G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
lin-7 homolog A (C. elegans)
G00000638 (Mus musculus)

Databases (7)

ENSG00000111052 (Ensembl human gene)
8825 (Entrez Gene)
1066 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
LIN7A (GeneCards)
603380 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:17787 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
O14910 (UniProt)

Synonyms (4)

  • LIN-7A
  • MALS-1
  • TIP-33
  • VELI1

Literature (20)

Pubmed - other

  • Defining the human deubiquitinating enzyme interaction landscape.

    Sowa ME, Bennett EJ, Gygi SP and Harper JW

    Department of Pathology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

    Deubiquitinating enzymes (Dubs) function to remove covalently attached ubiquitin from proteins, thereby controlling substrate activity and/or abundance. For most Dubs, their functions, targets, and regulation are poorly understood. To systematically investigate Dub function, we initiated a global proteomic analysis of Dubs and their associated protein complexes. This was accomplished through the development of a software platform called CompPASS, which uses unbiased metrics to assign confidence measurements to interactions from parallel nonreciprocal proteomic data sets. We identified 774 candidate interacting proteins associated with 75 Dubs. Using Gene Ontology, interactome topology classification, subcellular localization, and functional studies, we link Dubs to diverse processes, including protein turnover, transcription, RNA processing, DNA damage, and endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation. This work provides the first glimpse into the Dub interaction landscape, places previously unstudied Dubs within putative biological pathways, and identifies previously unknown interactions and protein complexes involved in this increasingly important arm of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway.

    Funded by: NIA NIH HHS: AG085011, R01 AG011085, R01 AG011085-16; NIDDK NIH HHS: K01 DK098285; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM054137, GM67945, R01 GM054137, R01 GM054137-14, R01 GM067945

    Cell 2009;138;2;389-403

  • Association study of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and LIN-7 homolog (LIN-7) genes with adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Lanktree M, Squassina A, Krinsky M, Strauss J, Jain U, Macciardi F, Kennedy JL and Muglia P

    Neurogenetics Section, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common psychiatric disorder with a large genetic component that has been shown to persist into adulthood in 30-60% of childhood ADHD cases. Adult ADHD confers an increased risk of ADHD in relatives when compared to childhood ADHD, possibly due to a greater genetic liability than the childhood form. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin expressed in the brain throughout life and is involved in survival, differentiation, and synaptic plasticity of several neuronal systems including dopaminergic pathways. Mammalian LIN-7 homolog is selectively expressed in specific neuronal populations and is involved in the postsynaptic density of neuronal synapses. LIN-7 is also a positional candidate, as it lies immediately downstream of BDNF. We tested for association between five BDNF polymorphisms, two LIN-7 polymorphisms and adult ADHD. The sample consisted of 80 trios comprised of an adult ADHD proband and their biological parents and an independent sample of 121 adult ADHD cases and a corresponding number of sex, age, and ethnically matched controls (total 201 probands). Allelic and haplotype association was found between both BDNF and adult ADHD, and LIN-7 and adult ADHD. HapMap indicates BDNF and LIN-7 occur in different haplotype blocks, though some linkage disequilibrium exists between the SNPs in these adjacent genes. Further investigations into the pathologic mechanisms of BDNF and LIN-7 in adult ADHD are required.

    American journal of medical genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric genetics : the official publication of the International Society of Psychiatric Genetics 2008;147B;6;945-51

  • The stardust family protein MPP7 forms a tripartite complex with LIN7 and DLG1 that regulates the stability and localization of DLG1 to cell junctions.

    Bohl J, Brimer N, Lyons C and Vande Pol SB

    Department of Pathology, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908, USA.

    MPP7, a previously uncharacterized member of the p55 Stardust family of membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK) proteins, was found in a tripartite complex with DLG1 and LIN7A or LIN7C. MPP7 dimerizes with all three LIN7 family members (LIN7A, -B, and -C) through interaction of the single L27 domain of LIN7 with the carboxyl-terminal L27 domain of MPP7, thereby stabilizing both proteins. The dimer of MPP7 with LIN7A or LIN7C associates with DLG1 through an interaction requiring the amino-terminal L27 domain of MPP7. The amino-terminal L27 domain of MPP7 is not sufficient for interaction with DLG1 but interacts efficiently only if MPP7 is in a complex with LIN7A or -C. Thus the specificity of interaction of DLG1 with the LIN7-MPP7 complex is determined by L27 interactions with both MPP7 and LIN7. The tripartite complex forms in a ratio of 1:1:1 and localizes to epithelial adherens junctions in a manner dependent upon MPP7. Expression of MPP7 stabilizes DLG1 in an insoluble compartment. Expression of MPP7 deleted of the PDZ or Src homology 3 domain redistributes MPP7, DLG1, and LIN7 out of adherens junctions and into the soluble cytoplasmic fraction without changing the localization of E-cadherin. Thus, the stability and localization of DLG1 to cell-cell junctions are complex functions determined by the expression and association of particular Stardust family members together with particular LIN7 family members.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA69292, CA80931, R01 CA069292, R01 CA069292-11, R01 CA120352, R01 CA120352-01A2

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2007;282;13;9392-400

  • Cell fate-specific regulation of EGF receptor trafficking during Caenorhabditis elegans vulval development.

    Stetak A, Hoier EF, Croce A, Cassata G, Di Fiore PP and Hajnal A

    Institute of Zoology, University of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland.

    By controlling the subcellular localization of growth factor receptors, cells can modulate the activity of intracellular signal transduction pathways. During Caenorhabditis elegans vulval development, a ternary complex consisting of the LIN-7, LIN-2 and LIN-10 PDZ domain proteins localizes the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) to the basolateral compartment of the vulval precursor cells (VPCs) to allow efficient receptor activation by the inductive EGF signal from the anchor cell. We have identified EGFR substrate protein-8 (EPS-8) as a novel component of the EGFR localization complex that links receptor trafficking to cell fate specification. EPS-8 expression is upregulated in the primary VPCs, where it creates a positive feedback loop in the EGFR/RAS/MAPK pathway. The membrane-associated guanylate kinase LIN-2 recruits EPS-8 into the receptor localization complex to retain the EGFR on the basolateral plasma membrane, and thus allow maximal receptor activation in the primary cell lineage. Low levels of EPS-8 in the neighboring secondary VPCs result in the rapid degradation of the EGFR, allowing these cells to adopt the secondary cell fate. Extracellular signals thus regulate EGFR trafficking in a cell type-specific manner to control pattern formation during organogenesis.

    The EMBO journal 2006;25;11;2347-57

  • Functional comparison between secretory pathway Ca2+/Mn2+-ATPase (SPCA) 1 and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA) 1 isoforms by steady-state and transient kinetic analyses.

    Dode L, Andersen JP, Raeymaekers L, Missiaen L, Vilsen B and Wuytack F

    Laboratory of Physiology, Catholic University of Leuven, Campus Gasthuisberg O/N, Herestraat 49, Bus 802, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium. leonard.dode@med.kuleuven.be

    Steady-state and transient kinetic studies were performed to functionally analyze the overall and partial reactions of the Ca(2+) transport cycle of the human secretory pathway Ca(2+)/Mn(2+)-ATPase 1 (SPCA1) isoforms: SPCA1a, SPCA1b, SPCA1c, and SPCA1d (encoded by ATP2C1, the gene defective in Hailey-Hailey disease) upon heterologous expression in mammalian cells. The expression levels of SPCA1 isoforms were 200-350-fold higher than in control cells except for SPCA1c, whose low expression level appears to be the effect of rapid degradation because of protein misfolding. Relative to SERCA1a, the active SPCA1a, SPCA1b, and SPCA1d enzymes displayed extremely high apparent affinities for cytosolic Ca(2+) in activation of the overall ATPase and phosphorylation activities. The maximal turnover rates of the ATPase activity for SPCA1 isoforms were 4.7-6.4-fold lower than that of SERCA1a (lowest for the shortest SPCA1a isoform). The kinetic analysis traced these differences to a decreased rate of the E(1) approximately P(Ca) to E(2)-P transition. The apparent affinity for inorganic phosphate was reduced in the SPCA1 enzymes. This could be accounted for by an enhanced rate of the E(2)-P hydrolysis, which showed constitutive activation, lacking the SERCA1a-specific dependence on pH and K(+).

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2005;280;47;39124-34

  • Differential localization of mammalian Lin-7 (MALS/Veli) PDZ proteins in the kidney.

    Olsen O, Wade JB, Morin N, Bredt DS and Welling PA

    Department of Physiology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA.

    Lin-7 PDZ proteins, also called MALS or Velis, have been shown to coordinate basolateral membrane expression of various target proteins in renal epithelial cell models. Three different Lin-7/MALS/Veli isoforms, encoded by separate genes, have been identified. Here, we show that each Lin-7/MALS/Veli isoform is expressed in the kidney. Using MALS isoform-specific antibodies in combination with cell-specific marker antibodies, we found the products of the three mammalian Lin-7/MALS/Veli genes are differentially expressed along the length of the nephron. MALS/Veli 1 is predominately expressed in the glomerulus, thick ascending limb of Henle's loop (TAL), and the distal convoluted tubule (DCT). MALS/Veli 2 is exclusively expressed in the vasa recta. MALS/Veli 3 is largely located in the DCT and collecting duct. The subcellular localization of MALS/Veli proteins can vary, depending on the isoform and the cell type. In contrast to the predominate basolateral location of MALS/Veli 1 in the TAL and DCT and MALS/Veli 3 in the DCT, MALS/Veli 1 is found diffusely throughout the cytosol of intercalated cells. In the collecting duct, MALS/Veli 3 is chiefly located on the basal membrane. Collectively, these results suggest that different MALS/Veli isoforms may carry out cell type-specific functions. The TAL and distal segments appear to have the most significant capacity for a basolateral membrane-targeting mechanism involving different MALS/Veli isoforms.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK-32839, DK-54231, DK-63049

    American journal of physiology. Renal physiology 2005;288;2;F345-52

  • Protein trafficking and anchoring complexes revealed by proteomic analysis of inward rectifier potassium channel (Kir2.x)-associated proteins.

    Leonoudakis D, Conti LR, Anderson S, Radeke CM, McGuire LM, Adams ME, Froehner SC, Yates JR and Vandenberg CA

    Department of Molecular, Cellular, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106, USA.

    Inward rectifier potassium (Kir) channels play important roles in the maintenance and control of cell excitability. Both intracellular trafficking and modulation of Kir channel activity are regulated by protein-protein interactions. We adopted a proteomics approach to identify proteins associated with Kir2 channels via the channel C-terminal PDZ binding motif. Detergent-solubilized rat brain and heart extracts were subjected to affinity chromatography using a Kir2.2 C-terminal matrix to purify channel-interacting proteins. Proteins were identified with multidimensional high pressure liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry, N-terminal microsequencing, and immunoblotting with specific antibodies. We identified eight members of the MAGUK family of proteins (SAP97, PSD-95, Chapsyn-110, SAP102, CASK, Dlg2, Dlg3, and Pals2), two isoforms of Veli (Veli-1 and Veli-3), Mint1, and actin-binding LIM protein (abLIM) as Kir2.2-associated brain proteins. From heart extract purifications, SAP97, CASK, Veli-3, and Mint1 also were found to associate with Kir2 channels. Furthermore, we demonstrate for the first time that components of the dystrophin-associated protein complex, including alpha1-, beta1-, and beta2-syntrophin, dystrophin, and dystrobrevin, interact with Kir2 channels, as demonstrated by immunoaffinity purification and affinity chromatography from skeletal and cardiac muscle and brain. Affinity pull-down experiments revealed that Kir2.1, Kir2.2, Kir2.3, and Kir4.1 all bind to scaffolding proteins but with different affinities for the dystrophin-associated protein complex and SAP97, CASK, and Veli. Immunofluorescent localization studies demonstrated that Kir2.2 co-localizes with syntrophin, dystrophin, and dystrobrevin at skeletal muscle neuromuscular junctions. These results suggest that Kir2 channels associate with protein complexes that may be important to target and traffic channels to specific subcellular locations, as well as anchor and stabilize channels in the plasma membrane.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: NS33145, NS43377

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2004;279;21;22331-46

  • A multiprotein trafficking complex composed of SAP97, CASK, Veli, and Mint1 is associated with inward rectifier Kir2 potassium channels.

    Leonoudakis D, Conti LR, Radeke CM, McGuire LM and Vandenberg CA

    Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, and Neuroscience Research Institute, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106, USA.

    Strong inward rectifier potassium (Kir2) channels are important in the control of cell excitability, and their functions are modulated by interactions with intracellular proteins. Here we identified a complex of scaffolding/trafficking proteins in brain that associate with Kir2.1, Kir2.2, and Kir2.3 channels. By using a combination of affinity interaction pulldown assays and co-immunoprecipitations from brain and transfected cells, we demonstrated that a complex composed of SAP97, CASK, Veli, and Mint1 associates with Kir2 channels via the C-terminal PDZ-binding motif. We further demonstrated by using in vitro protein interaction assays that SAP97, Veli-1, or Veli-3 binds directly to the Kir2.2 C terminus and recruits CASK. Co-immunoprecipitations indicated that specific Veli isoforms participate in forming distinct protein complexes in brain, where Veli-1 stably associates with CASK and SAP97, Veli-2 associates with CASK and Mint1, and Veli-3 associates with CASK, SAP97, and Mint1. Additionally, immunocytochemistry of rat cerebellum revealed overlapping expression of Kir2.2, SAP97, CASK, Mint1, with Veli-1 in the granule cell layer and Veli-3 in the molecular layer. We propose a model whereby Kir2.2 associates with distinct SAP97-CASK-Veli-Mint1 complexes. In one complex, SAP97 interacts directly with the Kir2 channels and recruits CASK, Veli, and Mint1. Alternatively, Veli-1 or Veli-3 interacts directly with the Kir2 channels and recruits CASK and SAP97; association of Mint1 with the complex requires Veli-3. Expression of Kir2.2 in polarized epithelial cells resulted in targeting of the channels to the basolateral membrane and co-localization with SAP97 and CASK, whereas a dominant interfering form of CASK caused the channels to mislocalize. Therefore, CASK appears to be a central protein of a macromolecular complex that participates in trafficking and plasma membrane localization of Kir2 channels.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: NS43377

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2004;279;18;19051-63

  • Alpha1-syntrophin modulates turnover of ABCA1.

    Munehira Y, Ohnishi T, Kawamoto S, Furuya A, Shitara K, Imamura M, Yokota T, Takeda S, Amachi T, Matsuo M, Kioka N and Ueda K

    Laboratory of Cellular Biochemistry, Division of Applied Life Sciences, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502, Japan.

    ABCA1 (ATP-binding cassette transporter A1) mediates the release of cellular cholesterol and phospholipid to form high density lipoprotein. Functions of ABCA1 are highly regulated at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels, and the synthesized ABCA1 protein turns over rapidly with a half-life of 1-2 h. To examine whether the functions of ABCA1 are modulated by associated proteins, a yeast two-hybrid library was screened with the C-terminal 120 amino acids of ABCA1. Two PDZ (PSD95-Discs large-ZO1) proteins, alpha1-syntrophin and Lin7, were found to interact with ABCA1. Immunoprecipitation revealed that alpha1-syntrophin interacted with ABCA1 strongly and that the interaction was via the C-terminal three amino acids SYV of ABCA1. Co-expression of alpha1-syntrophin in human embryonic kidney 293 cells retarded degradation of ABCA1 and made the half-life of ABCA1 five times longer than in the cells not expressing alpha1-syntrophin. This effect is not common among PDZ-containing proteins interacting with ABCA1, because Lin7, which was also found to interact with the C terminus region of ABCA1, did not have a significant effect on the half-life of ABCA1. Co-expression of alpha1-syntrophin significantly increased the apoA-I-mediated release of cholesterol. ABCA1 was co-immunoprecipitated with alpha1-syntrophin from mouse brain. These results suggest that alpha1-syntrophin is involved in intracellular signaling, which determines the stability of ABCA1 and modulates cellular cholesterol release.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2004;279;15;15091-5

  • MALS is a binding partner of IRSp53 at cell-cell contacts.

    Hori K, Konno D, Maruoka H and Sobue K

    Department of Neuroscience (D13), Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Yamadaoka 2-2, Suita City, Osaka, Japan.

    Insulin receptor substrate p53 (IRSp53) is a key player in cytoskeletal dynamics, interacting with the actin modulators WAVE2 and Mena. Here, we identified a PDZ protein, MALS, as an IRSp53-interacting protein using a yeast two-hybrid screen. A pull-down assay showed that IRSp53 and MALS interact through the PDZ domain of MALS and the C-terminal PDZ-binding sequence of IRSp53. Their interaction in MDCK cells was also demonstrated by co-immunoprecipitation. Immunocytochemistry showed the colocalization of IRSp53 and MALS at cell-cell contacts. Cytochalasin D induced the redistribution of both proteins to the cytosol. Thus, MALS is a partner of IRSp53 anchoring the actin-based membrane cytoskeleton at cell-cell contacts.

    FEBS letters 2003;554;1-2;30-4

  • Coordinated folding and association of the LIN-2, -7 (L27) domain. An obligate heterodimerization involved in assembly of signaling and cell polarity complexes.

    Harris BZ, Venkatasubrahmanyam S and Lim WA

    Program in Biological Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143-0450, USA.

    LIN-2, -7 (L27) homology domains are putative protein-protein interaction modules found in several scaffold proteins involved in the assembly of polarized cell-signaling structures. These specific interaction pairs are well conserved across metazoan species, from worms to man. We have expressed and purified L27 domains from multiple species and find that certain domains from proteins such as Caenorhabditis elegans LIN-2 and LIN-7 can specifically heterodimerize. Biophysical analysis of interacting L27 domains demonstrates that the domains interact with a 1:1 stoichiometry. Circular dichroism studies reveal that the domains appear to function as an obligate heterodimer; individually the domains are largely unfolded, but when associated they show a significant increase in helicity, as well as a cooperative unfolding transition. These novel obligate interacting pairs are likely to play a key role in regulating the organization of signaling proteins at polarized cell structures.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;38;34902-8

  • VAM-1: a new member of the MAGUK family binds to human Veli-1 through a conserved domain.

    Tseng TC, Marfatia SM, Bryant PJ, Pack S, Zhuang Z, O'Brien JE, Lin L, Hanada T and Chishti AH

    Section of Hematology-Oncology Research, Department of Medicine, St. Elizabeth's Medical Center, Tufts University School of Medicine, 736 Cambridge Street, Boston, MA 02135, USA.

    The MAGUKs (membrane-associated guanylate kinase homologues) constitute a family of peripheral membrane proteins that function in tumor suppression and receptor clustering by forming multiprotein complexes containing distinct sets of transmembrane, cytoskeletal, and cytoplasmic signaling proteins. Here, we report the characterization of the human vam-1 gene that encodes a novel member of the p55 subfamily of MAGUKs. The complete cDNA sequence of VAM-1, tissue distribution of its mRNA, genomic structure, chromosomal localization, and Veli-1 binding properties are presented. The vam-1 gene is composed of 12 exons and spans approx. 115 kb. By fluorescence in situ hybridization the vam-1 gene was localized to 7p15-21, a chromosome region frequently disrupted in some human cancers. VAM-1 mRNA was abundant in human testis, brain, and kidney with lower levels detectable in other tissues. The primary structure of VAM-1, predicted from cDNA sequencing, consists of 540 amino acids including a single PDZ domain near the N-terminus, a central SH3 domain, and a C-terminal GUK (guanylate kinase-like) domain. Sequence alignment, heterologous transfection, GST pull-down experiments, and blot overlay assays revealed a conserved domain in VAM-1 that binds to Veli-1, the human homologue of the LIN-7 adaptor protein in Caenorhabditis. LIN-7 is known to play an essential role in the basolateral localization of the LET-23 tyrosine kinase receptor, by linking the receptor to LIN-2 and LIN-10 proteins. Our results therefore suggest that VAM-1 may function by promoting the assembly of a Veli-1 containing protein complex in neuronal as well as epithelial cells.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA66263; NHLBI NIH HHS: HL60755

    Biochimica et biophysica acta 2001;1518;3;249-59

  • Molecular cloning and characterization of Pals, proteins associated with mLin-7.

    Kamberov E, Makarova O, Roh M, Liu A, Karnak D, Straight S and Margolis B

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA.

    In Caenorhabditis elegans, three PDZ domain proteins, Lin-2, Lin-7, and Lin-10, are necessary for the proper targeting of the Let-23 growth factor receptor to the basolateral surface of epithelial cells. It has been demonstrated that homologues of Lin-2, Lin-7, and Lin-10 form a heterotrimeric complex in mammalian brain. Using Far Western overlay assay, we have identified additional proteins that can bind to the amino terminus of mLin-7 and cloned the genes encoding these proteins using bacterial expression cloning. We call these proteins Pals, for proteins associated with Lin-7. These proteins, which include mammalian Lin-2, contain a conserved mLin-7 binding domain in addition to guanylate kinase, PDZ (postsynaptic density 95/discs large/zona occludens-1), and Src homology 3 domains. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we have identified the conserved residues among these proteins crucial for mLin-7 binding. Two of these proteins, Pals1 and Pals2, are newly described. Pals1 consists of 675 amino acids and maps to mouse chromosome 12. Pals2 was found to exist in two splice forms of 539 and 553 amino acids and maps to mouse chromosome 6. Like mLin-2, Pals1 and Pals2 localize to the lateral membrane in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. Pals proteins represent a new subfamily of membrane-associated guanylate kinases that allow for multiple targeting complexes containing mLin-7.

    Funded by: NICHD NIH HHS: 5-T32-HD07505; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM08353

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2000;275;15;11425-31

  • Characterization of MALS/Velis-1, -2, and -3: a family of mammalian LIN-7 homologs enriched at brain synapses in association with the postsynaptic density-95/NMDA receptor postsynaptic complex.

    Jo K, Derin R, Li M and Bredt DS

    Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143-0444, USA.

    Protein assembly at the postsynaptic density (PSD) of neuronal synapses is mediated in part by protein interactions with PSD-95/discs large/zona occludens-1 (PDZ) motifs. Here, we identify MALS-1, -2, -3, a family of small synaptic proteins containing little more than a single PDZ domain. MALS-1, -2, and -3 are mammalian homologs LIN-7, a Caenorhabditis elegans protein essential for vulval development. In contrast to functions for LIN-7 in epithelial cells, MALS-1 and -2 are selectively expressed in specific neuronal populations in brain and are enriched in PSD fractions. In cultured hippocampal neurons, MALS proteins are clustered together with PSD-95 and NMDA type glutamate receptors, consistent with a postsynaptic localization for MALS proteins. Immunoprecipitation and affinity chromatography studies readily identify association of MALS with PSD-95 and an NMDA receptor subunit. The PDZ domain of MALS selectively binds to peptides terminating in E-T/S-R/X-V/I/L, which corresponds to the C terminus of NMDA type 2 receptors and numerous other ion channels at the PSD. This work suggests a role for MALS proteins in regulating recruitment of neurotransmitter receptors to the PSD.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: R01 GM36017; NINDS NIH HHS: NS33324

    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 1999;19;11;4189-99

  • PDZ-mediated interactions retain the epithelial GABA transporter on the basolateral surface of polarized epithelial cells.

    Perego C, Vanoni C, Villa A, Longhi R, Kaech SM, Fröhli E, Hajnal A, Kim SK and Pietrini G

    CNR Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology Center, Department of Pharmacology, University of Milan, Via Vanvitelli 32, 20129 Milan, Italy.

    The PDZ target motifs located in the C-terminal end of many receptors and ion channels mediate protein-protein interactions by binding to specific PDZ-containing proteins. These interactions are involved in the localization of surface proteins on specialized membrane domains of neuronal and epithelial cells. However, the molecular mechanism responsible for this PDZ protein-dependent polarized localization is still unclear. This study first demonstrated that the epithelial gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transporter (BGT-1) contains a PDZ target motif that mediates the interaction with the PDZ protein LIN-7 in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells, and then investigated the role of this interaction in the basolateral localization of the transporter. It was found that although the transporters from which the PDZ target motif was deleted were still targeted to the basolateral surface, they were not retained but internalized in an endosomal recycling compartment. Furthermore, an interfering BGT peptide determined the intracellular relocation of the native transporter. These data indicate that interactions with PDZ proteins determine the polarized surface localization of target proteins by means of retention and not targeting mechanisms. PDZ proteins may, therefore, act as a sort of membrane protein sorting machinery which, by recognizing retention signals (the PDZ target sequences), prevents protein internalization.

    The EMBO journal 1999;18;9;2384-93

  • Molecular analysis of the X11-mLin-2/CASK complex in brain.

    Borg JP, Lõpez-Figueroa MO, de Taddèo-Borg M, Kroon DE, Turner RS, Watson SJ and Margolis B

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA.

    A heterotrimeric complex containing Lin-10/X11alpha, Lin-2/CASK, and Lin-7 is evolutionarily conserved from worms to mammals. In Caenorhabditis elegans, it localizes Let-23, a receptor tyrosine kinase, to the basolateral side of vulval epithelium, a step crucial for proper vulva development. In mammals, the complex may also participate in receptor targeting in neurons. Accordingly, phosphotyrosine binding (PTB) and postsynaptic density-95/Discs large/Zona Occludens-1 domains found in X11alpha and mLin-2/CASK bind to cell-surface proteins, including amyloid precursor protein, neurexins, and syndecans. In this paper, we have further analyzed the X11alpha-mLin-2/CASK association that is mediated by a novel protein-protein interaction. We show that the mLin-2/CASK calmodulin kinase II (CKII) domain directly binds to a 63 amino acids peptide located between the Munc-18-1 binding site and the PTB domain in X11alpha. Ca2+/calmodulin association with mLin-2/CASK does not modify the X11alpha-mLin-2 interaction. A region containing the mLin-2/CASK guanylate kinase domain also interacts with X11alpha but with a lower affinity than the CKII domain. Immunostaining of X11alpha in the brain shows that the protein is expressed in areas shown previously to be positive for mLin-2/CASK staining. Together, our data demonstrate that the X11alpha-mLin-2 complex contacts many partners, creating a macrocomplex suitable for receptor targeting at the neuronal plasma membrane.

    Funded by: NIA NIH HHS: P50 AG008671; NIMH NIH HHS: MH 42251

    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 1999;19;4;1307-16

  • Identification of an evolutionarily conserved heterotrimeric protein complex involved in protein targeting.

    Borg JP, Straight SW, Kaech SM, de Taddéo-Borg M, Kroon DE, Karnak D, Turner RS, Kim SK and Margolis B

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA.

    In Caenorhabditis elegans, lin-2, lin-7, and lin-10 genetically interact to control the trafficking of the Let-23 growth factor receptor to the basolateral surface of body epithelia. The human homologue of the lin-10 gene has recently been identified as a member of the X11 gene family. The X11 proteins contain one phosphotyrosine binding (PTB) and two PSD-95.Dlg.ZO-1 (PDZ) domains as well as an extended amino terminus. We have previously shown that the PTB domain of X11alpha (also known as Mint1) can bind to the amyloid precursor protein (APP) in a phosphotyrosine-independent fashion and can markedly inhibit the processing of APP to the amyloid beta (Abeta) peptide. Here, we report that X11alpha directly binds to the mammalian homologue of Lin-2 (mLin-2), also known as CASK. This binding is mediated by direct interaction between the Calmodulin Kinase II (CKII)-like domain of mLin-2 and the amino terminus of X11alpha. Furthermore, we can detect direct interactions between mLin-2 and mammalian Lin-7 (mLin-7). In mouse brain, we have identified a heterotrimeric complex that contains mLin-2, mLin-7, and X11alpha and that is likely important for the localization of proteins in polarized cells. This complex may play an important role in the trafficking and processing of APP in neurons.

    Funded by: NIA NIH HHS: P50 AG008671

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1998;273;48;31633-6

  • A tripartite protein complex with the potential to couple synaptic vesicle exocytosis to cell adhesion in brain.

    Butz S, Okamoto M and Südhof TC

    Center for Basic Neuroscience, Department of Molecular Genetics, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, 75235, USA.

    We identify a complex of three proteins in brain that has the potential to couple synaptic vesicle exocytosis to neuronal cell adhesion. The three proteins are: (1) CASK, a protein related to MAGUKs (membrane-associated guanylate kinases); (2) Mint1, a putative vesicular trafficking protein; and (3) Veli1, -2, and -3, vertebrate homologs of C. elegans LIN-7. CASK, Mint1, and Velis form a tight, salt-resistant complex that can be readily isolated. CASK, Mint1, and Velis contain PDZ domains in addition to other modules. However, no PDZ domains are involved in complex formation, leaving them free to recruit cell adhesion molecules, receptors, and channels to the complex. We propose that the tripartite complex acts as a nucleation site for the assembly of proteins involved in synaptic vesicle exocytosis and synaptic junctions.

    Funded by: NIMH NIH HHS: R01-MH52804

    Cell 1998;94;6;773-82

  • The C-terminus of the HTLV-1 Tax oncoprotein mediates interaction with the PDZ domain of cellular proteins.

    Rousset R, Fabre S, Desbois C, Bantignies F and Jalinot P

    Laboratoire de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire, Centre national de la Recherche Scientifique UMR49, Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon, France.

    Infection by HTLV-1 has been correlated with the appearance of various proliferative or degenerative diseases. Some of these disorders have been observed in transgenic mice expressing the Tax protein, which is known to transactivate various viral and cellular promoters through interactions with several transcription factors. In this study we show that the C-terminus of this viral oncoprotein represents a motif permitting binding of Tax to the PDZ domains of several cellular proteins. A two-hybrid screen with Tax as bait indeed yielded complementary DNAs coding for six proteins including PDZ domains. Two of them correspond to truncated forms of the PSD-95 and beta1-syntrophin proteins, another clone codes for a protein homologous to the product of the C. elegans gene lin-7. The other three clones code for new human members of the PDZ family of cellular proteins. The interaction of Tax with the products of these clones was confirmed by immunoprecipitation assays in mammalian cells, and analysis of various mutants of Tax established the importance of the C-terminal amino acids for several of these interactions. These data suggest that Tax could perturb the normal function of targeted cellular proteins by strongly interacting with their PDZ domains.

    Oncogene 1998;16;5;643-54

Gene lists (7)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000015 G2C Homo sapiens Human NRC Human orthologues of mouse NRC adapted from Collins et al (2006) 186
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000032 G2C Homo sapiens Pocklington H1 Human orthologues of cluster 1 (mouse) from Pocklington et al (2006) 21
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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