G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
contactin 1
G00000628 (Mus musculus)

Databases (7)

ENSG00000018236 (Ensembl human gene)
1272 (Entrez Gene)
1053 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
CNTN1 (GeneCards)
600016 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:2171 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
Q12860 (UniProt)

Synonyms (2)

  • F3
  • GP135

Literature (30)

Pubmed - other

  • Identification of new putative susceptibility genes for several psychiatric disorders by association analysis of regulatory and non-synonymous SNPs of 306 genes involved in neurotransmission and neurodevelopment.

    Gratacòs M, Costas J, de Cid R, Bayés M, González JR, Baca-García E, de Diego Y, Fernández-Aranda F, Fernández-Piqueras J, Guitart M, Martín-Santos R, Martorell L, Menchón JM, Roca M, Sáiz-Ruiz J, Sanjuán J, Torrens M, Urretavizcaya M, Valero J, Vilella E, Estivill X, Carracedo A and Psychiatric Genetics Network Group

    CIBER en Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain.

    A fundamental difficulty in human genetics research is the identification of the spectrum of genetic variants that contribute to the susceptibility to common/complex disorders. We tested here the hypothesis that functional genetic variants may confer susceptibility to several related common disorders. We analyzed five main psychiatric diagnostic categories (substance-abuse, anxiety, eating, psychotic, and mood disorders) and two different control groups, representing a total of 3,214 samples, for 748 promoter and non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 306 genes involved in neurotransmission and/or neurodevelopment. We identified strong associations to individual disorders, such as growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) with anxiety disorders, prolactin regulatory element (PREB) with eating disorders, ionotropic kainate glutamate receptor 5 (GRIK5) with bipolar disorder and several SNPs associated to several disorders, that may represent individual and related disease susceptibility factors. Remarkably, a functional SNP, rs945032, located in the promoter region of the bradykinin receptor B2 gene (BDKRB2) was associated to three disorders (panic disorder, substance abuse, and bipolar disorder), and two additional BDKRB2 SNPs to obsessive-compulsive disorder and major depression, providing evidence for common variants of susceptibility to several related psychiatric disorders. The association of BDKRB2 (odd ratios between 1.65 and 3.06) to several psychiatric disorders supports the view that a common genetic variant could confer susceptibility to clinically related phenotypes, and defines a new functional hint in the pathophysiology of psychiatric diseases.

    American journal of medical genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric genetics : the official publication of the International Society of Psychiatric Genetics 2009;150B;6;808-16

  • Mutations in contactin-1, a neural adhesion and neuromuscular junction protein, cause a familial form of lethal congenital myopathy.

    Compton AG, Albrecht DE, Seto JT, Cooper ST, Ilkovski B, Jones KJ, Challis D, Mowat D, Ranscht B, Bahlo M, Froehner SC and North KN

    Institute for Neuromuscular Research, The Children's Hospital at Westmead, NSW, Australia.

    We have previously reported a group of patients with congenital onset weakness associated with a deficiency of members of the syntrophin-alpha-dystrobrevin subcomplex and have demonstrated that loss of syntrophin and dystrobrevin from the sarcolemma of skeletal muscle can also be associated with denervation. Here, we have further studied four individuals from a consanguineous Egyptian family with a lethal congenital myopathy inherited in an autosomal-recessive fashion and characterized by a secondary loss of beta2-syntrophin and alpha-dystrobrevin from the muscle sarcolemma, central nervous system involvement, and fetal akinesia. We performed homozygosity mapping and candidate gene analysis and identified a mutation that segregates with disease within CNTN1, the gene encoding for the neural immunoglobulin family adhesion molecule, contactin-1. Contactin-1 transcripts were markedly decreased on gene-expression arrays of muscle from affected family members compared to controls. We demonstrate that contactin-1 is expressed at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) in mice and man in addition to the previously documented expression in the central and peripheral nervous system. In patients with secondary dystroglycanopathies, we show that contactin-1 is abnormally localized to the sarcolemma instead of exclusively at the NMJ. The cntn1 null mouse presents with ataxia, progressive muscle weakness, and postnatal lethality, similar to the affected members in this family. We propose that loss of contactin-1 from the NMJ impairs communication or adhesion between nerve and muscle resulting in the severe myopathic phenotype. This disorder is part of the continuum in the clinical spectrum of congenital myopathies and congenital myasthenic syndromes.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: NS038297, P01 NS046788, R01 NS038297

    American journal of human genetics 2008;83;6;714-24

  • A genome-wide association study identifies protein quantitative trait loci (pQTLs).

    Melzer D, Perry JR, Hernandez D, Corsi AM, Stevens K, Rafferty I, Lauretani F, Murray A, Gibbs JR, Paolisso G, Rafiq S, Simon-Sanchez J, Lango H, Scholz S, Weedon MN, Arepalli S, Rice N, Washecka N, Hurst A, Britton A, Henley W, van de Leemput J, Li R, Newman AB, Tranah G, Harris T, Panicker V, Dayan C, Bennett A, McCarthy MI, Ruokonen A, Jarvelin MR, Guralnik J, Bandinelli S, Frayling TM, Singleton A and Ferrucci L

    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Institute of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Peninsula College of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Exeter, Devon, United Kingdom.

    There is considerable evidence that human genetic variation influences gene expression. Genome-wide studies have revealed that mRNA levels are associated with genetic variation in or close to the gene coding for those mRNA transcripts - cis effects, and elsewhere in the genome - trans effects. The role of genetic variation in determining protein levels has not been systematically assessed. Using a genome-wide association approach we show that common genetic variation influences levels of clinically relevant proteins in human serum and plasma. We evaluated the role of 496,032 polymorphisms on levels of 42 proteins measured in 1200 fasting individuals from the population based InCHIANTI study. Proteins included insulin, several interleukins, adipokines, chemokines, and liver function markers that are implicated in many common diseases including metabolic, inflammatory, and infectious conditions. We identified eight Cis effects, including variants in or near the IL6R (p = 1.8x10(-57)), CCL4L1 (p = 3.9x10(-21)), IL18 (p = 6.8x10(-13)), LPA (p = 4.4x10(-10)), GGT1 (p = 1.5x10(-7)), SHBG (p = 3.1x10(-7)), CRP (p = 6.4x10(-6)) and IL1RN (p = 7.3x10(-6)) genes, all associated with their respective protein products with effect sizes ranging from 0.19 to 0.69 standard deviations per allele. Mechanisms implicated include altered rates of cleavage of bound to unbound soluble receptor (IL6R), altered secretion rates of different sized proteins (LPA), variation in gene copy number (CCL4L1) and altered transcription (GGT1). We identified one novel trans effect that was an association between ABO blood group and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) levels (p = 6.8x10(-40)), but this finding was not present when TNF-alpha was measured using a different assay , or in a second study, suggesting an assay-specific association. Our results show that protein levels share some of the features of the genetics of gene expression. These include the presence of strong genetic effects in cis locations. The identification of protein quantitative trait loci (pQTLs) may be a powerful complementary method of improving our understanding of disease pathways.

    Funded by: Intramural NIH HHS; NIA NIH HHS: N01-AG-6-2101, N01-AG-6-2103, N01-AG-6-2106, R01 AG024233, R01 AG24233-01

    PLoS genetics 2008;4;5;e1000072

  • Knockdown of contactin-1 expression suppresses invasion and metastasis of lung adenocarcinoma.

    Su JL, Yang CY, Shih JY, Wei LH, Hsieh CY, Jeng YM, Wang MY, Yang PC and Kuo ML

    Institute of Toxicology, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan.

    Numerous genetic changes are associated with cancer cell metastasis and invasion. In search for key regulators of invasion and metastasis, a panel of lung cancer cell lines with different invasive ability was screened. The gene for contactin-1 was found to play an essential role in tumor invasion and metastasis. Suppression of contactin-1 expression abolished the ability of lung adenocarcinoma cells to invade Matrigel in vitro as well as the polymerization of filamentous-actin and the formation of focal adhesion structures. Furthermore, knockdown of contactin-1 resulted in extensive inhibition of tumor metastasis and in increased survival in an animal model. RhoA but not Cdc42 or Rac1 was found to serve a critical role in contactin-1-mediated invasion and metastasis. Contactin-1-specific RNA interference resulted in loss of metastatic and invasive capacity in both in vitro and in vivo models. This loss was overturned by constitutive expression of the active form of RhoA. Contactin-1 was differentially expressed in tumor tissues, and its expression correlated with tumor stage, lymph node metastasis, and patient survival. Contactin-1 is proposed to function importantly in the invasion and metastasis of lung adenocarcinoma cells via RhoA-mediated mechanisms.

    Cancer research 2006;66;5;2553-61

  • Contactin is expressed in human astrocytic gliomas and mediates repulsive effects.

    Eckerich C, Zapf S, Ulbricht U, Müller S, Fillbrandt R, Westphal M and Lamszus K

    Department of Neurosurgery, University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.

    Contactin is a cell surface adhesion molecule that is normally expressed by neurons and oligodendrocytes. Particularly high levels of contactin are present during brain development. Using subtractive cloning, we identified contactin transcripts as overexpressed in glioblastomas compared with normal brain. We confirmed contactin overexpression in glioblastomas at the protein level, and localized contactin to the surface of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-expressing glioblastoma cells. In contrast, normal astrocytes did not express contactin. Analyzing different types of astrocytic tumors, we detected an association between increasing malignancy grade and contactin expression. Functionally, contactin had repellent effects on glioma cells in vitro, as demonstrated by adhesion and migration assays. Overexpression of contactin by transfection into glioblastoma cells did not alter the proliferation rate or adhesion to various extracellular matrix proteins as well as adhesion to cells expressing the specific contactin ligand the protein tyrosine phosphatase zeta (PTPzeta). Our findings suggest that contactin has repellent effects on glioma cells to which it is presented as a ligand, but it does not alter the proliferative or adhesive capacities of cells that overexpress the molecule. The repulsive properties of contactin may be a key factor in glioma disaggregation, and may contribute to the diffuse infiltration pattern characteristic of glioma cells in human brain.

    Glia 2006;53;1;1-12

  • Human plasma N-glycoproteome analysis by immunoaffinity subtraction, hydrazide chemistry, and mass spectrometry.

    Liu T, Qian WJ, Gritsenko MA, Camp DG, Monroe ME, Moore RJ and Smith RD

    Biological Sciences Division and Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354, USA.

    The enormous complexity, wide dynamic range of relative protein abundances of interest (over 10 orders of magnitude), and tremendous heterogeneity (due to post-translational modifications, such as glycosylation) of the human blood plasma proteome severely challenge the capabilities of existing analytical methodologies. Here, we describe an approach for broad analysis of human plasma N-glycoproteins using a combination of immunoaffinity subtraction and glycoprotein capture to reduce both the protein concentration range and the overall sample complexity. Six high-abundance plasma proteins were simultaneously removed using a pre-packed, immobilized antibody column. N-linked glycoproteins were then captured from the depleted plasma using hydrazide resin and enzymatically digested, and the bound N-linked glycopeptides were released using peptide-N-glycosidase F (PNGase F). Following strong cation exchange (SCX) fractionation, the deglycosylated peptides were analyzed by reversed-phase capillary liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Using stringent criteria, a total of 2053 different N-glycopeptides were confidently identified, covering 303 nonredundant N-glycoproteins. This enrichment strategy significantly improved detection and enabled identification of a number of low-abundance proteins, exemplified by interleukin-1 receptor antagonist protein (approximately 200 pg/mL), cathepsin L (approximately 1 ng/mL), and transforming growth factor beta 1 (approximately 2 ng/mL). A total of 639 N-glycosylation sites were identified, and the overall high accuracy of these glycosylation site assignments as assessed by accurate mass measurement using high-resolution liquid chromatography coupled to Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (LC-FTICR) is initially demonstrated.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: P41 RR018522, RR18522; NIGMS NIH HHS: U54 GM-62119-02, U54 GM062119

    Journal of proteome research 2005;4;6;2070-80

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • Time-controlled transcardiac perfusion cross-linking for the study of protein interactions in complex tissues.

    Schmitt-Ulms G, Hansen K, Liu J, Cowdrey C, Yang J, DeArmond SJ, Cohen FE, Prusiner SB and Baldwin MA

    Institute for Neurodegenerative Disease, San Francisco, California 94143, USA. g.schmittulms@utoronto.ca

    Because of their sensitivity to solubilizing detergents, membrane protein assemblies are difficult to study. We describe a protocol that covalently conserves protein interactions through time-controlled transcardiac perfusion cross-linking (tcTPC) before disruption of tissue integrity. To validate tcTPC for identifying protein-protein interactions, we established that tcTPC allowed stringent immunoaffinity purification of the gamma-secretase complex in high salt concentrations and detergents and was compatible with mass spectrometric identification of cross-linked aph-1, presenilin-1 and nicastrin. We then applied tcTPC to identify more than 20 proteins residing in the vicinity of the cellular prion protein (PrPC), suggesting that PrP is embedded in specialized membrane regions with a subset of molecules that, like PrP, use a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor for membrane attachment. Many of these proteins have been implicated in cell adhesion/neuritic outgrowth, and harbor immunoglobulin C2 and fibronectin type III-like motifs.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: NCRR RR01614; NIA NIH HHS: AG010770, AG02132

    Nature biotechnology 2004;22;6;724-31

  • Sodium channel beta1 subunit-mediated modulation of Nav1.2 currents and cell surface density is dependent on interactions with contactin and ankyrin.

    McEwen DP, Meadows LS, Chen C, Thyagarajan V and Isom LL

    Department of Pharmacology, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-0632, USA.

    Voltage-gated sodium channels are composed of a pore-forming alpha subunit and at least one auxiliary beta subunit. Both beta1 and beta2 are cell adhesion molecules that interact homophilically, resulting in ankyrin recruitment. In contrast, beta1, but not beta2, interacts heterophilically with contactin, resulting in increased levels of cell surface sodium channels. We took advantage of these results to investigate the molecular basis of beta1-mediated enhancement of sodium channel cell surface density, including elucidating structure-function relationships for beta1 association with contactin, ankyrin, and Nav1.2. beta1/beta2 subunit chimeras were used to assign putative sites of contactin interaction to two regions of the beta1 Ig loop. Recent studies have shown that glutathione S-transferase fusion proteins containing portions of Nav1.2 intracellular domains interact directly with ankyrinG. We show that native Nav1.2 associates with ankyrinG in cells in the absence of beta subunits and that this interaction is enhanced in the presence of beta1 but not beta1Y181E, a mutant that does not interact with ankyrinG. beta1Y181E does not modulate Nav1.2 channel function despite efficient association with Nav1.2 and contactin. beta1Y181E increases Nav1.2 cell surface expression, but not as efficiently as wild type beta1. beta1/beta2 chimeras exchanging various regions of the beta1 Ig loop were all ineffective in increasing Nav1.2 cell surface density. Our results demonstrate that full-length beta1 is required for channel modulation and enhancement of sodium channel cell surface expression.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM07767; NIMH NIH HHS: R01MH59980; NINDS NIH HHS: NS43067, R01NS17965-17

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2004;279;16;16044-9

  • Caspr regulates the processing of contactin and inhibits its binding to neurofascin.

    Gollan L, Salomon D, Salzer JL and Peles E

    Department of Molecular Cell Biology, The Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 Israel.

    Three cell adhesion molecules are present at the axoglial junctions that form between the axon and myelinating glia on either side of nodes of Ranvier. These include an axonal complex of contacin-associated protein (Caspr) and contactin, which was proposed to bind NF155, an isoform of neurofascin located on the glial paranodal loops. Here, we show that NF155 binds directly to contactin and that surprisingly, coexpression of Caspr inhibits this interaction. This inhibition reflects the association of Caspr with contactin during biosynthesis and the resulting expression of a low molecular weight (LMw), endoglycosidase H-sensitive isoform of contactin at the cell membrane, which remains associated with Caspr but is unable to bind NF155. Accordingly, deletion of Caspr in mice by gene targeting results in a shift from the LMw- to a HMw-contactin glycoform. These results demonstrate that Caspr regulates the intracellular processing and transport of contactin to the cell surface, thereby affecting its ability to interact with other cell adhesion molecules.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: NS43474, R01 NS043474

    The Journal of cell biology 2003;163;6;1213-8

  • Nogo-A at CNS paranodes is a ligand of Caspr: possible regulation of K(+) channel localization.

    Nie DY, Zhou ZH, Ang BT, Teng FY, Xu G, Xiang T, Wang CY, Zeng L, Takeda Y, Xu TL, Ng YK, Faivre-Sarrailh C, Popko B, Ling EA, Schachner M, Watanabe K, Pallen CJ, Tang BL and Xiao ZC

    Department of Clinical Research, Singapore General Hospital, Singapore.

    We report Nogo-A as an oligodendroglial component congregating and interacting with the Caspr-F3 complex at paranodes. However, its receptor Nogo-66 receptor (NgR) does not segregate to specific axonal domains. CHO cells cotransfected with Caspr and F3, but not with F3 alone, bound specifically to substrates coated with Nogo-66 peptide and GST-Nogo-66. Binding persisted even after phosphatidylinositol- specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) removal of GPI-linked F3 from the cell surface, suggesting a direct interaction between Nogo-66 and Caspr. Both Nogo-A and Caspr co-immunoprecipitated with Kv1.1 and Kv1.2, and the developmental expression pattern of both paralleled compared with Kv1.1, implicating a transient interaction between Nogo-A-Caspr and K(+) channels at early stages of myelination. In pathological models that display paranodal junctional defects (EAE rats, and Shiverer and CGT(-/-) mice), distances between the paired labeling of K(+) channels were shortened significantly and their localization shifted toward paranodes, while paranodal Nogo-A congregation was markedly reduced. Our results demonstrate that Nogo-A interacts in trans with axonal Caspr at CNS paranodes, an interaction that may have a role in modulating axon-glial junction architecture and possibly K(+)-channel localization during development.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: NS27336, R01 NS027336

    The EMBO journal 2003;22;21;5666-78

  • F3/contactin acts as a functional ligand for Notch during oligodendrocyte maturation.

    Hu QD, Ang BT, Karsak M, Hu WP, Cui XY, Duka T, Takeda Y, Chia W, Sankar N, Ng YK, Ling EA, Maciag T, Small D, Trifonova R, Kopan R, Okano H, Nakafuku M, Chiba S, Hirai H, Aster JC, Schachner M, Pallen CJ, Watanabe K and Xiao ZC

    Department of Clinical Research, Singapore General Hospital, 169608, Singapore, Singapore.

    Axon-derived molecules are temporally and spatially required as positive or negative signals to coordinate oligodendrocyte differentiation. Increasing evidence suggests that, in addition to the inhibitory Jagged1/Notch1 signaling cascade, other pathways act via Notch to mediate oligodendrocyte differentiation. The GPI-linked neural cell recognition molecule F3/contactin is clustered during development at the paranodal region, a vital site for axoglial interaction. Here, we show that F3/contactin acts as a functional ligand of Notch. This trans-extracellular interaction triggers gamma-secretase-dependent nuclear translocation of the Notch intracellular domain. F3/Notch signaling promotes oligodendrocyte precursor cell differentiation and upregulates the myelin-related protein MAG in OLN-93 cells. This can be blocked by dominant negative Notch1, Notch2, and two Deltex1 mutants lacking the RING-H2 finger motif, but not by dominant-negative RBP-J or Hes1 antisense oligonucleotides. Expression of constitutively active Notch1 or Notch2 does not upregulate MAG. Thus, F3/contactin specifically initiates a Notch/Deltex1 signaling pathway that promotes oligodendrocyte maturation and myelination.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: RR 15555; NHLBI NIH HHS: HL32348, HL35627

    Cell 2003;115;2;163-75

  • Phosphacan short isoform, a novel non-proteoglycan variant of phosphacan/receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase-beta, interacts with neuronal receptors and promotes neurite outgrowth.

    Garwood J, Heck N, Reichardt F and Faissner A

    Laboratoire de Neurobiologie du Développement et de la Régénération, CNRS Centre de Neurochimie, 67084 Strasbourg, France. garwood@neurochem.u-strasbg.fr

    Phosphacan, one of the principal proteoglycans in the extracellular matrix of the central nervous system, is implicated in neuron-glia interactions associated with neuronal differentiation and myelination. We report here the identification of a novel truncated form of phosphacan, phosphacan short isoform (PSI), that corresponds to the N-terminal carbonic anhydrase- and fibronectin type III-like domains and half of the spacer region. The novel cDNA transcript was isolated by screening of a neonatal brain cDNA expression library using a polyclonal antibody raised against phosphacan. Expression of this transcript in vivo was confirmed by Northern blot hybridization. Analysis of brain protein extracts reveals the presence of a 90-kDa glycosylated protein in the phosphate-buffered saline-insoluble 100000 x g fraction that reacts with antisera against both phosphacan and a recombinant PSI protein and that has the predicted N-terminal sequence. This protein is post-translationally modified with oligosaccharides, including the HNK-1 epitope, but, unlike phosphacan, it is not a proteoglycan. The expression of the PSI protein varies during central nervous system development in a fashion similar to that observed for phosphacan, being first detected around embryonic day 16 and then showing a dramatic increase in expression to plateau around the second week post-natal. Both the native and recombinant PSI protein can interact with the Ig cell adhesion molecules, F3/contactin and L1, and in neurite outgrowth assays, the PSI protein can promote outgrowth of cortical neurons when used as a coated substrate. Hence, the identification of this novel isoform of phosphacan/receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase-beta provides a new component in cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix signaling events in which these proteins have been implicated.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;26;24164-73

  • Analysis of interactions of the adhesion molecule TAG-1 and its domains with other immunoglobulin superfamily members.

    Pavlou O, Theodorakis K, Falk J, Kutsche M, Schachner M, Faivre-Sarrailh C and Karagogeos D

    Department of Basic Science, University of Crete Medical School and Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, P.O. Box 1527, Heraklion, Greece.

    Cell adhesion molecules of the immunoglobulin superfamily promote cell aggregation and neurite outgrowth via homophilic and heterophilic interactions. The transient axonal glycoprotein TAG-1 induces cell aggregation through homophilic interaction of its fibronectin repeats. We investigated the domains responsible for the neurite outgrowth promoting activity of TAG-1 as well as its interactions with other cell adhesion molecules. Binding experiments with Fc-chimeric proteins revealed that TAG-1 interacts with L1, NrCAM, and F3/contactin. The membrane-associated as opposed to the soluble form of TAG-1 behaves differently in these assays. We demonstrate that both the immunoglobulin as well as the fibronectin domains promote neurite outgrowth when used as substrates. Furthermore we investigated the putative role of L1 and NrCAM as the neuronal TAG-1 receptors mediating neurite extension. DRG neurons from L1-deficient mice were found to extend neurites on TAG-1 substrates and blocking NrCAM function did not diminish the TAG-1-dependent neurite outgrowth. These results indicate that neither L1 nor NrCAM are required for TAG-1-elicited neurite outgrowth.

    Molecular and cellular neurosciences 2002;20;3;367-81

  • Contactin associates with Na+ channels and increases their functional expression.

    Kazarinova-Noyes K, Malhotra JD, McEwen DP, Mattei LN, Berglund EO, Ranscht B, Levinson SR, Schachner M, Shrager P, Isom LL and Xiao ZC

    Departments of Neurobiology/Anatomy and Biochemistry/Biophysics, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York 14642, USA.

    Contactin (also known as F3, F11) is a surface glycoprotein that has significant homology with the beta2 subunit of voltage-gated Na(+) channels. Contactin and Na(+) channels can be reciprocally coimmunoprecipitated from brain homogenates, indicating association within a complex. Cells cotransfected with Na(+) channel Na(v)1.2alpha and beta1 subunits and contactin have threefold to fourfold higher peak Na(+) currents than cells with Na(v)1.2alpha alone, Na(v)1.2/beta1, Na(v)1.2/contactin, or Na(v)1.2/beta1/beta2. These cells also have a correspondingly higher saxitoxin binding, suggesting an increased Na(+) channel surface membrane density. Coimmunoprecipitation of different subunits from cell lines shows that contactin interacts specifically with the beta1 subunit. In the PNS, immunocytochemical studies show a transient colocalization of contactin and Na(+) channels at new nodes of Ranvier forming during remyelination. In the CNS, there is a particularly high level of colocalization of Na(+) channels and contactin at nodes both during development and in the adult. Contactin may thus significantly influence the functional expression and distribution of Na(+) channels in neurons.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK34933; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM07767; NIMH NIH HHS: MH59980; NINDS NIH HHS: NS17965

    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 2001;21;19;7517-25

  • Mobilization of the cell adhesion glycoprotein F3/contactin to axonal surfaces is activity dependent.

    Pierre K, Dupouy B, Allard M, Poulain DA and Theodosis DT

    INSERM U378 Neurobiologie Morphofonctionnelle, Institut François Magendie, University Victor Segalen Bordeaux II, Camille Saint-Saëns, F-33077 Bordeaux Cedex, France.

    F3/contactin is a cell adhesion/recognition molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily implicated in axonal growth. We examined its subcellular distribution and mobilization to the cell surface in oxytocin- (OT-) secreting neurons, which express it throughout life and the axons of which undergo activity-dependent remodelling. This was performed in hypothalamic organotypic slice cultures containing OT neurons with properties of adult neurosecretory cells. Immunocytochemistry and immunoblot analysis confirmed that OT neurons express high levels of F3/contactin in vitro. Light and confocal microscopy of cultures that underwent double immunofluorescence after fixation showed F3/contactin immunoreactivity throughout the cytoplasm of OT somata, dendrites and axons, and also in non-OT axons and in putative synaptic boutons which contacted OT neurons. By contrast, after treatment of live cultures with anti-F3/contactin antibodies followed by double immunofluorescence for the glycoprotein and OT, F3/contactin immunoreactivity was visible only on the surface of axons, whether or not OT-immunoreactivity was present. Because of its glycosylphosphatidyl-inositol (GPI) linkage, F3/contactin can occur in a membrane-bound or soluble form. As seen from immunocytochemistry of live cells and immunoblot analysis, treatment of cultures with a GPI-specific phospholipase C (GPI-PLC) resulted in loss of F3/contactin immunoreactivity from all cell surfaces. F3/contactin immunoreactivity reappeared on axonal surfaces within 5 h after enzyme washout. Such re-expression was accelerated by neuronal activity facilitation (by K+ depolarization or gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-A receptor blockade with bicuculline) and inhibited by neuronal activity repression [by blockade of Ca2+ channels with Mn2+, Na+ channels with tetrodotoxin (TTX) or excitatory inputs with glutamate antagonists]. Our observations establish therefore that F3/contactin surface expression in hypothalamic neurons is polarized to the axons where it occurs mainly in a GPI-linked form. We also provide direct evidence that externalization of F3/contactin depends on Ca2+ entry and neuronal electrical activity. Taken together with our earlier finding that the glycoprotein is localized in neurosecretory granules, we demonstrate that F3/contactin is mobilized to the axonal surface via the activity-dependent regulated pathway, thus arriving at the correct place and time to intervene in activity-dependent remodelling of axons.

    The European journal of neuroscience 2001;14;4;645-56

  • Ataxia and abnormal cerebellar microorganization in mice with ablated contactin gene expression.

    Berglund EO, Murai KK, Fredette B, Sekerková G, Marturano B, Weber L, Mugnaini E and Ranscht B

    The Burnham Institute Neurobiology Program, La Jolla, California 92037, USA.

    Axon guidance and target recognition depend on neuronal cell surface receptors that recognize and elicit selective growth cone responses to guidance cues in the environment. Contactin, a cell adhesion/recognition molecule of the immunoglobulin gene superfamily, regulates axon growth and fasciculation in vitro, but its role in vivo is unknown. To assess its function in the developing nervous system, we have ablated contactin gene expression in mice. Contactin-/- mutants displayed a severe ataxic phenotype consistent with defects in the cerebellum and survived only until postnatal day 18. Analysis of the contactin-/- mutant cerebellum revealed defects in granule cell axon guidance and in dendritic projections from granule and Golgi cells. These results demonstrate that contactin controls axonal and dendritic interactions of cerebellar interneurons and contributes to cerebellar microorganization.

    Funded by: NICHD NIH HHS: HD 25938; NINDS NIH HHS: NS 09904, NS 38297

    Neuron 1999;24;3;739-50

  • The interaction between F3 immunoglobulin domains and protein tyrosine phosphatases zeta/beta triggers bidirectional signalling between neurons and glial cells.

    Revest JM, Faivre-Sarrailh C, Maeda N, Noda M, Schachner M and Rougon G

    Laboratoire de Génétique et Physiologie du Développement, CNRS 6545 Parc Scientifique de Luminy, Marseille, France.

    F3, a mouse glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol anchored molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily, is known to influence axonal growth and fasciculation via multiple interactions of its modular immunoglobulin-like domains. We prepared an Fc chimeric molecule (F3IgFc) to identify molecules interacting with these domains and characterize the functional impact of the interactions. We affinity-isolated tenascin-C and isoforms of the proteoglycan-type protein tyrosine phosphatases zeta/beta (PTPzeta/RPTPbeta) from extracts of developing mouse brain. We showed that both PTPzeta/RPTPbeta and tenascin-C can bind directly to F3, possibly in an exclusive manner, with the highest affinity for the F3-PTPzeta/RPTPbeta interaction. We observed a strong binding of F3IgFc-coated fluorospheres to astrocytes in neural primary cultures and to C6 astrocytoma cells, and demonstrated, in antibody perturbation experiments, that F3-Ig binding on astrocytes depends on its interaction with PTPzeta/RPTPbeta. We also found by confocal analysis that tenascin-C and PTPzeta/RPTPbeta were colocalized on astrocytes which suggests a complex interplay of interactions between PTPzeta/RPTPbeta, tenascin-C and F3. We showed that the interaction between PTPzeta/RPTPbeta and F3-Ig-like domains can trigger bidirectional signalling. C6 glia-expressed PTPzeta/RPTPbeta stimulated neurite outgrowth by cortical and cerebellar neurons, whereas preclustered F3IgFc specifically modified the distribution of phosphotyrosine labelling in these glial cells. Both effects could be prevented and/or mimicked by anti-F3 and anti-6B4PG antibodies. These results identify F3 and PTPzeta/RPTPbeta as potential mediators of a reciprocal exchange of information between glia and neurons.

    The European journal of neuroscience 1999;11;4;1134-47

  • Regulated expression of the cell adhesion glycoprotein F3 in adult hypothalamic magnocellular neurons.

    Pierre K, Rougon G, Allard M, Bonhomme R, Gennarini G, Poulain DA and Theodosis DT

    Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale U378 Neurobiologie Morphofonctionelle, Institut François Magendie, F33077 Bordeaux Cedex, France.

    F3, a glycoprotein of the immunoglobulin superfamily implicated in axonal growth, occurs in oxytocin (OT)-secreting and vasopressin (AVP)-secreting neurons of the adult hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system (HNS) whose axons undergo morphological changes in response to stimulation. Immunocytochemistry and immunoblot analysis showed that during basal conditions of HNS secretion, there are higher levels of this glycosylphosphatidyl inositol-anchored protein in the neurohypophysis, where their axons terminate, than in the hypothalamic nuclei containing their somata. Physiological stimulation (lactation, osmotic challenge) reversed this pattern and resulted in upregulation of F3 expression, paralleling that of OT and AVP under these conditions. In situ hybridization revealed that F3 expression in the hypothalamus is restricted to its magnocellular neurons and demonstrated a more than threefold increase in F3 mRNA levels in response to stimulation. Confocal and electron microscopy localized F3 in secretory granules in all neuronal compartments, a localization confirmed by detection of F3 immunoreactivity in granule-enriched fractions obtained by sucrose density gradient fractionation of rat neurohypophyses. F3 was not visible on any cell surface in the magnocellular nuclei. In contrast, in the neurohypophysis, it was present not only in secretory granules but also on the surface of axon terminals and glia and in extracellular spaces. Taken together, our observations reveal that the cell adhesion glycoprotein F3 is colocalized with neurohypophysial peptides in secretory granules. It follows, therefore, the regulated pathway of secretion in HNS neurons to be released by exocytosis at their axon terminals in the neurohypophysis, where it may intervene in activity-dependent structural axonal plasticity.

    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 1998;18;14;5333-43

  • Multi-ligand interactions with receptor-like protein tyrosine phosphatase beta: implications for intercellular signaling.

    Peles E, Schlessinger J and Grumet M

    Dept of Molecular Cell Biology, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel. peles@wiccmail.weizmann.ac.il

    Receptor-like protein tyrosine phosphatase beta (RPTP beta) shows structural and functional similarity to cell adhesion molecules (CAMs). It binds to several neuronal CAMs and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins that combine to form cell-recognition complexes. Here, the authors discuss the implications of such complexes for intercellular signaling, and the regulation of RPTP activity by cell-cell and cell-ECM contact.

    Trends in biochemical sciences 1998;23;4;121-4

  • Signaling events following the interaction of the neuronal adhesion molecule F3 with the N-terminal domain of tenascin-R.

    Xiao ZC, Hillenbrand R, Schachner M, Thermes S, Rougon G and Gomez S

    Department of Neurobiology, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Hönggerberg, Zürich.

    Interaction between the extracellular matrix protein tenascin-R and the neuronal adhesion molecule F3 might be involved in the formation of neuronal networks. In this study, the fragment of tenascin-R comprising epithelial growth factor (EGF)-like repeats and the cysteine-rich NH2 terminal stretch (EGF-L), known to be inhibitory for growing neurites and repellent for growth cones, was used to investigate the signaling events following the F3/EGF-L interaction. We addressed this question using an in vitro test with F3-transfected Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells that allowed us to measure the kinetics, magnitude and specificity of the repellent effect resulting from the specific F3/EGF-L interaction. We showed that the repellent effect was counteracted by addition of the serine/threonine kinase and -phosphatase modulators (staurosporine, okadaic acid and H7) but not by modulators of tyrosine kinase or -phosphatases. This result indicates that the intracellular signals activated by the repellent effect involve a serine/threonine kinase pathway. Furthermore, the repellent effect of the EGF-L fragment for growth cones of cultured cerebellar neurons was also abolished by the identical modulators of serine/threonine kinase and -phosphatases. The inhibition of neurite outgrowth from hippocampal neurons by EGF-L was abolished in the presence of the serine threonine-kinase inhibitor H7. These results strongly suggest that the F3/tenascin-R interaction through EGF-L involves an intracellular activation of serine/ threonine kinase(s) in all F3-expressing cells tested.

    Journal of neuroscience research 1997;49;6;698-709

  • Induction of neurite outgrowth through contactin and Nr-CAM by extracellular regions of glial receptor tyrosine phosphatase beta.

    Sakurai T, Lustig M, Nativ M, Hemperly JJ, Schlessinger J, Peles E and Grumet M

    Department of Pharmacology, New York University Medical Center 10016, USA.

    Receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase beta (RPTPbeta) is expressed as soluble and receptor forms with common extracellular regions consisting of a carbonic anhydrase domain (C), a fibronectin type III repeat (F), and a unique region called S. We showed previously that a recombinant Fc fusion protein with the C domain (beta C) binds to contactin and supports neuronal adhesion and neurite growth. As a substrate, betaCFS was less effective in supporting cell adhesion, but it was a more effective promoter of neurite outgrowth than betaCF. betaS had no effect by itself, but it potentiated neurite growth when mixed with betaCF. Neurite outgrowth induced by betaCFS was inhibited by antibodies against Nr-CAM and contactin, and these cell adhesion molecules formed a complex that bound betaCFS. NIH-3T3 cells transfected to express betaCFS on their surfaces induced neuronal differentiation in culture. These results suggest that binding of glial RPTPbeta to the contactin/Nr-CAM complex is important for neurite growth and neuronal differentiation.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: NS21629, NS33921

    The Journal of cell biology 1997;136;4;907-18

  • Distinct effects of recombinant tenascin-R domains in neuronal cell functions and identification of the domain interacting with the neuronal recognition molecule F3/11.

    Xiao ZC, Taylor J, Montag D, Rougon G and Schachner M

    Department of Neurobiology, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Hönggerberg, Zurich, Switerland.

    We have identified distinct domains of the rat extracellular matrix glycoprotein tenascin-R using recombinant fragments of the molecule that confer neuronal cell functions. In short-term adhesion assays (0.5 h), cerebellar neurons adhered best to the fragment representing the fibrinogen knob (FG), but also the fibronectin type III (FN) repeats 1-2 and 6-8. FG, FN1-2 and FN3-5 were the most repellent fragments for neuronal cell bodies. Neurites and growth cones were strongly repelled from areas coated with fragments containing the cysteine-rich stretch and the EGF-like domains (EGF-L), FN1-2, FN3-5 and FG. Polarization of morphology of hippocampal neurons was exclusively associated with FG, while EGF-L prevented neurite outgrowth altogether. The binding site of the neuronal receptor for tenascin-R, the immunoglobulin superfamily adhesion molecule F3/11, was localized to EGF-L. The combined observations show distinct, but also overlapping functions for the different tenascin-R domains. They further suggest the existence of multiple neuronal tenascin-R receptors which influence the response of neurons to their extracellular matrix environment.

    The European journal of neuroscience 1996;8;4;766-82

  • The F3 neuronal glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked molecule is localized to glycolipid-enriched membrane subdomains and interacts with L1 and fyn kinase in cerebellum.

    Olive S, Dubois C, Schachner M and Rougon G

    Laboratoire de Génétique et Physiologie du Développement, UMR 9943 CNRS-Université Aix-Marseille II, Paris, France.

    The F3 molecule is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily anchored to plasma membranes by a glycosylphosphatidylinositol group. In adult mouse cerebellum, F3 is predominantly expressed on a subset of axons, the parallel fibers, and at their synapses. In vitro studies established that it is a plurifunctional molecule that, depending on the cellular context and the ligand with which it interacts, either mediates repulsive interactions or promotes neurite outgrowth. In the present study, we report the isolation of two fractions of F3-containing microdomains from adult cerebellum on the basis of their resistance to solubilization by Triton X-100 at 4 degrees C. Both fractions were composed of vesicles, ranging from 100 to 200 nm in diameter. Lipid composition analysis indicated that the lighter fraction was enriched in cerebrosides and sulfatides. F3 sensitivity to phosphatidylinositol phospholipase C differed between the two fractions, possibly reflecting structural differences in the lipid anchor of the F3 molecule. Both fractions were highly enriched in other glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins such as NCAM 120 and Thy-1. It is interesting that these vesicles were devoid of the transmembrane forms (NCAM 180 and NCAM 140), which were recovered in Triton X-100-soluble fractions, but contained the L1 transmembrane adhesion molecule that is coexpressed with F3 on parallel fibers and the fyn tyrosine kinase. Immunoprecipitation experiments indicated that F3, but not NCAM 120 or Thy-1, was physically associated in a complex with both L1 and fyn tyrosine kinase. This strongly suggests that the interaction between L1 and F3, already described to occur with isolated molecules, is present in neural tissue. More important is that our study provides information on the molecular machinery likely to be involved in F3 signaling.

    Journal of neurochemistry 1995;65;5;2307-17

  • Overlapping and differential expression of BIG-2, BIG-1, TAG-1, and F3: four members of an axon-associated cell adhesion molecule subgroup of the immunoglobulin superfamily.

    Yoshihara Y, Kawasaki M, Tamada A, Nagata S, Kagamiyama H and Mori K

    Department of Neuroscience, Osaka Bioscience Institute, Japan.

    Axon-associated cell adhesion molecules (AxCAMs) play crucial roles in the formation, maintenance, and plasticity of functional neuronal networks. We report here a molecular cloning of a novel AxCAM, BIG-2. BIG-2 is a member of TAG-1/F3 subgroup of the immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily, with six Ig-like domains, four fibronectin type III-like repeats, and a glycosyl phosphatidylinositol-anchoring domain. Recombinant BIG-2 protein had a neurite outgrowth-promoting activity when used as a substrate for neurons in vitro. To survey the spatial expression pattern of BIG-2 in comparison with other TAG-1/F3 subgroup members, an in situ hybridization analysis was performed in adult and developing rat brain sections with riboprobes specific for BIG-2, BIG-1, TAG-1, and F3. The four AxCAM transcripts displayed cell type-specific expression patterns with overlapping and distinct profiles. In adult hippocampus, for example, we observed BIG-1 mRNA specifically in granule cells of the dentate gyrus, BIG-2 mRNA highly in the CA1 pyramidal cells, TAG-1 mRNA predominantly in the CA3 pyramidal cells, and F3 mRNA in neurons in all of these fields. These results suggest that BIG-2, BIG-1, TAG-1, and F3 may play important roles in the formation and maintenance of specific neuronal networks in the brain.

    Journal of neurobiology 1995;28;1;51-69

  • The carbonic anhydrase domain of receptor tyrosine phosphatase beta is a functional ligand for the axonal cell recognition molecule contactin.

    Peles E, Nativ M, Campbell PL, Sakurai T, Martinez R, Lev S, Clary DO, Schilling J, Barnea G, Plowman GD, Grumet M and Schlessinger J

    SUGEN, Incorporated, Redwood City, California 94063-4720, USA.

    Receptor-type protein tyrosine phosphatase beta (RPTP beta) is expressed in the developing nervous system and contains a carbonic anhydrase (CAH) domain as well as a fibronectin type III repeat in its extracellular domain. Fusion proteins containing these domains were used to search for ligands of RPTP beta. The CAH domain bound specifically to a 140 kDa protein expressed on the surface of neuronal cells. Expression cloning in COS7 cells revealed that this protein is contactin, a GPI membrane-anchored neuronal cell recognition molecule. The CAH domain of RPTP beta induced cell adhesion and neurite growth of primary tectal neurons, and differentiation of neuroblastoma cells. These responses were blocked by antibodies against contactin, demonstrating that contactin is a neuronal receptor for RPTP beta. These experiments show that an individual domain of RPTP beta acts as a functional ligand for the neuronal receptor contactin. The interaction between contactin and RPTP beta may generate unidirectional or bidirectional signals during neural development.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: NS21629

    Cell 1995;82;2;251-60

  • Molecular cloning and in situ localization of the human contactin gene (CNTN1) on chromosome 12q11-q12.

    Berglund EO and Ranscht B

    La Jolla Cancer Research Foundation, California 92037.

    Chick contactin/F11 (also known as F3 in mouse) is a neuronal cell adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin (Ig) gene family that is implicated in playing a role in the formation of axon connections in the developing nervous system. In human brain, contactin was first identified by amino terminal and peptide sequencing of the lentil-lectin-binding glycoprotein Gp135. We now report the isolation and characterization of cDNA clones encoding human contactin. Human contactin is composed of six C2 Ig-domains and four fibronectin type III (FNIII) repeats and is anchored to the membrane via a glycosyl phosphatidylinositol moiety, as shown by PI-PLC treatment of cells transfected with contactin cDNA and metabolic labeling with [3H]-ethanolamine. At the amino acid level, h-contactin is 78% identical to chick contactin/F11 and 94% to mouse F3. Independent cDNAs encoding two putative contactin isoforms were isolated and sequenced: h-contactin 1 cDNA encodes a protein with the amino-terminal sequence of purified Gp135, while the putative h-contactin 2 gene has a deletion of 33 nucleotides that predicts a protein with a shortened amino terminus. Northern analysis with a probe common for both isoforms detects one mRNA species of approximately 6.6 kb in adult human brain. Fluorescence in situ hybridization maps the gene for human contactin to human chromosome 12q11-q12. The h-contactin gene locus is thus in close proximity to homeobox 3, integrin subunit alpha 5, several proto-oncogene genes, a chromosomal breakpoint associated with various tumors, and the gene locus for Stickler syndrome. The cloning of human contactin now permits the study of its role in disorders of the human nervous system.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: NS 25194

    Genomics 1994;21;3;571-82

  • Identification and characterization of the human cell adhesion molecule contactin.

    Reid RA, Bronson DD, Young KM and Hemperly JJ

    Becton Dickinson and Company Research Center, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709.

    We have prepared a monoclonal antibody, Neuro-1, that recognizes the human homolog of the chicken contactin/F11 and mouse F3 cell adhesion molecules. The Neuro-1 antigen, structurally characterized as a 135 kDa glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked glycoprotein, was immunoaffinity purified and partially sequenced. Comparison of an internal peptide sequence to that predicted from the chicken contactin/F11, mouse F3 and human contactin (reported herein) cDNA sequence identifies the Neuro-1 antigen as human contactin. Moreover, a polyclonal antisera generated against the purified Neuro-1 antigen was immunoreactive with a fragment of human contactin expressed in bacteria. The complete coding and deduced amino acid sequences of human contactin were determined and are 86% and 95% identical to the respective mouse F3 sequences. Structural features shared with contactin/F11/F3 include six immunoglobulin type C2 and four fibronectin type III-like domains, multiple sites for asn-linked glycosylation and a COOH-terminal signal peptide presumably removed during the generation of a phosphatidylinositol cell surface linkage. The potential for glycosylation and GPI-linkage is also consistent with protein chemical studies of human contactin. Contactin mRNA expression was characterized using Northern blot analyses of human tissues and cell lines. High level expression of a single contactin transcript in adult brain, and low level expression of multiple transcripts in lung, pancreas, kidney and skeletal muscle are observed. Highly expressed multiple transcripts, similar in pattern to that of pancreas, lung, kidney and skeletal muscle, are also observed in human neuroblastoma and retinoblastoma cell lines.

    Brain research. Molecular brain research 1994;21;1-2;1-8

  • Glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchored recognition molecules that function in axonal fasciculation, growth and guidance in the nervous system.

    Walsh FS and Doherty P

    Department of Experimental Pathology, UMDS, Guy's Hospital, London.

    A large number of glycoproteins in the central nervous system are attached to the cell membrane via covalent linkage to glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI). Many of them, including the drosophila fasciclin 1 as well as the mammalian glycoproteins Thy-1, TAG1, N-CAM and F11,F3, contactin are members of the immunoglobulin gene superfamily. These and other GPI-linked molecules have been implicated in key developmental events including selective axonal fasciculation and highly specific growth to and innervation of target tissues. In model systems fasciclin 1, TAG1 and N-CAM have been shown to be capable of mediating cell-cell adhesion via a homophilic binding mechanism confirming their operational classification as cell adhesion molecules (CAMs). However, of these molecules, only N-CAM has been shown to mediate a complex response (neurite outgrowth) via a homophilic binding mechanism. Whether the other molecules in this family mediate biological responses by binding to themselves and/or other molecules remains to be determined. Studies on N-CAM provide an ideal model system for understanding the function of GPI anchors since alternative splicing of the NCAM gene generates both lipid-linked and transmembrane N-CAM isoforms. Recent studies have shown that neurons can recognise and respond (by increased neurite outgrowth) to both lipid-linked and transmembrane N-CAM isoforms expressed on the surface of non-neuronal cells following transfection with appropriate cDNAs. The major determinant of neuronal responsiveness was the level of N-CAM expression rather than the isoform type. Neurite outgrowth in response to transfected N-CAM is mediated by transmembrane N-CAM isoforms expressed by neurons and this involves the activation of classical second messenger pathways in the neurons. One possibility is that GPI anchors are utilised when a cell has simply to provide recognition or positional information to a second cell whereas transmembrane molecules might be required for cells that actively respond to such information. The hypothesis is compatible with all the known information on N-CAM expression and function and may be extended to other adhesive events.

    Cell biology international reports 1991;15;11;1151-66

Gene lists (6)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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