G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
G00001878
Gene symbol
CNTN2 (HGNC)
Species
Homo sapiens
Description
contactin 2 (axonal)
Orthologue
G00000629 (Mus musculus)

Databases (8)

Curated Gene
OTTHUMG00000037105 (Vega human gene)
Gene
ENSG00000184144 (Ensembl human gene)
6900 (Entrez Gene)
1054 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
CNTN2 (GeneCards)
Literature
190197 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:2172 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
Q02246 (UniProt)

Synonyms (2)

  • TAG-1
  • TAX1

Literature (37)

Pubmed - other

  • Single nucleotide polymorphism of TAG-1 influences IVIg responsiveness of Japanese patients with CIDP.

    Iijima M, Tomita M, Morozumi S, Kawagashira Y, Nakamura T, Koike H, Katsuno M, Hattori N, Tanaka F, Yamamoto M and Sobue G

    Department of Neurology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Aichi, Japan.

    Objective: Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is characterized by immune-mediated peripheral demyelination. Although corticosteroid, IV immunoglobulin (IVIg) and plasma exchange have been established as the most effective therapeutics, subpopulations of patients show little or no response to either of these therapies. In this study, we examined whether particular genetic factors influence the therapeutic responsiveness of patients with CIDP.

    Methods: One hundred Japanese patients categorized as responders or nonresponders to IVIg therapy participated in our study. We performed an association analysis with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and haplotype studies between the IVIg responders and nonresponders.

    Results: Two separate SNPs, corresponding to TAG-1 (transient axonal glycoprotein 1) and CLEC10A (C-type lectin domain family 10, member A), showed strong significant differences between responders and nonresponders. Haplotype analysis of a series of expanded SNPs, from TAG-1 or CLEC10A, showed that only TAG-1 included a significant haplotype within 1 linkage disequilibrium block, which accommodates IVIg responsiveness. Diplotype analysis of TAG-1 also supported this observation.

    Conclusions: Transient axonal glycoprotein 1 is a crucial molecule involved in IV immunoglobulin responsiveness in Japanese patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy.

    Neurology 2009;73;17;1348-52

  • Identification of new putative susceptibility genes for several psychiatric disorders by association analysis of regulatory and non-synonymous SNPs of 306 genes involved in neurotransmission and neurodevelopment.

    Gratacòs M, Costas J, de Cid R, Bayés M, González JR, Baca-García E, de Diego Y, Fernández-Aranda F, Fernández-Piqueras J, Guitart M, Martín-Santos R, Martorell L, Menchón JM, Roca M, Sáiz-Ruiz J, Sanjuán J, Torrens M, Urretavizcaya M, Valero J, Vilella E, Estivill X, Carracedo A and Psychiatric Genetics Network Group

    CIBER en Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain.

    A fundamental difficulty in human genetics research is the identification of the spectrum of genetic variants that contribute to the susceptibility to common/complex disorders. We tested here the hypothesis that functional genetic variants may confer susceptibility to several related common disorders. We analyzed five main psychiatric diagnostic categories (substance-abuse, anxiety, eating, psychotic, and mood disorders) and two different control groups, representing a total of 3,214 samples, for 748 promoter and non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 306 genes involved in neurotransmission and/or neurodevelopment. We identified strong associations to individual disorders, such as growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) with anxiety disorders, prolactin regulatory element (PREB) with eating disorders, ionotropic kainate glutamate receptor 5 (GRIK5) with bipolar disorder and several SNPs associated to several disorders, that may represent individual and related disease susceptibility factors. Remarkably, a functional SNP, rs945032, located in the promoter region of the bradykinin receptor B2 gene (BDKRB2) was associated to three disorders (panic disorder, substance abuse, and bipolar disorder), and two additional BDKRB2 SNPs to obsessive-compulsive disorder and major depression, providing evidence for common variants of susceptibility to several related psychiatric disorders. The association of BDKRB2 (odd ratios between 1.65 and 3.06) to several psychiatric disorders supports the view that a common genetic variant could confer susceptibility to clinically related phenotypes, and defines a new functional hint in the pathophysiology of psychiatric diseases.

    American journal of medical genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric genetics : the official publication of the International Society of Psychiatric Genetics 2009;150B;6;808-16

  • The gray aspects of white matter disease in multiple sclerosis.

    Steinman L

    Department of Neurology and Neurological Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. steinman@stanford.edu

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2009;106;20;8083-4

  • Contactin-2/TAG-1-directed autoimmunity is identified in multiple sclerosis patients and mediates gray matter pathology in animals.

    Derfuss T, Parikh K, Velhin S, Braun M, Mathey E, Krumbholz M, Kümpfel T, Moldenhauer A, Rader C, Sonderegger P, Pöllmann W, Tiefenthaller C, Bauer J, Lassmann H, Wekerle H, Karagogeos D, Hohlfeld R, Linington C and Meinl E

    Department of Neuroimmunology, Max Planck Institute of Neurobiology, Martinsried, Germany.

    Gray matter pathology is increasingly recognized as an important feature of multiple sclerosis (MS), but the nature of the immune response that targets the gray matter is poorly understood. Starting with a proteomics approach, we identified contactin-2/transiently expressed axonal glycoprotein 1 (TAG-1) as a candidate autoantigen recognized by both autoantibodies and T helper (Th) 1/Th17 T cells in MS patients. Contactin-2 and its rat homologue, TAG-1, are expressed by various neuronal populations and sequestered in the juxtaparanodal domain of myelinated axons both at the axonal and myelin sides. The pathogenic significance of these autoimmune responses was then explored in experimental autoimmune encephalitis models in the rat. Adoptive transfer of TAG-1-specific T cells induced encephalitis characterized by a preferential inflammation of gray matter of the spinal cord and cortex. Cotransfer of TAG-1-specific T cells with a myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-specific mAb generated focal perivascular demyelinating lesions in the cortex and extensive demyelination in spinal cord gray and white matter. This study identifies contactin-2 as an autoantigen targeted by T cells and autoantibodies in MS. Our findings suggest that a contactin-2-specific T-cell response contributes to the development of gray matter pathology.

    Funded by: Multiple Sclerosis Society: 836

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2009;106;20;8302-7

  • Ubiquitylated Tax targets and binds the IKK signalosome at the centrosome.

    Kfoury Y, Nasr R, Favre-Bonvin A, El-Sabban M, Renault N, Giron ML, Setterblad N, Hajj HE, Chiari E, Mikati AG, Hermine O, Saib A, de Thé H, Pique C and Bazarbachi A

    Department of Internal Medicine, American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon.

    Constitutive activation of the NF-kappaB pathway by the Tax oncoprotein plays a crucial role in the proliferation and transformation of HTLV-I infected T lymphocytes. We have previously shown that Tax ubiquitylation on C-terminal lysines is critical for binding of Tax to IkappaB kinase (IKK) and its subsequent activation. Here, we report that ubiquitylated Tax is not associated with active cytosolic IKK subunits, but binds endogenous IKK-alpha, -beta, -gamma, targeting them to the centrosome. K63-ubiquitylated Tax colocalizes at the centrosome with IKK-gamma, while K48-ubiquitylated Tax is stabilized upon proteasome inhibition. Altogether, these results support a model in which K63-ubiquitylated Tax activates IKK in a centrosome-associated signalosome, leading to the production of Tax-free active cytoplasmic IKK. These observations highlight an unsuspected link between Tax-induced IKK activation and the centrosome.

    Oncogene 2008;27;12;1665-76

  • Impact of resuscitation strategies on the acetylation status of cardiac histones in a swine model of hemorrhage.

    Alam HB, Shults C, Ahuja N, Ayuste EC, Chen H, Koustova E, Sailhamer EA, Li Y, Liu B, de Moya M and Velmahos GC

    Trauma Research and Readiness Institute for Surgery, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD, United States. hbalam@partners.org

    Background: Chromatin remodeling through histone acetylation is a key control mechanism in gene transcription. We have shown previously that fluid resuscitation in rodents is coupled with highly structured post-translational modifications of cardiac histones. The current experiment was performed to validate this concept in a clinically relevant large animal model of hemorrhage and resuscitation, and to correlate the changes in histone acetylation with altered expression of immediate-early response genes.

    Yorkshire swine (n=49, 7/group, weight=40-58kg) were subjected to combined uncontrolled and controlled hemorrhage (40% of estimated blood volume) and randomly assigned to the following resuscitation groups: (1) 0.9% saline (NS), (2) racemic lactated Ringer's (dl-LR), (3) l-isomer lactated Ringer's (l-LR), (4) Ketone Ringer's (KR), (5) 6% hetastarch in saline (Hespan). KR contained an equimolar substitution of lactate with beta-hydroxybutyrate. No hemorrhage (NH) and no resuscitation (NR) groups were included as controls. Cardiac protein was used in Western blotting to analyze total protein acetylation and histone acetylation specifically. Lysine residue-specific acetylation of histone subunits H3 and H4 was further evaluated. In addition, Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP) technique was used to separate the DNA bound to acetylated histones (H3 and H4 subunits), followed by measurement of genes that are altered by hemorrhage/resuscitation, including immediate-early response genes (c-fos and c-myc), and heat shock protein (HSP) 70.

    Results: The type of fluid used for resuscitation influenced the patterns of cardiac histone acetylation. Resuscitation with dl-LR and KR induced hyperacetylation on H3K9. KR resuscitation was also associated with increased acetylation on H3K14 and H4K5, and hypoacetylation on H3K18. The expression of genes was also fluid specific, with the largest number of changes following KR resuscitation (increased c-fos and c-myc, HSP 70 linked with H3; and increased c-myc linked with H4). Among the histone subunits studied, altered H3 acetylations were associated with the majority of changes in immediate-early gene expression.

    Conclusions: Acetylation status of cardiac histones, affected by hemorrhage, is further modulated by resuscitation producing a fluid-specific code that is preserved in different species. Resuscitation with KR causes histone acetylation at the largest number of lysine sites (predominately H3 subunit), and has the most pronounced impact on the transcriptional regulation of selected (immediate-early response) genes.

    Resuscitation 2008;76;2;299-310

  • HTLV-1 Tax-mediated TAK1 activation involves TAB2 adapter protein.

    Yu Q, Minoda Y, Yoshida R, Yoshida H, Iha H, Kobayashi T, Yoshimura A and Takaesu G

    Division of Molecular and Cellular Immunology, Medical Institute of Bioregulation, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka, Fukuoka 812-8582, Japan.

    Human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) Tax is an oncoprotein that plays a crucial role in the proliferation and transformation of HTLV-1-infected T lymphocytes. It has recently been reported that Tax activates a MAPKKK family, TAK1. However, the molecular mechanism of Tax-mediated TAK1 activation is not well understood. In this report, we investigated the role of TAK1-binding protein 2 (TAB2) in Tax-mediated TAK1 activation. We found that TAB2 physically interacts with Tax and augments Tax-induced NF-kappaB activity. Tax and TAB2 cooperatively activate TAK1 when they are coexpressed. Furthermore, TAK1 activation by Tax requires TAB2 binding as well as ubiquitination of Tax. We also found that the overexpression of TRAF2, 5, or 6 strongly induces Tax ubiquitination. These results suggest that TAB2 may be critically involved in Tax-mediated activation of TAK1 and that NF-kappaB-activating TRAF family proteins are potential cellular E3 ubiquitin ligases toward Tax.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2008;365;1;189-94

  • The human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 Tax oncoprotein requires the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme Ubc13 for NF-kappaB activation.

    Shembade N, Harhaj NS, Yamamoto M, Akira S and Harhaj EW

    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center, the University of Miami, Miller School of Medicine, 1550 NW 10 Avenue, Miami, FL 33136, USA.

    Ubiquitination of the human T-cell leukemia virus 1 Tax oncoprotein provides an important regulatory mechanism that promotes the Tax-mediated activation of NF-kappaB. However, the type of polyubiquitin chain linkages and the host factors that are required for Tax ubiquitination have not been identified. Here, we demonstrate that Tax polyubiquitin chains are composed predominantly of lysine 63-linked chains. Furthermore, the ubiquitination of Tax is critically dependent on the E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme Ubc13. Tax interacts with Ubc13, and small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of Ubc13 expression abrogates Tax ubiquitination and the activation of NF-kappaB. Mouse fibroblasts lacking Ubc13 exhibit impaired Tax activation of NF-kappaB despite normal tumor necrosis factor- and interleukin-1-mediated NF-kappaB activation. Finally, the interaction of Tax with NEMO is disrupted in the absence of Tax ubiquitination and Ubc13 expression, suggesting that Tax ubiquitination is critical for NEMO binding. Collectively, our results reveal that Ubc13 is essential for Tax ubiquitination, its interaction with NEMO, and Tax-mediated NF-kappaB activation.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R01 CA099926, R01 CA99926

    Journal of virology 2007;81;24;13735-42

  • The crystal structure of the ligand-binding module of human TAG-1 suggests a new mode of homophilic interaction.

    Mörtl M, Sonderegger P, Diederichs K and Welte W

    University of Konstanz, Department of Biology, Konstanz, Germany.

    Human TAG-1 is a neural cell adhesion molecule that is crucial for the development of the nervous system during embryogenesis. It consists of six immunoglobulin-like and four fibronectin III-like domains and is anchored to the membrane by glycosylphosphatidylinositol. Herein we present the crystal structure of the four N-terminal immunoglobulin-like domains of TAG-1 (TAG-1(Ig1-4)), known to be important in heterophilic and homophilic macromolecular interactions. The contacts of neighboring molecules within the crystal were investigated. A comparison with the structure of the chicken ortholog resulted in an alternative mode for the molecular mechanism of homophilic TAG-1 interaction. This mode of TAG-1 homophilic interaction is based on dimer formation rather than formation of a molecular zipper as proposed for the chicken ortholog.

    Protein science : a publication of the Protein Society 2007;16;10;2174-83

  • The retroviral oncoprotein Tax targets the coiled-coil centrosomal protein TAX1BP2 to induce centrosome overduplication.

    Ching YP, Chan SF, Jeang KT and Jin DY

    Department of Biochemistry, University of Hong Kong, 21 Sassoon Road, Pokfulam, Hong Kong.

    Emerging evidence suggests that supernumerary centrosomes drive genome instability and oncogenesis. Human T-cell leukaemia virus type I (HTLV-I) is etiologically associated with adult T-cell leukaemia (ATL). ATL cells are aneuploid, but the causes of aneuploidy are incompletely understood. Here, we show that centrosome amplification is frequent in HTLV-I-transformed cells and that this phenotype is caused by the viral Tax oncoprotein. We also show that the fraction of Tax protein that localizes to centrosomes interacts with TAX1BP2, a novel centrosomal protein composed almost entirely of coiled-coil domains. Overexpression of TAX1BP2 inhibited centrosome duplication, whereas depletion of TAX1BP2 by RNAi resulted in centrosome hyperamplification. Our findings suggest that the HTLV-I Tax oncoprotein targets TAX1BP2 causing genomic instability and aneuploidy.

    Funded by: FIC NIH HHS: R01 TW06186-01; Intramural NIH HHS

    Nature cell biology 2006;8;7;717-24

  • The DNA sequence and biological annotation of human chromosome 1.

    Gregory SG, Barlow KF, McLay KE, Kaul R, Swarbreck D, Dunham A, Scott CE, Howe KL, Woodfine K, Spencer CC, Jones MC, Gillson C, Searle S, Zhou Y, Kokocinski F, McDonald L, Evans R, Phillips K, Atkinson A, Cooper R, Jones C, Hall RE, Andrews TD, Lloyd C, Ainscough R, Almeida JP, Ambrose KD, Anderson F, Andrew RW, Ashwell RI, Aubin K, Babbage AK, Bagguley CL, Bailey J, Beasley H, Bethel G, Bird CP, Bray-Allen S, Brown JY, Brown AJ, Buckley D, Burton J, Bye J, Carder C, Chapman JC, Clark SY, Clarke G, Clee C, Cobley V, Collier RE, Corby N, Coville GJ, Davies J, Deadman R, Dunn M, Earthrowl M, Ellington AG, Errington H, Frankish A, Frankland J, French L, Garner P, Garnett J, Gay L, Ghori MR, Gibson R, Gilby LM, Gillett W, Glithero RJ, Grafham DV, Griffiths C, Griffiths-Jones S, Grocock R, Hammond S, Harrison ES, Hart E, Haugen E, Heath PD, Holmes S, Holt K, Howden PJ, Hunt AR, Hunt SE, Hunter G, Isherwood J, James R, Johnson C, Johnson D, Joy A, Kay M, Kershaw JK, Kibukawa M, Kimberley AM, King A, Knights AJ, Lad H, Laird G, Lawlor S, Leongamornlert DA, Lloyd DM, Loveland J, Lovell J, Lush MJ, Lyne R, Martin S, Mashreghi-Mohammadi M, Matthews L, Matthews NS, McLaren S, Milne S, Mistry S, Moore MJ, Nickerson T, O'Dell CN, Oliver K, Palmeiri A, Palmer SA, Parker A, Patel D, Pearce AV, Peck AI, Pelan S, Phelps K, Phillimore BJ, Plumb R, Rajan J, Raymond C, Rouse G, Saenphimmachak C, Sehra HK, Sheridan E, Shownkeen R, Sims S, Skuce CD, Smith M, Steward C, Subramanian S, Sycamore N, Tracey A, Tromans A, Van Helmond Z, Wall M, Wallis JM, White S, Whitehead SL, Wilkinson JE, Willey DL, Williams H, Wilming L, Wray PW, Wu Z, Coulson A, Vaudin M, Sulston JE, Durbin R, Hubbard T, Wooster R, Dunham I, Carter NP, McVean G, Ross MT, Harrow J, Olson MV, Beck S, Rogers J, Bentley DR, Banerjee R, Bryant SP, Burford DC, Burrill WD, Clegg SM, Dhami P, Dovey O, Faulkner LM, Gribble SM, Langford CF, Pandian RD, Porter KM and Prigmore E

    The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, The Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridgeshire CB10 1SA, UK. sgregory@chg.duhs.duke.edu

    The reference sequence for each human chromosome provides the framework for understanding genome function, variation and evolution. Here we report the finished sequence and biological annotation of human chromosome 1. Chromosome 1 is gene-dense, with 3,141 genes and 991 pseudogenes, and many coding sequences overlap. Rearrangements and mutations of chromosome 1 are prevalent in cancer and many other diseases. Patterns of sequence variation reveal signals of recent selection in specific genes that may contribute to human fitness, and also in regions where no function is evident. Fine-scale recombination occurs in hotspots of varying intensity along the sequence, and is enriched near genes. These and other studies of human biology and disease encoded within chromosome 1 are made possible with the highly accurate annotated sequence, as part of the completed set of chromosome sequences that comprise the reference human genome.

    Funded by: Medical Research Council: G0000107; Wellcome Trust

    Nature 2006;441;7091;315-21

  • Human plasma N-glycoproteome analysis by immunoaffinity subtraction, hydrazide chemistry, and mass spectrometry.

    Liu T, Qian WJ, Gritsenko MA, Camp DG, Monroe ME, Moore RJ and Smith RD

    Biological Sciences Division and Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354, USA.

    The enormous complexity, wide dynamic range of relative protein abundances of interest (over 10 orders of magnitude), and tremendous heterogeneity (due to post-translational modifications, such as glycosylation) of the human blood plasma proteome severely challenge the capabilities of existing analytical methodologies. Here, we describe an approach for broad analysis of human plasma N-glycoproteins using a combination of immunoaffinity subtraction and glycoprotein capture to reduce both the protein concentration range and the overall sample complexity. Six high-abundance plasma proteins were simultaneously removed using a pre-packed, immobilized antibody column. N-linked glycoproteins were then captured from the depleted plasma using hydrazide resin and enzymatically digested, and the bound N-linked glycopeptides were released using peptide-N-glycosidase F (PNGase F). Following strong cation exchange (SCX) fractionation, the deglycosylated peptides were analyzed by reversed-phase capillary liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Using stringent criteria, a total of 2053 different N-glycopeptides were confidently identified, covering 303 nonredundant N-glycoproteins. This enrichment strategy significantly improved detection and enabled identification of a number of low-abundance proteins, exemplified by interleukin-1 receptor antagonist protein (approximately 200 pg/mL), cathepsin L (approximately 1 ng/mL), and transforming growth factor beta 1 (approximately 2 ng/mL). A total of 639 N-glycosylation sites were identified, and the overall high accuracy of these glycosylation site assignments as assessed by accurate mass measurement using high-resolution liquid chromatography coupled to Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (LC-FTICR) is initially demonstrated.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: P41 RR018522, RR18522; NIGMS NIH HHS: U54 GM-62119-02, U54 GM062119

    Journal of proteome research 2005;4;6;2070-80

  • Signal peptide prediction based on analysis of experimentally verified cleavage sites.

    Zhang Z and Henzel WJ

    Department of Bioinformatics, Genentech, Inc., South San Francisco, CA 94080, USA. zemin@gene.com

    A number of computational tools are available for detecting signal peptides, but their abilities to locate the signal peptide cleavage sites vary significantly and are often less than satisfactory. We characterized a set of 270 secreted recombinant human proteins by automated Edman analysis and used the verified cleavage sites to evaluate the success rate of a number of computational prediction programs. An examination of the frequency of amino acid in the N-terminal region of the data set showed a preference of proline and glutamine but a bias against tyrosine. The data set was compared to the SWISS-PROT database and revealed a high percentage of discrepancies with cleavage site annotations that were computationally generated. The best program for predicting signal sequences was found to be SignalP 2.0-NN with an accuracy of 78.1% for cleavage site recognition. The new data set can be utilized for refining prediction algorithms, and we have built an improved version of profile hidden Markov model for signal peptides based on the new data.

    Protein science : a publication of the Protein Society 2004;13;10;2819-24

  • Genetic and epigenetic inactivation of tax gene in adult T-cell leukemia cells.

    Takeda S, Maeda M, Morikawa S, Taniguchi Y, Yasunaga J, Nosaka K, Tanaka Y and Matsuoka M

    Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.

    To clarify the status of tax gene, we analyzed human T-cell leukemia virus type-I (HTLV-I) associated cell lines and fresh adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) cells. We compared 2 types of HTLV-I associated cell lines: one was derived from leukemic cells (leukemic cell line) and the other from nonleukemic cells (nonleukemic cell line). Although all nonleukemic cell lines expressed Tax, it could not be detected in 3 of 5 leukemic cell lines, in which nonsense mutation or deletion (60 bp) of tax genes, and DNA methylation in 5'-LTR were identified as the responsible changes. We found such genetic changes of the tax gene in 5 of 47 fresh ATL cases (11%). The tax gene transcripts could be detected in 14 of 41 fresh ATL cases (34%) by RT-PCR. In ATL cases with genetic changes that could not produce Tax protein, the tax gene was frequently transcribed, suggesting that such cells do not need the transcriptional silencing. Although DNA methylation of 5'-LTR was detected in the fresh ATL cases (19 of 28 cases; 68%), the complete methylation associated with transcriptional silencing was observed only in 4 cases. Since partial methylation could not silence the transcription, and the tax gene transcription was not detected in 27 of 41 cases (66%), the epigenetic change(s) other than DNA methylation is considered to play an important role in the silencing.

    International journal of cancer 2004;109;4;559-67

  • Chromosome 13q12 encoded Rho GTPase activating protein suppresses growth of breast carcinoma cells, and yeast two-hybrid screen shows its interaction with several proteins.

    Nagaraja GM and Kandpal RP

    Department of Biological Sciences, Fordham University, Bronx, NY 10458, USA.

    We have characterized the cDNA for a Rho GTPase activating protein (GAP) mapping to chromosome 13q12. The cDNA was characterized by determining the complete sequence of a 4.8 kb cDNA clone that represents the 5' untranslated region (UTR), the translated region, and the 3' UTR. The protein has a sterile alpha-motif (SAM), a distinct GAP domain, and a conserved START (StAR related lipid transfer) domain. The cDNA has 5 instability motifs (ATTTA) in the 3' UTR and one motif in the translated region between GAP and START domains. The RhoGAP transcript is truncated in some breast carcinoma cell lines and it has low expression in other breast cancer cell lines as compared to a normal breast cell line. We have previously observed the absence of RhoGAP transcript in a breast tumor specimen. A GST-fusion of the RhoGAP was tested for its specificity on RhoA, Cdc42, and Rac1. The protein was most active for RhoA. Transfection of RhoGAP into MCF7 cells significantly inhibited cell growth. The introduction of the RhoGAP construct into MDAMB231 cells that had previously been transfected with a p21 construct did not affect cell proliferation, indicating the involvement of p21 in Rho-mediated proliferation of cancer cells. NIH3T3 cells overexpressing RhoGAP showed considerable inhibition of stress fiber formation. Several cDNAs were identified as RhoGAP interactors by using the yeast two-hybrid assay system. These cDNAs correspond to SWI/SNF, alpha-tubulin, HMG CoA reductase, and TAX1 binding protein (TAX1BP1). The interaction with HMG CoA reductase may partially explain the growth inhibition of breast carcinoma cells by statin class of cholesterol lowering drugs. The biological significance of the interacting proteins is discussed in the context of their involvement in tumorigenesis. Our results indicate that loss of RhoGAP or its altered activity suppresses the growth of breast tumor cells. The presence of various motifs in RhoGAP and its interaction with several other proteins suggest that the protein may regulate Rho signaling in multiple ways and possibly function in a Rho-independent manner.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2004;313;3;654-65

  • Protein profile of tax-associated complexes.

    Wu K, Bottazzi ME, de la Fuente C, Deng L, Gitlin SD, Maddukuri A, Dadgar S, Li H, Vertes A, Pumfery A and Kashanchi F

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Medicine and Health Sciences, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037, USA.

    Infection with human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) results in adult T-cell leukemia and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis. Tax, a 40-kDa protein, regulates viral and cellular transcription, host signal transduction, the cell cycle, and apoptosis. Tax has been shown to modulate cellular CREB and NFkappaB pathways; however, to date, its role in binding to various host cellular proteins involved in tumorigenesis has not been fully described. In this study, we describe the Tax-associated proteins and their functions in cells using several approaches. Tax eluted from a sizing column mostly at an apparent molecular mass of 1800 kDa. Following Tax immunoprecipitation, washes with high salt buffer, two-dimensional gel separation, and mass spectrometric analysis, a total of 32 proteins was identified. Many of these proteins belong to the signal transduction and cytoskeleton pathways and transcription/chromatin remodeling. A few of these proteins, including TXBP151, have been shown previously to bind to Tax. The interaction of Tax with small GTPase-cytoskeleton proteins, such as ras GAP1m, Rac1, Cdc42, RhoA, and gelsolin, indicates how Tax may regulate migration, invasion, and adhesion in T-cell cancers. Finally, the physical and functional association of Tax with the chromatin remodeling SWI/SNF complex was assessed using in vitro chromatin remodeling assays, chromatin remodeling factor BRG1 mutant cells, and RNA interference experiments. Collectively, Tax is able to bind and regulate many cellular proteins that regulate transcription and cytoskeletal related pathways, which might explain the pleiotropic effects of Tax leading to T-cell transformation and leukemia in HTLV-1-infected patients.

    Funded by: NIAID NIH HHS: AI43894, AI44357; PHS HHS: 13969

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2004;279;1;495-508

  • Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.

    Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, Otsuki T, Sugiyama T, Irie R, Wakamatsu A, Hayashi K, Sato H, Nagai K, Kimura K, Makita H, Sekine M, Obayashi M, Nishi T, Shibahara T, Tanaka T, Ishii S, Yamamoto J, Saito K, Kawai Y, Isono Y, Nakamura Y, Nagahari K, Murakami K, Yasuda T, Iwayanagi T, Wagatsuma M, Shiratori A, Sudo H, Hosoiri T, Kaku Y, Kodaira H, Kondo H, Sugawara M, Takahashi M, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Furuya T, Kikkawa E, Omura Y, Abe K, Kamihara K, Katsuta N, Sato K, Tanikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ninomiya K, Ishibashi T, Yamashita H, Murakawa K, Fujimori K, Tanai H, Kimata M, Watanabe M, Hiraoka S, Chiba Y, Ishida S, Ono Y, Takiguchi S, Watanabe S, Yosida M, Hotuta T, Kusano J, Kanehori K, Takahashi-Fujii A, Hara H, Tanase TO, Nomura Y, Togiya S, Komai F, Hara R, Takeuchi K, Arita M, Imose N, Musashino K, Yuuki H, Oshima A, Sasaki N, Aotsuka S, Yoshikawa Y, Matsunawa H, Ichihara T, Shiohata N, Sano S, Moriya S, Momiyama H, Satoh N, Takami S, Terashima Y, Suzuki O, Nakagawa S, Senoh A, Mizoguchi H, Goto Y, Shimizu F, Wakebe H, Hishigaki H, Watanabe T, Sugiyama A, Takemoto M, Kawakami B, Yamazaki M, Watanabe K, Kumagai A, Itakura S, Fukuzumi Y, Fujimori Y, Komiyama M, Tashiro H, Tanigami A, Fujiwara T, Ono T, Yamada K, Fujii Y, Ozaki K, Hirao M, Ohmori Y, Kawabata A, Hikiji T, Kobatake N, Inagaki H, Ikema Y, Okamoto S, Okitani R, Kawakami T, Noguchi S, Itoh T, Shigeta K, Senba T, Matsumura K, Nakajima Y, Mizuno T, Morinaga M, Sasaki M, Togashi T, Oyama M, Hata H, Watanabe M, Komatsu T, Mizushima-Sugano J, Satoh T, Shirai Y, Takahashi Y, Nakagawa K, Okumura K, Nagase T, Nomura N, Kikuchi H, Masuho Y, Yamashita R, Nakai K, Yada T, Nakamura Y, Ohara O, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Helix Research Institute, 1532-3 Yana, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0812, Japan.

    As a base for human transcriptome and functional genomics, we created the "full-length long Japan" (FLJ) collection of sequenced human cDNAs. We determined the entire sequence of 21,243 selected clones and found that 14,490 cDNAs (10,897 clusters) were unique to the FLJ collection. About half of them (5,416) seemed to be protein-coding. Of those, 1,999 clusters had not been predicted by computational methods. The distribution of GC content of nonpredicted cDNAs had a peak at approximately 58% compared with a peak at approximately 42%for predicted cDNAs. Thus, there seems to be a slight bias against GC-rich transcripts in current gene prediction procedures. The rest of the cDNAs unique to the FLJ collection (5,481) contained no obvious open reading frames (ORFs) and thus are candidate noncoding RNAs. About one-fourth of them (1,378) showed a clear pattern of splicing. The distribution of GC content of noncoding cDNAs was narrow and had a peak at approximately 42%, relatively low compared with that of protein-coding cDNAs.

    Nature genetics 2004;36;1;40-5

  • Association of TAG-1 with Caspr2 is essential for the molecular organization of juxtaparanodal regions of myelinated fibers.

    Traka M, Goutebroze L, Denisenko N, Bessa M, Nifli A, Havaki S, Iwakura Y, Fukamauchi F, Watanabe K, Soliven B, Girault JA and Karagogeos D

    Department of Basic Science, University of Crete Medical School, Heraklion 71110, Crete, Greece.

    Myelination results in a highly segregated distribution of axonal membrane proteins at nodes of Ranvier. Here, we show the role in this process of TAG-1, a glycosyl-phosphatidyl-inositol-anchored cell adhesion molecule. In the absence of TAG-1, axonal Caspr2 did not accumulate at juxtaparanodes, and the normal enrichment of shaker-type K+ channels in these regions was severely disrupted, in the central and peripheral nervous systems. In contrast, the localization of protein 4.1B, an axoplasmic partner of Caspr2, was only moderately altered. TAG-1, which is expressed in both neurons and glia, was able to associate in cis with Caspr2 and in trans with itself. Thus, a tripartite intercellular protein complex, comprised of these two proteins, appears critical for axo-glial contacts at juxtaparanodes. This complex is analogous to that described previously at paranodes, suggesting that similar molecules are crucial for different types of axo-glial interactions.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: R01 NS039346, R01 NS39346-01

    The Journal of cell biology 2003;162;6;1161-72

  • Juxtaparanodal clustering of Shaker-like K+ channels in myelinated axons depends on Caspr2 and TAG-1.

    Poliak S, Salomon D, Elhanany H, Sabanay H, Kiernan B, Pevny L, Stewart CL, Xu X, Chiu SY, Shrager P, Furley AJ and Peles E

    Department of Molecular Cell Biology, The Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel.

    In myelinated axons, K+ channels are concealed under the myelin sheath in the juxtaparanodal region, where they are associated with Caspr2, a member of the neurexin superfamily. Deletion of Caspr2 in mice by gene targeting revealed that it is required to maintain K+ channels at this location. Furthermore, we show that the localization of Caspr2 and clustering of K+ channels at the juxtaparanodal region depends on the presence of TAG-1, an immunoglobulin-like cell adhesion molecule that binds Caspr2. These results demonstrate that Caspr2 and TAG-1 form a scaffold that is necessary to maintain K+ channels at the juxtaparanodal region, suggesting that axon-glia interactions mediated by these proteins allow myelinating glial cells to organize ion channels in the underlying axonal membrane.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: NS17965, R01 NS017965; PHS HHS: R01-23375

    The Journal of cell biology 2003;162;6;1149-60

  • Analysis of interactions of the adhesion molecule TAG-1 and its domains with other immunoglobulin superfamily members.

    Pavlou O, Theodorakis K, Falk J, Kutsche M, Schachner M, Faivre-Sarrailh C and Karagogeos D

    Department of Basic Science, University of Crete Medical School and Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, P.O. Box 1527, Heraklion, Greece.

    Cell adhesion molecules of the immunoglobulin superfamily promote cell aggregation and neurite outgrowth via homophilic and heterophilic interactions. The transient axonal glycoprotein TAG-1 induces cell aggregation through homophilic interaction of its fibronectin repeats. We investigated the domains responsible for the neurite outgrowth promoting activity of TAG-1 as well as its interactions with other cell adhesion molecules. Binding experiments with Fc-chimeric proteins revealed that TAG-1 interacts with L1, NrCAM, and F3/contactin. The membrane-associated as opposed to the soluble form of TAG-1 behaves differently in these assays. We demonstrate that both the immunoglobulin as well as the fibronectin domains promote neurite outgrowth when used as substrates. Furthermore we investigated the putative role of L1 and NrCAM as the neuronal TAG-1 receptors mediating neurite extension. DRG neurons from L1-deficient mice were found to extend neurites on TAG-1 substrates and blocking NrCAM function did not diminish the TAG-1-dependent neurite outgrowth. These results indicate that neither L1 nor NrCAM are required for TAG-1-elicited neurite outgrowth.

    Molecular and cellular neurosciences 2002;20;3;367-81

  • Human T-cell leukemia virus type I oncoprotein Tax represses Smad-dependent transforming growth factor beta signaling through interaction with CREB-binding protein/p300.

    Mori N, Morishita M, Tsukazaki T, Giam CZ, Kumatori A, Tanaka Y and Yamamoto N

    Department of Preventive Medicine and AIDS Research, Nagasaki University, Japan. n-mori@net.nagasaki-u.ac.jp

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) Tax is a potent transcriptional regulator that can activate or repress specific cellular genes and that has been proposed to contribute to leukemogenesis in adult T-cell leukemia. Previously, HTLV-I- infected T-cell clones were found to be resistant to growth inhibition by transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta. Here it is shown that Tax can perturb Smad-dependent TGF-beta signaling even though no direct interaction of Tax and Smad proteins could be detected. Importantly, a mutant Tax of CREB-binding protein (CBP)/p300 binding site, could not repress the Smad transactivation function, suggesting that the CBP/p300 binding domain of Tax is essential for the suppression of Smad function. Because both Tax and Smad are known to interact with CBP/p300 for the potentiation of their transcriptional activities, the effect of CBP/p300 on suppression of Smad-mediated transactivation by Tax was examined. Overexpression of CBP/p300 reversed Tax-mediated inhibition of Smad transactivation. Furthermore, Smad could repress Tax transcriptional activation, indicating reciprocal repression between Tax and Smad. These results suggest that Tax interferes with the recruitment of CBP/p300 into transcription initiation complexes on TGF-beta-responsive elements through its binding to CBP/p300. The novel function of Tax as a repressor of TGF-beta signaling may contribute to HTLV-I leukemogenesis. (Blood. 2001;97:2137-2144)

    Blood 2001;97;7;2137-44

  • The gene for the axonal cell adhesion molecule TAX-1 is amplified and aberrantly expressed in malignant gliomas.

    Rickman DS, Tyagi R, Zhu XX, Bobek MP, Song S, Blaivas M, Misek DE, Israel MA, Kurnit DM, Ross DA, Kish PE and Hanash SM

    Department of Pediatrics, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor 48109, USA.

    The human TAX-1 gene encodes a Mr 135,000 glycoprotein that is transiently expressed on the surface of a subset of neurons during development and is involved in neurite outgrowth. The TAX-1 gene has been mapped to a region on chromosome 1 that has been implicated in microcephaly and the Van der Woude syndrome. Using restriction landmark genome scanning to search for amplified genes in gliomas, we found TAX-1 to be amplified in 2 high-grade gliomas among a group of 26 gliomas investigated. Real-time reverse transcription-quantitative PCR analysis detected high levels of TAX-1 mRNA in glial tumors, even in the absence of TAX-1 gene amplification. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed abundant levels of TAX-1 in neoplastic glial cells of glioblastoma multiforme tumors. Because glial tumors are highly invasive and in view of the role of TAX-1 in neurite outgrowth, we investigated the potential role of TAX-1 in glioma cell migration. Using an in vitro assay, we found that the migration of glioma tumor cells is profoundly reduced in the presence of either an anti-TAX-1 antibody or a TAX-1 antisense oligonucleotide. Our findings suggest that TAX-1 plays a role in glial tumorigenesis and may provide a potential target for therapeutic intervention.

    Cancer research 2001;61;5;2162-8

  • The crystal structure of the ligand binding module of axonin-1/TAG-1 suggests a zipper mechanism for neural cell adhesion.

    Freigang J, Proba K, Leder L, Diederichs K, Sonderegger P and Welte W

    Faculty of Biology, University of Konstanz, Germany.

    We have determined the crystal structure of the ligand binding fragment of the neural cell adhesion molecule axonin-1/TAG-1 comprising the first four immunoglobulin (Ig) domains. The overall structure of axonin-1(Ig1-4) is U-shaped due to contacts between domains 1 and 4 and domains 2 and 3. In the crystals, these molecules are aligned in a string with adjacent molecules oriented in an anti-parallel fashion and their C termini perpendicular to the string. This arrangement suggests that cell adhesion by homophilic axonin-1 interaction occurs by the formation of a linear zipper-like array in which the axonin-1 molecules are alternately provided by the two apposed membranes. In accordance with this model, mutations in a loop critical for the formation of the zipper resulted in the loss of the homophilic binding capacity of axonin-1.

    Cell 2000;101;4;425-33

  • Cis-activation of L1-mediated ankyrin recruitment by TAG-1 homophilic cell adhesion.

    Malhotra JD, Tsiotra P, Karagogeos D and Hortsch M

    Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-0616, USA.

    Neural cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) of the immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily mediate not only cell aggregation but also growth cone guidance and neurite outgrowth. In this study we demonstrate that two neural CAMs, L1-CAM and TAG-1, induce the homophilic aggregation of Drosophila S2 cells but are unable to interact with each other when expressed on different cells (trans-interaction). However, immunoprecipitations from cells co-expressing L1-CAM and TAG-1 showed a strong cis-interaction between the two molecules in the plane of the plasma membrane. TAG-1 is linked to the membrane by a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor and therefore is unable to directly interact with cytoplasmic proteins. In contrast, L1-CAM-mediated homophilic cell adhesion induces the selective recruitment of the membrane skeleton protein ankyrin to areas of cell contact. Immunolabeling experiments in which S2 cells expressing TAG-1 were mixed with cells co-expressing L1-CAM and TAG-1 demonstrated that the homophilic interaction between TAG-1 molecules results in the cis-activation of L1-CAM to bind ankyrin. This TAG-1-dependent recruitment of the membrane skeleton provides an example of how GPI-anchored CAMs are able to transduce signals to the cytoplasm. Furthermore, such interactions might ultimately result in the recruitment and the activation of other signaling molecules at sites of cell contacts.

    Funded by: NICHD NIH HHS: HD29388

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1998;273;50;33354-9

  • Radiation hybrid mapping of the genes for tenascin-R (TNR), phosducin (PDC), laminin C1 (LAMC1), and TAX in 1q25-q32.

    Williams H, Schachner M, Wang B and Kenwrick S

    Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom. swilliam@hgmp.mrc.ac.uk

    Genomics 1997;46;1;165-6

  • Physical and functional interaction between the human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 Tax1 protein and the CCAAT binding protein NF-Y.

    Pise-Masison CA, Dittmer J, Clemens KE and Brady JN

    Laboratory of Molecular Virology, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892-5055, USA.

    Tax1, a potent activator of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) transcription, has been shown to modulate expression of many cellular genes. Tax1 does not bind DNA directly but regulates transcription through protein-protein interactions with sequence-specific transcription factors. Using the yeast two-hybrid system to screen for proteins which interact with Tax1, we isolated the B subunit of the CCAAT binding protein NF-Y from a HeLa cDNA library. The interaction of Tax1 with NF-YB was specific in that NF-YB did not interact with a variety of other transcription factors, including human immunodeficiency virus Tat, human papillomavirus E6, and Bicoid, or with the M7 (amino acids 29CP-AS) Tax1 mutant. However, NF-YB did interact with the C-terminal Tax1 mutants M22 (130TL-AS) and M47 (319LL-RS). We also show that in vitro-translated NF-YB specifically bound to a glutathione S-transferase-Tax1 fusion protein. Further, Tax1 coimmunoprecipitated with NF-Y from nuclear extracts of HTLV-1-transformed cells, providing evidence for in vivo interaction of Tax1 and NF-YB. We further demonstrate that Tax1 specifically activated the NF-Y-responsive DQbeta promoter, as well as a minimal promoter which contains only the Y-box element. In addition, mutation of the Y-box element alone abrogated Tax1-mediated activation. Taken together, these data indicate that Tax1 interacts with NF-Y through the B subunit and that this interaction results in activation of the major histocompatibility complex class II promoter. Through activation of this and other NF-Y driven promoters, the Tax1-NF-Y interaction may play a critical role in causing cellular transformation and HTLV-1 pathogenesis.

    Molecular and cellular biology 1997;17;3;1236-43

  • TAG-1/axonin-1 is a high-affinity ligand of neurocan, phosphacan/protein-tyrosine phosphatase-zeta/beta, and N-CAM.

    Milev P, Maurel P, Häring M, Margolis RK and Margolis RU

    Department of Pharmacology, New York University Medical Center, New York, New York 10016, USA.

    Proteoglycans appear to play an important role in modulating cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions during nervous tissue histogenesis. The nervous tissue-specific chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans neurocan and phosphacan/protein-tyrosine phosphatase-zeta/beta were found to be high-affinity ligands of the neural cell adhesion molecule TAG-1/axonin-1, with dissociation constants of 0.3 nM and 0.04 nM, respectively. Phosphacan binding was decreased by approximately 70% following chondroitinase treatment, whereas binding of neurocan was not affected. The contribution of chondroitin sulfate chains to the binding of neurocan and phosphacan to TAG-1/axonin-1 is therefore the opposite of that previously observed for their binding to two other Ig-superfamily neural cell adhesion molecules, Ng-CAM/L1 and N-CAM. Moreover, whereas phosphacan interactions with certain proteins are mediated at least in part by N-linked oligosaccharides on the proteoglycan, N-deglycosylation of phosphacan had no effect on its binding to TAG-1/axonin-1. In addition to the chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans described above, we have demonstrated that N-CAM is a high-affinity ligand of TAG-1/axonin-1 (Kd approximately 1 nM), and specific binding of TAG-1/axonin-1 to tenascin-C was also observed (Kd approximately 9 nM). Immunocytochemical studies of embryonic and early postnatal nervous tissue showed an overlapping localization of TAG-1/axonin-1 with all four of these ligands, further supporting the biological significance of their ability to interact in vitro.

    Funded by: NIMH NIH HHS: MH-00129; NINDS NIH HHS: NS-13876, R01 NS009348, R01 NS013876

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1996;271;26;15716-23

  • The human TAX1 gene encoding the axon-associated cell adhesion molecule TAG-1/axonin-1: genomic structure and basic promoter.

    Kozlov SV, Giger RJ, Hasler T, Korvatska E, Schorderet DF and Sonderegger P

    Institute of Biochemistry, University of Zurich, Switzerland.

    The human TAX-1 gene (HGMW-approved symbol TAX1) is located on chromosome 1 (1q32.1) and encodes the neuronal cell adhesion molecule TAG-1/axonin-1. The gene product, termed TAG-1 in the rat and axonin-1 in the chicken, is composed of six immunoglobulin (Ig)-like and four fibronectin type III (FNIII)-like domains. It is found predominantly on the axons of particular nerve fiber tracts during neural development, and it has been demonstrated to function as a potent substratum for neurite outgrowth in vitro. Here we report the cloning and structural characterization of the TAX-1 gene. The transcribed region of the TAX-1 gene extends over about 40 kb. Like its chicken homologue, the human TAX-1 gene consists of 23 exons. Two GT/CA microsatellites were localized in the first intron; a polymorphism was found for one of them. Reporter gene analysis with serially truncated fragments of the 5'-flanking region indicated that a 164-bp fragment located immediately upstream of the putative transcription initiation site was sufficient to function as a basal promoter.

    Genomics 1995;30;2;141-8

  • Overlapping and differential expression of BIG-2, BIG-1, TAG-1, and F3: four members of an axon-associated cell adhesion molecule subgroup of the immunoglobulin superfamily.

    Yoshihara Y, Kawasaki M, Tamada A, Nagata S, Kagamiyama H and Mori K

    Department of Neuroscience, Osaka Bioscience Institute, Japan.

    Axon-associated cell adhesion molecules (AxCAMs) play crucial roles in the formation, maintenance, and plasticity of functional neuronal networks. We report here a molecular cloning of a novel AxCAM, BIG-2. BIG-2 is a member of TAG-1/F3 subgroup of the immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily, with six Ig-like domains, four fibronectin type III-like repeats, and a glycosyl phosphatidylinositol-anchoring domain. Recombinant BIG-2 protein had a neurite outgrowth-promoting activity when used as a substrate for neurons in vitro. To survey the spatial expression pattern of BIG-2 in comparison with other TAG-1/F3 subgroup members, an in situ hybridization analysis was performed in adult and developing rat brain sections with riboprobes specific for BIG-2, BIG-1, TAG-1, and F3. The four AxCAM transcripts displayed cell type-specific expression patterns with overlapping and distinct profiles. In adult hippocampus, for example, we observed BIG-1 mRNA specifically in granule cells of the dentate gyrus, BIG-2 mRNA highly in the CA1 pyramidal cells, TAG-1 mRNA predominantly in the CA3 pyramidal cells, and F3 mRNA in neurons in all of these fields. These results suggest that BIG-2, BIG-1, TAG-1, and F3 may play important roles in the formation and maintenance of specific neuronal networks in the brain.

    Journal of neurobiology 1995;28;1;51-69

  • Isolation of the cDNA and chromosomal localization of the gene (TAX1) encoding the human axonal glycoprotein TAG-1.

    Tsiotra PC, Karagogeos D, Theodorakis K, Michaelidis TM, Modi WS, Furley AJ, Jessell TM and Papamatheakis J

    Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Foundation for Research and Technology, Crete, Greece.

    The transient axonal glycoprotein (TAG-1) is a cell adhesion molecule that promotes neurite outgrowth and belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily. We have isolated cDNAs encoding TAX1, the human homologue of TAG-1. Human TAX1 shows a high degree of homology to rat TAX1 and less to its chick counterpart, axonin-1, with 91 and 75% identity at the amino acid level, respectively. The numbers of immunoglobulin (IgC2) domains and fibronectin repeats present in TAG-1 are conserved among the three species. The highest degree of conservation occurs in the second IgC2 domain (98% with the rat and 82% with the chick). The human homologue also contains a putative N-terminal signal sequence and a C-terminal hydrophobic sequence, suggestive of linkage to the cell membrane via phosphatidylinositol. In addition, the two mammalian TAG-1 proteins share the RGD tripeptide, a motif known to mediate recognition of fibronectin by integrins. In situ hybridization to human metaphase chromosomes maps the TAX1 gene encoding human TAG-1 to a single location on chromosome 1q32.

    Genomics 1993;18;3;562-7

  • Localization of the human TAX-1 gene to 1q32.1: a region implicated in microcephaly and Van der Woude syndrome.

    Kenwrick S, Leversha M, Rooke L, Hasler T and Sonderegger P

    Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge, Addenbrooke's Hospital, UK.

    Human molecular genetics 1993;2;9;1461-2

  • Cell-cell adhesion by homophilic interaction of the neuronal recognition molecule axonin-1.

    Rader C, Stoeckli ET, Ziegler U, Osterwalder T, Kunz B and Sonderegger P

    Institute of Biochemistry, University of Zurich, Switzerland.

    The axonal surface glycoprotein axonin-1, which occurs both as a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-anchored membrane-bound form and a secreted form, promotes neurite outgrowth and is thought to be involved in axon-guidance mechanisms in the developing nervous system. Recently, we have demonstrated that the neurite-outgrowth-promoting activity of axonin-1, presented as a substratum for cultured neurons, is mediated by a heterophilic interaction with the axonal glycoprotein neuronglia cell-adhesion molecule (Ng-CAM). Here we present evidence for homophilic (like-like) binding among axonin-1 molecules. Axonin-1 was heterologously expressed in myeloma cells. Clonal cell lines, with exposed membrane-bound axonin-1 at their surface, formed large multicellular aggregates. Incubations of transfected and parental myeloma cells, under a series of different conditions, revealed homophilic axonin-1/axonin-1 interactions across the intermembrane space as the molecular mechanism promoting stable cell-cell contacts. Using structural and functional characterisation, recombinant axonin-1 was very similar to native axonin-1, suggesting that homophilic axonin-1 interactions are also established in neurons. The capability of axonin-1 to interact with both Ng-CAM and other axonin-1 molecules might contribute to the formation of macromolecular networks at contact sites of growth cones and axons, comprising molecules of both membranes, and thus represent a mechanism for regulating neurite outgrowth and pathfinding.

    European journal of biochemistry 1993;215;1;133-41

  • cDNA cloning, structural features, and eucaryotic expression of human TAG-1/axonin-1.

    Hasler TH, Rader C, Stoeckli ET, Zuellig RA and Sonderegger P

    Institute of Biochemistry, University of Zurich, Switzerland.

    Axonal surface glycoproteins, composed of repeated immunoglobulin-like and fibronectin-type-III(FNIII)-like domains, mediate adhesion between axons or between axons and non-neuronal cells or extracellular matrix proteins. Several representatives of this group promote neurite outgrowth, when presented as substratum to neurons in culture, and have been implicated in axonal guidance mechanisms. TAG-1 and axonin-1 are presumptive species homologues of the rat and the chick, respectively; together with F11/F3, they form a subgroup of Ig/FNIII-like molecules containing a glycosyl-PtdIns membrane anchor. Recent reports on tumor suppressor genes encoding Ig-like and FNIII-like sequences prompted us to isolate the human homologue to TAG-1 and axonin-1. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers were designed to regions conserved in both TAG-1 and axonin-1 using deoxyinosine at ambiguous positions. An expected 1000-bp fragment was obtained from cDNA derived from adult human cerebellum. Using this PCR fragment as a probe, several clones were isolated from a human fetal brain cDNA library. Nucleotide sequence analysis of a full-length clone, as expected, revealed a high degree of similarity to rat TAG-1 (91% identity) and chicken axonin-1 (75% identity) at the amino acid level. The encoded protein was then transiently expressed in monkey COS1 cells, and a stable mouse myeloma cell line was established expressing human TAG-1/axonin-1. The transfected COS1 and myeloma cells showed immunoreactivity on the cell surface with polyclonal anti-(chicken axonin-1) serum. On Western blots, the same antibodies recognized the recombinant protein migrating slightly slower on SDS/PAGE than chicken axonin-1. A comparison of chicken and human brain-tissue proteins by Western-blot analysis revealed a similar apparent molecular mass difference between the two species, which might be due to three additional N-glycosylation sites present on human TAG-1/axonin-1. Immunostaining of cryostat sections of embryonic retinas with polyclonal anti-(axonin-1) serum showed similar expression patterns in chicken and human samples at corresponding developmental stages. An additional shared feature of human TAG-1/axonin-1, rat TAG-1 and chick axonin-1 is their attachment to the cell membrane with a glycosyl-PtdIns anchor.

    European journal of biochemistry 1993;211;1-2;329-39

  • Glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchored recognition molecules that function in axonal fasciculation, growth and guidance in the nervous system.

    Walsh FS and Doherty P

    Department of Experimental Pathology, UMDS, Guy's Hospital, London.

    A large number of glycoproteins in the central nervous system are attached to the cell membrane via covalent linkage to glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI). Many of them, including the drosophila fasciclin 1 as well as the mammalian glycoproteins Thy-1, TAG1, N-CAM and F11,F3, contactin are members of the immunoglobulin gene superfamily. These and other GPI-linked molecules have been implicated in key developmental events including selective axonal fasciculation and highly specific growth to and innervation of target tissues. In model systems fasciclin 1, TAG1 and N-CAM have been shown to be capable of mediating cell-cell adhesion via a homophilic binding mechanism confirming their operational classification as cell adhesion molecules (CAMs). However, of these molecules, only N-CAM has been shown to mediate a complex response (neurite outgrowth) via a homophilic binding mechanism. Whether the other molecules in this family mediate biological responses by binding to themselves and/or other molecules remains to be determined. Studies on N-CAM provide an ideal model system for understanding the function of GPI anchors since alternative splicing of the NCAM gene generates both lipid-linked and transmembrane N-CAM isoforms. Recent studies have shown that neurons can recognise and respond (by increased neurite outgrowth) to both lipid-linked and transmembrane N-CAM isoforms expressed on the surface of non-neuronal cells following transfection with appropriate cDNAs. The major determinant of neuronal responsiveness was the level of N-CAM expression rather than the isoform type. Neurite outgrowth in response to transfected N-CAM is mediated by transmembrane N-CAM isoforms expressed by neurons and this involves the activation of classical second messenger pathways in the neurons. One possibility is that GPI anchors are utilised when a cell has simply to provide recognition or positional information to a second cell whereas transmembrane molecules might be required for cells that actively respond to such information. The hypothesis is compatible with all the known information on N-CAM expression and function and may be extended to other adhesive events.

    Cell biology international reports 1991;15;11;1151-66

  • Neurite outgrowth on immobilized axonin-1 is mediated by a heterophilic interaction with L1(G4).

    Kuhn TB, Stoeckli ET, Condrau MA, Rathjen FG and Sonderegger P

    Institute of Biochemistry, University of Zurich, Switzerland.

    Axonin-1 is an axon-associated cell adhesion molecule with dualistic expression, one form being glycophosphatidylinositol-anchored to the axonal membrane, the other secreted from axons in a soluble form. When presented as a substratum for neuronal cultures it strongly promotes neurite outgrowth from chicken embryonic dorsal root ganglia neurons. In this study, the axon-associated cell adhesion molecule G4, which is identical with Ng-CAM and 8D9, and homologous or closely related to L1 of the mouse and NILE of the rat, was investigated with respect to a receptor function for axonin-1. Using fluorescent microspheres with covalently coupled axonin-1 or L1(G4) at their surface we showed that these proteins bind to each other. Within the sensitivity of this microsphere assay, no interaction of axonin-1 with itself could be detected. Axonin-1-coated microspheres also bound to the neurites of cultured dorsal root ganglia neurons. This interaction was exclusively mediated by L1(G4), as indicated by complete binding suppression by monovalent anti-L1(G4) antibodies. The interaction between neuritic L1(G4) and immobilized axonin-1 was found to mediate the promotion of neurite growth on axonin-1, as evidenced by the virtually complete arrest of neurite outgrowth in the presence of anti-L1(G4) antibodies. Convincing evidence has recently been presented that neurite growth on L1(8D9) is mediated by the homophilic binding of neuritic L1(G4) (1989. Neuron. 2: 1597-1603). Thus, both L1(G4)- and axonin-1-expressing axons may serve as "substrate pathways" for the guidance of following axons expressing L1(G4) into their target area. Conceivably, differences in the concentration of axonin-1 and L1(G4), and/or modulatory influences on their specific binding parameters in leading pathways and following axons could represent elements in the control of axonal pathway selection.

    The Journal of cell biology 1991;115;4;1113-26

  • Spatial regulation of axonal glycoprotein expression on subsets of embryonic spinal neurons.

    Dodd J, Morton SB, Karagogeos D, Yamamoto M and Jessell TM

    Department of Physiology and Cellular Biophysics, Columbia University, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, New York 10032.

    The identification of surface proteins restricted to subsets of embryonic axons and growth cones may provide information on the mechanisms underlying axon fasciculation and pathway selection in the vertebrate nervous system. We describe here the characterization of a 135 kd cell surface glycoprotein, TAG-1, that is expressed transiently on subsets of embryonic spinal cord axons and growth cones. TAG-1 is immunochemically distinct from the cell adhesion molecules N-CAM and L1 (NILE) and is expressed on commissural and motor neurons over the period of initial axon extension. Moreover, TAG-1 and L1 appear to be segregated on different segments of the same embryonic spinal axons. These observations provide evidence that axonal guidance and pathway selection in vertebrates may be regulated in part by the transient and selective expression of distinct surface glycoproteins on subsets of developing neurons.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: R01NS22993, R01NS23754

    Neuron 1988;1;2;105-16

Gene lists (6)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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