G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
opioid binding protein/cell adhesion molecule-like
G00000643 (Mus musculus)

Databases (7)

ENSG00000183715 (Ensembl human gene)
4978 (Entrez Gene)
1076 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
OPCML (GeneCards)
600632 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:8143 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
Q14982 (UniProt)

Synonyms (3)

  • IGLON1
  • OPCM

Literature (20)

Pubmed - other

  • Loci at chromosomes 13, 19 and 20 influence age at natural menopause.

    Stolk L, Zhai G, van Meurs JB, Verbiest MM, Visser JA, Estrada K, Rivadeneira F, Williams FM, Cherkas L, Deloukas P, Soranzo N, de Keyzer JJ, Pop VJ, Lips P, Lebrun CE, van der Schouw YT, Grobbee DE, Witteman J, Hofman A, Pols HA, Laven JS, Spector TD and Uitterlinden AG

    Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

    We conducted a genome-wide association study for age at natural menopause in 2,979 European women and identified six SNPs in three loci associated with age at natural menopause: chromosome 19q13.4 (rs1172822; -0.4 year per T allele (39%); P = 6.3 × 10(-11)), chromosome 20p12.3 (rs236114; +0.5 year per A allele (21%); P = 9.7 × 10(-11)) and chromosome 13q34 (rs7333181; +0.5 year per A allele (12%); P = 2.5 × 10(-8)). These common genetic variants regulate timing of ovarian aging, an important risk factor for breast cancer, osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease.

    Funded by: Wellcome Trust: 077011

    Nature genetics 2009;41;6;645-7

  • OPCML is a broad tumor suppressor for multiple carcinomas and lymphomas with frequently epigenetic inactivation.

    Cui Y, Ying Y, van Hasselt A, Ng KM, Yu J, Zhang Q, Jin J, Liu D, Rhim JS, Rha SY, Loyo M, Chan AT, Srivastava G, Tsao GS, Sellar GC, Sung JJ, Sidransky D and Tao Q

    State Key Laboratory in Oncology in South China, Sir YK Pao Center for Cancer, Department of Clinical Oncology, Hong Kong Cancer Institute, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.

    Background: Identification of tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) silenced by CpG methylation uncovers the molecular mechanism of tumorigenesis and potential tumor biomarkers. Loss of heterozygosity at 11q25 is common in multiple tumors including nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). OPCML, located at 11q25, is one of the downregulated genes we identified through digital expression subtraction.

    Semi-quantitative RT-PCR showed frequent OPCML silencing in NPC and other common tumors, with no homozygous deletion detected by multiplex differential DNA-PCR. Instead, promoter methylation of OPCML was frequently detected in multiple carcinoma cell lines (nasopharyngeal, esophageal, lung, gastric, colon, liver, breast, cervix, prostate), lymphoma cell lines (non-Hodgkin and Hodgkin lymphoma, nasal NK/T-cell lymphoma) and primary tumors, but not in any non-tumor cell line and seldom weakly methylated in normal epithelial tissues. Pharmacological and genetic demethylation restored OPCML expression, indicating a direct epigenetic silencing. We further found that OPCML is stress-responsive, but this response is epigenetically impaired when its promoter becomes methylated. Ecotopic expression of OPCML led to significant inhibition of both anchorage-dependent and -independent growth of carcinoma cells with endogenous silencing.

    Thus, through functional epigenetics, we identified OPCML as a broad tumor suppressor, which is frequently inactivated by methylation in multiple malignancies.

    Funded by: Medical Research Council: G9826762, G9900837

    PloS one 2008;3;8;e2990

  • OPCML gene promoter methylation and gene expression in tumor and stroma cells of invasive cervical carcinoma.

    Ye F, Zhang SF, Xie X and Lu WG

    Women's Reproductive Health Laboratory of Zhejiang Province, Women's Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

    To investigate the CpG island methylation and the mRNA expression of OPCML gene in patients with cervical carcinoma, we collected tumor and stroma cells from 36 invasive cervical carcinoma samples and 16 normal cervical tissues as well as Hela cells. Methylation specific PCR was used to detect promoter CpG island methylation status, and fluorescence quantitative RT-PCR was used to detection of OPCML gene expression. Our data showed that OPCML gene promoter methylation may play an important role in the carcinogenesis of cervical carcinoma and OPCML gene may be a cervical carcinoma-associated candidate TSG (tumor suppressor gene).

    Cancer investigation 2008;26;6;569-74

  • Identification of a panel of sensitive and specific DNA methylation markers for lung adenocarcinoma.

    Tsou JA, Galler JS, Siegmund KD, Laird PW, Turla S, Cozen W, Hagen JA, Koss MN and Laird-Offringa IA

    Norris Cancer Center and Department of Surgery and of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089-9176, USA. tsouwhat@gmail.com

    Background: Lung cancer is the number one cancer killer of both men and women in the United States. Three quarters of lung cancer patients are diagnosed with regionally or distantly disseminated disease; their 5-year survival is only 15%. DNA hypermethylation at promoter CpG islands shows great promise as a cancer-specific marker that would complement visual lung cancer screening tools such as spiral CT, improving early detection. In lung cancer patients, such hypermethylation is detectable in a variety of samples ranging from tumor material to blood and sputum. To date the penetrance of DNA methylation at any single locus has been too low to provide great clinical sensitivity. We used the real-time PCR-based method MethyLight to examine DNA methylation quantitatively at twenty-eight loci in 51 primary human lung adenocarcinomas, 38 adjacent non-tumor lung samples, and 11 lung samples from non-lung cancer patients.

    Results: We identified thirteen loci showing significant differential DNA methylation levels between tumor and non-tumor lung; eight of these show highly significant hypermethylation in adenocarcinoma: CDH13, CDKN2A EX2, CDX2, HOXA1, OPCML, RASSF1, SFPR1, and TWIST1 (p-value < 0.0001). Using the current tissue collection and 5-fold cross validation, the four most significant loci (CDKN2A EX2, CDX2, HOXA1 and OPCML) individually distinguish lung adenocarcinoma from non-cancer lung with a sensitivity of 67-86% and specificity of 74-82%. DNA methylation of these loci did not differ significantly based on gender, race, age or tumor stage, indicating their wide applicability as potential lung adenocarcinoma markers. We applied random forests to determine a good classifier based on a subset of our loci and determined that combined use of the same four top markers allows identification of lung cancer tissue from non-lung cancer tissue with 94% sensitivity and 90% specificity.

    Conclusion: The identification of eight CpG island loci showing highly significant hypermethylation in lung adenocarcinoma provides strong candidates for evaluation in patient remote media such as plasma and sputum. The four most highly ranked loci, CDKN2A EX2, CDX2, HOXA1 and OPCML, which show significant DNA methylation even in stage IA tumor samples, merit further investigation as some of the most promising lung adenocarcinoma markers identified to date.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R01 CA119029, R21 CA102247

    Molecular cancer 2007;6;70

  • Expression of cellular adhesion molecule 'OPCML' is down-regulated in gliomas and other brain tumours.

    Reed JE, Dunn JR, du Plessis DG, Shaw EJ, Reeves P, Gee AL, Warnke PC, Sellar GC, Moss DJ and Walker C

    JK Douglas Laboratories, Clatterbridge Hospital, Wirral, UK.

    The four GPI-anchored cell adhesion molecules that exemplify the IgLON family are most highly expressed in the nervous system and associate to form up to six different heterodimeric 'Diglons' that can modify cell adhesion and inhibit axon migration. Recently, two members, OPCML and LSAMP, were identified as putative tumour suppressor genes in ovarian and renal carcinomas respectively. In this study, we investigated OPCML expression in nonneoplastic brain tissue and 35 brain tumours (18 glioblastoma multiformes, five anaplastic gliomas, five meningiomas, six metastases and one medulloblastoma) and four glioma cell lines using quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). OPCML was highly expressed in cerebellum, less so in cerebral cortex, frontal lobe and meninges and was significantly reduced or absent in 83% of brain tumours and all cell lines compared with nonneoplastic whole brain. Two OPCML splice variants have been identified in humans, termed alpha1 and alpha2, but the latter has not been demonstrated in human neural tissues. Using PCR with specific primers, nonneoplastic brain and 3/6 of tested brain tumours expressed both splice variants, whereas the remaining brain tumours only expressed the alpha2 variant. Hypermethylation of the alpha1 OPCML promoter, associated with down-regulation of expression in ovarian tumours, did not correlate with expression levels in the subset of brain tumours tested, implying transcription of OPCML from an alternative promoter or a different mechanism of down-regulation. This study demonstrates that OPCML down-regulation occurs in the majority of brain tumours tested, warranting further investigation of OPCML and other IgLONs in the development and progression of brain tumours.

    Neuropathology and applied neurobiology 2007;33;1;77-85

  • Loss of OPCML expression and the correlation with CpG island methylation and LOH in ovarian serous carcinoma.

    Chen H, Ye F, Zhang J, Lu W, Cheng Q and Xie X

    Women's Reproductive Health Laboratory of Zhejiang Province, Women's Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

    Purpose: To detect the expression of OPCML in ovarian serous carcinoma and investigate the correlation with CpG island methylation and LOH of OPCML.

    Methods: 20 normal tissues, 75 ovarian serous tumors, three cell lines, SKOV-3, CAOV3 and 3AO, were detected in OPCML expression by RT-PCR, CpG island methylation by methylation-sensitive restriction enzyme-PCR, and LOH analysis at four microsatellite marks (D11S4085, D11S1320, D11S874 and D11S969).

    Results: Loss of OPCML expression in ovarian serous carcinomas was significantly higher than in ovarian adenomas and normal tissues. OPCML expression was detectable in 3AO, but not in SKOV-3 and CAOV3. CpG island methylation was found in 53.4% of the carcinomas, while in none of the adenomas or normal tissues. Meanwhile, CpG island methylation was detectable in SKOV-3 and CAOV3, but not in 3AO. The correlation between CpG island methylation and loss of OPCML expression was found in carcinomas. The LOH rate at D11S4085 in carcinomas was significantly higher than that for adenomas and normal tissues. LOH at D11S4085 was also correlated with loss of OPCML expression.

    Conclusions: These results indicate that loss of OPCML expression occurs frequently in ovarian serous carcinoma. CpG island methylation and LOH are probably two mechanisms of OPCML inactivation.

    European journal of gynaecological oncology 2007;28;6;464-7

  • Comparison of gene expression profiles between primary tumor and metastatic lesions in gastric cancer patients using laser microdissection and cDNA microarray.

    Wang L, Zhu JS, Song MQ, Chen GQ and Chen JL

    Department of Gastroenterology, Sixth People's Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200233, China.

    Aim: To study the differential gene expression profiles of target cells in primary gastric cancer and its metastatic lymph nodes using laser microdissection (LMD) in combination with cDNA microarray.

    Methods: Normal gastric tissue samples from 30 healthy individuals, 36 cancer tissue samples from primary gastric carcinoma and lymph node metastasis tissue samples from 58 patients during gastric cancer resection were obtained using LMD in combination with cDNA microarray independently. After P27-based amplification, aRNA from 36 of 58 patients (group 1) with lymph node metastasis and metastatic tissue specimens from the remaining 22 patients (group 2) were applied to cDNA microarray. Semiquantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemical assay verified the results of microarray in group 2 and further identified genes differentially expressed in the progression of gastric cancer.

    Results: The expression of 10 genes was up-regulated while the expression of 15 genes was down-regulated in 22 gastric carcinoma samples compared with that of genes in the normal controls. The results were confirmed at the level of mRNA and protein, and suggested that four genes (OPCML, RNASE1, YES1 and ACK1) could play a key role in the tumorigenesis and metastasis of gastric cancer. The expression pattern of 3 genes (OPCML, RNASE1 and YES1) was similar to tumor suppressor genes. For example, the expression level of these genes was the highest in normal gastric epithelium, which was decreased in primary carcinoma, and further decreased in metastatic lymph nodes. On the contrary, the expression pattern of gene ACK1 was similar to that of oncogene. Four genes were further identified as differentially expressed genes in the majority of the cases in the progression of gastric cancer.

    Conclusion: LMD in combination with cDNA microarray provides a unique support foe the identification of early expression profiles of differential genes and the expression pattern of 3 genes (OPCML, RNASE1 and YES1) associated with the progression of gastric cancer. Further study is needed to reveal the molecular mechanism of lymph node metastasis in patients with gastric cancer.

    World journal of gastroenterology 2006;12;43;6949-54

  • Opioid-binding protein/cell adhesion molecule-like (OPCML) gene and promoter methylation status in women with ovarian cancer.

    Czekierdowski A, Czekierdowska S, Szymanski M, Wielgos M, Kaminski P and Kotarski J

    1st Department of Gynecology of the Medical University in Lublin, Poland. ginonkol@am.lublin.pl

    Objective: The expression profile of the OPMCL gene was studied to find out if there was any evidence of a CpG island methylator phenotype and if there was an association of CpG island methylation with the gene downregulation in women with ovarian cancer.

    Expression of OPCML in 43 ovarian cancer tumor samples and in 4 normal ovaries was determined by RT-PCR. Methylation status of OPCML promoter region was studied with methylation-specific PCR (MSP) method. Possible associations with selected clinicopathologic variables: FIGO stage, histological grade, patient's age and menopausal status were tested.

    Results: In all normal ovarian samples OPCML mRNA was present, but it was not detectable in 24 of 43 ovarian cancer cases. We have not found the relationship between age and menopausal status with the presence of RTPCR product of OPCML. Hypermethylation of OPCML was not correlated to FIGO stage, however, in 80% of cases with methylated OPCML early clinical stage was also present. Tumor grading and histological type had no significant influence on the presence of hypermethylation of OPCML gene. In 20 of 43 cases of ovarian cancer methylated product of MSP amplification was present. In a group of OPCMLmRNA-negative tumors there were 75% of cases with hypermethylated exon of OPCML and the correlation between these variables was statistically significant (chi2 =17.7; p=0,00003). No promoter hypermethylation of the studied gene was found in normal ovaries.

    Conclusions: Reduced OPCMPL gene expression in ovarian cancer in comparison to normal ovaries could be related to the hypermethylation of promoter region. This epigenetic alteration may be the reason of gene silencing and the loss of suppressor function.

    Neuro endocrinology letters 2006;27;5;609-13

  • RAS-mediated epigenetic inactivation of OPCML in oncogenic transformation of human ovarian surface epithelial cells.

    Mei FC, Young TW, Liu J and Cheng X

    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Sealy Center for Cancer Cell Biology, School of Medicine, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas 77555-1031, USA.

    Opioid binding protein/cell adhesion molecule-like gene (OPCML), a recently identified tumor-suppressor, is frequently inactivated by allele loss and CpG island promoter methylation in epithelial ovarian cancer. Since elevated activation of the RAS signaling pathway, including overexpression of HER-2/neu and mutations of RAS and BRAF, is common in human ovarian carcinoma, we examined the cellular effect of oncogenic RAS on the expression status of OPCML in a genetically defined human ovarian cancer model. Our study revealed that RAS(V12)-mediated oncogenic transformation was accompanied by a concomitant loss of OPCML expression. Methylation-sensitive PCR analysis showed that the OPCML promoter was hypermethylated in RAS-transformed human ovarian epithelial cells (T29H) and that treatment with the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 5'-aza-2'-deoxycytidine promoted demethylation of the OPCML promoter and restored OPCML expression in T29H cells. Furthermore, suppression of oncogenic RAS activity by stable siRNA specific for HRAS(V12) led to the demethylation and re-expression of OPCML in T29H cells, demonstrating that oncogenic RAS activity is directly responsible for the observed OPCML promoter hypermethylation and epigenetic gene silencing of OPCML. Taken together, our study suggests that elevation of the RAS signaling pathway may play an important role in epigenetic inactivation of OPCML in human epithelial ovarian cancer.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM060170

    FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology 2006;20;3;497-9

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • Time-controlled transcardiac perfusion cross-linking for the study of protein interactions in complex tissues.

    Schmitt-Ulms G, Hansen K, Liu J, Cowdrey C, Yang J, DeArmond SJ, Cohen FE, Prusiner SB and Baldwin MA

    Institute for Neurodegenerative Disease, San Francisco, California 94143, USA. g.schmittulms@utoronto.ca

    Because of their sensitivity to solubilizing detergents, membrane protein assemblies are difficult to study. We describe a protocol that covalently conserves protein interactions through time-controlled transcardiac perfusion cross-linking (tcTPC) before disruption of tissue integrity. To validate tcTPC for identifying protein-protein interactions, we established that tcTPC allowed stringent immunoaffinity purification of the gamma-secretase complex in high salt concentrations and detergents and was compatible with mass spectrometric identification of cross-linked aph-1, presenilin-1 and nicastrin. We then applied tcTPC to identify more than 20 proteins residing in the vicinity of the cellular prion protein (PrPC), suggesting that PrP is embedded in specialized membrane regions with a subset of molecules that, like PrP, use a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor for membrane attachment. Many of these proteins have been implicated in cell adhesion/neuritic outgrowth, and harbor immunoglobulin C2 and fibronectin type III-like motifs.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: NCRR RR01614; NIA NIH HHS: AG010770, AG02132

    Nature biotechnology 2004;22;6;724-31

  • Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.

    Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, Otsuki T, Sugiyama T, Irie R, Wakamatsu A, Hayashi K, Sato H, Nagai K, Kimura K, Makita H, Sekine M, Obayashi M, Nishi T, Shibahara T, Tanaka T, Ishii S, Yamamoto J, Saito K, Kawai Y, Isono Y, Nakamura Y, Nagahari K, Murakami K, Yasuda T, Iwayanagi T, Wagatsuma M, Shiratori A, Sudo H, Hosoiri T, Kaku Y, Kodaira H, Kondo H, Sugawara M, Takahashi M, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Furuya T, Kikkawa E, Omura Y, Abe K, Kamihara K, Katsuta N, Sato K, Tanikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ninomiya K, Ishibashi T, Yamashita H, Murakawa K, Fujimori K, Tanai H, Kimata M, Watanabe M, Hiraoka S, Chiba Y, Ishida S, Ono Y, Takiguchi S, Watanabe S, Yosida M, Hotuta T, Kusano J, Kanehori K, Takahashi-Fujii A, Hara H, Tanase TO, Nomura Y, Togiya S, Komai F, Hara R, Takeuchi K, Arita M, Imose N, Musashino K, Yuuki H, Oshima A, Sasaki N, Aotsuka S, Yoshikawa Y, Matsunawa H, Ichihara T, Shiohata N, Sano S, Moriya S, Momiyama H, Satoh N, Takami S, Terashima Y, Suzuki O, Nakagawa S, Senoh A, Mizoguchi H, Goto Y, Shimizu F, Wakebe H, Hishigaki H, Watanabe T, Sugiyama A, Takemoto M, Kawakami B, Yamazaki M, Watanabe K, Kumagai A, Itakura S, Fukuzumi Y, Fujimori Y, Komiyama M, Tashiro H, Tanigami A, Fujiwara T, Ono T, Yamada K, Fujii Y, Ozaki K, Hirao M, Ohmori Y, Kawabata A, Hikiji T, Kobatake N, Inagaki H, Ikema Y, Okamoto S, Okitani R, Kawakami T, Noguchi S, Itoh T, Shigeta K, Senba T, Matsumura K, Nakajima Y, Mizuno T, Morinaga M, Sasaki M, Togashi T, Oyama M, Hata H, Watanabe M, Komatsu T, Mizushima-Sugano J, Satoh T, Shirai Y, Takahashi Y, Nakagawa K, Okumura K, Nagase T, Nomura N, Kikuchi H, Masuho Y, Yamashita R, Nakai K, Yada T, Nakamura Y, Ohara O, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Helix Research Institute, 1532-3 Yana, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0812, Japan.

    As a base for human transcriptome and functional genomics, we created the "full-length long Japan" (FLJ) collection of sequenced human cDNAs. We determined the entire sequence of 21,243 selected clones and found that 14,490 cDNAs (10,897 clusters) were unique to the FLJ collection. About half of them (5,416) seemed to be protein-coding. Of those, 1,999 clusters had not been predicted by computational methods. The distribution of GC content of nonpredicted cDNAs had a peak at approximately 58% compared with a peak at approximately 42%for predicted cDNAs. Thus, there seems to be a slight bias against GC-rich transcripts in current gene prediction procedures. The rest of the cDNAs unique to the FLJ collection (5,481) contained no obvious open reading frames (ORFs) and thus are candidate noncoding RNAs. About one-fourth of them (1,378) showed a clear pattern of splicing. The distribution of GC content of noncoding cDNAs was narrow and had a peak at approximately 42%, relatively low compared with that of protein-coding cDNAs.

    Nature genetics 2004;36;1;40-5

  • OPCML at 11q25 is epigenetically inactivated and has tumor-suppressor function in epithelial ovarian cancer.

    Sellar GC, Watt KP, Rabiasz GJ, Stronach EA, Li L, Miller EP, Massie CE, Miller J, Contreras-Moreira B, Scott D, Brown I, Williams AR, Bates PA, Smyth JF and Gabra H

    Cancer Research UK Edinburgh Oncology Unit, University of Edinburgh Cancer Research Centre, Crewe Road South, Edinburgh EH4 2XR, UK. grant.sellar@cancer.org.uk

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), the leading cause of death from gynecological malignancy, is a poorly understood disease. The typically advanced presentation of EOC with loco-regional dissemination in the peritoneal cavity and the rare incidence of visceral metastases are hallmarks of the disease. These features relate to the biology of the disease, which is a principal determinant of outcome. EOC arises as a result of genetic alterations sustained by the ovarian surface epithelium (OSE; ref. 3). The causes of these changes are unknown but are manifest by activation of oncogenes and inactivation of tumor-suppressor genes (TSGs). Our analysis of loss of heterozygosity at 11q25 identified OPCML (also called OBCAM), a member of the IgLON family of immunoglobulin (Ig) domain-containing glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored cell adhesion molecules, as a candidate TSG in EOC. OPCML is frequently somatically inactivated in EOC by allele loss and by CpG island methylation. OPCML has functional characteristics consistent with TSG properties both in vitro and in vivo. A somatic missense mutation from an individual with EOC shows clear evidence of loss of function. These findings suggest that OPCML is an excellent candidate for the 11q25 ovarian cancer TSG. This is the first description to our knowledge of the involvement of the IgLON family in cancer.

    Nature genetics 2003;34;3;337-43

  • Large-scale concatenation cDNA sequencing.

    Yu W, Andersson B, Worley KC, Muzny DM, Ding Y, Liu W, Ricafrente JY, Wentland MA, Lennon G and Gibbs RA

    A total of 100 kb of DNA derived from 69 individual human brain cDNA clones of 0.7-2.0 kb were sequenced by concatenated cDNA sequencing (CCS), whereby multiple individual DNA fragments are sequenced simultaneously in a single shotgun library. The method yielded accurate sequences and a similar efficiency compared with other shotgun libraries constructed from single DNA fragments (> 20 kb). Computer analyses were carried out on 65 cDNA clone sequences and their corresponding end sequences to examine both nucleic acid and amino acid sequence similarities in the databases. Thirty-seven clones revealed no DNA database matches, 12 clones generated exact matches (> or = 98% identity), and 16 clones generated nonexact matches (57%-97% identity) to either known human or other species genes. Of those 28 matched clones, 8 had corresponding end sequences that failed to identify similarities. In a protein similarity search, 27 clone sequences displayed significant matches, whereas only 20 of the end sequences had matches to known protein sequences. Our data indicate that full-length cDNA insert sequences provide significantly more nucleic acid and protein sequence similarity matches than expressed sequence tags (ESTs) for database searching.

    Funded by: NHGRI NIH HHS: 1F32 HG00169-01, F32 HG000169, F33 HG000210, P30 HG00210-05, R01 HG00823

    Genome research 1997;7;4;353-8

  • A "double adaptor" method for improved shotgun library construction.

    Andersson B, Wentland MA, Ricafrente JY, Liu W and Gibbs RA

    Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, Texas, 77030, USA.

    The efficiency of shotgun DNA sequencing depends to a great extent on the quality of the random-subclone libraries used. We here describe a novel "double adaptor" strategy for efficient construction of high-quality shotgun libraries. In this method, randomly sheared and end-repaired fragments are ligated to oligonucleotide adaptors creating 12-base overhangs. Nonphosphorylated oligonucleotides are used, which prevents formation of adaptor dimers and ensures efficient ligation of insert to adaptor. The vector is prepared from a modified M13 vector, by KpnI/PstI digestion followed by ligation to oligonucleotides with ends complementary to the overhangs created in the digest. These adaptors create 5'-overhangs complementary to those on the inserts. Following annealing of insert to vector, the DNA is directly used for transformation without a ligation step. This protocol is robust and shows three- to fivefold higher yield of clones compared to previous protocols. No chimeric clones can be detected and the background of clones without an insert is <1%. The procedure is rapid and shows potential for automation.

    Funded by: NHGRI NIH HHS: R01 HG00823

    Analytical biochemistry 1996;236;1;107-13

  • Cloning, sequencing and localization to chromosome 11 of a cDNA encoding a human opioid-binding cell adhesion molecule (OBCAM).

    Shark KB and Lee NM

    Department of Pharmacology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis 55455, USA.

    Oligodeoxyribonucleotide (oligo) primers derived from rat opioid-binding cell adhesion molecule (OBCAM)-encoding cDNA sequence were used to amplify a 403-bp fragment from a human brain cDNA library using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The fragment was cloned, sequenced and used as a hybridization probe to screen the library. lambda plaque clones were isolated which contained a 1.5-kb cDNA fragment, including a complete open reading frame (ORF) of 1038 bp. Sequence analysis of the ORF revealed 93% identity to the rat OBCAM cDNA at the nucleotide level, and the deduced amino-acid sequences shared 98% identity. Percentages of identity between human and bovine OBCAM ORFs were within 2% of these values. OBCAM was mapped to human chromosome 11 by hybridizing the probe with a somatic cell hybrid panel.

    Funded by: NIDA NIH HHS: DA-00020, DA-02643, DA-06011

    Gene 1995;155;2;213-7

  • Cloning of neurotrimin defines a new subfamily of differentially expressed neural cell adhesion molecules.

    Struyk AF, Canoll PD, Wolfgang MJ, Rosen CL, D'Eustachio P and Salzer JL

    Department of Cell Biology, New York University Medical School, New York 10016.

    Previous studies in the laboratory indicated that glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins may generate diversity of the cell surface of different neuronal populations (Rosen et al., 1992). In this study, we have extended these findings and surveyed the expression of GPI-anchored proteins in the developing rat CNS. In addition to several well characterized GPI-anchored cell adhesion molecules (CAMs), we detected an unidentified broad band of 65 kDa that is the earliest and most abundantly expressed GPI-anchored species in the rat CNS. Purification of this protein band revealed that it is comprised of several related proteins that define a novel subfamily of immunoglobulin-like (Ig) CAMs. One of these proteins is the opiate binding-cell adhesion molecule (OBCAM). We have isolated a cDNA encoding a second member of this family, that we have termed neurotrimin, and present evidence for the existence of additional family members. Like OBCAM, with which it shares extensive sequence identity, neurotrimin contains three immunoglobulin-like domains. Both proteins are encoded by distinct genes that may be clustered on the proximal end of mouse chromosome 9. Characterization of the expression of neurotrimin and OBCAM in the developing CNS by in situ hybridization reveals that these proteins are differentially expressed during development. Neurotrimin is expressed at high levels in several developing projection systems: in neurons of the thalamus, subplate, and lower cortical laminae in the forebrain and in the pontine nucleus, cerebellar granule cells, and Purkinje cells in the hindbrain. Neurotrimin is also expressed at high levels in the olfactory bulb, neural retina, dorsal root ganglia, spinal cord, and in a graded distribution in the basal ganglia and hippocampus. OBCAM has a much more restricted distribution, being expressed at high levels principally in the cortical plate and hippocampus. These results suggest that these proteins, together with other members of this family, provide diversity to the surfaces of different neuronal populations that could be important in the specification of neuronal connectivity.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: 5T32 GM07308; NINDS NIH HHS: NS 26001

    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 1995;15;3 Pt 2;2141-56

  • A sequence-tagged site map of human chromosome 11.

    Smith MW, Clark SP, Hutchinson JS, Wei YH, Churukian AC, Daniels LB, Diggle KL, Gen MW, Romo AJ, Lin Y et al.

    Molecular Genetics Laboratory, Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, California 92037.

    We report the construction of 370 sequence-tagged sites (STSs) that are detectable by PCR amplification under sets of standardized conditions and that have been regionally mapped to human chromosome 11. DNA sequences were determined by sequencing directly from cosmid templates using primers complementary to T3 and T7 promoters present in the cloning vector. Oligonucleotide PCR primers were predicted by computer and tested using a battery of genomic DNAs. Cosmids were regionally localized on chromosome 11 by using fluorescence in situ hybridization or by analyzing a somatic cell hybrid panel. Additional STSs corresponding to known genes and markers on chromosome 11 were also produced under the same series of standardized conditions. The resulting STSs provide uniform coverage of chromosome 11 with an average spacing of 340 kb. The DNA sequence determined for use in STS production corresponds to about 0.1% (116 kb) of chromosome 11 and has been analyzed for the presence of repetitive sequences, similarities to known genes and motifs, and possible exons. Computer analysis of this sequence has identified and therefore mapped at least eight new genes on chromosome 11.

    Funded by: NHGRI NIH HHS: HG00202

    Genomics 1993;17;3;699-725

  • Regulation of an opioid-binding protein in NG108-15 cells parallels regulation of delta-opioid receptors.

    Lane CM, Elde R, Loh HH and Lee NM

    Department of Pharmacology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis 55455.

    An opioid-binding protein has recently been purified from bovine brain and cloned, and its cDNA sequence has been obtained. Indirect evidence suggests that this protein has a role in opioid-receptor function. However, because direct testing of its function by expression of its cDNA has not yet been possible and because its structure bears no resemblance to G protein-coupled receptors, the role of this protein in opioid-receptor activity is still in question. An antibody raised to a portion of the predicted amino acid sequence of opioid-binding cell-adhesion molecule (OBCAM) specifically labeled the surface of NG108-15 cells, as visualized by immunofluorescence with confocal microscopy. Furthermore, chronic treatment of these cells with opioid agonist, which down-regulates opioid receptors, reduced OBCAM immunoreactivity (ir). Down-regulation of both opioid receptors and OBCAM-ir was greatest after chronic treatment of NG108-15 cells with delta-opioid agonists, as well as with nonselective agonists such as etorphine, whereas other agonists including [D-Ala2-N-MePhe4-Gly-ol]enkephalin, morphine, levorphanol, dynorphin A-(1-13), and U-50,488H were less effective or ineffective. Chronic treatment of NG108-15 cells with muscarinic agonists had no effect on OBCAM-ir. Furthermore, NG108-15 cells transfected with an antisense construct to OBCAM have a reduced density of opioid-binding sites as well as reduced OBCAM-ir. Taken together, these results strongly suggest that OBCAM has a role in opioid-receptor function in NG108-15 cells.

    Funded by: NIDA NIH HHS: DA-02643, DA-05695, DA-06299

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1992;89;23;11234-8

Gene lists (8)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000011 G2C Homo sapiens Human clathrin Human orthologues of mouse clathrin coated vesicle genes adapted from Collins et al (2006) 150
L00000012 G2C Homo sapiens Human Synaptosome Human orthologues of mouse synaptosome adapted from Collins et al (2006) 152
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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