabilizes chromatin-bound p53, was downregulated by silencing of T-cadherin but was not regulated by the expression of T-cadherin. These finding suggest that T-cadherin might inhibit tumor progression through multiple pathways, including the Akt and SET7/9-p53 pathways.

    Cancer investigation 2010;28;2;120-6

  • Genetic variants identified in a European genome-wide association study that were found to predict incident coronary heart disease in the atherosclerosis risk in communities study.

    Bressler J, Folsom AR, Couper DJ, Volcik KA and Boerwinkle E

    Human Genetics Center, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, P.O. Box 20334, Houston, TX 77225-0334, USA.

    In 2007, the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium (WTCCC) performed a genome-wide association study in 2,000 British coronary heart disease (CHD) cases and 3,000 controls after genotyping 469,557 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Seven variants associated with CHD were initially identified, and 5 SNPs were later found in replication studies. In the current study, the authors aimed to determine whether the 12 SNPs reported by the WTCCC predicted incident CHD through 2004 in a biracial, prospective cohort study (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) comprising 15,792 persons aged 45-64 years who had been selected by probability sampling from 4 different US communities in 1987-1989. Cox proportional hazards models with adjustment for age and gender were used to estimate CHD hazard rate ratios (HRRs) over a 17-year period (1,362 cases in whites and 397 cases in African Americans) under an additive genetic model. The results showed that 3 SNPs in whites (rs599839, rs1333049, and rs501120; HRRs were 1.10 (P = 0.044), 1.14 (P < 0.001), and 1.14 (P = 0.030), respectively) and 1 SNP in African Americans (rs7250581; HRR = 1.60, P = 0.05) were significantly associated with incident CHD. This study demonstrates that genetic variants revealed in a case-control genome-wide association study enriched for early disease onset may play a role in the genetic etiology of CHD in the general population.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: N01-HC-55015, N01-HC-55016, N01-HC-55018, N01-HC-55019, N01-HC-55020, N01-HC-55021, N01-HC-55022, N01HC55015, N01HC55016, N01HC55018, N01HC55019, N01HC55020, N01HC55021, N01HC55022

    American journal of epidemiology 2010;171;1;14-23

  • A genome-wide study of common SNPs and CNVs in cognitive performance in the CANTAB.

    Need AC, Attix DK, McEvoy JM, Cirulli ET, Linney KL, Hunt P, Ge D, Heinzen EL, Maia JM, Shianna KV, Weale ME, Cherkas LF, Clement G, Spector TD, Gibson G and Goldstein DB

    Center for Human Genome Variation, Institute for Genome Sciences and Policy, Duke University, 450 Research Drive, Box 91009, Durham, NC 27708, USA.

    Psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia are commonly accompanied by cognitive impairments that are treatment resistant and crucial to functional outcome. There has been great interest in studying cognitive measures as endophenotypes for psychiatric disorders, with the hope that their genetic basis will be clearer. To investigate this, we performed a genome-wide association study involving 11 cognitive phenotypes from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery. We showed these measures to be heritable by comparing the correlation in 100 monozygotic and 100 dizygotic twin pairs. The full battery was tested in approximately 750 subjects, and for spatial and verbal recognition memory, we investigated a further 500 individuals to search for smaller genetic effects. We were unable to find any genome-wide significant associations with either SNPs or common copy number variants. Nor could we formally replicate any polymorphism that has been previously associated with cognition, although we found a weak signal of lower than expected P-values for variants in a set of 10 candidate genes. We additionally investigated SNPs in genomic loci that have been shown to harbor rare variants that associate with neuropsychiatric disorders, to see if they showed any suggestion of association when considered as a separate set. Only NRXN1 showed evidence of significant association with cognition. These results suggest that common genetic variation does not strongly influence cognition in healthy subjects and that cognitive measures do not represent a more tractable genetic trait than clinical endpoints such as schizophrenia. We discuss a possible role for rare variation in cognitive genomics.

    Funded by: Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council: G20234; Wellcome Trust

    Human molecular genetics 2009;18;23;4650-61

  • Predicting invasive phenotype with CDH1, CDH13, CD44, and TIMP3 gene expression in primary breast cancer.

    Celebiler Cavusoglu A, Kilic Y, Saydam S, Canda T, Başkan Z, Sevinc AI and Sakizli M

    Department of Basic Oncology, Dokuz Eylül University, Izmir, Turkiye.

    We aimed to determine changes in the expression of the genes CDH1, CDH13, CD44, and TIMP3 to look for any relationship between them, HER2 and ESR1 expression at the RNA level, and the histopathological properties of tumors. We also analyzed the expression properties of double-negative (estrogen receptor [ER] and human epidermal growth factor receptor [HER2] both negative) breast tumors. Expression status was studied in fresh tissue at the mRNA level with quantitative PCR using hydrolysis probes. Sixty-two cancer patients and four normal controls were included in the study. When the tumor group was analyzed as a whole, the correlations of ESR1 with CDH1, CDH13, and TIMP3 were P < 0.05, P < 0.005, and P < 0.005, respectively. In ER-positive tumors, CDH1 and CDH13 were correlated directly (P < 0.005) when HER2 was correlated with CDH1, CDH13, and TIMP3 indirectly (P < 0.005, P < 0.005, and P < 0.05, respectively). CDH1 and CD44 had a strong indirect correlation (P < 0.005) in ER-negative tumors. There were significant differences in the expression levels of the CDH13, TIMP3, and CD44 genes (P < 0.005, P < 0.005, and P < 0.05, respectively) between the ER-positive and -negative groups. All four genes were found to be correlated with invasive properties in both ER-positive and -negative tumors. In double-negative tumor samples, only CD44 had a significant and strong correlation with stage, lymph node involvement, and metastasis (P < 0.05, P < 0.005, and P < 0.05, respectively). As a conclusion, a decrease in CDH1, CDH13, and TIMP3 expression levels with an increase in CD44 can be used as an indicator for invasion in both ER-positive and -negative breast tumors. In double-negative tumor tissues, CD44 can be considered a marker for aggressive properties.

    Cancer science 2009;100;12;2341-5

  • Extracellular cadherin repeat domains EC1 and EC5 of T-cadherin are essential for its ability to stimulate angiogenic behavior of endothelial cells.

    Joshi MB, Kyriakakis E, Pfaff D, Rupp K, Philippova M, Erne P and Resink TJ

    Basel University Hospital, Department of Biomedicine, Laboratory for Signal Transduction, ZLF 316, Hebelstrasse 20, CH 4031 Basel, Switzerland.

    T-cadherin (T-cad) promotes survival, proliferation, and migration of endothelial cells and induces angiogenesis. We aimed to identify domains of T-cad functionally relevant to its effects on endothelial cell behavior. To specifically target the functional properties of the 5 cadherin repeat domains (EC1-EC5) of T-cad, endothelial cells were transduced with lentivectors containing specific T-cad-domain-deletion mutant constructs (DeltaI, DeltaII, DeltaIII, DeltaIV, DeltaV). Empty (E) lentivector-transduced cells served as control. Similarly to overexpression of native T-cad, cells expressing DeltaII, DeltaIII, or DeltaIV displayed elevated levels of p-Akt and p-GSK3beta and increased proliferation rates (for DeltaII, DeltaIII) vs. E. DeltaI- and DeltaV-transduced cells exhibited reduced levels of p-Akt and p-GSK3beta and retarded growth rates vs. E. Stimulatory effects of native T-cad overexpression on Akt and GSK3beta phosphorylation were dose dependently inhibited by coexpression of DeltaI or DeltaV. Subsequent functional analyses compared only DeltaI-, DeltaII-, and DeltaV-mutant constructs with E as a negative control. Unlike DeltaII cells, DeltaI and DeltaV cells failed to exhibit homophilic ligation and deadhesion responses on a substratum of T-cad protein. In the wound assay, migration was increased for DeltaII cells but impaired for DeltaI and DeltaV cells. In endothelial cell-spheroid assay, angiogenic sprouting was augmented for DeltaII cells but inhibited for DeltaI and DeltaV cells. We conclude that EC1 and EC5 domains of T-cad are essential for its proangiogenic effects. DeltaI and DeltaV constructs may serve as dominant-negative mutants and as potential tools targeting excessive angiogenesis.

    FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology 2009;23;11;4011-21

  • T-cadherin is located in the nucleus and centrosomes in endothelial cells.

    Andreeva AV, Kutuzov MA, Tkachuk VA and Voyno-Yasenetskaya TA

    Department of Pharmacology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60612, USA. aandreev@uic.edu

    T-cadherin (H-cadherin, cadherin 13) is upregulated in vascular proliferative disorders and in tumor-associated neovascularization and is deregulated in many cancers. Unlike canonical cadherins, it lacks transmembrane and intracellular domains and is attached to the plasma membrane via a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor. T-cadherin is thought to function in signaling rather than as an adhesion molecule. Some interactive partners of T-cadherin at the plasma membrane have recently been identified. We examined T-cadherin location in human endothelial cells using confocal microscopy and subcellular fractionation. We found that a considerable proportion of T-cadherin is located in the nucleus and in the centrosomes. T-cadherin colocalized with a centrosomal marker gamma-tubulin uniformly throughout the cell cycle at least in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. In the telophase, T-cadherin transiently concentrated in the midbody and was apparently degraded. Its overexpression resulted in an increase in the number of multinuclear cells, whereas its downregulation by small interfering RNA led to an increase in the number of cells with multiple centrosomes. These findings indicate that deregulation of T-cadherin in endothelial cells may lead to disturbances in cytokinesis or centrosomal replication.

    American journal of physiology. Cell physiology 2009;297;5;C1168-77

  • Genetic analysis of coronary artery disease single-nucleotide polymorphisms in diabetic nephropathy.

    McKnight AJ, Maxwell AP, Fogarty DG, Sadlier D, Savage DA and Warren 3/UK GoKinD Study Group

    Nephrology Research Group, Queen's University of Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland. a.j.mcknight@qub.ac.uk

    Background: Diabetic nephropathy is a leading cause of end-stage renal disease. Premature mortality is common in patients with nephropathy, largely due to cardiovascular disease. Genetic variants implicated in macrovascular disease are therefore excellent candidates to assess for association with diabetic nephropathy. Recent genome-wide association studies have identified a total of 15 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are reproducibly associated with cardiovascular disease.

    Methods: We initially assessed these SNPs for association in UK type 1 diabetic patients with (cases; n = 597) and without (controls; n = 502) nephropathy using iPLEX(TM) and TaqMan(R) assays. Replication studies were performed with DNA genotyped in a total of 2668 individuals from the British Isles.

    Results: One SNP (rs4420638) on chromosome 19q13 was found to be significantly associated with diabetic nephropathy before (P = 0.0002) and after correction for multiple testing (P(corrected) = 0.002). We replicated this finding in a phenotypically similar case-control collection comprising 709 individuals with type 1 diabetes (P = 0.002; combined P < 0.00001; OR = 1.54, 95% CI: 1.29-1.84).

    Conclusions: Our case-control data suggest that rs4420638, or a functional SNP in linkage disequilibrium with this SNP, may be associated with diabetic nephropathy.

    Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation : official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association 2009;24;8;2473-6

  • Genome-wide association study of alcohol dependence.

    Treutlein J, Cichon S, Ridinger M, Wodarz N, Soyka M, Zill P, Maier W, Moessner R, Gaebel W, Dahmen N, Fehr C, Scherbaum N, Steffens M, Ludwig KU, Frank J, Wichmann HE, Schreiber S, Dragano N, Sommer WH, Leonardi-Essmann F, Lourdusamy A, Gebicke-Haerter P, Wienker TF, Sullivan PF, Nöthen MM, Kiefer F, Spanagel R, Mann K and Rietschel M

    Department of Genetic Epidemiology in Psychiatry, Central Institute of Mental Health, Mannheim, Germany.

    Context: Alcohol dependence is a serious and common public health problem. It is well established that genetic factors play a major role in the development of this disorder. Identification of genes that contribute to alcohol dependence will improve our understanding of the mechanisms that underlie this disorder.

    Objective: To identify susceptibility genes for alcohol dependence through a genome-wide association study (GWAS) and a follow-up study in a population of German male inpatients with an early age at onset.

    Design: The GWAS tested 524,396 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). All SNPs with P < 10(-4) were subjected to the follow-up study. In addition, nominally significant SNPs from genes that had also shown expression changes in rat brains after long-term alcohol consumption were selected for the follow-up step.

    Setting: Five university hospitals in southern and central Germany.

    Participants: The GWAS included 487 male inpatients with alcohol dependence as defined by the DSM-IV and an age at onset younger than 28 years and 1358 population-based control individuals. The follow-up study included 1024 male inpatients and 996 age-matched male controls. All the participants were of German descent.

    Significant association findings in the GWAS and follow-up study with the same alleles.

    Results: The GWAS produced 121 SNPs with nominal P < 10(-4). These, together with 19 additional SNPs from homologues of rat genes showing differential expression, were genotyped in the follow-up sample. Fifteen SNPs showed significant association with the same allele as in the GWAS. In the combined analysis, 2 closely linked intergenic SNPs met genome-wide significance (rs7590720, P = 9.72 x 10(-9); rs1344694, P = 1.69 x 10(-8)). They are located on chromosome region 2q35, which has been implicated in linkage studies for alcohol phenotypes. Nine SNPs were located in genes, including the CDH13 and ADH1C genes, that have been reported to be associated with alcohol dependence.

    Conclusions: This is the first GWAS and follow-up study to identify a genome-wide significant association in alcohol dependence. Further independent studies are required to confirm these findings.

    Funded by: NIMH NIH HHS: U01 MH085520

    Archives of general psychiatry 2009;66;7;773-84

  • Genome-wide scan identifies CDH13 as a novel susceptibility locus contributing to blood pressure determination in two European populations.

    Org E, Eyheramendy S, Juhanson P, Gieger C, Lichtner P, Klopp N, Veldre G, Döring A, Viigimaa M, Sõber S, Tomberg K, Eckstein G, KORA, Kelgo P, Rebane T, Shaw-Hawkins S, Howard P, Onipinla A, Dobson RJ, Newhouse SJ, Brown M, Dominiczak A, Connell J, Samani N, Farrall M, BRIGHT, Caulfield MJ, Munroe PB, Illig T, Wichmann HE, Meitinger T and Laan M

    Department of Biotechnology, Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of Tartu, Riia 23, 51010 Tartu, Estonia.

    Hypertension is a complex disease that affects a large proportion of adult population. Although approximately half of the inter-individual variance in blood pressure (BP) level is heritable, identification of genes responsible for its regulation has remained challenging. Genome-wide association study (GWAS) is a novel approach to search for genetic variants contributing to complex diseases. We conducted GWAS for three BP traits [systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP); hypertension (HYP)] in the Kooperative Gesundheitsforschung in der Region Augsburg (KORA) S3 cohort (n = 1644) recruited from general population in Southern Germany. GWAS with 395,912 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified an association between BP traits and a common variant rs11646213 (T/A) upstream of the CDH13 gene at 16q23.3. The initial associations with HYP and DBP were confirmed in two other European population-based cohorts: KORA S4 (Germans) and HYPEST (Estonians). The associations between rs11646213 and three BP traits were replicated in combined analyses (dominant model: DBP, P = 5.55 x 10(-5), effect -1.40 mmHg; SBP, P = 0.007, effect -1.56 mmHg; HYP, P = 5.30 x 10(-8), OR = 0.67). Carriers of the minor allele A had a decreased risk of hypertension. A non-significant trend for association was also detected with severe family based hypertension in the BRIGHT sample (British). The novel susceptibility locus, CDH13, encodes for an adhesion glycoprotein T-cadherin, a regulator of vascular wall remodeling and angiogenesis. Its function is compatible with the BP biology and may improve the understanding of the pathogenesis of hypertension.

    Funded by: British Heart Foundation: PG02/128; Howard Hughes Medical Institute: 55005617; Medical Research Council: G0400874, G9521010, G9521010D; Wellcome Trust: 070191/Z/03/Z, 076113/B/04/Z

    Human molecular genetics 2009;18;12;2288-96

  • H-cadherin expression reduces invasion of malignant melanoma.

    Kuphal S, Martyn AC, Pedley J, Crowther LM, Bonazzi VF, Parsons PG, Bosserhoff AK, Hayward NK and Boyle GM

    Melanoma Genomics Group, The Queensland Institute of Medical Research, Brisbane, Qld, Australia. Silke.Kuphal@klinik.uni-regensburg.de

    Melanocytic behavior, survival, and proliferation are regulated through a complex system of cell-cell adhesion molecules. Pathologic changes leading to development of malignant melanoma, upset the delicate homeostatic balance between melanocytes and keratinocytes and can lead to altered expression of cell-cell adhesion and cell-cell communication molecules. Malignant transformation of melanocytes frequently coincides with loss of E-cadherin expression. We now show loss of another member of the superfamily of classical cadherins, H-cadherin (CDH13), which may be involved in the development of malignant melanoma. The provided data show that H-cadherin expression is lost in nearly 80% of the analyzed melanoma cell lines. Knockdown of H-cadherin using siRNA increases invasive capacity in melanocytes. Functional assays show that the re-expression of H-cadherin decreases migration and invasion capacity, as well as anchorage-independent growth in comparison to control melanoma cells. Furthermore, melanoma cells, which re-express H-cadherin via stable transfection show a reduction in rate of tumor growth in a nu/nu mouse tumor model in comparison to the parental control transfected cell lines. Our study presents for the first time the down-regulation of H-cadherin in malignant melanomas and its possible functional relevance in maintenance healthy skin architecture.

    Pigment cell & melanoma research 2009;22;3;296-306

  • Genome-wide linkage and association analyses to identify genes influencing adiponectin levels: the GEMS Study.

    Ling H, Waterworth DM, Stirnadel HA, Pollin TI, Barter PJ, Kesäniemi YA, Mahley RW, McPherson R, Waeber G, Bersot TP, Cohen JC, Grundy SM, Mooser VE and Mitchell BD

    Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

    Adiponectin has a variety of metabolic effects on obesity, insulin sensitivity, and atherosclerosis. To identify genes influencing variation in plasma adiponectin levels, we performed genome-wide linkage and association scans of adiponectin in two cohorts of subjects recruited in the Genetic Epidemiology of Metabolic Syndrome Study. The genome-wide linkage scan was conducted in families of Turkish and southern European (TSE, n = 789) and Northern and Western European (NWE, N = 2,280) origin. A whole genome association (WGA) analysis (500K Affymetrix platform) was carried out in a set of unrelated NWE subjects consisting of approximately 1,000 subjects with dyslipidemia and 1,000 overweight subjects with normal lipids. Peak evidence for linkage occurred at chromosome 8p23 in NWE subjects (lod = 3.10) and at chromosome 3q28 near ADIPOQ, the adiponectin structural gene, in TSE subjects (lod = 1.70). In the WGA analysis, the single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) most strongly associated with adiponectin were rs3774261 and rs6773957 (P < 10(-7)). These two SNPs were in high linkage disequilibrium (r(2) = 0.98) and located within ADIPOQ. Interestingly, our fourth strongest region of association (P < 2 x 10(-5)) was to an SNP within CDH13, whose protein product is a newly identified receptor for high-molecular-weight species of adiponectin. Through WGA analysis, we confirmed previous studies showing SNPs within ADIPOQ to be strongly associated with variation in adiponectin levels and further observed these to have the strongest effects on adiponectin levels throughout the genome. We additionally identified a second gene (CDH13) possibly influencing variation in adiponectin levels. The impact of these SNPs on health and disease has yet to be determined.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: P30 DK072488

    Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.) 2009;17;4;737-44

  • T-cadherin activates Rac1 and Cdc42 and changes endothelial permeability.

    Semina EV, Rubina KA, Rutkevich PN, Voyno-Yasenetskaya TA, Parfyonova YV and Tkachuk VA

    Institute of Experimental Cardiology, Cardiology Research Center, Moscow, 121552, Russia.

    In the present study, expression of T-cadherin was shown to induce intracellular signaling in NIH3T3 fibroblasts: it activated Rac1 and Cdc42 (p < 0.01) but not RhoA. T-Cadherin overexpression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) using adenoviral constructs induced disassembly of microtubules and polymerization of actin stress fibers, whereas down-regulation of endogenous T-cadherin expression in HUVEC using lentiviral constructs resulted in microtubule polymerization and a decrease in the number of actin stress fibers. Moreover, suppression of the T-cadherin expression significantly decreased the endothelial monolayer permeability as compared to the control (p < 0.001).

    Funded by: Wellcome Trust: 075154

    Biochemistry. Biokhimiia 2009;74;4;362-70

  • [Expression of the CDH13 gene and BCR/ABL fusion gene in chronic myeloid leukemia patients and their relationship].

    Mu HJ, Xie P, Shen YF and Jiang YQ

    Central Laboratory Wuxi Peopleos Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Wuxi, Jiangsu, 214023 PR China. wxmuhj@yahoo.com.cn

    Objective: To investigate the expression of the CDH13 gene and BCR/ABL fusion gene in chronic myeloid leukemia(CML) patients at different stages and explore their relationship.

    Methods: RNA was isolated from peripheral blood in 30 healthy adults, 22 primary CML patients and 25 blastic crisis of CML patients. We examined the expression of the CDH13 gene and BCR/ABL fusion gene using EVA Green real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).

    Results: The expression of the BCR/ABL fusion gene in the patients with blastic crisis CML was 4.72 folds as that of the patients with primary CML. The expression of the CDH13 gene in the primary and blastic crisis CML patients was significantly reduced to 36% and 25% of that in healthy controls, respectively. Moreover, negative correlation was found between the expressions of these two genes.

    Conclusion: The study showed that the reduction of the CDH13 expression at different clinical stage of CML may account for the defective cell adhesion in CML, and the expression of the CDH13 gene was probably down-regulated by the BCR/ABL fusion gene.

    Zhonghua yi xue yi chuan xue za zhi = Zhonghua yixue yichuanxue zazhi = Chinese journal of medical genetics 2009;26;1;98-101

  • Zeb1-mediated T-cadherin repression increases the invasive potential of gallbladder cancer.

    Adachi Y, Takeuchi T, Nagayama T, Ohtsuki Y and Furihata M

    Department of Pathology, Kochi Medical School, Nankoku, Kochi 783-8505, Japan.

    Here, we report that the transcriptional regulator Zeb1 repressed the transcription of T-cadherin, to increase the invasive activity of gallbladder cancer cells. Zeb1 physically bound to the promoter of T-cadherin, repressed promoter activity in E-box-like sequence-dependent fashion, and suppressed T-cadherin expression. In gallbladder cancer tissues, Zeb1 was expressed at the cancer invasion front, whereas T-cadherin was exclusively expressed in non-invasive foci. Collagen gel invasion assay showed that T-cadherin was a negative regulator for gallbladder cancer invasion. These findings suggest that Zeb1 represses T-cadherin expression and thus increases the invasive activity of gallbladder cancer.

    FEBS letters 2009;583;2;430-6

  • Genome-wide association scan of quantitative traits for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder identifies novel associations and confirms candidate gene associations.

    Lasky-Su J, Neale BM, Franke B, Anney RJ, Zhou K, Maller JB, Vasquez AA, Chen W, Asherson P, Buitelaar J, Banaschewski T, Ebstein R, Gill M, Miranda A, Mulas F, Oades RD, Roeyers H, Rothenberger A, Sergeant J, Sonuga-Barke E, Steinhausen HC, Taylor E, Daly M, Laird N, Lange C and Faraone SV

    Channing Laboratory, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a complex condition with environmental and genetic etiologies. Up to this point, research has identified genetic associations with candidate genes from known biological pathways. In order to identify novel ADHD susceptibility genes, 600,000 SNPs were genotyped in 958 ADHD proband-parent trios. After applying data cleaning procedures we examined 429,981 autosomal SNPs in 909 family trios. We generated six quantitative phenotypes from 18 ADHD symptoms to be used in genome-wide association analyses. With the PBAT screening algorithm, we identified 2 SNPs, rs6565113 and rs552655 that met the criteria for significance within a specified phenotype. These SNPs are located in intronic regions of genes CDH13 and GFOD1, respectively. CDH13 has been implicated previously in substance use disorders. We also evaluated the association of SNPs from a list of 37 ADHD candidate genes that was specified a priori. These findings, along with association P-values with a magnitude less than 10(-5), are discussed in this manuscript. Seventeen of these candidate genes had association P-values lower then 0.01: SLC6A1, SLC9A9, HES1, ADRB2, HTR1E, DDC, ADRA1A, DBH, DRD2, BDNF, TPH2, HTR2A, SLC6A2, PER1, CHRNA4, SNAP25, and COMT. Among the candidate genes, SLC9A9 had the strongest overall associations with 58 association test P-values lower than 0.01 and multiple association P-values at a magnitude of 10(-5) in this gene. In sum, these findings identify novel genetic associations at viable ADHD candidate genes and provide confirmatory evidence for associations at previous candidate genes. Replication of these results is necessary in order to confirm the proposed genetic variants for ADHD.

    Funded by: NIMH NIH HHS: R01 MH062873, R01 MH081803, R01MH081803, R01MH62873

    American journal of medical genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric genetics : the official publication of the International Society of Psychiatric Genetics 2008;147B;8;1345-54

  • A requirement for thioredoxin in redox-sensitive modulation of T-cadherin expression in endothelial cells.

    Joshi MB, Ivanov D, Philippova M, Kyriakakis E, Erne P and Resink TJ

    Department of Research, Cardiovascular Laboratories, Basel University Hospital, Hebelstrasse 20, CH4031 Basel, Switzerland.

    T-cad (T-cadherin), a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored cadherin superfamily member, is expressed widely in the brain and cardiovascular system, and absent, decreased, or even increased, in cancers. Mechanisms controlling T-cad expression are poorly understood. The present study investigated transcriptional regulation of T-cad in ECs (endothelial cells). Conditions of oxidative stress (serum-deprivation or presence of H(2)O(2)) elevate T-cad mRNA and protein levels in ECs. Reporter gene analysis, using serially deleted T-cad promoter stretches ranging from -99 to -2304 bp, located the minimal promoter region of T-cad within -285 bp from the translation start site. Reporter activity in ECs transfected with the -285 bp construct increased under conditions of oxidative stress, and this was normalized by antioxidant N-acetylcysteine. An electrophoretic-mobility-shift assay revealed a specific nucleoprotein complex unique to -156 to -203 bp, which increased when nuclear extracts from oxidatively stressed ECs were used, suggesting the presence of redox-sensitive binding element(s). MS analysis of the nucleoprotein complex unique to -156 to -203 bp after streptavidin-agarose pull-down detected the presence of the redox-active protein thioredoxin. The presence of thioredoxin-1 in a nuclear extract from oxidatively stressed ECs was demonstrated after immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting. Transfection of ECs with thioredoxin-1 small interfering RNA abrogated oxidative-stress-induced up-regulation of T-cad transcripts and protein. We conclude that thioredoxin-1 is an important determinant of redox-sensitive transcriptional up-regulation of T-cad in ECs.

    The Biochemical journal 2008;416;2;271-80

  • Promoter hypermethylation of CDH13 is a common, early event in human esophageal adenocarcinogenesis and correlates with clinical risk factors.

    Jin Z, Cheng Y, Olaru A, Kan T, Yang J, Paun B, Ito T, Hamilton JP, David S, Agarwal R, Selaru FM, Sato F, Abraham JM, Beer DG, Mori Y, Shimada Y and Meltzer SJ

    Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.

    Although the CDH13 gene has been shown to undergo epigenetic silencing by promoter methylation in many types of tumors, hypermethylation of this gene in Barrett's-associated esophageal adenocarcinogenesis has not been studied. Two hundred fifty-nine human esophageal tissues were therefore examined for CDH13 promoter hypermethylation by real-time methylation-specific PCR. CDH13 hypermethylation showed discriminative receiver-operator characteristic curve profiles, sharply demarcating esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) from esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and normal esophagus (NE) (p < 0.0001). CDH13 normalized methylation values (NMV) were significantly higher in Barrett's esophagus (BE), dysplastic BE (D) and EAC than in NE (p < 0.0000001). CDH13 hypermethylation frequency was 0% in NE but increased early during neoplastic progression, rising to 70% in BE, 77.5% in D and 76.1% in EAC. Both CDH13 hypermethylation frequency and its mean NMV were significantly higher in BE with than without accompanying EAC. In contrast, only 5 (19.2%) of 26 ESCCs exhibited CDH13 hypermethylation. Furthermore, both CDH13 hypermethylation frequency and its mean NMV were significantly higher in EAC than in ESCC, as well as in BE or D vs. ESCC. Interestingly, mean CDH13 NMV was significantly lower in short-segment than in long-segment BE, a known clinical risk factor for neoplastic progression. Similarly, BE segment length was significantly lower in specimens with unmethylated than with methylated CDH13 promoters. 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine treatment of OE33 EAC and KYSE220 ESCC cells reduced CDH13 methylation and increased CDH13 mRNA expression. These findings suggest that hypermethylation of CDH13 is a common, tissue-specific event in human EAC, occurs early during BE-associated neoplastic progression, and correlates with known clinical neoplastic progression risk factors.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA 084986, CA001808, CA085069, CA106763

    International journal of cancer 2008;123;10;2331-6

  • Microarray comparative genomic hybridization analysis of tubular breast carcinoma shows recurrent loss of the CDH13 locus on 16q.

    Riener MO, Nikolopoulos E, Herr A, Wild PJ, Hausmann M, Wiech T, Orlowska-Volk M, Lassmann S, Walch A and Werner M

    Institute of Pathology, University Hospital Freiburg, Freiburg i. Br., Germany.

    Tubular breast carcinoma is a highly differentiated carcinoma with an excellent prognosis. Distinct genetic alterations in tubular breast carcinoma cells have been described, especially broad genetic losses on the q-arm of chromosome 16. These are more common in lobular breast carcinoma and low-grade ductal carcinoma in situ than in ductal breast carcinoma and high-grade ductal carcinoma in situ. To further delineate the molecular changes involved in tubular breast carcinoma more precisely, we examined 23 formalin-fixed and paraffin wax-embedded tissue samples (21 of tubular breast carcinoma and 2 of nonneoplastic breast epithelium) by microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization focusing on 287 genomic target clones of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. The results obtained from all nonneoplastic tissue samples of breast epithelium indicate no DNA copy number changes. In the tubular breast carcinoma samples, the highest frequencies for DNA sequence copy number losses were detected for CDH13 (in 86% of the samples) and MSH2, KCNK12 (in 52% of the samples). The highest frequencies of DNA sequence copy number gains were detected for HRAS and D13S319XYZ (each in 62% of the samples). Using principal component analysis, 3 subgroups of tubular breast carcinomas showing relative genetic changes were identified. For validation, the most frequent DNA copy number loss for CDH13 (18/21) was confirmed using fluorescence in situ hybridization in 4 of 5 tubular breast carcinomas analyzed. The newly identified genes with considerable copy number changes may include so far unknown candidate genes for the development and progression of tubular breast carcinoma, such as CDH13. The study provides the starting point for further delineating their detailed influence on the pathogenesis of tubular breast carcinoma.

    Human pathology 2008;39;11;1621-9

  • Molecular genetics of adult ADHD: converging evidence from genome-wide association and extended pedigree linkage studies.

    Lesch KP, Timmesfeld N, Renner TJ, Halperin R, Röser C, Nguyen TT, Craig DW, Romanos J, Heine M, Meyer J, Freitag C, Warnke A, Romanos M, Schäfer H, Walitza S, Reif A, Stephan DA and Jacob C

    ADHD Clinical Research Program, Molecular and Clinical Psychobiology, Department of Psychiatry, Psychosomatics and Psychotherapy, University of Wuerzburg, Fuechsleinstr. 15, 97080, Wuerzburg, Germany. kplesch@mail.uni-wuerzburg.de

    A genome-wide association (GWA) study with pooled DNA in adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) employing approximately 500K SNP markers identifies novel risk genes and reveals remarkable overlap with findings from recent GWA scans in substance use disorders. Comparison with results from our previously reported high-resolution linkage scan in extended pedigrees confirms several chromosomal loci, including 16q23.1-24.3 which also reached genome-wide significance in a recent meta-analysis of seven linkage studies (Zhou et al. in Am J Med Genet Part B, 2008). The findings provide additional support for a common effect of genes coding for cell adhesion molecules (e.g., CDH13, ASTN2) and regulators of synaptic plasticity (e.g., CTNNA2, KALRN) despite the complex multifactorial etiologies of adult ADHD and addiction vulnerability.

    Journal of neural transmission (Vienna, Austria : 1996) 2008;115;11;1573-85

  • Genetic and epigenetic inactivation of T-cadherin in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    Chan DW, Lee JM, Chan PC and Ng IO

    Liver Cancer and Hepatitis Research Laboratory and SH Ho Foundation Research Laboratories, Department of Pathology, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.

    T-cadherin is an atypical cadherin and growing evidence has indicated that T-cadherin exerts tumor-suppressive effects on cancers of epithelial cell type and also causes positive effects on tumor angiogenesis. Human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a hypervascular tumor and T-cadherin has been shown to be overexpressed in intratumoral endothelial cells of HCCs. However, the expression status and functions of T-cadherin in hepatocytes or HCC cells remain unclear. Here, we demonstrated that T-cadherin was underexpressed in HCC cells (26.5%, 13/49 cases), but was frequently (77.6%, 38/49) overexpressed in intratumoral endothelial cells immunohistochemically. Semiquantitative RT-PCR analysis also showed that the T-cadherin gene was underexpressed in 7 of 11 HCC cell lines. Loss of heterozygosity analysis revealed that 32-38% of the 42 human HCC samples had allelic losses at this locus. Upon pharmacological treatment with demethylating agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine or histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A, T-cadherin promoter hypermethylation and/or histone deacetylation was frequently observed in HCC samples and cell lines. Functionally, enforced expression of T-cadherin induced G(2)/M cell cycle arrest, reduced cell proliferation in low serum medium, suppressed anchorage-independent growth in soft agar and increased sensitivity to TNFalpha-mediated apoptosis in HCC cells. Intriguingly, we found that T-cadherin significantly suppressed the activity of c-Jun, a crucial oncoprotein constitutively activated in HCC cells. To conclude, T-cadherin was differentially expressed in human HCCs. The underexpression of T-cadherin in HCC cells suggests it may be another critical event in addition to T-cadherin-mediated angiogenesis during HCC development.

    International journal of cancer 2008;123;5;1043-52

  • Insights into the low adhesive capacity of human T-cadherin from the NMR structure of Its N-terminal extracellular domain.

    Dames SA, Bang E, Haüssinger D, Ahrens T, Engel J and Grzesiek S

    Department of Structural Biology, University of Basel, Klingelbergstr. 70, 4056 Basel, Switzerland. sonja.dames@unibas.ch

    T-cadherin is unique among the family of type I cadherins, because it lacks transmembrane and cytosolic domains, and attaches to the membrane via a glycophosphoinositol anchor. The N-terminal cadherin repeat of T-cadherin (Tcad1) is approximately 30% identical to E-, N-, and other classical cadherins. However, it lacks many amino acids crucial for their adhesive function of classical cadherins. Among others, Trp-2, which is the key residue forming the canonical strand-exchange dimer, is replaced by an isoleucine. Here, we report the NMR structure of the first cadherin repeat of T-cadherin (Tcad1). Tcad1, as other cadherin domains, adopts a beta-barrel structure with a Greek key folding topology. However, Tcad1 is monomeric in the absence and presence of calcium. Accordingly, lle-2 binds into a hydrophobic pocket on the same protomer and participates in an N-terminal beta-sheet. Specific amino acid replacements compared to classical cadherins reduce the size of the binding pocket for residue 2 and alter the backbone conformation and flexibility around residues 5 and 15 as well as many electrostatic interactions. These modifications apparently stabilize the monomeric form and make it less susceptible to a conformational switch upon calcium binding. The absence of a tendency for homoassociation observed by NMR is consistent with electron microscopy and solid-phase binding data of the full T-cadherin ectodomain (Tcad1-5). The apparent low adhesiveness of T-cadherin suggests that it is likely to be involved in reversible and dynamic cellular adhesion-deadhesion processes, which are consistent with its role in cell growth and migration.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2008;283;34;23485-95

  • Aneuploidy predicts outcome in patients with endometrial carcinoma and is related to lack of CDH13 hypermethylation.

    Suehiro Y, Okada T, Okada T, Anno K, Okayama N, Ueno K, Hiura M, Nakamura M, Kondo T, Oga A, Kawauchi S, Hirabayashi K, Numa F, Ito T, Saito T, Sasaki K and Hinoda Y

    Department of Laboratory Medicine, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505, Japan. ysuehiro@yamaguchi-u.ac.jp

    Purpose: Many investigators have reported that aneuploidy detected by flow cytometry is a useful prognostic marker in patients with endometrial cancer. Laser scanning cytometry (LSC) is a technology similar to flow cytometry but is more feasible for clinical laboratory use. We evaluated the usefulness of DNA ploidy detected by LSC as a prognostic marker in patients with endometrial cancer and investigated genetic and epigenetic factors related to aneuploidy.

    Endometrial cancer specimens from 106 patients were evaluated. The methylation status of CDH13, Rassf1, SFRP1, SFRP2, SFRP4, SFRP5, p16, hMLH1, MGMT, APC, ATM, and WIF1 and mutations in the p53 and CDC4 genes were investigated. LSC was carried out to determine DNA ploidy. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was done with chromosome-specific centromeric probes to assess chromosomal instability.

    Results: Univariate and multivariate analyses revealed that p53 mutation and lack of CDH13 hypermethylation associated positively with aneuploidy. Univariate analysis showed that aneuploidy, chromosomal instability, and lack of CDH13 hypermethylation as well as surgical stage were significantly predictive of death from endometrial cancer. Furthermore, multivariate analysis revealed that stage in combination with either DNA aneuploidy or lack of CDH13 hypermethylation was an independent prognostic factor.

    Conclusion: These results suggest that analysis of DNA ploidy and methylation status of CDH13 may help predict clinical outcome in patients with endometrial cancer. Prospective randomized trials are needed to confirm the validity of an individualized approach, including determination of tumor ploidy and methylation status of CDH13, to management of endometrial cancer patients.

    Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research 2008;14;11;3354-61

  • Identification of proteins associating with glycosylphosphatidylinositol- anchored T-cadherin on the surface of vascular endothelial cells: role for Grp78/BiP in T-cadherin-dependent cell survival.

    Philippova M, Ivanov D, Joshi MB, Kyriakakis E, Rupp K, Afonyushkin T, Bochkov V, Erne P and Resink TJ

    Department of Research, Cardiovascular Laboratories, Basel University Hospital, Hebelstrasse 20, CH 4031 Basel, Switzerland. maria.filippova@unibas.ch

    There is scant knowledge regarding how cell surface lipid-anchored T-cadherin (T-cad) transmits signals through the plasma membrane to its intracellular targets. This study aimed to identify membrane proteins colocalizing with atypical glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored T-cad on the surface of endothelial cells and to evaluate their role as signaling adaptors for T-cad. Application of coimmunoprecipitation from endothelial cells expressing c-myc-tagged T-cad and high-performance liquid chromatography revealed putative association of T-cad with the following proteins: glucose-related protein GRP78, GABA-A receptor alpha1 subunit, integrin beta3, and two hypothetical proteins, LOC124245 and FLJ32070. Association of Grp78 and integrin beta3 with T-cad on the cell surface was confirmed by surface biotinylation and reciprocal immunoprecipitation and by confocal microscopy. Use of anti-Grp78 blocking antibodies, Grp78 small interfering RNA, and coexpression of constitutively active Akt demonstrated an essential role for surface Grp78 in T-cad-dependent survival signal transduction via Akt in endothelial cells. The findings herein are relevant in the context of both the identification of transmembrane signaling partners for GPI-anchored T-cad as well as the demonstration of a novel mechanism whereby Grp78 can influence endothelial cell survival as a cell surface signaling receptor rather than an intracellular chaperone.

    Molecular and cellular biology 2008;28;12;4004-17

  • Molecular genetics of successful smoking cessation: convergent genome-wide association study results.

    Uhl GR, Liu QR, Drgon T, Johnson C, Walther D, Rose JE, David SP, Niaura R and Lerman C

    Molecular Neurobiology Research Branch, National Institutes of Health-Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, 333 Cassell Dr, Ste 3510, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA. guhl@intra.nida.nih.gov

    Context: Smoking remains a major public health problem. Twin studies indicate that the ability to quit smoking is substantially heritable, with genetics that overlap modestly with the genetics of vulnerability to dependence on addictive substances.

    Objectives: To identify replicated genes that facilitate smokers' abilities to achieve and sustain abstinence from smoking (herein after referred to as quit-success genes) found in more than 2 genome-wide association (GWA) studies of successful vs unsuccessful abstainers, and, secondarily, to nominate genes for selective involvement in smoking cessation success with bupropion hydrochloride vs nicotine replacement therapy (NRT).

    Design: The GWA results in subjects from 3 centers, with secondary analyses of NRT vs bupropion responders.

    Setting: Outpatient smoking cessation trial participants from 3 centers.

    Participants: European American smokers who successfully vs unsuccessfully abstain from smoking with biochemical confirmation in a smoking cessation trial using NRT, bupropion, or placebo (N = 550).

    Quit-success genes, reproducibly identified by clustered nominally positive single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in more than 2 independent samples with significant P values based on Monte Carlo simulation trials. The NRT-selective genes were nominated by clustered SNPs that display much larger t values for NRT vs placebo comparisons. The bupropion-selective genes were nominated by bupropion-selective results.

    Results: Variants in quit-success genes are likely to alter cell adhesion, enzymatic, transcriptional, structural, and DNA, RNA, and/or protein-handling functions. Quit-success genes are identified by clustered nominally positive SNPs from more than 2 samples and are unlikely to represent chance observations (Monte Carlo P< .0003). These genes display modest overlap with genes identified in GWA studies of dependence on addictive substances and memory.

    Conclusions: These results support polygenic genetics for success in abstaining from smoking, overlap with genetics of substance dependence and memory, and nominate gene variants for selective influences on therapeutic responses to bupropion vs NRT. Molecular genetics should help match the types and/or intensity of antismoking treatments with the smokers most likely to benefit from them.

    Funded by: Intramural NIH HHS; NCI NIH HHS: P50 CA084719, P50CA/DA84718, P50CA84719, R01 CA063562, R01CA 63562; NHLBI NIH HHS: HL32318; NIDA NIH HHS: 1K08 DA14276-05, DA08511, K08 DA014276, K08 DA014276-01A2, K08 DA014276-02, K08 DA014276-03, K08 DA014276-04, K08 DA014276-05

    Archives of general psychiatry 2008;65;6;683-93

  • Reduced T-cadherin expression and promoter methylation are associated with the development and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Yan Q, Zhang ZF, Chen XP, Gutmann DH, Xiong M, Xiao ZY and Huang ZY

    Research Laboratory and Hepatic Surgical Center, Department of Surgery, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong Universty of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030, P.R. China.

    Loss of T-cadherin expression has been reported in a number of human cancers. We previously reported that T-cadherin re-expression suppressed cell growth and motility in glioma. Here, we report that the T-cadherin expression was significantly decreased in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) compared to adjacent normal liver. In addition, T-cadherin expression in HCC with metastasis was significantly lower than in HCC without metastasis. To determine the mechanism underlying the reduced T-cadherin expression in HCC, we examined T-cadherin promoter methylation. We found that methylation of the T-cadherin promoter was present in 40% of HCC, but absent in all adjacent liver tissues. In the HCC with T-cadherin promoter methylation, the T-cadherin expression was significantly decreased compared to HCC without methylation. To provide a functional link between T-cadherin promoter methylation and T-cadherin growth regulation, we used the HepG2 hepatoma cell line that exhibits T-cadherin promoter methylation. Treatment of HepG2 cells with the demethylating agent 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine resulted in increased T-cadherin expression and reduced cell proliferation. These results demonstrate that the T-cadherin down-regulation by promoter methylation is associated with the development and progression of HCC, and suggest that T-cadherin is an important tumor suppressor in liver cancer.

    International journal of oncology 2008;32;5;1057-63

  • DNA methylation markers and early recurrence in stage I lung cancer.

    Brock MV, Hooker CM, Ota-Machida E, Han Y, Guo M, Ames S, Glöckner S, Piantadosi S, Gabrielson E, Pridham G, Pelosky K, Belinsky SA, Yang SC, Baylin SB and Herman JG

    Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, USA. mabrock@jhmi.edu

    Background: Despite optimal and early surgical treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), many patients die of recurrent NSCLC. We investigated the association between gene methylation and recurrence of the tumor.

    Methods: Fifty-one patients with stage I NSCLC who underwent curative resection but who had a recurrence within 40 months after resection (case patients) were matched on the basis of age, NSCLC stage, sex, and date of surgery to 116 patients with stage I NSCLC who underwent curative resection but who did not have a recurrence within 40 months after resection (controls). We investigated whether the methylation of seven genes in tumor and lymph nodes was associated with tumor recurrence.

    Results: In a multivariate model, promoter methylation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A gene p16, the H-cadherin gene CDH13, the Ras association domain family 1 gene RASSF1A, and the adenomatous polyposis coli gene APC in tumors and in histologically tumor-negative lymph nodes was associated with tumor recurrence, independently of NSCLC stage, age, sex, race, smoking history, and histologic characteristics of the tumor. Methylation of the promoter regions of p16 and CDH13 in both tumor and mediastinal lymph nodes was associated with an odds ratio of recurrent cancer of 15.50 in the original cohort and an odds ratio of 25.25 when the original cohort was combined with an independent validation cohort of 20 patients with stage I NSCLC.

    Conclusions: Methylation of the promoter region of the four genes in patients with stage I NSCLC treated with curative intent by means of surgery is associated with early recurrence.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA058184-10

    The New England journal of medicine 2008;358;11;1118-28

  • DNA methylation in tumor and matched normal tissues from non-small cell lung cancer patients.

    Feng Q, Hawes SE, Stern JE, Wiens L, Lu H, Dong ZM, Jordan CD, Kiviat NB and Vesselle H

    Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Box 357115, Seattle, WA 98195-7115, USA.

    We used MethyLight assays to analyze DNA methylation status of 27 genes on 49 paired cancerous and noncancerous tissue samples from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients who underwent surgical resection. Seven genes (RARB, BVES, CDKN2A, KCNH5, RASSF1, CDH13, and RUNX) were found to be methylated significantly more frequently in tumor tissues than in noncancerous tissues. Only methylation of CCND2 and APC was frequently detected in both cancerous and noncancerous tissues, supporting the hypothesis that the methylation of these two genes is a preneoplastic change and may be associated with tobacco smoking exposure. Methylation of any one of eight genes (RASSF1, DAPK1, BVES, CDH13, MGMT, KCNH5, RARB, or CDH1) was present in 80% of NSCLC tissues but only in 14% of noncancerous tissues. Detection of methylation of these genes in blood might have utility in monitoring and detecting tumor recurrence in early-stage NSCLC after curative surgical resection.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA107264, CA115559, CA80907, R01 CA080907, R01 CA080907-04, R01 CA107264, R01 CA107264-05, R01 CA115559, R01 CA115559-05

    Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology 2008;17;3;645-54

  • Multiple loci identified in a genome-wide association study of prostate cancer.

    Thomas G, Jacobs KB, Yeager M, Kraft P, Wacholder S, Orr N, Yu K, Chatterjee N, Welch R, Hutchinson A, Crenshaw A, Cancel-Tassin G, Staats BJ, Wang Z, Gonzalez-Bosquet J, Fang J, Deng X, Berndt SI, Calle EE, Feigelson HS, Thun MJ, Rodriguez C, Albanes D, Virtamo J, Weinstein S, Schumacher FR, Giovannucci E, Willett WC, Cussenot O, Valeri A, Andriole GL, Crawford ED, Tucker M, Gerhard DS, Fraumeni JF, Hoover R, Hayes RB, Hunter DJ and Chanock SJ

    Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.

    We followed our initial genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 527,869 SNPs on 1,172 individuals with prostate cancer and 1,157 controls of European origin-nested in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial prospective study-by testing 26,958 SNPs in four independent studies (total of 3,941 cases and 3,964 controls). In the combined joint analysis, we confirmed three previously reported loci (two independent SNPs at 8q24 and one in HNF1B (formerly known as TCF2 on 17q); P < 10(-10)). In addition, loci on chromosomes 7, 10 (two loci) and 11 were highly significant (between P < 7.31 x 10(-13) and P < 2.14 x 10(-6)). Loci on chromosome 10 include MSMB, which encodes beta-microseminoprotein, a primary constituent of semen and a proposed prostate cancer biomarker, and CTBP2, a gene with antiapoptotic activity; the locus on chromosome 7 is at JAZF1, a transcriptional repressor that is fused by chromosome translocation to SUZ12 in endometrial cancer. Of the nine loci that showed highly suggestive associations (P < 2.5 x 10(-5)), four best fit a recessive model and included candidate susceptibility genes: CPNE3, IL16 and CDH13. Our findings point to multiple loci with moderate effects associated with susceptibility to prostate cancer that, taken together, in the future may predict high risk in select individuals.

    Funded by: CCR NIH HHS: N01-RC-37004, N01-RC-45035; Intramural NIH HHS; NCI NIH HHS: CA55075, N01-CN-45165, N01-CO-12400, T32 CA 09001, U01 CA098710, U01CA098233

    Nature genetics 2008;40;3;310-5

  • Toward a confocal subcellular atlas of the human proteome.

    Barbe L, Lundberg E, Oksvold P, Stenius A, Lewin E, Björling E, Asplund A, Pontén F, Brismar H, Uhlén M and Andersson-Svahn H

    Department of Biotechnology, AlbaNova University Center, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.

    Information on protein localization on the subcellular level is important to map and characterize the proteome and to better understand cellular functions of proteins. Here we report on a pilot study of 466 proteins in three human cell lines aimed to allow large scale confocal microscopy analysis using protein-specific antibodies. Approximately 3000 high resolution images were generated, and more than 80% of the analyzed proteins could be classified in one or multiple subcellular compartment(s). The localizations of the proteins showed, in many cases, good agreement with the Gene Ontology localization prediction model. This is the first large scale antibody-based study to localize proteins into subcellular compartments using antibodies and confocal microscopy. The results suggest that this approach might be a valuable tool in conjunction with predictive models for protein localization.

    Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 2008;7;3;499-508

  • Aberrant methylation of E-cadherin and H-cadherin genes in nonsmall cell lung cancer and its relation to clinicopathologic features.

    Kim DS, Kim MJ, Lee JY, Kim YZ, Kim EJ and Park JY

    Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Republic of Korea.

    Background: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. The epigenetic inactivation of certain genes by aberrant promoter methylation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of lung cancer. In addition, DNA hypermethylation is an extremely promising cancer marker. Cadherins are cell adhesion molecules that modulate the epithelial phenotype and regulate tumor invasion. Although the aberrant methylation of E-cadherin (CDH1) or H-cadherin (CDH13) genes has been reported in lung cancer, to the authors' knowledge, the relation between the concurrent hypermethylation in E-cadherin and H-cadherin has not been explored to date.

    Methods: The authors investigated the methylation status of the promoter region of human E-cadherin and H-cadherin genes in resected samples of primary nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) using methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP) analysis and correlated the results with clinicopathologic characteristics. The methylation status of the promoter regions of the E-cadherin and H-cadherin genes was examined by using nested MSP in 88 primary lung cancers and paired adjacent normal tissues. Data were compared with clinicopathologic features.

    Results: The frequency of methylation in neoplastic and corresponding nonneoplastic lung tissues was 30 of 88 tissue samples (34.1%) and 5 of 88 tissue samples (5.7%) for E-cadherin and 26 of 88 tissue samples (29.5%) and 7 of 88 tissue samples (8%) for H-cadherin, respectively. In addition, in 9 patients (10.2%), both genes were methylated. Although there was no significant difference in the overall survival of patients according to the methylation pattern of the E-cadherin gene alone or the H-cadherin gene alone, patients with NSCLC who had hypermethylation of both genes had a significantly longer overall survival. However, no correlation was observed between their methylation status and any other clinicopathologic factors.

    Conclusions: The current findings suggested that simultaneous methylation of the E-cadherin and H-cadherin genes occurs in a subset of NSCLCs and may be used as a prognostic marker for patients with NSCLC. However, further studies with large numbers of patients will be needed to confirm the findings.

    Cancer 2007;110;12;2785-92

  • Tumor-specific downregulation and methylation of the CDH13 (H-cadherin) and CDH1 (E-cadherin) genes correlate with aggressiveness of human pituitary adenomas.

    Qian ZR, Sano T, Yoshimoto K, Asa SL, Yamada S, Mizusawa N and Kudo E

    Department of Human Pathology, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, 3-18-15 Kuramoto-cho, Tokushima, Japan. zrqian@basic.med.tokushima-u.ac.jp

    The gene products of CDH13 and CDH1, H-cadherin and E-cadherin, respectively, play a key role in cell-cell adhesion. Inactivation of the cadherin-mediated cell adhesion system caused by aberrant methylation is a common finding in human cancers, indicating that the CDH13 and CDH1 function as tumor suppressor and invasion suppressor genes. In this study, we analyzed the expression of H-cadherin mRNA and E-cadherin protein in 5 normal pituitary tissues and 69 primary pituitary adenomas including all major types by quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Reduced expression of H-cadherin was detected in 54% (28/52) of pituitary tumors and was significantly associated with tumor aggressiveness (P<0.05). E-cadherin expression was lost in 30% (21 of 69) and significantly reduced in 32% (22 of 69) of tumors. E-cadherin expression was significantly lower in grade II, III, and IV than in grade I adenomas (P=0.015, P=0.029, and P=0.01, respectively). Using methylation-specific PCR (MSP), promoter hypermethylation of CDH13 and CDH1 was detected in 30 and 36% of 69 adenomas, respectively, but not in 5 normal pituitary tissues. Methylation of CDH13 was observed more frequently in invasive adenomas (42%) than in non-invasive adenomas (19%) (P<0.05) and methylation of CDH1 was more frequent in grade IV adenomas compared with grade I adenomas (P<0.05). Methylation of either CDH13 or CDH1 was identified in 35 cases (51%) and was more frequent in grade IV invasive adenomas than in grade I non-invasive adenomas (P<0.05 and P<0.05, respectively). Downregulation of expression was correlated with promoter hypermethylation in CDH13 and CDH1. In conclusion, the tumor-specific downregulation of expression and methylation of CDH13 and CDH1, alone or in combination, may be involved in the development and invasive growth of pituitary adenomas.

    Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc 2007;20;12;1269-77

  • Identification of a panel of sensitive and specific DNA methylation markers for lung adenocarcinoma.

    Tsou JA, Galler JS, Siegmund KD, Laird PW, Turla S, Cozen W, Hagen JA, Koss MN and Laird-Offringa IA

    Norris Cancer Center and Department of Surgery and of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089-9176, USA. tsouwhat@gmail.com

    Background: Lung cancer is the number one cancer killer of both men and women in the United States. Three quarters of lung cancer patients are diagnosed with regionally or distantly disseminated disease; their 5-year survival is only 15%. DNA hypermethylation at promoter CpG islands shows great promise as a cancer-specific marker that would complement visual lung cancer screening tools such as spiral CT, improving early detection. In lung cancer patients, such hypermethylation is detectable in a variety of samples ranging from tumor material to blood and sputum. To date the penetrance of DNA methylation at any single locus has been too low to provide great clinical sensitivity. We used the real-time PCR-based method MethyLight to examine DNA methylation quantitatively at twenty-eight loci in 51 primary human lung adenocarcinomas, 38 adjacent non-tumor lung samples, and 11 lung samples from non-lung cancer patients.

    Results: We identified thirteen loci showing significant differential DNA methylation levels between tumor and non-tumor lung; eight of these show highly significant hypermethylation in adenocarcinoma: CDH13, CDKN2A EX2, CDX2, HOXA1, OPCML, RASSF1, SFPR1, and TWIST1 (p-value < 0.0001). Using the current tissue collection and 5-fold cross validation, the four most significant loci (CDKN2A EX2, CDX2, HOXA1 and OPCML) individually distinguish lung adenocarcinoma from non-cancer lung with a sensitivity of 67-86% and specificity of 74-82%. DNA methylation of these loci did not differ significantly based on gender, race, age or tumor stage, indicating their wide applicability as potential lung adenocarcinoma markers. We applied random forests to determine a good classifier based on a subset of our loci and determined that combined use of the same four top markers allows identification of lung cancer tissue from non-lung cancer tissue with 94% sensitivity and 90% specificity.

    Conclusion: The identification of eight CpG island loci showing highly significant hypermethylation in lung adenocarcinoma provides strong candidates for evaluation in patient remote media such as plasma and sputum. The four most highly ranked loci, CDKN2A EX2, CDX2, HOXA1 and OPCML, which show significant DNA methylation even in stage IA tumor samples, merit further investigation as some of the most promising lung adenocarcinoma markers identified to date.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R01 CA119029, R21 CA102247

    Molecular cancer 2007;6;70

  • Framingham Heart Study 100K Project: genome-wide associations for blood pressure and arterial stiffness.

    Levy D, Larson MG, Benjamin EJ, Newton-Cheh C, Wang TJ, Hwang SJ, Vasan RS and Mitchell GF

    The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's Framingham Heart Study, Framingham, MA, USA. Levyd@nih.gov

    Background: About one quarter of adults are hypertensive and high blood pressure carries increased risk for heart disease, stroke, kidney disease and death. Increased arterial stiffness is a key factor in the pathogenesis of systolic hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Substantial heritability of blood-pressure (BP) and arterial-stiffness suggests important genetic contributions.

    Methods: In Framingham Heart Study families, we analyzed genome-wide SNP (Affymetrix 100K GeneChip) associations with systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) BP at a single examination in 1971-1975 (n = 1260), at a recent examination in 1998-2001 (n = 1233), and long-term averaged SBP and DBP from 1971-2001 (n = 1327, mean age 52 years, 54% women) and with arterial stiffness measured by arterial tonometry (carotid-femoral and carotid-brachial pulse wave velocity, forward and reflected pressure wave amplitude, and mean arterial pressure; 1998-2001, n = 644). In primary analyses we used generalized estimating equations in models for an additive genetic effect to test associations between SNPs and phenotypes of interest using multivariable-adjusted residuals. A total of 70,987 autosomal SNPs with minor allele frequency > or = 0.10, genotype call rate > or = 0.80, and Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium p > or = 0.001 were analyzed. We also tested for association of 69 SNPs in six renin-angiotensin-aldosterone pathway genes with BP and arterial stiffness phenotypes as part of a candidate gene search.

    Results: In the primary analyses, none of the associations attained genome-wide significance. For the six BP phenotypes, seven SNPs yielded p values < 10(-5). The lowest p-values for SBP and DBP respectively were rs10493340 (p = 1.7 x 10(-6)) and rs1963982 (p = 3.3 x 10(-6)). For the five tonometry phenotypes, five SNPs had p values < 10(-5); lowest p-values were for reflected wave (rs6063312, p = 2.1 x 10(-6)) and carotid-brachial pulse wave velocity (rs770189, p = 2.5 x 10(-6)) in MEF2C, a regulator of cardiac morphogenesis. We found only weak association of SNPs in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone pathway with BP or arterial stiffness.

    Conclusion: These results of genome-wide association testing for blood pressure and arterial stiffness phenotypes in an unselected community-based sample of adults may aid in the identification of the genetic basis of hypertension and arterial disease, help identify high risk individuals, and guide novel therapies for hypertension. Additional studies are needed to replicate any associations identified in these analyses.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: 1S10RR163736-01A1; NHLBI NIH HHS: K24 HL004334, K24-HL04334, N01-HC 25195, N01HC25195, R01 HL060040, R01 HL070100, R01-HL60040, R01-HL70100

    BMC medical genetics 2007;8 Suppl 1;S3

  • Genome-wide association with bone mass and geometry in the Framingham Heart Study.

    Kiel DP, Demissie S, Dupuis J, Lunetta KL, Murabito JM and Karasik D

    Hebrew SeniorLife Institute for Aging Research and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. kiel@hrca.harvard.edu

    Background: Osteoporosis is characterized by low bone mass and compromised bone structure, heritable traits that contribute to fracture risk. There have been no genome-wide association and linkage studies for these traits using high-density genotyping platforms.

    Methods: We used the Affymetrix 100K SNP GeneChip marker set in the Framingham Heart Study (FHS) to examine genetic associations with ten primary quantitative traits: bone mineral density (BMD), calcaneal ultrasound, and geometric indices of the hip. To test associations with multivariable-adjusted residual trait values, we used additive generalized estimating equation (GEE) and family-based association tests (FBAT) models within each sex as well as sexes combined. We evaluated 70,987 autosomal SNPs with genotypic call rates > or =80%, HWE p > or = 0.001, and MAF > or =10% in up to 1141 phenotyped individuals (495 men and 646 women, mean age 62.5 yrs). Variance component linkage analysis was performed using 11,200 markers.

    Results: Heritability estimates for all bone phenotypes were 30-66%. LOD scores > or =3.0 were found on chromosomes 15 (1.5 LOD confidence interval: 51,336,679-58,934,236 bp) and 22 (35,890,398-48,603,847 bp) for femoral shaft section modulus. The ten primary phenotypes had 12 associations with 100K SNPs in GEE models at p < 0.000001 and 2 associations in FBAT models at p < 0.000001. The 25 most significant p-values for GEE and FBAT were all less than 3.5 x 10(-6) and 2.5 x 10(-5), respectively. Of the 40 top SNPs with the greatest numbers of significantly associated BMD traits (including femoral neck, trochanter, and lumbar spine), one half to two-thirds were in or near genes that have not previously been studied for osteoporosis. Notably, pleiotropic associations between BMD and bone geometric traits were uncommon. Evidence for association (FBAT or GEE p < 0.05) was observed for several SNPs in candidate genes for osteoporosis, such as rs1801133 in MTHFR; rs1884052 and rs3778099 in ESR1; rs4988300 in LRP5; rs2189480 in VDR; rs2075555 in COLIA1; rs10519297 and rs2008691 in CYP19, as well as SNPs in PPARG (rs10510418 and rs2938392) and ANKH (rs2454873 and rs379016). All GEE, FBAT and linkage results are provided as an open-access results resource at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/projects/gap/cgi-bin/study.cgi?id=phs000007 webcite.

    Conclusion: The FHS 100K SNP project offers an unbiased genome-wide strategy to identify new candidate loci and to replicate previously suggested candidate genes for osteoporosis.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: 1S10RR163736-01A1; NHLBI NIH HHS: N01-HC-25195, N01HC25195; NIA NIH HHS: R01 AR/AG 41398; NIAMS NIH HHS: R01 AR041398, R01 AR041398-15, R01 AR050066

    BMC medical genetics 2007;8 Suppl 1;S14

  • Use of multicellular tumor spheroids to dissect endothelial cell-tumor cell interactions: a role for T-cadherin in tumor angiogenesis.

    Ghosh S, Joshi MB, Ivanov D, Feder-Mengus C, Spagnoli GC, Martin I, Erne P and Resink TJ

    ICFS, Departments of Surgery and Research, University Hospital, Basel, Switzerland.

    This study addresses establishment of an "in vitro" melanoma angiogenesis model using multicellular tumor spheroids (MCTS) of differentiated (HBL) or undifferentiated (NA8) melanoma cell lines. DNA microarray assay and qRT-PCR indicated upregulation of pro-angiogenic factors IL-8, VEGF, Ephrin A1 and ANGPTL4 in NA8-MCTSs (vs. monolayers) whereas these were absent in MCTS and monolayer cultures of HBL. Upon co-culture with endothelial cell line HMEC-1 NA8-MCTS attract, whereas HBL-MCTS repulse, HMEC-1. Overexpression of T-cadherin in HMEC-1 leads to their increased invasion and network formation within NA8-MCTS. Given an appropriate angiogenic tumor microenvironment, T-cadherin upregulation on endothelial cells may potentiate intratumoral angiogenesis.

    FEBS letters 2007;581;23;4523-8

  • Genome-wide association study of 14,000 cases of seven common diseases and 3,000 shared controls.

    Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium

    There is increasing evidence that genome-wide association (GWA) studies represent a powerful approach to the identification of genes involved in common human diseases. We describe a joint GWA study (using the Affymetrix GeneChip 500K Mapping Array Set) undertaken in the British population, which has examined approximately 2,000 individuals for each of 7 major diseases and a shared set of approximately 3,000 controls. Case-control comparisons identified 24 independent association signals at P < 5 x 10(-7): 1 in bipolar disorder, 1 in coronary artery disease, 9 in Crohn's disease, 3 in rheumatoid arthritis, 7 in type 1 diabetes and 3 in type 2 diabetes. On the basis of prior findings and replication studies thus-far completed, almost all of these signals reflect genuine susceptibility effects. We observed association at many previously identified loci, and found compelling evidence that some loci confer risk for more than one of the diseases studied. Across all diseases, we identified a large number of further signals (including 58 loci with single-point P values between 10(-5) and 5 x 10(-7)) likely to yield additional susceptibility loci. The importance of appropriately large samples was confirmed by the modest effect sizes observed at most loci identified. This study thus represents a thorough validation of the GWA approach. It has also demonstrated that careful use of a shared control group represents a safe and effective approach to GWA analyses of multiple disease phenotypes; has generated a genome-wide genotype database for future studies of common diseases in the British population; and shown that, provided individuals with non-European ancestry are excluded, the extent of population stratification in the British population is generally modest. Our findings offer new avenues for exploring the pathophysiology of these important disorders. We anticipate that our data, results and software, which will be widely available to other investigators, will provide a powerful resource for human genetics research.

    Funded by: Chief Scientist Office: CZB/4/540; Medical Research Council: G0000934, G0100594, G0501942, G0600329, G0600705, G0800759, G0901461, G19/9, G90/106, G9806740, G9810900; Wellcome Trust: 076113, 077011, 090532

    Nature 2007;447;7145;661-78

  • T-cadherin enhances cell-matrix adhesiveness by regulating beta1 integrin trafficking in cutaneous squamous carcinoma cells.

    Mukoyama Y, Utani A, Matsui S, Zhou S, Miyachi Y and Matsuyoshi N

    Department of Dermatology, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, 54 kawahara-cho, Shogo-in, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8317, Japan. mukoyama_bux@mii.maruho.co.jp

    T-cadherin is a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchored cadherin molecule. We previously reported that T-cadherin is normally expressed on the basal keratinocytes of the epidermis and is down-regulated in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). We found that expression of T-cadherin in cutaneous squamous carcinoma cells regulated level of surface beta1 integrin, which functioned as extracellular matrix (ECM) receptor. Involvement of T-cadherin in beta1 integrin trafficking was studied using three different stable cell lines with cytomegalovirus (CMV)-driven over-expression, tetracycline (Tet)-inducible expression and RNAi-mediated suppressed expression of T-cadherin. Pulse-chase analysis using a cholesterol-depleting reagent and a tyrosine kinase inhibitor showed that beta1 integrin mainly internalized via caveolae. Over-expression of T-cadherin suppressed the internalization of both beta1 integrin and cholera toxin (CTX), a marker of caveolae-mediated endocytosis. By Western blot analysis of tyrosine-kinase target molecules, we demonstrated a reduced level of EGF receptor (EGFR)-phosphorylation in T-cadherin over-expressing cells. In addition, studies using EGF and EGFR specific inhibitors revealed that EGFR activation stimulated beta1 integrin internalization. Taking these results together, T-cadherin may modulate cell-matrix adhesion in basal keratinocytes as well as invasive potency in SCC by regulating surface level of beta1 integrin.

    Genes to cells : devoted to molecular & cellular mechanisms 2007;12;6;787-96

  • Expression of T-cadherin in tumor cells influences invasive potential of human hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Riou P, Saffroy R, Chenailler C, Franc B, Gentile C, Rubinstein E, Resink T, Debuire B, Piatier-Tonneau D and Lemoine A

    Inserm U602, Université Paris XI, Villejuif, France.

    Overexpression of T-cadherin (T-cad) transcripts occurs in approximately 50% of human hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs). To elucidate T-cad functions in HCC, we examined T-cad protein expression in normal and tumoral human livers and hepatoma cell lines and investigated its influence on invasive potential of HCC using RNA interference silencing of T-cad expression in Mahlavu cells. Whereas T-cad expression was restricted to endothelial cells (EC) from large blood vessels in normal livers, it was up-regulated in sinusoidal EC from 8/15 invasive HCCs. Importantly, in three of them (38%) T-cad was detected in tumor cells within regions in which E-cadherin expression was absent. Among six hepatoma cell lines, only Mahlavu expressed T-cad but not E-cadherin. T-cad exhibited a globally punctuate distribution in quiescent Mahlavu and additionally it concentrated at the leading edge of migrating cells. Matrigel invasion assay revealed that Mahlavu possess a high invasive potential that was significantly inhibited by T-cad silencing. Wound healing and random motility assays demonstrated that inhibition of T-cad expression in Mahlavu significantly reduced their motility. We propose that T-cad expression in tumor cells might occur by cadherin-switching during epithelial-mesenchymal transition and may represent an additional mechanism contributing to HCC metastasis.

    FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology 2006;20;13;2291-301

  • Atypical GPI-anchored T-cadherin stimulates angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo.

    Philippova M, Banfi A, Ivanov D, Gianni-Barrera R, Allenspach R, Erne P and Resink T

    Cardiovascular Signalling Group, Basel University Hospital, Hebelstrasse 20, CH-4031 Basel, Switzerland. maria.filippova@unibas.ch

    Objective: T-cadherin (T-cad) is an atypical GPI-anchored member of the cadherin superfamily. In vascular tissue, T-cad expression is increased during atherosclerosis, restenosis, and tumor neovascularization. In vitro, overexpression and/or homophilic ligation of T-cad on endothelial cells (ECs) facilitates migration, proliferation, and survival. This study investigated T-cad effects on angiogenesis.

    In vitro, T-cad homophilic ligation induced arrangement of ECs into a capillary-like network in a 2-dimensional model of EC differentiation and stimulated in-gel endothelial sprout outgrowth in an EC spheroid model and a modified Nicosia tissue assay. Sprouting from spheroids composed of adenoviral-infected T-cad overexpressing ECs or T-cad siRNA transfected ECs were significantly increased or reduced, respectively. In vivo, T-cad potentiated VEGF effects on neovascularization in a model of myoblast-mediated gene transfer to mouse skeletal muscle; vessel caliber after co-delivery of T-cad and VEGF was significantly greater than after delivery of VEGF alone.

    Conclusions: We unequivocally identify T-cad as a novel modulator of angiogenesis and suggest that this molecule can be exploited as a target for modulation of therapeutic angiogenesis, as well as for prevention of pathological conditions associated with abnormal neovascularization.

    Arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology 2006;26;10;2222-30

  • Aberrant methylation is frequently observed in advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Fukuoka T, Hibi K and Nakao A

    Gastroenterological Surgery, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8560, Japan.

    The combined methylation status of the p16, helicase-like transcription factor (HLTF) and T-cadherin, H-cadherin (CDH13) genes in 35 resected primary esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) was examined using methylation-specific PCR. To examine whether the methylation status could be a marker for the malignancy of ESCC, the methylation status was correlated with the clinicopathological features of the affected patients. Aberrant methylation of the p16, HLTF and CDH13 genes was detected in 28 (80%), one (3%) and five (14%) out of 35 ESCC specimens, respectively. ESCC with methylation-positive genes showed a trend towards larger tumor size and deeper invasion (p = 0.139 and p = 0.0664, respectively). Thus, the methylation of the p16, HLTF and CDH13 genes is a high malignancy factor in ESCC.

    Anticancer research 2006;26;5A;3333-5

  • Modification-specific proteomics of plasma membrane proteins: identification and characterization of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins released upon phospholipase D treatment.

    Elortza F, Mohammed S, Bunkenborg J, Foster LJ, Nühse TS, Brodbeck U, Peck SC and Jensen ON

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, DK-5230 Odense M, Denmark.

    Plasma membrane proteins are displayed through diverse mechanisms, including anchoring in the extracellular leaflet via glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) molecules. GPI-anchored membrane proteins (GPI-APs) are a functionally and structurally diverse protein family, and their importance is well-recognized as they are candidate cell surface biomarker molecules with potential diagnostic and therapeutic applications in molecular medicine. GPI-APs have also attracted interest in plant biotechnology because of their role in root development and cell remodeling. Using a shave-and-conquer concept, we demonstrate that phospholipase D (PLD) treatment of human and plant plasma membrane fractions leads to the release of GPI-anchored proteins that were identified and characterized by capillary liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. In contrast to phospholipase C, the PLD enzyme is not affected by structural heterogeneity of the GPI moiety, making PLD a generally useful reagent for proteomic investigations of GPI-anchored proteins in a variety of cells, tissues, and organisms. A total of 11 human GPI-APs and 35 Arabidopsis thaliana GPI-APs were identified, representing a significant addition to the number of experimentally detected GPI-APs in both species. Computational GPI-AP sequence analysis tools were investigated for the characterization of the identified GPI-APs, and these demonstrated that there is some discrepancy in their efficiency in classification of GPI-APs and the exact assignment of omega-sites. This study highlights the efficiency of an integrative proteomics approach that combines experimental and computational methods to provide the selectivity, specificity, and sensitivity required for characterization of post-translationally modified membrane proteins.

    Journal of proteome research 2006;5;4;935-43

  • An adiponectin receptor, T-cadherin, was selectively expressed in intratumoral capillary endothelial cells in hepatocellular carcinoma: possible cross talk between T-cadherin and FGF-2 pathways.

    Adachi Y, Takeuchi T, Sonobe H and Ohtsuki Y

    Department of Pathology, Kochi Medical School, Nankoku, Kochi, Japan.

    T-cadherin is a unique receptor of adiponectin, which plays a critical role in various angiogenesis. In the present study, T-cadherin expression in tumor vessels of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and, subsequently, the molecular mechanism, which induced T-cadherin expression in sinusoidal endothelial cells were investigated. Sinusoidal endothelium in nontumorous liver, chronic hepatitis, or liver cirrhosis expressed little or no T-cadherin. By contrast, T-cadherin was found in intratumoral capillary endothelial cells of 34 out of 63 HCC specimens. In positive cases, focal T-cadherin expression was found in well-differentiated HCC, whereas diffuse and intense T-cadherin expression was observed in poorly differentiated HCC specimens. T-cadherin was much expressed in intratumoral capillary endothelial cells in a less differentiated HCC region than that in a well-differentiated region in five specimens, in which various differentiated HCC components were coexistent. In a double-cell chamber assay, fibroblast growth factor-2 appeared to have a critical role to induce T-cadherin in cultured liver sinusoidal endothelial cells. The present finding indicated that T-cadherin was selectively expressed in intratumoral capillary endothelial cells of many HCCs, increasingly expressed as tumor progression, and T-cadherin may have a positive role in angiogenesis of HCC. In addition, cross talk between the signal pathways mediated by fibroblast growth factor-2 and adiponectin was suggested.

    Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology 2006;448;3;311-8

  • p16INK4A and CDH13 hypermethylation in tumor and serum of non-small cell lung cancer patients.

    Ulivi P, Zoli W, Calistri D, Fabbri F, Tesei A, Rosetti M, Mengozzi M and Amadori D

    Istituto Oncologico Romagnolo, Morgagni Pierantoni Hospital, Forlì-Meldola, Italy.

    Aberrant promoter hypermethylation of several known or putative tumor suppressor genes occurs frequently during the etiopathogenesis of lung cancer and is a promising tool for cancer detection. In the present study, promoter hypermethylation of p16INK4A and CDH13 genes was investigated in tumor tissue and in matched serum from 61 patients with histologically confirmed non-small cell lung cancer. Using a fluorescence-based method of methylation-specific PCR (F-MSP), methylation of p16INK4A and CDH13 was detected in 79% and 66% of tumors, respectively, and was not significantly related to conventional clinicopathological characteristics of patients or tumors. Methylation of both genes was observed in 52% of tumors and of at least one gene in 92% of lesions. In matched serum, hypermethylation of p16INK4A and CDH13 was observed in 26% and 23% of patients, respectively, but as they were not associated, the methylation of at least one gene was detected in 39% of patients. In conclusion, the frequency of p16INK4A or CDH13 hypermethylation in patient serum, together with evidence of their early occurrence in lung cancerogenesis and the total lack of methylation in serum from healthy individuals, offer a promising tool for non invasive early detection of lung cancer.

    Journal of cellular physiology 2006;206;3;611-5

  • T-/H-cadherin (CDH13): a new marker for differentiating podocytes.

    Arnemann J, Sultani O, Hasgün D and Coerdt W

    Department of Paediatric Pathology, Institute of Pathology, Johannes Gutenberg University Hospital, Mainz, Germany. Joachim_Arnemann@web.de

    Cadherin molecules are known to be involved in various biological processes other than cell adhesion such as morphogenesis, cell-cell communication, cell recognition or cell signalling. While the classical cadherin molecule is characterized by an extracellular moiety, a transmembrane region and a variable cytoplasmic domain, T-/H-cadherin differs from this pattern due to the absence of a transmembrane region and a cytoplasmic domain, respectively. Its extracellular moiety is bound to the apical cell membrane by a glycosyl-phosphatidyl-inositol anchor and localized to lipid raft domains. As its molecular function and expression pattern is still not fully understood, we used a newly generated anti-T-/H-cadherin antiserum to study immunohistochemically the expression of T-/H-cadherin during the differentiation of foetal human glomeruli. At the early capillary loop stage a strong apical signal comes up for visceral epithelial cells of Bowman's capsule, which begin to differentiate towards podocytes. At the advanced capillary loop stage, when podocytes have become part of the glomerular filtration barrier, the expression pattern, however, becomes more distinct and most likely restricted to the foot processes of the podocytes. We thus postulate a functional role of T-/H-cadherin for the differentiation of the podocytes and the formation of the glomerular capillary network.

    Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology 2006;448;2;160-4

  • Diversification of transcriptional modulation: large-scale identification and characterization of putative alternative promoters of human genes.

    Kimura K, Wakamatsu A, Suzuki Y, Ota T, Nishikawa T, Yamashita R, Yamamoto J, Sekine M, Tsuritani K, Wakaguri H, Ishii S, Sugiyama T, Saito K, Isono Y, Irie R, Kushida N, Yoneyama T, Otsuka R, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Kondo H, Wagatsuma M, Murakawa K, Ishida S, Ishibashi T, Takahashi-Fujii A, Tanase T, Nagai K, Kikuchi H, Nakai K, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Life Science Research Laboratory, Central Research Laboratory, Hitachi, Ltd., Kokubunji, Tokyo, 185-8601, Japan.

    By analyzing 1,780,295 5'-end sequences of human full-length cDNAs derived from 164 kinds of oligo-cap cDNA libraries, we identified 269,774 independent positions of transcriptional start sites (TSSs) for 14,628 human RefSeq genes. These TSSs were clustered into 30,964 clusters that were separated from each other by more than 500 bp and thus are very likely to constitute mutually distinct alternative promoters. To our surprise, at least 7674 (52%) human RefSeq genes were subject to regulation by putative alternative promoters (PAPs). On average, there were 3.1 PAPs per gene, with the composition of one CpG-island-containing promoter per 2.6 CpG-less promoters. In 17% of the PAP-containing loci, tissue-specific use of the PAPs was observed. The richest tissue sources of the tissue-specific PAPs were testis and brain. It was also intriguing that the PAP-containing promoters were enriched in the genes encoding signal transduction-related proteins and were rarer in the genes encoding extracellular proteins, possibly reflecting the varied functional requirement for and the restricted expression of those categories of genes, respectively. The patterns of the first exons were highly diverse as well. On average, there were 7.7 different splicing types of first exons per locus partly produced by the PAPs, suggesting that a wide variety of transcripts can be achieved by this mechanism. Our findings suggest that use of alternate promoters and consequent alternative use of first exons should play a pivotal role in generating the complexity required for the highly elaborated molecular systems in humans.

    Genome research 2006;16;1;55-65

  • Human plasma N-glycoproteome analysis by immunoaffinity subtraction, hydrazide chemistry, and mass spectrometry.

    Liu T, Qian WJ, Gritsenko MA, Camp DG, Monroe ME, Moore RJ and Smith RD

    Biological Sciences Division and Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354, USA.

    The enormous complexity, wide dynamic range of relative protein abundances of interest (over 10 orders of magnitude), and tremendous heterogeneity (due to post-translational modifications, such as glycosylation) of the human blood plasma proteome severely challenge the capabilities of existing analytical methodologies. Here, we describe an approach for broad analysis of human plasma N-glycoproteins using a combination of immunoaffinity subtraction and glycoprotein capture to reduce both the protein concentration range and the overall sample complexity. Six high-abundance plasma proteins were simultaneously removed using a pre-packed, immobilized antibody column. N-linked glycoproteins were then captured from the depleted plasma using hydrazide resin and enzymatically digested, and the bound N-linked glycopeptides were released using peptide-N-glycosidase F (PNGase F). Following strong cation exchange (SCX) fractionation, the deglycosylated peptides were analyzed by reversed-phase capillary liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Using stringent criteria, a total of 2053 different N-glycopeptides were confidently identified, covering 303 nonredundant N-glycoproteins. This enrichment strategy significantly improved detection and enabled identification of a number of low-abundance proteins, exemplified by interleukin-1 receptor antagonist protein (approximately 200 pg/mL), cathepsin L (approximately 1 ng/mL), and transforming growth factor beta 1 (approximately 2 ng/mL). A total of 639 N-glycosylation sites were identified, and the overall high accuracy of these glycosylation site assignments as assessed by accurate mass measurement using high-resolution liquid chromatography coupled to Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (LC-FTICR) is initially demonstrated.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: P41 RR018522, RR18522; NIGMS NIH HHS: U54 GM-62119-02, U54 GM062119

    Journal of proteome research 2005;4;6;2070-80

  • T-cadherin protects endothelial cells from oxidative stress-induced apoptosis.

    Joshi MB, Philippova M, Ivanov D, Allenspach R, Erne P and Resink TJ

    Department of Research, Cardiovascular Laboratories, Basel University Hospital, Basel, Switzerland.

    In vascular tissue, T-cadherin (T-cad) is up-regulated in vivo under disease conditions associated with oxidative stress and concomitant cell migration, proliferation and apoptosis/survival. Using cultures of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), we examined whether there is a functional relationship between oxidative stress, T-cad expression, and cell survival status. Culture of HUVEC under conditions of oxidative stress (e.g., serum deprivation, inclusion of H2O2) resulted in increased T-cad expression. Oxidative stress-induced increases in T-cad were inhibited by the free radical-scavenging antioxidant, N-acetylcysteine, and the flavin-containing oxidase inhibitor, diphenyleneiodonium. Thus reactive oxygen species (ROS) contribute to stress-induced elevation of T-cad in HUVEC. Compared with control cells, HUVEC overexpressing T-cad (T-cad+-HUVEC) had higher phosphorylation levels for phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) target Akt and mTOR target p70(S6K) (survival pathway regulators), but lower levels for p38MAPK (death pathway regulator). T-cad+-HUVEC exposed to stress (serum-deprivation, TNF-alpha, actinomycin D, staurosporine) exhibited reduced caspase activation together with increased cell survival. Protection against stress-induced apoptosis in T-cad+-HUVEC was abrogated by either PI3K-inhibitor wortmannin or mTOR-inhibitor rapamycin. We conclude that T-cad overexpression in HUVEC protects against stress-induced apoptosis through activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR survival signal pathway and concomitant suppression of the p38 MAPK proapoptotic pathway. ROS-induced changes in T-cad expression may play an important role in controlling tissue cellularity during vascular remodeling.

    FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology 2005;19;12;1737-9

  • LDL induces intracellular signalling and cell migration via atypical LDL-binding protein T-cadherin.

    Rubina K, Talovskaya E, Cherenkov V, Ivanov D, Stambolsky D, Storozhevykh T, Pinelis V, Shevelev A, Parfyonova Y, Resink T, Erne P and Tkachuk V

    Cardiology Research Center, Moscow, Russia. rkseniya@mail.ru

    Cadherins are a superfamily of adhesion molecules that mediate Ca(2+)-dependent cell-cell adhesion. T-cadherin (T-cad), a unique glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored member of the cadherin superfamily, was initially identified by immunoblotting of vascular cell membranes as an atypical low affinity low density lipoprotein (LDL)-binding protein. It is not known whether this heterophilic interaction is physiologically relevant. Expression of T-cadherin is upregulated in vascular cells during atherosclerosis, restenosis and tumour angiogenesis, conditions characterized by enhanced cell migration and growth. Elevated levels of serum low density lipoproteins (LDL), which result in cholesterol accumulation in vascular wall, is a widely accepted risk factor in atherosclerosis development. Additionally to its metabolic effects, LDL can produce hormone-like effects in a number of cell types. This study has utilized HEK293 cells and L929 cells stably transfected with T-cadherin cDNA to investigate T-cad-dependent responses to LDL. Stable expression of T-cad in both HEK293 and L929 cells results in significantly (p < 0.05) elevated specific surface binding of [I125]-LDL. Compared with mock-transfectants, cells expressing T-cad exhibit significantly (p < 0.01) enhanced LDL-induced mobilization of intracellular Ca(2+)-stores and a significantly (p < 0.01) increased migration toward an LDL gradient (0.1% BSA + 60 microg/ml LDL) in Boyden chamber migration assay. Thus LDL-binding to T-cad is capable of activating physiologically relevant intracellular signaling and functional responses.

    Funded by: Wellcome Trust: 075154

    Molecular and cellular biochemistry 2005;273;1-2;33-41

  • T-cadherin mediates low-density lipoprotein-initiated cell proliferation via the Ca(2+)-tyrosine kinase-Erk1/2 pathway.

    Kipmen-Korgun D, Osibow K, Zoratti C, Schraml E, Greilberger J, Kostner GM, Jürgens G and Graier WF

    Institute of Molecular Biology & Biochemistry, Center of Molecular Medicine, Medical University Graz, Graz, Austria.

    The GPI-anchored protein T-cadherin was found to be an atypical LDL binding site that is expressed in various types of cells, including endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and neurons. Notably, the expression of T-cadherin was reduced in numerous types of cancers, although it was up-regulated in tumor-penetrating blood vessels, atherosclerotic lesions, and during neointima formation. Despite these intriguing findings, our knowledge of the physiological role and the signal transduction pathways associated with this protein is limited. Therefore, T-cadherin was overexpressed in the human umbilical vein-derived endothelial cell line EA.hy926, the human embryonic kidney cell line HEK293, and LDL-initiated signal transduction, and its consequences were elucidated. Our data revealed that T-cadherin serves as a receptor specifically for LDL. Following LDL binding to T-cadherin, mitogenic signal transduction was initiated that involved activation of PLC and IP3 formation, which subsequently yielded intracellular Ca2+ mobilization. Downstream to these early phenomena, activation of tyrosine kinase(s) Erk 1/2 kinase, and the translocation of NF kappa B toward the nucleus were found. Finally, overexpression of T-cadherin in HEK293 cells resulted in accelerated cell proliferation in an LDL-dependent manner, although cell viability was not influenced. Because LDL uptake was not facilitated by T-cadherin, our data suggest that T-cadherin serves as a signaling receptor for LDL that facilitates an LDL-dependent mitogenic signal in the vasculature.

    Journal of cardiovascular pharmacology 2005;45;5;418-30

  • RhoA and Rac mediate endothelial cell polarization and detachment induced by T-cadherin.

    Philippova M, Ivanov D, Allenspach R, Takuwa Y, Erne P and Resink T

    Department of Research, Cardiovascular Laboratories, Basel University Hospital, Basel, Switzerland.

    T-cadherin (T-cad) is an atypical GPI-anchored member of the cadherin superfamily. Ligation of T-cad receptors on endothelial cells prevents cell spreading, promotes elongation and polarization, decreases adhesion to the matrix, and facilitates migration. This study investigates involvement of Rho GTPases in T-cad signaling. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells were infected with adenoviral vectors expressing dominant-negative and/or constitutively active mutants of RhoA (N19RhoA/RhoA63), ROCK (RB/PH(TT)/CAT), and Rac1 (N17RAC). Mutant-infected and empty vector-infected cells were compared with respect to their ability to detach and polarize when plated on substratum containing recombinant T-cad protein used as a ligand mimicking homophilic T-cad interactions. ROCK involvement was also studied using specific inhibitor Y-27632. Adhesion assays, analysis of cell phenotype, and actin cytoskeleton organization using TRITC-labeled phalloidin demonstrated that T-cad-induced cell polarization includes two complementary components: RhoA/ROCK pathway is necessary for cell contraction, stress fiber assembly, and inhibition of spreading, whereas Rac is required for formation of actin-rich lamellipodia at the leading edges of polarized cells. Individual repression of either pathway only partially prevented cell polarization and detachment, while simultaneous repression of RhoA and Rac pathways fully eliminated responses to homophilic T-cad ligation. In conclusion, these data suggest that T-cad induces cell deadhesion and polarization via RhoA-ROCK- and Rac-dependent mechanisms.

    FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology 2005;19;6;588-90

  • T-cadherin negatively regulates the proliferation of cutaneous squamous carcinoma cells.

    Mukoyama Y, Zhou S, Miyachi Y and Matsuyoshi N

    Department of Dermatology, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.

    T-cadherin is a unique member of the cadherin superfamily that lacks the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains, and is instead linked to the cell membrane via a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol anchor. We previously reported that T-cadherin was specifically expressed on the basal keratinocytes of the epidermis, and the expression of T-cadherin was significantly reduced in invasive cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and in the lesional skin of psoriasis vulgaris. In this study, to obtain an insight into the role of T-cadherin in keratinocytes, we used transfection methods and examined the effect of overexpression or knockdown of T-cadherin in immortalized keratinocyte cell lines derived from SCC. T-cadherin overexpressed cells showed clearly reduced cell proliferation, but the influence of cell-cell adhesiveness and cell mobility was not detected. Using a tetracycline-regulated expression system, we also confirmed that the suppression of cell proliferation was dependent on the expression level of T-cadherin. Cell cycle analysis demonstrated that over expression of T-cadherin induced a delay in the G(2)/M phase. Our findings suggest that T-cadherin acts as an endogenous negative regulator of keratinocyte proliferation and its inactivation is the cause for keratinocyte hyperproliferation in SCC or in psoriasis vulgaris.

    The Journal of investigative dermatology 2005;124;4;833-8

  • T-cadherin upregulation correlates with cell-cycle progression and promotes proliferation of vascular cells.

    Ivanov D, Philippova M, Allenspach R, Erne P and Resink T

    Department of Research, Cardiovascular Laboratories, Basel University Hospital, ZLF 316, Hebelstrasse 20, CH 4031 Basel, Switzerland.

    Objective: In vascular tissue, T-cadherin (T-cad) levels correlate with the progression of atherosclerosis, restenosis and tumour neovascularization. This study investigates whether T-cad influences proliferation of vascular cells.

    Cultures of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and rat and human aortic smooth muscle cells (rSMC, hSMC) were used. T-cad was overexpressed in HUVEC and hSMC using an adenoviral expression system. In cultures released from G(1)/G(0) synchrony parallel immunoblot analysis of T-cad and cell cycle phase specific markers (p27(Kip1), cyclin D1, E2F1, PCNA, cyclin B) showed increased T-cad protein levels subsequent to entry into early S-phase with sustained elevation through S-and M-phases. T-cad was increased in G(2)/M-phase (colchicine) synchronized cultures. In FACS-sorted cell populations, expression of T-cad in S-and G(2)/M-phase was higher than G(1)/G(0)-phase. Compared with empty-and LacZ-vector infected controls, HUVEC and hSMC overexpressing T-cad exhibited increased proliferation as assessed in enumeration and DNA synthesis assays. Additionally, following release from G(1)/G(0) synchrony, HUVEC and hSMC overexpressing T-cad enter S-phase more rapidly. Flow cytometry after BrdU/propidium labelling confirmed increased cell cycle progression in T-cad overexpressing cells.

    Conclusion: In vascular cells, T-cad is dynamically regulated during the cell cycle and its expression functions in the promotion of proliferation. T-cad may facilitate progression of proliferative vascular disorders such as atherosclerosis, restenosis and tumour angiogenesis.

    Cardiovascular research 2004;64;1;132-43

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • Methylation pattern of CDH13 gene in digestive tract cancers.

    Hibi K, Kodera Y, Ito K, Akiyama S and Nakao A

    Gastroenterological Surgery, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8560, Japan. khibi@med.nagoya-u.ac.jp

    Recently, the loss of CDH13 (T-cadherin, H-cadherin) gene expression accompanied by CDH13 promoter methylation was identified in colon cancers. We examined CDH13 methylation in oesophageal and gastric carcinomas. Five of 37 oesophageal cancers (14%) and 23 of 66 gastric cancers (35%) demonstrated abnormal methylation of the CDH13 promoter. Abnormal methylation was frequently found in gastric cancers of patients at all clinical stages just as in E-cadherin, another of the cadherin family, suggesting that these cancers could be methylated at an early stage. These results suggested that CDH13 might play a variety of roles depending on the tissue type.

    British journal of cancer 2004;91;6;1139-42

  • T-cadherin is a receptor for hexameric and high-molecular-weight forms of Acrp30/adiponectin.

    Hug C, Wang J, Ahmad NS, Bogan JS, Tsao TS and Lodish HF

    Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA.

    Acrp30/adiponectin is reduced in the serum of obese and diabetic individuals, and the genetic locus of adiponectin is linked to the metabolic syndrome. Recombinant adiponectin, administered to diet-induced obese mice, induced weight loss and improved insulin sensitivity. In muscle and liver, adiponectin stimulates AMP-activated protein kinase activation and fatty acid oxidation. To expression-clone molecules capable of binding adiponectin, we transduced a C2C12 myoblast cDNA retroviral expression library into Ba/F3 cells and panned infected cells on recombinant adiponectin linked to magnetic beads. We identified T-cadherin as a receptor for the hexameric and high-molecular-weight species of adiponectin but not for the trimeric or globular species. Only eukaryotically expressed adiponectin bound to T-cadherin, implying that posttranslational modifications of adiponectin are critical for binding. An adiponectin mutant lacking a conserved N-terminal cysteine residue required for formation of hexamer and high-molecular-weight species did not bind T-cadherin in coimmunoprecipitation studies. Although lacking known cellular functions, T-cadherin is expressed in endothelial and smooth muscle cells, where it is positioned to interact with adiponectin. Because T-cadherin is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored extracellular protein, it may act as a coreceptor for an as-yet-unidentified signaling receptor through which adiponectin transmits metabolic signals.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: R21 DK058854, R21 DK058854-01, R21 DK058854-02, R21 DK058854-03, R37 DK047618, R37DK47618

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2004;101;28;10308-13

  • Prognostic DNA methylation marker in serum of cancer patients.

    Müller HM, Fiegl H, Widschwendter A and Widschwendter M

    Department of General and Transplant Surgery, Innsbruck Medical University, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria.

    Changes in the status of DNA methylation are among the most common molecular alterations in human neoplasia. Recent demonstrations of tumor-derived methylated DNA in the blood stream of cancer patients allow the use of these epigenetic markers for risk assessment in cancer patients. We were interested in evaluating the prognostic value of several methylated genes in the serum of cancer patients. Using MethyLight, a high-throughput DNA methylation assay, we analyzed 215 serum samples from patients with cervical (n = 93) or breast cancer (n = 122) for DNA methylation changes. In cervical cancer, hypermethylation of three genes (MYOD1, CDH1, and CDH13) in pretreatment sera was statistically significantly associated with a poorer disease outcome. Additionally, for the first time we used a so-called gene evaluation set to identify the most important DNA methylation changes in the serum of breast cancer patients from a long list of candidate genes. In the gene evaluation set, we detected five genes (ESR1, APC, HSD17B4, HIC1, and RASSF1A) using our criteria for further analysis. Finally, two of the evaluated genes (APC and RASSF1A) proved to be independent prognostic parameters in breast cancer patients. In summary, we detected several prognostic DNA methylation markers in the serum of cervical and breast cancer patients. This finding indicates great potential for the use of these epigenetic markers in clinical, routine risk assessment in patients with various malignancies.

    Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 2004;1022;44-9

  • Transcriptome characterization elucidates signaling networks that control human ES cell growth and differentiation.

    Brandenberger R, Wei H, Zhang S, Lei S, Murage J, Fisk GJ, Li Y, Xu C, Fang R, Guegler K, Rao MS, Mandalam R, Lebkowski J and Stanton LW

    Geron Corporation, Menlo Park, California 94025, USA. rbrandenberger@geron.com

    Human embryonic stem (hES) cells hold promise for generating an unlimited supply of cells for replacement therapies. To characterize hES cells at the molecular level, we obtained 148,453 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from undifferentiated hES cells and three differentiated derivative subpopulations. Over 32,000 different transcripts expressed in hES cells were identified, of which more than 16,000 do not match closely any gene in the UniGene public database. Queries to this EST database revealed 532 significantly upregulated and 140 significantly downregulated genes in undifferentiated hES cells. These data highlight changes in the transcriptional network that occur when hES cells differentiate. Among the differentially regulated genes are several components of signaling pathways and transcriptional regulators that likely play key roles in hES cell growth and differentiation. The genomic data presented here may facilitate the derivation of clinically useful cell types from hES cells.

    Nature biotechnology 2004;22;6;707-16

  • The human plasma proteome: a nonredundant list developed by combination of four separate sources.

    Anderson NL, Polanski M, Pieper R, Gatlin T, Tirumalai RS, Conrads TP, Veenstra TD, Adkins JN, Pounds JG, Fagan R and Lobley A

    The Plasma Proteome Institute, Washington DC 20009-3450, USA. leighanderson@plasmaproteome.org

    We have merged four different views of the human plasma proteome, based on different methodologies, into a single nonredundant list of 1175 distinct gene products. The methodologies used were 1) literature search for proteins reported to occur in plasma or serum; 2) multidimensional chromatography of proteins followed by two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectroscopy (MS) identification of resolved proteins; 3) tryptic digestion and multidimensional chromatography of peptides followed by MS identification; and 4) tryptic digestion and multidimensional chromatography of peptides from low-molecular-mass plasma components followed by MS identification. Of 1,175 nonredundant gene products, 195 were included in more than one of the four input datasets. Only 46 appeared in all four. Predictions of signal sequence and transmembrane domain occurrence, as well as Genome Ontology annotation assignments, allowed characterization of the nonredundant list and comparison of the data sources. The "nonproteomic" literature (468 input proteins) is strongly biased toward signal sequence-containing extracellular proteins, while the three proteomics methods showed a much higher representation of cellular proteins, including nuclear, cytoplasmic, and kinesin complex proteins. Cytokines and protein hormones were almost completely absent from the proteomics data (presumably due to low abundance), while categories like DNA-binding proteins were almost entirely absent from the literature data (perhaps unexpected and therefore not sought). Most major categories of proteins in the human proteome are represented in plasma, with the distribution at successively deeper layers shifting from mostly extracellular to a distribution more like the whole (primarily cellular) proteome. The resulting nonredundant list confirms the presence of a number of interesting candidate marker proteins in plasma and serum.

    Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 2004;3;4;311-26

  • CDH1 and CDH13 methylation in serum is an independent prognostic marker in cervical cancer patients.

    Widschwendter A, Ivarsson L, Blassnig A, Müller HM, Fiegl H, Wiedemair A, Müller-Holzner E, Goebel G, Marth C and Widschwendter M

    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Innsbruck University Hospital, Innsbruck, Austria.

    Cervical cancer is the principal cause of death due to cancer in women. Five-year survival rate ranges from 15-80%, depending on the extent of the disease. New predictive markers for relapse may increase survival rates by improving treatment of patients at high risk for relapse. The gene products of CDH1 and CDH13, namely E-cadherin and H-cadherin, play a key role in cell-cell adhesion. Inactivation of the cadherin-mediated cell adhesion system, caused by aberrant methylation, is a common finding in human cancers. To test the hypothesis that CDH1/CDH13 methylation is a prognostic marker in cervical cancer we determined the methylation status of CDH1/CDH13 in serum samples from 93 cervical cancer patients. Methylation analysis was carried out using MethyLight. Aberrant methylation of the 5'-region of CDH1 or CDH13 was observed in 43% (40 of 93) of the patients. Cervical cancer patients with unmethylated CDH1/CDH13 in serum samples showed significantly better disease-free survival in univariate and multivariate analysis. Median disease-free survival for CDH1/CDH13 methylation negative and positive patients was 4.3 years and 1.2 years, respectively. Our results suggest that detection of aberrant methylation of CDH1/CDH13 may be of potential use as a marker for selecting cervical cancer patients at high risk for relapse who could benefit from additional systemic therapy.

    International journal of cancer 2004;109;2;163-6

  • CDH13 promoter region is specifically methylated in poorly differentiated colorectal cancer.

    Hibi K, Nakayama H, Kodera Y, Ito K, Akiyama S and Nakao A

    Gastroenterological Surgery, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8560, Japan. khibi@med.nagoya-u.ac.jp

    It has recently become clear that CDH13 (H-cadherin, T-cadherin) expression is frequently silenced by aberrant methylation in colorectal cancers and adenomas. In this study, we investigated the methylation status of CDH13 gene and detected aberrant promoter methylation in 27 of 84 (32%) colorectal cancers. We then correlated the results with the clinicopathological features of affected patients. We found a significant difference in histology (P=0.0053) when we compared the CDH13 methylation of poorly differentiated colorectal cancers to that of differentiated ones. This result suggested that poorly differentiated colorectal cancers specifically exhibited CDH13 methylation, and since CDH13 might be responsible for selective cell recognition and adhesion, inactivation of CDH13 could lead to the formation of scattered carcinoma cells in these cancers.

    British journal of cancer 2004;90;5;1030-3

  • Cell adhesion molecule T-cadherin regulates vascular cell adhesion, phenotype and motility.

    Ivanov D, Philippova M, Tkachuk V, Erne P and Resink T

    Cardiovascular Laboratories, Department of Research, Basel University Hospital, Hebelstrasse 20, CH-4031 Basel, Switzerland.

    T-cadherin (T-cad), an unusual glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored member of the cadherin family of cell adhesion molecules, is widely expressed in the cardiovascular system. The expression profile of T-cad within diseased (atherosclerotic and restenotic) vessels indicates some relationship between expression of T-cad and the phenotypic status of resident cells. Using cultures of human aortic smooth muscle cells (SMC) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) we investigate the hypothesis that T-cad may function in modulating adhesive properties of vascular cells. Coating of culture plates with recombinant T-cad protein or with antibody against the first amino-terminal domain of T-cad (anti-EC1) significantly decreased adhesion and spreading of SMC and HUVEC. HUVECs adherent on T-cad or anti-EC1 substratum exhibited an elongated morphology and associated redistribution of the cytoskeleton and focal adhesions to a distinctly peripheral location. These changes are characteristic of the less-adhesive, motile or pro-migratory, pro-angiogenic phenotype. Boyden chamber migration assay demonstrated that the deadhesion induced by T-cad facilitates cell migration towards a serum gradient. Overexpression of T-cad in vascular cells using adenoviral vectors does not influence cell adhesion or motility per se, but increases the detachment and migratory responses induced by T-cad substratum. The data suggest that T-cad acts as an anti-adhesive signal for vascular cells, thus modulating vascular cell phenotype and migration properties.

    Experimental cell research 2004;293;2;207-18

  • Polarisation of T-cadherin to the leading edge of migrating vascular cells in vitro: a function in vascular cell motility?

    Philippova M, Ivanov D, Tkachuk V, Erne P and Resink TJ

    Cardiovascular Research Laboratories, Department of Research, ZLF 320, Basel University Hospital, Hebelstrasse 20, 4031, Basel, Switzerland.

    Both histological and in vitro studies indicate a relationship between T-cadherin levels and acquisition of a modulated, migratory phenotype by vascular cells. This study further examines a role for T-cadherin in relation to cell migration and adhesion. Fluorescence microscopic examination of T-cadherin localisation in confluent cultures of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), human aortic smooth muscle cells and the human carcinoma cell line ECV-304 revealed global distribution over the entire cell body, and with only slight enrichment at cell borders. This contrasts with restricted cell-cell junction localisation of classical cadherin (for example, VE-cadherin in HUVEC). In wounded cultures, T-cadherin polarised to the leading edge of cells migrating into the wound area, again contrasting with classical VE-cadherin, which was undetectable in this region. Confocal microscopy demonstrated that potential signalling functions of T-cadherin at the leading edge are unrelated to physical interactions with caveolin. Adherence of HUVEC onto a monolayer of T-cadherin-transfected L929 cells is significantly reduced compared with adhesion onto control (T-cadherin-negative) L929. Thus T-cadherin is not required for maintenance of intercellular adhesion, but may rather function as a signalling molecule involved in cell-cell recognition and sensing of the environment in processes where cell detachment occurs.

    Histochemistry and cell biology 2003;120;5;353-60

  • Cadherin-13, a mediator of calcium-dependent cell-cell adhesion, is silenced by methylation in chronic myeloid leukemia and correlates with pretreatment risk profile and cytogenetic response to interferon alfa.

    Roman-Gomez J, Castillejo JA, Jimenez A, Cervantes F, Boque C, Hermosin L, Leon A, Grañena A, Colomer D, Heiniger A and Torres A

    Hematology Department, Reina Sofia Hospital, Avda, Menendez Pidal s/n, 14004 Cordoba, Spain. peperosa@teleline.es

    Purpose: Cadherin-13 (CDH13) is a newly characterized cadherin molecule responsible for selective cell recognition and adhesion, the expression of which is decreased by methylation in a variety of human cancers, indicating that the CDH13 gene functions as a tumor suppressor gene. Although defective progenitor-stromal adhesion is a well-recognized feature of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), the role of CDH13 abnormalities has not been evaluated in this disease.

    We examined the methylation status of the CDH13 promoter in 179 chronic phase (CP)-CML patients and in 52 advanced-phase samples and correlated it with mRNA expression using methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse transcriptase PCR.

    Results: Aberrant de novo methylation of the CDH13 promoter region was observed in 99 (55%) of 179 of CP-CML patients, and 90 of the patients failed to express CDH13 mRNA (P <.0001). Advanced-stage samples (n = 52) showed concordant methylation results with their corresponding CP tumors, indicating that CDH13 methylation was not acquired during the course of the disease. Nevertheless, absence of CDH13 expression was more frequently observed among Sokal high-risk patients (P =.01) and was also independently associated with a shorter median progression-free survival time (P =.03) and poor cytogenetic response to interferon alfa treatment (P =.0001).

    Conclusion: Our data indicate that the silencing of CDH13 expression by aberrant promoter methylation occurs at an early stage in CML pathogenesis and probably influences the clinical behavior of the disease.

    Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology 2003;21;8;1472-9

  • Downregulation of expression of a novel cadherin molecule, T-cadherin, in basal cell carcinoma of the skin.

    Takeuchi T, Liang SB and Ohtsuki Y

    Department of Pathology, Kochi Medical School, Japan.

    T-cadherin appears to act as a tumor-suppressor factor in various cancers. Downregulation of T-cadherin is caused by a combination of allelic loss and hypermethylation of the T-cadherin promoter region and is related to cancer invasion. To elucidate the molecular mechanism of invasiveness of basal cell carcinoma of the skin, T-cadherin expression was investigated in archival pathological tissue sections made up of normal counterparts of skin and various types of basal cell carcinoma. Immunohistochemical staining showed that T-cadherin was not expressed in 38 of 51 (75%) basal cell carcinoma specimens, whereas normal counterparts of the skin appeared to express abundant T-cadherin. Loss of heterozygosity in intron 1 of the T-cadherin gene was found in four of 20 informative cases that did not express T-cadherin. Aberrant methylation of the T-cadherin promoter region also was found in six of 25 basal cell carcinomas by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction. In contrast, no structural alternations were found in two loss of heterozygosity-positive basal cell carcinomas on sequence analysis. These findings indicated that T-cadherin expression was downregulated by a combination of allelic loss and aberrant methylation in basal cell carcinoma of the skin. Loss of T-cadherin expression might be related to the biological behavior of basal cell carcinoma. In addition, results of the present study suggested that downregulation of T-cadherin in various cancers might be related to tumor invasiveness rather than metastasis, because basal cell carcinoma of the skin principally lacks metastatic activity.

    Molecular carcinogenesis 2002;35;4;173-9

  • Loss of T-cadherin (CDH13, H-cadherin) expression in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma.

    Takeuchi T, Liang SB, Matsuyoshi N, Zhou S, Miyachi Y, Sonobe H and Ohtsuki Y

    Department of Pathology, Kochi Medical School, Kochi, Japan. takeutit@med.kochi-ms.ac.jp

    We previously reported that T-cadherin (CDH13, H-cadherin), a unique cadherin molecule, was expressed on the basal cell layer in normal murine and human epidermis. In the present study, T-cadherin expression in archival human skin specimens comprising a spectrum of human squamous cell neoplasia was investigated. T-cadherin expression was observed in both normal epidermal basal cells and adnexal epithelial cells of formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue sections. Western immunoblotting also revealed that mature T-cadherin protein was expressed in cultured human skin tissue equivalent. Atypical keratinocytes in 27 of 53 specimens of actinic keratosis and 23 of 30 specimens of Bowen's disease expressed T-cadherin. In contrast, T-cadherin was focally expressed in 6 of 56 invasive cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas. To explore the molecular mechanism of down-regulation of T-cadherin expression in invasive squamous cell carcinoma, loss of heterozygosity, genetic alternations, and methylation status in the 5' region of the T-cadherin gene were investigated. Loss of heterozygosity at intron 1 of the T-cadherin gene was observed in 8 of 28 informative cases of invasive squamous cell carcinoma. Although no structural genomic alternations were found by sequence analysis, aberrant promoter methylation of the T-cadherin gene was found in 12 of 28 invasive squamous cell carcinomas. T-cadherin expression was restored in cultured A431 cells, in which aberrant methylation was found by treatment with the demethylating agent 5'-aza-2-deoxycytidine. These findings suggest that a combination of deletion and aberrant methylation of the T-cadherin gene may play a role in loss of gene expression in a considerable number of invasive cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas.

    Laboratory investigation; a journal of technical methods and pathology 2002;82;8;1023-9

  • Aberrant methylation of the CDH13 (H-cadherin) promoter region in colorectal cancers and adenomas.

    Toyooka S, Toyooka KO, Harada K, Miyajima K, Makarla P, Sathyanarayana UG, Yin J, Sato F, Shivapurkar N, Meltzer SJ and Gazdar AF

    Hamon Center for Therapeutic Oncology Research, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas 75390, USA.

    Expression of the cadherin family member CDH13 (H-cadherin) is reduced in several human tumors, and it has been hypothesized that this gene functions as a tumor suppressor gene. Previously, we reported that the 5' region of CDH13 is frequently methylated in breast and lung cancers. Here we confirmed the promoter activity of 5' region of CDH13 by luciferase assay and examined its aberrant methylation in colorectal cancers, cell lines, and adenomas. Methylation status was investigated by methylation-specific PCR (MSP) and by bisulfite DNA sequencing of cloned DNA of PCR amplicons. In cell lines, we examined the correlation between methylation status and mRNA expression by reverse transcription-PCR. Aberrant methylation of CDH13 was present in 7 of 13 (54%) cell lines, and expression was absent in 6 of 13 (46%) cell lines. CDH13 expression was present in six cell lines that showed only the unmethylated form by MSP and in one cell line that showed both the methylated and unmethylated forms. Treatment with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine restored CDH13 expression in methylated cell lines. In surgically resected samples, 17 of 35 (49%) cases of primary colorectal cancer, 2 of 33 (6%) cases of corresponding nonmalignant colorectal mucosa, and 8 of 19 (42%) adenomas were methylated. Sequence data after bisulfite treatment indicated that primary cancers and two cell lines with loss of expression were highly methylated compared with nonmalignant colorectal epithelial cells, especially at the attachment sites of primers for MSP, although there was heterogeneity in methylation status. Our results suggest that CDH13 expression is frequently silenced by aberrant methylation in colorectal cancers and adenomas and that methylation of CDH13 commences at an early stage of multistep colorectal tumorigenesis.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: 5U01CA84971, 5U01CA85069, CA59323, CA77057; NIDDK NIH HHS: DK47717

    Cancer research 2002;62;12;3382-6

  • Expression of T-cadherin in Basal keratinocytes of skin.

    Zhou S, Matsuyoshi N, Liang SB, Takeuchi T, Ohtsuki Y and Miyachi Y

    Department of Dermatology, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.

    T-cadherin is a unique member of the cadherin superfamily that shares the ectodomain organization with classical cadherins, but lacks both transmembrane and cytoplasmic regions and is instead anchored to the plasma membrane through a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI) moiety. The function of T-cadherin has not been revealed yet. The special structure of T-cadherin might endow this molecule with specific intracellular targeting properties and functions that are distinct from classical cadherins. T-cadherin was originally cloned from chicken embryo brain and then was also found in mouse and human nervous and cardiovascular systems; however, T-cadherin in the keratinocytes and skin tissue is still an unknown area that remains to be explored. To test whether the unusual truncated T-cadherin is expressed in keratinocytes, we performed the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction of T-cadherin, as well as several classical cadherins (E-, P-, and N-cadherin), on the mouse keratinocyte cell line Pam212, fibroblast NIH3T3, and melanoma cell B16. The result indicated that mouse keratinocytes expressed the mRNA of truncated T-cadherin apart from classical cadherins, E-, and P-cadherin. To confirm the expression of T-cadherin in mouse keratinocytes, immunocytochemistry staining was carried out on Pam212 cells by using rabbit anti-T-cadherin antibody and rat antimouse E- and P-cadherin antibody. The result of immunofluorescence staining proved that T-cadherin was expressed in mouse keratinocytes. In order to analyze the distribution patterns of T-cadherin and classical cadherins on the keratinocytes, 3D scanning was performed by using a confocal microscope. From the Z-sections and XZ-sections, it was clearly demonstrated that T-cadherin was distributed diffusely on the whole cell surface, while E- and P-cadherin were concentrated on the cell-cell contacts. To examine the expression and the localization of T-cadherin on skin tissue, the frozen sections of the mouse back skin were immunohistochemically labeled by using anti-T-cadherin antibody. It was found that T-cadherin was intensively expressed only on the basal cell layer of the mouse skin. Apart from mouse keratinocytes and mouse skin, we further examined the expression of T-cadherin in human keratinocytes and human skin by western blot, immunocytochemistry, and immunohistochemistry staining. The same results were achieved with human samples. In this study, we found and verified that T-cadherin was expressed on the mouse and human keratinocytes and specifically localized on the basal cell layer of skin. The nature of T-cadherin function and its mechanism of localization at the basal cell layer of skin are important issues to be addressed concerning this unique member of the cadherin family and its physiologic and pathologic roles in the skin.

    The Journal of investigative dermatology 2002;118;6;1080-4

  • Recent progress in T-cadherin (CDH13, H-cadherin) research.

    Takeuchi T and Ohtsuki Y

    Department of Pathology, Kochi Medical School, Nankoku, Japan. takeutit@med.kochi-ms.ac.jp

    T-cadherin is a unique cadherin cell adhesion molecule that is anchored to the cell surface membrane through a glycosyl phosphatidyl inositol (GPI) moiety. The cytoplasmic domain, which T-cadherin lacks, is believed to be critical for homophilic binding through interaction with submembrane cytoskeletal proteins. Does this mean that T-cadherin is an unimportant molecule? However, the T-cadherin amino acid motif has been well conserved through evolution in vertebrates, suggesting that T-cadherin may have biological significance in higher animals. Consistent with this hypothesis, recent studies have thrown light on the relevance of T-cadherin in the fields of oncology, neurology, respirology and cardiovascular physiology. In this manuscript, we review current advances in T-cadherin research.

    Histology and histopathology 2001;16;4;1287-93

  • Expression of cell adhesion molecule T-cadherin in the human vasculature.

    Ivanov D, Philippova M, Antropova J, Gubaeva F, Iljinskaya O, Tararak E, Bochkov V, Erne P, Resink T and Tkachuk V

    Laboratory for Molecular Endocrinology, Institute of Experimental Cardiology, Cardiology Research Center, 121552 Moscow, Russia.

    Alterations in expression of surface adhesion molecules on resident vascular and blood-derived cells play a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. Smooth muscle cells (SMCs) have been shown to express T-cadherin (T-cad), an unusual GPI-anchored member of the cadherin family of adhesion molecules. Particular relevance for T-cad in cardiovascular tissues is indicated by our present screen (immunoblotting) of human tissues and organs whereby highest expression of T-cad was found in aorta, carotid, iliac and renal arteries and heart. To explore the (patho)physiological role for T-cad in the vasculature we performed an immunohistochemical analysis of T-cad expression in normal human aorta and atherosclerotic lesions of varying severity. T-cad was present both in the intima and media and was expressed in endothelial cells (ECs), SMCs and pericytes, but not in monocytes/macrophages, foam cells and lymphocytes. In the adventitia T-cad was present in the wall of vasa vasorum and was expressed in ECs, SMCs and pericytes. T-cad was differentially expressed in SMCs from distinct vascular layers of normal aorta (for example, high in the subendothelial (proteoglycan) layer of the intima, low in the musculoelastic intimal layer and in the media), as well as at different stages of lesion progression. In SMCs there was an apparent inverse relationship between the intensities of T-cad and smooth muscle alpha-actin expression, this being most prominent in lesions. The findings suggest a phenotype-associated expression of T-cad which may be relevant to control of the normal vascular architecture and its remodelling during atherogenesis.

    Histochemistry and cell biology 2001;115;3;231-42

  • The glycosyl phosphatidylinositol anchor of human T-cadherin binds lipoproteins.

    Niermann T, Kern F, Erne P and Resink T

    Laboratory for Cardiovascular Research, Basel University Hospital, Basel, CH 4031, Switzerland. Thomas.niermann@unibas.ch

    T-cadherin (T-cad) is a Ca(2+)-dependent cell adhesion glycoprotein bound to the plasma membrane via a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor. T-cad expressed on vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC) binds lipoproteins on blot. To analyze the molecular basis for the interaction of T-cad with lipoproteins we expressed recombinant human T-cad in HEK293 cells. Whereas membrane-bound T-cad from SMC and T-cad transfected HEK293 cells bind lipoproteins, T-cadherin proteins cleaved from the cell surface by phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) do not. The lipoprotein-binding function is also lacking both for a recombinant human T-cad expressed in HEK293 cells without the GPI signal sequence, and for a human T-cad form expressed in Escherichia coli that contains the signal sequence for GPI attachment but is not modified with a GPI. We conclude that the GPI moiety of T-cadherin is necessary and sufficient to mediate lipoprotein binding.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2000;276;3;1240-7

  • Expression of T-cadherin (CDH13, H-Cadherin) in human brain and its characteristics as a negative growth regulator of epidermal growth factor in neuroblastoma cells.

    Takeuchi T, Misaki A, Liang SB, Tachibana A, Hayashi N, Sonobe H and Ohtsuki Y

    Department of Pathology, Kochi Medical School, Japan. takeutit@med.kochi-ms.ac.jp

    In the present study, we first examined the expression of T-cadherin in human CNS by northern blot analysis, immunohistochemical staining, and in situ hybridization. Northern blot analysis demonstrated expression of T-cadherin in human adult cerebral cortex, medulla, thalamus, and midbrain. Immunohistochemical staining with a newly generated monoclonal antibody, designated MA-511, revealed strong expression of T-cadherin in neural cell surface membrane and neurites in adult cerebral cortex, medulla oblongata, and nucleus olivaris. Little or no expression of T-cadherin was found in spinal cord. We further examined T-cadherin expression in various developing nervous systems, and found that T-cadherin expression was lower in developing brain than in adult brain. In situ hybridization revealed that neural cells in medulla oblongata and nucleus olivaris, but not in spinal cord, possessed T-cadherin molecules. We transfected T-cadherin-negative TGW and NH-12 neuroblastoma cells with a T-cadherin cDNA-containing expression vector. T-cadherin-expressing neuroblastoma cells lost mitogenic proliferative response to epidermal growth factor. Epidermal growth factor is known to be required for proliferation of neural stem cells. This finding, together with those of the present study, suggests that T-cadherin functions as a negative regulator of neural cell growth.

    Journal of neurochemistry 2000;74;4;1489-97

  • LDL binds to surface-expressed human T-cadherin in transfected HEK293 cells and influences homophilic adhesive interactions.

    Resink TJ, Kuzmenko YS, Kern F, Stambolsky D, Bochkov VN, Tkachuk VA, Erne P and Niermann T

    Laboratory for Cardiovascular Research, Department of Research, Basel University Hospital, CH 4031, Basel, Switzerland. therese-j.resink@unibas.ch

    T-cadherin (T-cad) is an unusual glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored member of the cadherin family of cell adhesion molecules. Binding of low density lipoproteins (LDLs) to T-cad can be demonstrated on Western blots of smooth muscle cell lysates, membranes and purified proteins. Using HEK293 cells transfected with human T-cad cDNA (T-cad+), we have investigated the adhesion properties of expressed mature and precursor proteins and examined the postulate that LDL represents a physiologically relevant ligand for T-cad. T-cad+ exhibits an increased Ca(2+)-dependent aggregation (vs. control) that was reduced by selective proteolytic cleavage of precursor T-cad and abolished after either proteolytic or phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) cleavage of both mature and precursor proteins, indicating that both proteins function in intercellular adhesion. T-cad+ exhibited a significantly increased specific cell surface-binding of [(125)I]-LDL that was sensitive to PI-PLC pre-treatment of cells. Ca(2+)-dependent intercellular adhesion of T-cad+ was significantly inhibited by LDL. Our results support the suggestion that LDL is a physiologically relevant ligand for T-cad.

    FEBS letters 1999;463;1-2;29-34

  • The H-cadherin (CDH13) gene is inactivated in human lung cancer.

    Sato M, Mori Y, Sakurada A, Fujimura S and Horii A

    Department of Molecular Pathology, Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan.

    We have previously reported frequent allelic loss in chromosome bands 16q24.1-q24.2 in human lung cancer. Since the H-cadherin (CDH13) gene has been isolated and mapped to this common region of allelic loss, we have investigated this gene in human lung cancer. The reverse transcription/polymerase chain reaction technique has revealed the loss of expression in four (57%) of seven lung cancer cell lines. To study the CDH13 gene further, we have analyzed deletions, genetic alterations, and methylation status at the 5' region of this gene. Three (75%) of four cell lines that have lost expression show a deletion of the CDH13 locus accompanied by hypermethylation of the remaining allele. Moreover, hypermethylation has been observed in nine (45%) of 20 primary lung cancers. These results suggest that a combination of deletion and hypermethylation causes inactivation of the CDH13 gene in a considerable number of human lung cancers.

    Human genetics 1998;103;1;96-101

  • T-cadherin and signal-transducing molecules co-localize in caveolin-rich membrane domains of vascular smooth muscle cells.

    Philippova MP, Bochkov VN, Stambolsky DV, Tkachuk VA and Resink TJ

    Laboratory of Molecular Endocrinology, Institute of Experimental Cardiology, Cardiology Research Center, Moscow, Russia.

    Cadherins are a family of cellular adhesion proteins mediating homotypic cell-cell binding. In contrast to classical cadherins, T-cadherin does not possess the transmembrane and cytosolic domains known to be essential for tight mechanical coupling of cells, and is instead attached to the cell membrane by a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor. This study explores the hypothesis that T-cadherin might function as a signal-transducing protein. Membranes from human and rat vascular smooth muscle cells were fractionated using Triton X-100 solubilization and density gradient centrifugation techniques. We demonstrate that T-cadherin is enriched in a minor detergent-insoluble low-density membrane domain and co-distributes with caveolin, a marker of caveolae. This domain was enriched in other GPI-anchored proteins (CD-59, uPA receptor) and signal-transducing molecules (G alpha s protein and Src-family kinases), but completely excluded cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion molecules (N-cadherin and beta1-integrin). Coupling of T-cadherin with signalling molecules within caveolae might enable cellular signal transduction.

    FEBS letters 1998;429;2;207-10

  • Localization of human cadherin genes to chromosome regions exhibiting cancer-related loss of heterozygosity.

    Kremmidiotis G, Baker E, Crawford J, Eyre HJ, Nahmias J and Callen DF

    Department of Cytogenetics and Molecular Genetics, Women's and Children's Hospital, North Adelaide, South Australia, Australia.

    This report presents the chromosomal localization of cadherin genes. Cadherins are cellular adhesion molecules. Since disturbance of intracellular adhesion is important for invasion and metastasis of tumor cells, cadherins are considered prime candidates for tumor suppressor genes. A variety of solid tumors show loss of heterozygosity of the long arm of chromosome 16, which is indicative of the potential location of tumor suppressor genes. Refined and new localizations of six cadherin genes (CDH3, 5, 8, 11, 13, and 15) to the long arm of chromosome 16 are shown. CDH15 was localized to 16q24.3, in a region that exhibits loss of heterozygosity in a number of sporadic breast cancer tumors. Previous localization of CDH13 (H-cadherin) to 16q24 suggested this gene as a tumor suppressor candidate in the 16q24.3 loss of heterozygosity region; however, refined mapping presented in this report localizes CDH13 proximal to this region. A human EST homologous to the chicken cadherin-7 was partially sequenced and found to represent a new human cadherin. This cadherin mapped to chromosome 18q22-q23, a region that exhibits loss of heterozygosity in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. CDH16 was localized to 8q22.1, a region exhibiting loss of heterozygosity in adult acute myeloid leukemia.

    Genomics 1998;49;3;467-71

  • Identification of an atypical lipoprotein-binding protein from human aortic smooth muscle as T-cadherin.

    Tkachuk VA, Bochkov VN, Philippova MP, Stambolsky DV, Kuzmenko ES, Sidorova MV, Molokoedov AS, Spirov VG and Resink TJ

    Laboratory of Molecular Endocrinology, Institute of Experimental Cardiology, Cardiology Research Center, Moscow, Russia.

    We have previously described an atypical lipoprotein-binding protein of about 105 kDa (p105) in membranes of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) that is distinct from currently known lipoprotein receptors. In the present work we have developed a procedure for purification of p105 from human aortic media. Partial sequencing of purified protein has revealed identity of p105 with human T-cadherin. Anti-peptide antisera raised against human T-cadherin recognized a protein spot corresponding to the purified p105 on two-dimensional Western blots. The antisera also inhibited LDL binding to p105 on ligand blots. We conclude that the 105 kDa lipoprotein-binding protein present in human VSMCs is T-cadherin, an unusual glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored member of the cadherin family of cell-cell adhesion proteins.

    FEBS letters 1998;421;3;208-12

  • A GT dinucleotide repeat polymorphism in intron 1 of the H-cadherin (CDH13) gene.

    Sato M, Mori Y, Sakurada A, Fujimura S and Horii A

    Department of Molecular Pathology, Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan.

    A polymorphic dinucleotide (GT) repeat sequence was isolated from a genomic clone containing the human H-cadherin (CDH13) gene at 16q24.1-q24.2. This polymorphic marker will be a useful tool in the genetic study of various cancers.

    Journal of human genetics 1998;43;4;285-6

  • Vascular endothelial cadherin (VE-cadherin): cloning and role in endothelial cell-cell adhesion.

    Ali J, Liao F, Martens E and Muller WA

    Department of Cell Physiology and Immunology, Rockefeller University, New York, USA.

    Objective: To identify proteins responsible for intercellular junction integrity in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), we produced a monoclonal antibody that recognized an endothelial cell-specific, junctionally restricted protein. We characterized and cloned the antigen to study its functional properties.

    Methods: The size and cellular distribution of the antigen were determined by immunofluorescence and immunoprecipitation. The molecule was cloned and transfected into cell lines, and its role in cell-cell adhesion and growth rate was determined.

    Results: Monoclonal antibody hec1 recognizes VE-cadherin, an endothelial cell-restricted cell adhesion molecule. VE-cadherin is localized to the borders between apposing endothelial cells but is diffusely distributed on subconfluent or migrating cells. Transfection of fibroblasts with VE-cadherin imparts to them the ability to adhere to each other in a calcium-dependent homophilic manner. Expression of VE-cadherin over a several-log range does not change the growth rate of these cells.

    Conclusions: Despite the fact that VE-cadherin is a "nonclassical" cadherin by structure, it functions as a classic cadherin by imparting to cells the ability to adhere in a calcium-dependent, homophilic manner. On HUVEC it appears to play a role in maintaining monolayer integrity.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL09393, HL46849

    Microcirculation (New York, N.Y. : 1994) 1997;4;2;267-77

  • H-cadherin, a novel cadherin with growth inhibitory functions and diminished expression in human breast cancer.

    Lee SW

    Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

    A newly identified gene, H-cadherin, is reported. H-cadherin encodes a protein related to the cadherin superfamily of cell adhesion molecules, and its expression is shown to be significantly reduced in human breast carcinoma cell lines and breast cancer specimens. H-cadherin was localized to chromosome 16q24 and is highly expressed in the heart. Introduction of H-cadherin cDNA markedly diminished tumor cell growth and resulted in a significant change from invasive morphology to a normal cell-like morphology in the Matrigel outgrowth assay. These studies indicate that downregulation of H-cadherin may be frequent in the breast malignant progression and suggest that it may have prognostic value as a marker for breast cancer development.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: 1R01 CA 66271-01; NIA NIH HHS: AG 08812

    Nature medicine 1996;2;7;776-82

  • E-cadherin and APC compete for the interaction with beta-catenin and the cytoskeleton.

    Hülsken J, Birchmeier W and Behrens J

    Max-Delbrück-Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin, Germany.

    beta-Catenin is involved in the formation of adherens junctions of mammalian epithelia. It interacts with the cell adhesion molecule E-cadherin and also with the tumor suppressor gene product APC, and the Drosophila homologue of beta-catenin, armadillo, mediates morphogenetic signals. We demonstrate here that E-cadherin and APC directly compete for binding to the internal, armadillo-like repeats of beta-catenin; the NH2-terminal domain of beta-catenin mediates the interaction of the alternative E-cadherin and APC complexes to the cytoskeleton by binding to alpha-catenin. Plakoglobin (gamma-catenin), which is structurally related to beta-catenin, mediates identical interactions. We thus show that the APC tumor suppressor gene product forms strikingly similar associations as found in cell junctions and suggest that beta-catenin and plakoglobin are central regulators of cell adhesion, cytoskeletal interaction, and tumor suppression.

    The Journal of cell biology 1994;127;6 Pt 2;2061-9

  • Cloning of five human cadherins clarifies characteristic features of cadherin extracellular domain and provides further evidence for two structurally different types of cadherin.

    Tanihara H, Sano K, Heimark RL, St John T and Suzuki S

    Doheny Eye Institute, Los Angeles, CA 90033.

    The entire coding sequences for five possible human cadherins, named cadherin-4, -8, -11, -12 and -13, were determined. The deduced amino acid sequences of cadherin-4 and cadherin-13 showed high homology with those of chicken R-cadherin or chicken T-cadherin, suggesting that cadherin-4 and cadherin-13 are mammalian homologues of the chicken R-cadherin or T-cadherin. Comparison of the extracellular domain of these proteins with those of other cadherins and cadherin-related proteins clarifies characteristic structural features of this domain. The domain is subdivided into five subdomains, each of which contains a cadherin-specific motif characterized by well-conserved amino acid residues and short amino acid sequences. Moreover, each subdomain has unique features of its own. The comparison also provides additional evidence for two structurally different types of cadherins: the first type includes B-, E-, EP-, M, N-, P- and R-cadherins and cadherin-4; the second type includes cadherin-5 through cadherin-12. Cadherin-13 lacks the sequence corresponding to the cytoplasmic domain of typical cadherins, but the extracellular domain shares most of the features common to the extracellular domain of cadherins, especially those of the first type of cadherins, suggesting that cadherin-13 is a special type of cadherin. These results, and those of other recent cloning studies, indicate that many cadherins with different properties are expressed in various tissues of different organisms.

    Funded by: NEI NIH HHS: EY08106

    Cell adhesion and communication 1994;2;1;15-26

  • Diversity of the cadherin family: evidence for eight new cadherins in nervous tissue.

    Suzuki S, Sano K and Tanihara H

    Department of Ophthalmology, University of Southern California, School of Medicine, Los Angeles 90033.

    To examine the diversity of the cadherin family, we isolated cDNAs from brain and retina cDNA preparations with the aid of polymerase chain reaction. The products obtained included cDNAs for two of three known cadherins as well as eight distinct cDNAs, of which deduced amino acid sequences show significant similarity with the known cadherin sequences. Larger cDNA clones were isolated from human cDNA libraries for six of the eight new molecules. The deduced amino acid sequences show that the overall structure of these molecules is very similar to that of the known cadherins, indicating that these molecules are new members of the cadherin family. We have tentatively designated these cadherins as cadherin-4 through -11. The new molecules, with the exception of cadherin-4, exhibit features that distinguish them as a group from previously cloned cadherins; they may belong to a new subfamily of cadherins. Northern blot analysis showed that most of these cadherins are expressed mainly in brain, although some are expressed in other tissues as well. These findings show that the cadherin family of adhesion molecules is much larger than previously thought, and suggest that the new cadherins may play an important role in cell-cell interactions within the central nervous system.

    Funded by: NEI NIH HHS: EY-08106

    Cell regulation 1991;2;4;261-70

Gene lists (6)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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