G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
G00001882
Gene symbol
LGI1 (HGNC)
Species
Homo sapiens
Description
leucine-rich, glioma inactivated 1
Orthologue
G00000633 (Mus musculus)

Databases (8)

Curated Gene
OTTHUMG00000018777 (Vega human gene)
Gene
ENSG00000108231 (Ensembl human gene)
9211 (Entrez Gene)
146 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
LGI1 (GeneCards)
Literature
604619 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:6572 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
O95970 (UniProt)

Synonyms (3)

  • EPITEMPIN
  • ETL1
  • IB1099

Literature (35)

Pubmed - other

  • Inactivation of LGI1 expression accompanies early stage hyperplasia of prostate epithelium in the TRAMP murine model of prostate cancer.

    Cowell JK, Head K, Kunapuli P, Vaughan M, Karasik E and Foster B

    MCG Cancer Center, Medical College of Georgia, School of Medicine, 1120 Fifteenth Street, Augusta, GA 30912, USA. jcowell@mcg.edu

    The LGI1 gene has been implicated in tumor cell invasion through regulation of the ERK pathway. To determine whether human prostate cancer cells (PC3, 22RV, Du145) are similarly affected by exposure to LGI1, we conducted scratch wound assays and demonstrated that the secreted LGI1 protein can reduce cell motility, an essential component of invasion and metastasis. These studies have now been extended to an in vivo mouse model of prostate cancer. Using a BAC transgenic mouse expressing a GFP reporter gene under the control of cis regulatory elements, we demonstrated that LGI1 is highly expressed in the normal prostate epithelium. To determine whether loss of LGI1 expression is associated with development and progression of murine prostate cancer, we bred the GFP reporter BAC transgenic mice with TRAMP mice which undergo early hyperplasia and progressive stages of prostate cancer. In the F1 animals, although the surrounding normal prostate epithelium expressed high levels of LGI1 in the double transgenic mice, the LGI1 gene had been inactivated even at the earliest stages of hyperplasia. This observation supports the suggestion that inactivation of LGI1 in certain cell types is related to tumor progression. Taken together these results suggest that LGI1 may be an important molecule for the arrest of prostate cancer cell invasion and possibly as a biomarker for early detection of prostate hyperplasia.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: NS46706, R01 NS046706, R01 NS046706-05

    Experimental and molecular pathology 2010;88;1;77-81

  • Drug resistant ADLTE and recurrent partial status epilepticus with dysphasic features in a family with a novel LGI1mutation: electroclinical, genetic, and EEG/fMRI findings.

    Di Bonaventura C, Carni M, Diani E, Fattouch J, Vaudano EA, Egeo G, Pantano P, Maraviglia B, Bozzao L, Manfredi M, Prencipe M, Giallonardo TA and Nobile C

    Department of Neurological Sciences, University of Rome, Rome, Italy. c_dibonaventura@yahoo.it

    Purpose: We characterized a family with autosomal dominant lateral temporal epilepsy (ADLTE) whose proband presented uncommon electroclinical findings such as drug-resistant seizures and recurrent episodes of status epilepticus with dysphasic features.

    Methods: The electroclinical characteristics and LGI1 genotype were defined in the family. In the proband, the ictal pattern was documented during video-EEG monitoring and epileptic activity was mapped by EEG/fMRI.

    Results: The affected members who were studied had drug-resistant seizures. In the proband, seizures with predominant dysphasic features often occurred as partial status epilepticus. The video-EEG-documented ictal activity and fMRI activation clearly indicated the elective involvement of the left posterior lateral temporal cortex. Sequencing of LGI1 exons revealed a heterozygous c.367G>A mutation in exon 4, resulting in a Glu123Lys substitution in the protein sequence.

    Conclusions: The uncommon clinical pattern (high seizure frequency, drug-resistance) highlights the variability of the ADLTE phenotype and extends our knowledge of the clinical spectrum associated with LGI1 mutations.

    Epilepsia 2009;50;11;2481-6

  • Mass spectrometry identifies LGI1-interacting proteins that are involved in synaptic vesicle function in the human brain.

    Kunapuli P, Jang GF, Kazim L and Cowell JK

    Department of Cell Stress Biology, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY 14263, USA.

    The LGI1 gene has been shown to predispose to epilepsy and influence cell invasion in glioma cells. To identify proteins that interact with LGI1 and gain a better understanding of its function, we have used co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) of a secreted green fluorescent protein-tagged LGI1 protein combined with mass spectrometry to identify interacting partners from lysates prepared from human subcortical white matter. Proteins were recovered from polyacrylamide gels and analyzed using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. This analysis identified a range of proteins, but in particular synaptotagmin, synaptophysin, and syntaxin 1A. Each of these proteins is found associated with synaptic vesicles. These interactions were confirmed independently by co-IP and Western blotting and implicate LGI1 in synapse biology in neurons. Other vesicle-related proteins that were recovered by co-IP include clathrin heavy chain 1, syntaxin binding protein 1, and a disintegrin and metalloprotease 23. These observations support a role for LGI1 in synapse vesicle function in neurons.

    Journal of molecular neuroscience : MN 2009;39;1-2;137-43

  • A novel three base-pair LGI1 deletion leading to loss of function in a family with autosomal dominant lateral temporal epilepsy and migraine-like episodes.

    de Bellescize J, Boutry N, Chabrol E, André-Obadia N, Arzimanoglou A, Leguern E, Baulac S, Calender A, Ryvlin P and Lesca G

    Service Epilepsie, Sommeil, Explorations Fonctionnelles Neurolopédiatriques et CTRS-IDEE, Hôpital Femme-Mère-Enfant, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon, France.

    Mutations in LGI1 have been reported in several families with autosomal dominant lateral temporal epilepsy. In a family in which three patients also experienced migraine-like episodes we found a novel three base-pair deletion (c.377_379delACA), resulting in the deletion of an asparagine residue in the second leucine-rich repeat. Functional studies showed that the mutated protein was not secreted when transfected in COS cells, consistent with a causative role in the disease.

    Epilepsy research 2009;85;1;118-22

  • LGI1 mutations in autosomal dominant and sporadic lateral temporal epilepsy.

    Nobile C, Michelucci R, Andreazza S, Pasini E, Tosatto SC and Striano P

    Istituto di Neuroscienze del CNR, Sezione di Padova, Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche Sperimentali, Università di Padova, Padova, Italy. nobile@bio.unipd.it

    Autosomal dominant lateral temporal epilepsy (ADLTE) or autosomal dominant partial epilepsy with auditory features (ADPEAF) is an inherited epileptic syndrome with onset in childhood/adolescence and benign evolution. The hallmark of the syndrome consists of typical auditory auras or ictal aphasia in most affected family members. ADTLE/ADPEAF is associated in about half of the families with mutations of the leucine-rich, glioma-inactivated 1 (LGI1) gene. In addition, de novo LGI1 mutations are found in about 2% of sporadic cases with idiopathic partial epilepsy with auditory features, who are clinically similar to the majority of patients with ADLTE/ADPEAF but have no family history. Twenty-five LGI1 mutations have been described in familial and sporadic lateral temporal epilepsy patients. The mutations are distributed throughout the gene and are mostly missense mutations occurring in both the N-terminal leucine rich repeat (LRR) and C-terminal EPTP (beta propeller) protein domains. We show a tridimensional model of the LRR protein region that allows missense mutations of this region to be divided into two distinct groups: structural and functional mutations. Frameshift, nonsense and splice site point mutations have also been reported that result in protein truncation or internal deletion. The various types of mutations are associated with a rather homogeneous phenotype, and no obvious genotype-phenotype correlation can be identified. Both truncating and missense mutations appear to prevent secretion of mutant proteins, suggesting a loss of function effect of mutations. The function of LGI1 is unclear. Several molecular mechanisms possibly leading to lateral temporal epilepsy are illustrated and briefly discussed.

    Human mutation 2009;30;4;530-6

  • Penetrance of LGI1 mutations in autosomal dominant partial epilepsy with auditory features.

    Rosanoff MJ and Ottman R

    G.H. Sergievsky Center, Columbia University, 630 W. 168th Street, P&S Box 16, New York, NY 10032, USA. ro6@columbia.edu

    Background: Assessment of the penetrance of disease-causing mutations is extremely important for developing clinical applications of gene discovery, such as genetic testing and counseling. Mutations in the leucine-rich, glioma inactivated 1 gene (LGI1) have been identified in about 50% of families with autosomal dominant partial epilepsy with auditory features (ADPEAF), but estimates of LGI1 mutation penetrance have ranged widely, from 50 to 85%. The current study aimed to provide a more precise estimate of LGI1 mutation penetrance.

    Methods: We analyzed data from all 24 previously published ADPEAF families with mutations in LGI1. To estimate penetrance, we used the information from the published pedigree figures to determine the proportion of obligate carriers who were affected. We assessed whether penetrance was associated with the total number of affected individuals in each family, or mutation type (truncating or missense) or location within the gene. We also compared penetrance in males and females, and among different generations within the families.

    Results: Overall penetrance was 67% (95% CI 55-77%), and did not vary according to mutation type or location within the gene. Penetrance was greater in families with more affected individuals, but this trend was not significant. Penetrance did not differ by gender but increased with advancing generation, probably because of limited information about early generations.

    Conclusions: Our results suggest that about two-thirds of individuals who inherit a mutation in LGI1 will develop epilepsy. This probably overestimates the true penetrance in the population because it is based on data from families containing multiple affected individuals.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: R01 NS036319, R01 NS043472, R01NS036319, R01NS043472

    Neurology 2008;71;8;567-71

  • A novel loss-of-function LGI1 mutation linked to autosomal dominant lateral temporal epilepsy.

    Striano P, de Falco A, Diani E, Bovo G, Furlan S, Vitiello L, Pinardi F, Striano S, Michelucci R, de Falco FA and Nobile C

    Muscular and Neurodegenerative Diseases Unit, Institute G. Gaslini, University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy.

    Background: Mutations responsible for autosomal dominant lateral temporal epilepsy have been found in the leucine-rich, glioma-inactivated 1 (LGI1) gene.

    Objectives: To describe the clinical and genetic findings in a family with autosomal dominant lateral temporal epilepsy and to determine the functional effects of a novel LGI1 mutation in culture cells.

    Design: Clinical, genetic, and functional investigations.

    Setting: University hospital and laboratory.

    Patients: An Italian family with autosomal dominant lateral temporal epilepsy.

    Mutation analysis.

    Results: A novel LGI1 mutation, c.365T>A (Ile122Lys), segregating with the disease was identified. The mutant Lgi1 protein was not secreted by culture cells.

    Conclusion: Our data provide further evidence that mutations in LGI1 hamper secretion of the Lgi1 protein, thereby precluding its normal function.

    Archives of neurology 2008;65;7;939-42

  • Analysis of LGI1 promoter sequence, PDYN and GABBR1 polymorphisms in sporadic and familial lateral temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Bovo G, Diani E, Bisulli F, Di Bonaventura C, Striano P, Gambardella A, Ferlazzo E, Egeo G, Mecarelli O, Elia M, Bianchi A, Bortoluzzi S, Vettori A, Aguglia U, Binelli S, De Falco A, Coppola G, Gobbi G, Sofia V, Striano S, Tinuper P, Giallonardo AT, Michelucci R and Nobile C

    CNR-Institute of Neurosciences, Section of Padua, Padova, Italy.

    Autosomal dominant lateral temporal epilepsy (ADTLE) is a genetically transmitted epileptic syndrome characterized by focal seizures with predominant auditory symptoms likely originating from the lateral region of the temporal lobe. Mutations in coding region or exon splice sites of the leucine-rich, glioma-inactivated 1 (LGI1) gene account for about 50% of ADLTE families. De novo LGI1 mutations of the same kind have also been found in about 2.5% of non-familial cases with idiopathic partial epilepsy with auditory features (IPEAF). In both conditions, mutations in the LGI1 promoter region have not been reported. We sequenced the minimal promoter region of LGI1 in the probands of 16 ADLTE families and in 104 sporadic IPEAF patients and no mutations clearly linked to the disease were found. However, two polymorphisms, -500G>A and -507G>A, with potential functional implications were identified and analysed in the cohort of sporadic IPEAF patients but their frequencies did not differ from those found in a control population of similar age, gender and geographic origin. We also analysed in our study population the GABA(B) receptor 1 c.1465G>A and the prodynorphin promoter 68-bp repeat polymorphisms, previously associated with temporal lobe epilepsy. None of these polymorphisms showed a significant association with IPEAF, whereas a tendency towards association with the prodynorphin low expression (L) alleles was found in the small group of ADLTE index cases, in agreement with previous studies suggesting that this polymorphism is a susceptibility factor in familial forms of temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Neuroscience letters 2008;436;1;23-6

  • Structural anomaly of left lateral temporal lobe in epilepsy due to mutated LGI1.

    Tessa C, Michelucci R, Nobile C, Giannelli M, Della Nave R, Testoni S, Bianucci D, Tinuper P, Bisulli F, Sofia V, De Feo MR, Giallonardo AT, Tassinari CA and Mascalchi M

    Radiologia, Ospedale della Versilia, Pietrasanta, Lucca, Italy.

    Funded by: Telethon: GGP02339

    Neurology 2007;69;12;1298-300

  • Two novel epilepsy-linked mutations leading to a loss of function of LGI1.

    Chabrol E, Popescu C, Gourfinkel-An I, Trouillard O, Depienne C, Senechal K, Baulac M, LeGuern E and Baulac S

    INSERM UMR 679, Neurologie and Thérapeutique Expérimentale, Université Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6, Faculté de Médecine, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital de la Pitié-Salpêtrière, 47 boulevard de l'hôpital, 75013 Paris, France.

    Background: Mutations in the leucine-rich, glioma-inactivated 1 (LGI1) gene have been implicated in autosomal dominant lateral temporal epilepsy.

    Objective: To describe the clinical and genetic findings in 2 families with autosomal dominant lateral temporal epilepsy and the functional consequences of 2 novel mutations in LGI1.

    Design: Clinical, genetic, and functional investigations.

    Setting: University hospital. Patients Two French families with autosomal dominant lateral temporal epilepsy. Main Outcome Measure Mutation analysis.

    Results: Two novel disease-linked mutations, p.Leu232Pro and c.431 + 1G>A, were identified in LGI1. We demonstrated that the c.431 + 1G>A mutation causes the deletion of exons 3 and 4 of the LGI1 transcript and showed that the p.Leu232Pro mutation dramatically decreases secretion of the mutant protein by mammalian cells.

    Conclusion: Our data indicate that LGI1 is a secreted protein and suggest that LGI1-related epilepsy results from a loss of function.

    Archives of neurology 2007;64;2;217-22

  • Epilepsy-related ligand/receptor complex LGI1 and ADAM22 regulate synaptic transmission.

    Fukata Y, Adesnik H, Iwanaga T, Bredt DS, Nicoll RA and Fukata M

    Laboratory of Genomics and Proteomics, National Institute for Longevity Sciences, National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, Obu, Aichi 474-8522, Japan.

    Abnormally synchronized synaptic transmission in the brain causes epilepsy. Most inherited forms of epilepsy result from mutations in ion channels. However, one form of epilepsy, autosomal dominant partial epilepsy with auditory features (ADPEAF), is characterized by mutations in a secreted neuronal protein, LGI1. We show that ADAM22, a transmembrane protein that when mutated itself causes seizure, serves as a receptor for LGI1. LGI1 enhances AMPA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission in hippocampal slices. The mutated form of LGI1 fails to bind to ADAM22. ADAM22 is anchored to the postsynaptic density by cytoskeletal scaffolds containing stargazin. These studies in rat brain indicate possible avenues for understanding human epilepsy.

    Science (New York, N.Y.) 2006;313;5794;1792-5

  • The LGI1/epitempin gene encodes two protein isoforms differentially expressed in human brain.

    Furlan S, Roncaroli F, Forner F, Vitiello L, Calabria E, Piquer-Sirerol S, Valle G, Perez-Tur J, Michelucci R and Nobile C

    CNR-Istituto di Neuroscienze, Sezione di Padova, Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche Sperimentali, Università di Padova, Padua, Italy.

    The leucine-rich, glioma inactivated 1 (LGI1)/Epitempin gene has been linked to two phenotypes as different as gliomagenesis and autosomal dominant lateral temporal epilepsy. Its function and the biochemical features of the encoded protein are unknown. We characterized the LGI1/Epitempin protein product by western blot analysis of mouse and human brain tissues. Two proteins of about 60 and 65 kDa were detected by an anti-LGI1 antibody within the expected molecular mass range. The two proteins appeared to reside in different subcellular compartments, as they were fractionated by differential centrifugation. The specificity of both polypeptides was validated by cell transfection assay and mass spectrometry analysis. Immunoblot analysis of protein distribution in various zones of the human brain revealed variable amounts of both proteins. Notably, these proteins were more abundant in the temporal neocortex than in the hippocampus, the difference in abundance of the 65-kDa product being particularly pronounced. These results suggest that the two protein isoforms encoded by LGI1/Epitempin are differentially expressed in the human brain, and that higher expression levels of these proteins in the lateral temporal cortex may underlie the susceptibility of this brain region to the epileptogenic effects of LGI1/Epitempin mutations.

    Funded by: Telethon: GGP02339

    Journal of neurochemistry 2006;98;3;985-91

  • Genetic analysis of the LGI/Epitempin gene family in sporadic and familial lateral temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Ayerdi-Izquierdo A, Stavrides G, Sellés-Martínez JJ, Larrea L, Bovo G, López de Munain A, Bisulli F, Martí-Massó JF, Michelucci R, Poza JJ, Tinuper P, Stephani U, Striano P, Striano S, Staub E, Sarafidou T, Hinzmann B, Moschonas N, Siebert R, Deloukas P, Nobile C and Pérez-Tur J

    Unitat de Genètica Molecular, Dept. de Genòmica i Proteòmica, Institut de Biomedicina de València - CSIC, Jaume Roig, 11. E46010 València, Spain.

    Mutations in the LGI1/Epitempin gene cause autosomal dominant lateral temporal lobe epilepsy (ADLTE), a partial epilepsy characterized by the presence of auditory seizures. However, not all the pedigrees with a phenotype consistent with ADLTE show mutations in LGI1/Epitempin, or evidence for linkage to the 10q24 locus. Other authors as well as ourselves have found an internal repeat (EPTP, pfam# PF03736) that allowed the identification of three other genes sharing a sequence and structural similarity with LGI1/Epitempin. In this work, we present the sequencing of these genes in a set of ADLTE families without mutations in both LGI1/Epitempin and sporadic cases. No analyzed polymorphisms modified susceptibility in either the familial or sporadic forms of this partial epilepsy.

    Funded by: Telethon: GGP02339

    Epilepsy research 2006;70;2-3;118-26

  • Increased expression of LGI1 gene triggers growth inhibition and apoptosis of neuroblastoma cells.

    Gabellini N, Masola V, Quartesan S, Oselladore B, Nobile C, Michelucci R, Curtarello M, Parolin C and Palù G

    Department of Biological Chemistry, University of Padua, Padua, Italy. nadia.gabellini@unipd.it

    The LGI1 gene has been implicated in the malignant progression of glioblastoma and it has also been genetically linked to a form of partial epilepsy (ADLTE). In this study, we investigated the relevance of LGI1 expression for neuroblastoma cells. The analysis of two cell lines (SH-SY5Y and SK-N-BE) revealed unpredictably low levels of LGI1 and stable cell transfection with LGI1 cDNA yielded moderate increases of LGI1 expression. Neuroblastoma cell clones exhibited impaired cell growth and survival ability in relation to LGI1 levels. The process of growth inhibition could be discerned under experimental conditions of low cell density, since conditions of elevated cell density, which enhance the requirement for survival stimuli, resulted in massive cellular death. At high cell density, spontaneous apoptosis of LGI1 cells was clearly shown by the release of cytochrome c and apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) from mitochondria and by phosphatydil serine exposure and nuclear fragmentation. Activation of apoptotic effectors caspase-3/7 also occurred, however, the broad caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK substantially failed to block cell death. Thus the possibility that LGI1-triggered apoptosis may involve initiator caspases linked to activation of death receptors, appears unlikely. The decreased ratio of Bcl-2 to Bax suggests that apoptosis is initiated by the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway through the release of caspase-dependent and -independent apoptogenic molecules. This study provides the first evidence that LGI1 controls neuronal cell survival, suggesting its role in the development of the nervous system in relation to the pathogenesis of neuroblastoma and ADLTE.

    Funded by: Telethon: GGP02339

    Journal of cellular physiology 2006;207;3;711-21

  • A scan of chromosome 10 identifies a novel locus showing strong association with late-onset Alzheimer disease.

    Grupe A, Li Y, Rowland C, Nowotny P, Hinrichs AL, Smemo S, Kauwe JS, Maxwell TJ, Cherny S, Doil L, Tacey K, van Luchene R, Myers A, Wavrant-De Vrièze F, Kaleem M, Hollingworth P, Jehu L, Foy C, Archer N, Hamilton G, Holmans P, Morris CM, Catanese J, Sninsky J, White TJ, Powell J, Hardy J, O'Donovan M, Lovestone S, Jones L, Morris JC, Thal L, Owen M, Williams J and Goate A

    Celera Diagnostics, Alameda, CA, USA.

    Strong evidence of linkage to late-onset Alzheimer disease (LOAD) has been observed on chromosome 10, which implicates a wide region and at least one disease-susceptibility locus. Although significant associations with several biological candidate genes on chromosome 10 have been reported, these findings have not been consistently replicated, and they remain controversial. We performed a chromosome 10-specific association study with 1,412 gene-based single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), to identify susceptibility genes for developing LOAD. The scan included SNPs in 677 of 1,270 known or predicted genes; each gene contained one or more markers, about half (48%) of which represented putative functional mutations. In general, the initial testing was performed in a white case-control sample from the St. Louis area, with 419 LOAD cases and 377 age-matched controls. Markers that showed significant association in the exploratory analysis were followed up in several other white case-control sample sets to confirm the initial association. Of the 1,397 markers tested in the exploratory sample, 69 reached significance (P < .05). Five of these markers replicated at P < .05 in the validation sample sets. One marker, rs498055, located in a gene homologous to RPS3A (LOC439999), was significantly associated with Alzheimer disease in four of six case-control series, with an allelic P value of .0001 for a meta-analysis of all six samples. One of the case-control samples with significant association to rs498055 was derived from the linkage sample (P = .0165). These results indicate that variants in the RPS3A homologue are associated with LOAD and implicate this gene, adjacent genes, or other functional variants (e.g., noncoding RNAs) in the pathogenesis of this disorder.

    Funded by: Intramural NIH HHS; Medical Research Council: G0300429, G0701075, G9810900; NHGRI NIH HHS: T32 HG000045; NIA NIH HHS: AG 05146, AG05128, P01 AG003991, P01 AG03991, P50 AG005128, P50 AG005131, P50 AG005146, P50 AG005681, P50 AG008671, P50 AG016570, P50 AG05131, P50 AG05681, P50 AG16570, P50-AG08671, R01 AG016208, R01 AG16208, U24 AG021886; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM065509, P50 GM065509; NIMH NIH HHS: MH60451, P50 MH060451, U01 MH046281, U01 MH046290, U01 MH046373; NINDS NIH HHS: NS39764, P50 NS039764

    American journal of human genetics 2006;78;1;78-88

  • LGI1: a gene involved in epileptogenesis and glioma progression?

    Gu W, Brodtkorb E, Piepoli T, Finocchiaro G and Steinlein OK

    Institute of Human Genetics, School of Medicine, Ludwig Maximilians-University, Goethestrasse 29, 80336 Munich, Germany. wenli.gu@med.uni-muenchen.de

    The leucine-rich, glioma inactivated gene 1 (LGI1) gene on human chromosome 10q24 was first identified as a candidate tumor suppressor gene for glioma. Surprisingly, mutations in LGI1 were also shown to cause an idiopathic epilepsy syndrome, autosomal dominant lateral temporal lobe epilepsy (ADLTE). LGI1 is one of the only two currently known non-ion channel genes whose mutations cause idiopathic epilepsy in humans. In this review we summarize the current data on structure and function of the LGI1 protein and discuss clinical aspects of ADLTE and their correlation with LGI1. We also propose that the evidence supporting the tumor suppressor role of LGI1 in malignant gliomas is weak and that further work is necessary to establish LGI1 role in glial cells.

    Neurogenetics 2005;6;2;59-66

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • A de novo LGI1 mutation in sporadic partial epilepsy with auditory features.

    Bisulli F, Tinuper P, Scudellaro E, Naldi I, Bagattin A, Avoni P, Michelucci R and Nobile C

    Funded by: Telethon: GGP02339

    Annals of neurology 2004;56;3;455-6

  • LGI1, a putative tumor metastasis suppressor gene, controls in vitro invasiveness and expression of matrix metalloproteinases in glioma cells through the ERK1/2 pathway.

    Kunapuli P, Kasyapa CS, Hawthorn L and Cowell JK

    Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Department of Cancer Genetics, Buffalo, New York 14163, USA.

    Gliomas take a number of different genetic routes in the progression to glioblastoma multiforme, a highly invasive variant that is mostly unresponsive to current therapies. Gliomas express elevated levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), which have been implicated in the control of proliferation and invasion as well as neovascularization. Progressive loss of LGI1 expression has been associated with the development of high grade gliomas. We have shown previously that the forced re-expression of LGI1 in different glioma cells inhibits proliferation, invasiveness, and anchorage-independent growth in cells null for its expression. Here, using Affymetrix gene chip analysis, we show that reexpression of LGI1 in T98G cells results in the down-regulation of several MMP genes, in particular MMP1 and MMP3. LGI1 expression also results in the inhibition of ERK1/2 phosphorylation but not p38 phosphorylation. Inhibition of the MAPK pathway using the pharmacological inhibitors PD98059, U0126, and SB203580 in T98G LGI1-null cells inhibits MMP1 and MMP3 production in an ERK1/2-dependent manner. Treatment of LGI1-expressing cells with phorbol myristate acetate prevents the inhibition of MMP1/3 and restores invasiveness and ERK1/2 phosphorylation, suggesting that LGI1 acts through the ERK/MAPK pathway. Furthermore, LGI1 expression promotes phosphorylation of AKT, which leads to phosphorylation of Raf1(Ser-259), an event shown previously to negatively regulate ERK1/2 signaling. These data suggest that LGI1 plays a major role in suppressing the production of MMP1/3 through the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/ERK pathway. Loss of LGI1 expression, therefore, may be an important event in the progression of gliomas that leads to a more invasive phenotype in these cells.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: NSO46706-01; PHS HHS: C1A6056

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2004;279;22;23151-7

  • The DNA sequence and comparative analysis of human chromosome 10.

    Deloukas P, Earthrowl ME, Grafham DV, Rubenfield M, French L, Steward CA, Sims SK, Jones MC, Searle S, Scott C, Howe K, Hunt SE, Andrews TD, Gilbert JG, Swarbreck D, Ashurst JL, Taylor A, Battles J, Bird CP, Ainscough R, Almeida JP, Ashwell RI, Ambrose KD, Babbage AK, Bagguley CL, Bailey J, Banerjee R, Bates K, Beasley H, Bray-Allen S, Brown AJ, Brown JY, Burford DC, Burrill W, Burton J, Cahill P, Camire D, Carter NP, Chapman JC, Clark SY, Clarke G, Clee CM, Clegg S, Corby N, Coulson A, Dhami P, Dutta I, Dunn M, Faulkner L, Frankish A, Frankland JA, Garner P, Garnett J, Gribble S, Griffiths C, Grocock R, Gustafson E, Hammond S, Harley JL, Hart E, Heath PD, Ho TP, Hopkins B, Horne J, Howden PJ, Huckle E, Hynds C, Johnson C, Johnson D, Kana A, Kay M, Kimberley AM, Kershaw JK, Kokkinaki M, Laird GK, Lawlor S, Lee HM, Leongamornlert DA, Laird G, Lloyd C, Lloyd DM, Loveland J, Lovell J, McLaren S, McLay KE, McMurray A, Mashreghi-Mohammadi M, Matthews L, Milne S, Nickerson T, Nguyen M, Overton-Larty E, Palmer SA, Pearce AV, Peck AI, Pelan S, Phillimore B, Porter K, Rice CM, Rogosin A, Ross MT, Sarafidou T, Sehra HK, Shownkeen R, Skuce CD, Smith M, Standring L, Sycamore N, Tester J, Thorpe A, Torcasso W, Tracey A, Tromans A, Tsolas J, Wall M, Walsh J, Wang H, Weinstock K, West AP, Willey DL, Whitehead SL, Wilming L, Wray PW, Young L, Chen Y, Lovering RC, Moschonas NK, Siebert R, Fechtel K, Bentley D, Durbin R, Hubbard T, Doucette-Stamm L, Beck S, Smith DR and Rogers J

    The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton CB10 1SA, UK. panos@sanger.ac.uk

    The finished sequence of human chromosome 10 comprises a total of 131,666,441 base pairs. It represents 99.4% of the euchromatic DNA and includes one megabase of heterochromatic sequence within the pericentromeric region of the short and long arm of the chromosome. Sequence annotation revealed 1,357 genes, of which 816 are protein coding, and 430 are pseudogenes. We observed widespread occurrence of overlapping coding genes (either strand) and identified 67 antisense transcripts. Our analysis suggests that both inter- and intrachromosomal segmental duplications have impacted on the gene count on chromosome 10. Multispecies comparative analysis indicated that we can readily annotate the protein-coding genes with current resources. We estimate that over 95% of all coding exons were identified in this study. Assessment of single base changes between the human chromosome 10 and chimpanzee sequence revealed nonsense mutations in only 21 coding genes with respect to the human sequence.

    Nature 2004;429;6990;375-81

  • LGI1 mutations in autosomal dominant partial epilepsy with auditory features.

    Ottman R, Winawer MR, Kalachikov S, Barker-Cummings C, Gilliam TC, Pedley TA and Hauser WA

    Gertrude H. Sergievsky Center, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA. ro6@columbia.edu

    Objective: S: Mutations in LGI1 cause autosomal dominant partial epilepsy with auditory features (ADPEAF), a form of familial temporal lobe epilepsy with auditory ictal manifestations. The authors aimed to determine what proportion of ADPEAF families carries a mutation, to estimate the penetrance of identified mutations, and to identify clinical features that distinguish families with and without mutations.

    Methods: The authors sequenced LGI1 in 10 newly described ADPEAF families and analyzed clinical features in these families and others with mutations reported previously.

    Results: Three of the families had missense mutations in LGI1 (C42R, I298T, and A110D). Penetrance was 54% in eight families with LGI1 mutations the authors have identified so far (five reported previously and three reported here). Excluding the original linkage family, the authors have found mutations in 50% (7/14) of tested families. Families with and without mutations had similar clinical features, but those with mutations contained significantly more subjects with auditory symptoms and significantly fewer with autonomic symptoms. In families with mutations, the most common auditory symptom type was simple, unformed sounds (e.g., buzzing and ringing). In two of the newly identified families with mutations, some subjects with mutations had idiopathic generalized epilepsies.

    Conclusions: LGI1 mutations are a common cause of autosomal dominant partial epilepsy with auditory features. Current data do not reveal a clinical feature that clearly predicts which families with autosomal dominant partial epilepsy with auditory features have a mutation. Some families with LGI1 mutations contain individuals with idiopathic generalized epilepsies. This could result from either an effect of LGI1 on risk for generalized epilepsy or an effect of co-occurring idiopathic generalized epilepsy-specific genes in these families.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: R01 NS020656, R01 NS036319, R01 NS036319-08, R01 NS043472, R01 NS043472-05, R01 NS36319

    Neurology 2004;62;7;1120-6

  • LGI1 mutations in temporal lobe epilepsies.

    Berkovic SF, Izzillo P, McMahon JM, Harkin LA, McIntosh AM, Phillips HA, Briellmann RS, Wallace RH, Mazarib A, Neufeld MY, Korczyn AD, Scheffer IE and Mulley JC

    Epilepsy Research Institute and Department of Medicine, University of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. s.berkovic@unimelb.edu.au

    A number of familial temporal lobe epilepsies (TLE) have been recently recognized. Mutations in LGI1 (leucine-rich, glioma-inactivated 1 gene) have been found in a few families with the syndrome of autosomal dominant partial epilepsy with auditory features (ADPEAF). The authors aimed to determine the spectrum of TLE phenotypes with LGI1 mutations, to study the frequency of mutations in ADPEAF, and to examine the role of LGI1 paralogs in ADPEAF without LGI1 mutations.

    Methods: The authors performed a clinical and molecular analysis on 75 pedigrees comprising 54 with a variety of familial epilepsies associated with TLE and 21 sporadic TLE cases. All were studied for mutations in LGI1. ADPEAF families negative for LGI1 mutations were screened for mutations in LGI2, LGI3, and LGI4.

    Results: Four families had ADPEAF, 22 had mesial TLE, 11 had TLE with febrile seizures, two had TLE with developmental abnormalities, and 15 had various other TLE syndromes. LGI1 mutations were found in two of four ADPEAF families, but in none of the other 50 families nor in the 21 individuals with sporadic TLE. The mutations were novel missense mutations in exons 1 (c.124T-->G; C42G) and 8 (c.1418C-->T; S473L). No mutations in LGI2, LGI3, or LGI4 were found in the other two ADPEAF families.

    Conclusion: In TLE, mutations in LGI1 are specific for ADPEAF but do not occur in all families. ADPEAF is genetically heterogeneous, but mutations in LGI2, LGI3, or LGI4 did not account for families without LGI1 mutations.

    Neurology 2004;62;7;1115-9

  • Autosomal dominant lateral temporal epilepsy: two families with novel mutations in the LGI1 gene.

    Hedera P, Abou-Khalil B, Crunk AE, Taylor KA, Haines JL and Sutcliffe JS

    Department of Neurology, Program in Human Genetics, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37232-8552, USA. peter.hedera@vanderbilt.edu

    Purpose: Mutations in the leucine rich, glioma inactivated gene (LGI1) were recently described in a small number of families with autosomal dominant lateral temporal epilepsy (ADLTE). ADLTE is characterized by partial seizures with symptoms suggestive of a lateral temporal onset, including frequent auditory aura. Here we report the results of clinical and genetic analyses of two newly identified families with ADTLE.

    Methods: We identified two families whose seizure semiology was suggestive of ADLTE. Evaluation included a detailed history and neurologic examination, as well as collection of DNA. The coding sequence of the LGI1 gene from affected subjects from both families was analyzed for evidence of mutation.

    Results: Each patient had a history of partial seizures, often with secondary generalization earlier in the course. Auditory aura was reported by approximately two thirds of affected patients in each pedigree. Novel mutations in LGI1 were detected in both families. A heterozygous single-nucleotide deletion at position 329 (del 329C) was detected in affected individuals from one family, whereas patients from the second family had a nonsynonymous variation, corresponding to C435G.

    Conclusions: We identified two novel mutations in the LGI1 gene. The phenotype of these two families was similar to that of other kindreds with ADLTE, as auditory aura was absent in one third of affected individuals. Our results further support that LGI1 mutations should be considered in patients with a history of partial seizures if the semiology of seizures is consistent with the onset in the lateral temporal lobe.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: RR00095; NINDS NIH HHS: K08NS42743

    Epilepsia 2004;45;3;218-22

  • The secreted protein discovery initiative (SPDI), a large-scale effort to identify novel human secreted and transmembrane proteins: a bioinformatics assessment.

    Clark HF, Gurney AL, Abaya E, Baker K, Baldwin D, Brush J, Chen J, Chow B, Chui C, Crowley C, Currell B, Deuel B, Dowd P, Eaton D, Foster J, Grimaldi C, Gu Q, Hass PE, Heldens S, Huang A, Kim HS, Klimowski L, Jin Y, Johnson S, Lee J, Lewis L, Liao D, Mark M, Robbie E, Sanchez C, Schoenfeld J, Seshagiri S, Simmons L, Singh J, Smith V, Stinson J, Vagts A, Vandlen R, Watanabe C, Wieand D, Woods K, Xie MH, Yansura D, Yi S, Yu G, Yuan J, Zhang M, Zhang Z, Goddard A, Wood WI, Godowski P and Gray A

    Departments of Bioinformatics, Molecular Biology and Protein Chemistry, Genentech, Inc, South San Francisco, California 94080, USA. hclark@gene.com

    A large-scale effort, termed the Secreted Protein Discovery Initiative (SPDI), was undertaken to identify novel sec 169a reted and transmembrane proteins. In the first of several approaches, a biological signal sequence trap in yeast cells was utilized to identify cDNA clones encoding putative secreted proteins. A second strategy utilized various algorithms that recognize features such as the hydrophobic properties of signal sequences to identify putative proteins encoded by expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from human cDNA libraries. A third approach surveyed ESTs for protein sequence similarity to a set of known receptors and their ligands with the BLAST algorithm. Finally, both signal-sequence prediction algorithms and BLAST were used to identify single exons of potential genes from within human genomic sequence. The isolation of full-length cDNA clones for each of these candidate genes resulted in the identification of >1000 novel proteins. A total of 256 of these cDNAs are still novel, including variants and novel genes, per the most recent GenBank release version. The success of this large-scale effort was assessed by a bioinformatics analysis of the proteins through predictions of protein domains, subcellular localizations, and possible functional roles. The SPDI collection should facilitate efforts to better understand intercellular communication, may lead to new understandings of human diseases, and provides potential opportunities for the development of therapeutics.

    Genome research 2003;13;10;2265-70

  • Suppression of the cell proliferation and invasion phenotypes in glioma cells by the LGI1 gene.

    Kunapuli P, Chitta KS and Cowell JK

    Department of Cancer Genetics, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, New York, NY 14263, USA.

    The leucine-rich, glioma-inactivated (LGI1) gene, located in 10q24, was originally identified because it was interrupted and inactivated by a reciprocal chromosome translocation in the T98G glioma cell line. Loss of LGI1 expression in high-grade brain tumors is correlated with the frequent loss of chromosome 10 during progression of gliomas. To investigate whether this gene can suppress the malignant phenotype in glioma cells, we introduced the LGI1 gene into cells that do (U87) and do not (T98G and A172) express LGI1 endogenously. A172 and T98G cells showed a significant reduction in cell proliferation potential as a result of re-expression of LGI1, whereas U87 cells did not. Using BD matrigel matrix chamber assays we were also able to show that the migration ability of the reconstituted A172 and T98G cells was also reduced considerably. Finally, these reconstituted T98G and A172 cells showed a significant reduction in the ability to form colonies in soft agar compared with the parental cells. This analysis clearly demonstrates that re-expression of the LGI1 gene in glioma cells that were null for its activity can greatly reduce their malignant potential. These observations provide the opportunity to investigate the role of LGI1 in gliomagenesis and, since LGI1 is predicted to be a membrane-bound protein, potentially provides the opportunity to develop novel treatment strategies for malignant gliomas.

    Oncogene 2003;22;26;3985-91

  • Novel LGI1 mutation in a family with autosomal dominant partial epilepsy with auditory features.

    Fertig E, Lincoln A, Martinuzzi A, Mattson RH and Hisama FM

    Department of Neurology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA.

    Autosomal dominant partial epilepsy with auditory features (ADPEAF) is a rare idiopathic epilepsy syndrome caused by mutations in the leucine-rich, glioma-inactivated 1 (LGI1) gene. The authors report that molecular genetic studies in seven affected family members identified a novel F318C substitution that alters a highly conserved residue in a predicted repeat domain of unknown function. This report suggests that this domain may participate in the development of the ADPEAF phenotype.

    Neurology 2003;60;10;1687-90

  • Epilepsy with auditory features: a LGI1 gene mutation suggests a loss-of-function mechanism.

    Pizzuti A, Flex E, Di Bonaventura C, Dottorini T, Egeo G, Manfredi M, Dallapiccola B and Giallonardo AT

    Dipartimento di Medicina Sperimentale e Patologia, Università di Roma La Sapienza and Ospedale Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza San Giovanni Rotondo IRCSS, Istituto Mendel, Rome, Italy. a.pizzuti@css-mendel.it

    Autosomal dominant partial epilepsy with auditory features (ADPEAF) is a genetically heterogeneous disorder. Some patients exhibit mutations in the leucine-rich glioma inactivated (LGI1) gene. In an ADPEAF family, a novel mutation in the Lgi1 signal peptide is predicted to interfere with the protein cell sorting, resulting in altered processing. This finding suggests a loss-of-function mechanism for LGI1 gene mutations causing ADPEAF even if other mechanisms cannot be ruled out.

    Annals of neurology 2003;53;3;396-9

  • The novel EPTP repeat defines a superfamily of proteins implicated in epileptic disorders.

    Staub E, Pérez-Tur J, Siebert R, Nobile C, Moschonas NK, Deloukas P and Hinzmann B

    metaGen Pharmaceuticals GmbH, Oudenarder Strasse 16, D-13347 Berlin, Germany. eike.staub@metagen.de

    Recent studies suggest that mutations in the LGI1/Epitempin gene cause autosomal dominant lateral temporal epilepsy. This gene encodes a protein of unknown function, which we postulate is secreted. The LGI1 protein has leucine-rich repeats in the N-terminal sequence and a tandem repeat (which we named EPTP) in its C-terminal region. A redefinition of the C-terminal repeat and the application of sensitive sequence analysis methods enabled us to define a new superfamily of proteins carrying varying numbers of the novel EPTP repeats in combination with various extracellular domains. Genes encoding proteins of this family are located in genomic regions associated with epilepsy and other neurological disorders.

    Trends in biochemical sciences 2002;27;9;441-4

  • LGI1 is mutated in familial temporal lobe epilepsy characterized by aphasic seizures.

    Gu W, Brodtkorb E and Steinlein OK

    Institute of Human Genetics, University Hospital Bonn, Bonn, Germany.

    Autosomal dominant lateral temporal lobe epilepsy previously has been linked to chromosome 10q22-q24, and recently mutations in the LGI1 gene (Leucine-rich gene, Glioma Inactivated) have been found in some autosomal dominant lateral temporal lobe epilepsy families. We have now identified a missense mutation affecting a conserved cysteine residue in the extracellular region of the LGI1 protein. The C46R mutation is associated with autosomal dominant lateral temporal lobe epilepsy in a large Norwegian family showing unusual clinical features like short-lasting sensory aphasia and auditory symptoms.

    Annals of neurology 2002;52;3;364-7

  • A common protein interaction domain links two recently identified epilepsy genes.

    Scheel H, Tomiuk S and Hofmann K

    Bioinformatics Group, MEMOREC Stoffel GmbH, Stöckheimer Weg 1, D-50829 Köln, Germany.

    Until recently, all genes found to be mutated in hereditary idiopathic epilepsies encoded subunits of ion channels, leading to the view of this class of diseases as channelopathies. Two apparent exceptions to this rule are the MASS1 gene, which is mutated in the Frings mouse model of audiogenic epilepsy, and the LGI1 gene, which is mutated in autosomal dominant partial epilepsy with auditory features (ADPEAF). Careful sequence analysis of the two protein products encoded by those genes shows a common feature: both sequences harbour a novel homology domain consisting of a 7-fold repeated 44-residue motif. The architecture and structural features of this new domain make it a likely member of the growing class of protein interaction domains with a seven-bladed beta-propeller fold. In the MASS1 gene product, which has recently been shown to be a fragment of the very large G-protein-coupled receptor VLGR1, this EAR domain (for epilepsy-associated repeat) is part of the ligand-binding ectodomain. LGI1, as well as a number of newly identified LGI1 relatives, is predicted to be a secreted protein, and consists of an N-terminal leucine-rich repeat region and a C-terminal EAR region. The known portion of the human genome encodes six EAR proteins, some of which map to chromosome regions associated with seizure disorders. The EAR domain is likely to play an important role in the pathogenesis of epilepsy, either by binding to an unknown anti-epileptic ligand, or more likely by interfering with axon guidance or synaptogenesis.

    Human molecular genetics 2002;11;15;1757-62

  • Mutations in the LGI1/Epitempin gene on 10q24 cause autosomal dominant lateral temporal epilepsy.

    Morante-Redolat JM, Gorostidi-Pagola A, Piquer-Sirerol S, Sáenz A, Poza JJ, Galán J, Gesk S, Sarafidou T, Mautner VF, Binelli S, Staub E, Hinzmann B, French L, Prud'homme JF, Passarelli D, Scannapieco P, Tassinari CA, Avanzini G, Martí-Massó JF, Kluwe L, Deloukas P, Moschonas NK, Michelucci R, Siebert R, Nobile C, Pérez-Tur J and López de Munain A

    Unitat de Genètica Molecular, Institut de Biomedicina de València-CSIC, Jaume Roig 11, E-46010 València, Spain.

    Autosomal dominant lateral temporal epilepsy (EPT; OMIM 600512) is a form of epilepsy characterized by partial seizures, usually preceded by auditory signs. The gene for this disorder has been mapped by linkage studies to chromosomal region 10q24. Here we show that mutations in the LGI1 gene segregate with EPT in two families affected by this disorder. Both mutations introduce premature stop codons and thus prevent the production of the full-length protein from the affected allele. By immunohistochemical studies, we demonstrate that the LGI1 protein, which contains several leucine-rich repeats, is expressed ubiquitously in the neuronal cell compartment of the brain. Moreover, we provide evidence for genetic heterogeneity within this disorder, since several other families with a phenotype consistent with this type of epilepsy lack mutations in the LGI1 gene.

    Human molecular genetics 2002;11;9;1119-28

  • Mutations in LGI1 cause autosomal-dominant partial epilepsy with auditory features.

    Kalachikov S, Evgrafov O, Ross B, Winawer M, Barker-Cummings C, Martinelli Boneschi F, Choi C, Morozov P, Das K, Teplitskaya E, Yu A, Cayanis E, Penchaszadeh G, Kottmann AH, Pedley TA, Hauser WA, Ottman R and Gilliam TC

    Columbia Genome Center, Columbia University, 630 W 168 Street, P&S Box 16, New York, New York 10032, USA.

    The epilepsies are a common, clinically heterogeneous group of disorders defined by recurrent unprovoked seizures. Here we describe identification of the causative gene in autosomal-dominant partial epilepsy with auditory features (ADPEAF, MIM 600512), a rare form of idiopathic lateral temporal lobe epilepsy characterized by partial seizures with auditory disturbances. We constructed a complete, 4.2-Mb physical map across the genetically implicated disease-gene region, identified 28 putative genes (Fig. 1) and resequenced all or part of 21 genes before identifying presumptive mutations in one copy of the leucine-rich, glioma-inactivated 1 gene (LGI1) in each of five families with ADPEAF. Previous studies have indicated that loss of both copies of LGI1 promotes glial tumor progression. We show that the expression pattern of mouse Lgi1 is predominantly neuronal and is consistent with the anatomic regions involved in temporal lobe epilepsy. Discovery of LGI1 as a cause of ADPEAF suggests new avenues for research on pathogenic mechanisms of idiopathic epilepsies.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: R01 NS020656, R01 NS020656-13, R01 NS036319, R01 NS036319-08

    Nature genetics 2002;30;3;335-41

  • A novel gene, LGI1, from 10q24 is rearranged and downregulated in malignant brain tumors.

    Chernova OB, Somerville RP and Cowell JK

    Department of Neurosciences NC30, The Lerner Research Institute, The Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Ohio 44195, USA.

    Loss of heterozygosity for 10q23-26 is seen in over 80% of glioblastoma multiforme tumors. We have used a positional cloning strategy to isolate a novel gene, LGI1 (Leucine-rich gene-Glioma Inactivated), which is rearranged as a result of the t(10;19)(q24;q13) balanced translocation in the T98G glioblastoma cell line lacking any normal chromosome 10. Rearrangement of the LGI1 gene was also detected in the A172 glioblastoma cell line and several glioblastoma tumors. These rearrangements lead to a complete absence of LGI1 expression in glioblastoma cells. The LGI1 gene encodes a protein with a calculated molecular mass of 60 kD and contains 3.5 leucine-rich repeats (LRR) with conserved flanking sequences. In the LRR domain, LGI1 has the highest homology with a number of transmembrane and extracellular proteins which function as receptors and adhesion proteins. LGI1 is predominantly expressed in neural tissues, especially in brain; its expression is reduced in low grade brain tumors and it is significantly reduced or absent in malignant gliomas. Its localization to the 10q24 region, and rearrangements or inactivation in malignant brain tumors, suggest that LGI1 is a candidate tumor suppressor gene involved in progression of glial tumors.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA76457

    Oncogene 1998;17;22;2873-81

  • Localization of a gene for partial epilepsy to chromosome 10q.

    Ottman R, Risch N, Hauser WA, Pedley TA, Lee JH, Barker-Cummings C, Lustenberger A, Nagle KJ, Lee KS, Scheuer ML et al.

    G. H. Sergievsky Center, School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032, USA.

    There is strong evidence for a genetic contribution to epilepsy, but it is commonly assumed that this genetic contribution is limited to 'generalized' epilepsies, and that most forms of 'partial' epilepsy are nongenetic. In a linkage analysis of a single family containing 11 affected individuals, we obtained strong evidence for localization of a gene for partial epilepsy. This susceptibility gene maps to chromosome 10q, with a maximum two-point lod score for D10S192 of 3.99 at theta = 0.0. All affected individuals share a single haplotype for seven tightly linked contiguous markers; the maximum lod score for this haplotype is 4.83 at theta = 0.0. Key recombinants place the susceptibility locus within a 10 centimorgan interval.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: 2RO1-NS20656, R01 NS020656, R01 NS020656-13

    Nature genetics 1995;10;1;56-60

Gene lists (7)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000015 G2C Homo sapiens Human NRC Human orthologues of mouse NRC adapted from Collins et al (2006) 186
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000049 G2C Homo sapiens TAP-PSD-95-CORE TAP-PSD-95 pull-down core list (ortho) 120
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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