G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
fascin homolog 1, actin-bundling protein (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)
G00000612 (Mus musculus)

Databases (8)

ENSG00000075618 (Ensembl human gene)
6624 (Entrez Gene)
1016 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
FSCN1 (GeneCards)
602689 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:11148 (HGNC)
Protein Expression
121 (human protein atlas)
Protein Sequence
Q16658 (UniProt)

Synonyms (2)

  • FLJ38511
  • p55

Literature (57)

Pubmed - other

  • Involvement of CYR61 and CTGF in the fascin-mediated proliferation and invasiveness of esophageal squamous cell carcinomas cells.

    Xie JJ, Xu LY, Wu JY, Shen ZY, Zhao Q, Du ZP, Lv Z, Gu W, Pan F, Xu XE, Xie D and Li EM

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, the Key Immunopathology Laboratory of Guangdong Province, Medical College of Shantou University, Shantou 515041, China.

    Fascin is overexpressed in esophageal squamous cell [corrected] carcinoma (ESCC) and involved in the proliferation and invasiveness of ESCC cells. In this study, we retrospectively examined the expression of fascin in ESCC samples by immunohistochemistry and revealed that overexpression of fascin was related to poor patient survival. RNAi-mediated knockdown of fascin in ESCC cells significantly inhibited cell proliferation and invasiveness, whereas forced expression of fascin in immortalized esophageal epithelial cells accelerated cell proliferation and invasiveness. To explore the underlying mechanism, cDNA microarray was performed to identify the differential gene expression profiles between a fascin-depleted cell line by RNAi and the corresponding control ESCC cells. Results showed that 296 genes were differentially expressed on fascin depletion. In this study, we focused on two down-regulated genes: CYR61 and CTGF. We found that restored expression of either CYR61 or CTGF led to a recovery of the suppression of cellular proliferation and invasiveness induced by down-regulation of fascin expression; the protein level of CYR61 and CTGF were up-regulated in ESCCs and their expression pattern correlated with fascin overexpression. Finally, analysis of signal transduction revealed that fascin affected the expressions of CYR61 and CTGF through transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta pathway. Taken together, we propose that fascin regulates the proliferation and invasiveness of ESCC cells by modulating the expression of CTGF and CYR61 via TGF-beta pathway.

    The American journal of pathology 2010;176;2;939-51

  • Prognostic significance of fascin-1 and E-cadherin expression in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Zou J, Yang H, Chen F, Zhao H, Lin P, Zhang J, Ye H, Wang L and Liu S

    Department of Otolaryngology, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, PR China.

    Fascin-1 and E-cadherin, both of which are related to cell motility and cell adhesiveness, are important factors in the progression and metastasis of cancers. The objective of this study was to explore the association between fascin-1 and E-cadherin expression levels with both the clinical characteristics and prognoses of patients with laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma; we did so through statistical analyses. In our study, tumor tissue samples from 150 patients with laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma were examined for fascin-1 and E-cadherin expression by immunohistochemistry. Fascin-1 expression was found to be an independent predictive factor for recurrence in patients with laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (P = 0.021) and independently related to disease-free survival (P = 0.010). Although E-cadherin expression status was not an independent predictive factor for recurrence (P = 0.055) or disease-free survival (P = 0.063), when using subgroup analysis, the subgroup with high fascin-1 expression/low E-cadherin expression had the poorest prognosis (P = 0.000). Fascin-1 expression could be a potential prognostic predictor for patients with laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Simultaneous analyses of fascin-1 and E-cadherin expression could be more effective in evaluating the prognoses of patients with laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    European journal of cancer prevention : the official journal of the European Cancer Prevention Organisation (ECP) 2010;19;1;11-7

  • Fascin is involved in tumor necrosis factor-alpha-dependent production of MMP9 in cholangiocarcinoma.

    Onodera M, Zen Y, Harada K, Sato Y, Ikeda H, Itatsu K, Sato H, Ohta T, Asaka M and Nakanuma Y

    Department of Human Pathology, Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medicine, Kanazawa 920-8640, Japan.

    Fascin is an actin-binding protein involved in the cell motility. Recently, aberrant expression of fascin in carcinoma cells was reported to participate in their invasive growth in cooperation with proteinases such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). This study examined the participation of fascin in the progression of cholangiocarcinoma (CC) with reference to MMPs and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). Expression levels of fascin and MMP2 and 9 were examined immunohistochemically in human non-neoplastic biliary epithelium (13 cases) and CC (87 cases). The relationship between fascin and MMP9-expression levels was examined using two CC cell lines (CCKS-1 and HuCCT1). It was also examined whether or not fascin was involved in TNF-alpha-induced overproduction of MMP9 in CC. Fascin and MMP9 were expressed in 49 and 53% of CC samples, respectively, and the expression of these genes was frequent in intrahepatic CC. Fascin expression was correlated significantly with MMP9 expression. In particular, these two molecules were expressed more intensely at the invasive fronts of CC. Fascin expression was an unfavorable prognostic factor for patients with intrahepatic CC. In vitro studies showed that TNF-alpha could induce the overexpression of fascin and MMP9 in two CC cell lines. A knockdown study of fascin by siRNA showed that TNF-alpha induced the overproduction of fascin, which in turn upregulated MMP9 expression. Overexpression of fascin may have an important function in the progression of CC, and fascin expression might be involved in the signaling pathway in TNF-alpha-dependent production of MMP9 in CC.

    Laboratory investigation; a journal of technical methods and pathology 2009;89;11;1261-74

  • The actin-bundling protein fascin is overexpressed in colorectal adenomas and promotes motility in adenoma cells in vitro.

    Qualtrough D, Singh K, Banu N, Paraskeva C and Pignatelli M

    Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, School of Medical Sciences, University of Bristol, University Walk, Bristol BS8 1TD, UK. david.qualtrough@bristol.ac.uk

    Background: Fascin is overexpressed in many cancers, including colorectal, but its role in the malignant transformation of benign colorectal adenomas is unclear.

    Methods: Immunohistochemical analysis of fascin expression was carried out in resected human colorectal adenoma specimens. The effects of forced overexpression of fascin on adenoma cell motility were also analysed.

    Results: We show fascin overexpression in adenomas increasing with tumour size, histological type, and degree of dysplasia and increased cell motility in adenoma cell lines following fascin transfection.

    Conclusion: These data suggest an important role for fascin in the malignant progression of colorectal tumours.

    British journal of cancer 2009;101;7;1124-9

  • Rab35 controls actin bundling by recruiting fascin as an effector protein.

    Zhang J, Fonovic M, Suyama K, Bogyo M and Scott MP

    Department of Developmental Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.

    Actin filaments are key components of the eukaryotic cytoskeleton that provide mechanical structure and generate forces during cell shape changes, growth, and migration. Actin filaments are dynamically assembled into higher-order structures at specified locations to regulate diverse functions. The Rab family of small guanosine triphosphatases is evolutionarily conserved and mediates intracellular vesicle trafficking. We found that Rab35 regulates the assembly of actin filaments during bristle development in Drosophila and filopodia formation in cultured cells. These effects were mediated by the actin-bundling protein fascin, which directly associated with active Rab35. Targeting Rab35 to the outer mitochondrial membrane triggered actin recruitment, demonstrating a role for an intracellular trafficking protein in localized actin assembly.

    Funded by: Howard Hughes Medical Institute; NCRR NIH HHS: U54 RR020843

    Science (New York, N.Y.) 2009;325;5945;1250-4

  • TGF-beta promotes invasion and metastasis of gastric cancer cells by increasing fascin1 expression via ERK and JNK signal pathways.

    Fu H, Hu Z, Wen J, Wang K and Liu Y

    Department of Pathology, Basic School of Medicine, Central South University, Changsha, China.

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) is involved in actin cytoskeleton reorganization and tumor progression. Fascin1, an actin-binding protein, increases cell invasiveness and motility in various transformed cells. To determine whether fascin1 is an important mediator of the tumor response to TGF-beta, we applied the small interfering RNA (siRNA) technique to silence fascin1 in gastric cancer (GC) cells MKN45. Results showed that the effects of TGF-beta1 on GC cells invasion and metastasis were mediated by tumor production of fascin1; furthermore, it was found that TGF-beta1- induced fascin1 expression was suppressed by the specific inhibitors of JNK and ERK pathways, SP6001125 and PD98059, respectively, but not by transient transfection of Smad2 and Smad4 siRNA. Our data for the first time demonstrated that fascin1 is an important mediator of TGF-beta1-induced invasion and metastasis of GC cells, which involves JNK and ERK signaling pathways.

    Acta biochimica et biophysica Sinica 2009;41;8;648-56

  • Fascin expression in uterine smooth muscle tumors.

    Kefeli M, Yildiz L, Kaya FC, Aydin O and Kandemir B

    Department of Pathology, Ondokuz Mayis University, Medical School, Samsun, Turkey. mehmetkefeli@gmail.com

    Summary: The diagnosis of malignant, uncertain malignant potential, and benign uterine smooth muscle tumors is derived from histologic criteria such as tumor cell necrosis, mitotic activity, and cytologic atypia. Morphologically, some variants of leiomyoma can be confused with leiomyosarcoma (LMS). In this study, we compared fascin expression in cases of leiomyoma, leiomyoma variants (LVs), uterine smooth muscle tumor of uncertain malignant potential (STUMP), and LMS, and sought to determine the potential role of fascin in differential diagnosis. Fascin expression was investigated through the immunohistochemistry of paraffin-embedded tissue in 79 cases of uterine smooth muscle tumor including 22 usual leiomyoma, 31 LV, 4 STUMP, and 22 LMS cases. The cases were scored on the basis of staining extent (from 0 to 4) and intensity (from 1 to 3), and were assigned a combined score. Fascin expression was present in 20 of 22 (90.9%) LMS, 2 of 4 (50%) STUMP, 1 of 31 (3.2%) LV, and 1 of 22 (4.5%) usual leiomyoma cases. There was a statistically significant difference in fascin extent and intensity between the LMS and benign groups, but no difference between the LMS and STUMP groups. The results of this study indicate that more distinct fascin expression exists in LMS than in the benign groups. Fascin can serve as a reliable immunohistochemical marker in distinguishing uterine LMS from LVs and usual leiomyoma, and it may usefully be used with histologic criteria in diagnosing problematic cases.

    International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists 2009;28;4;328-33

  • Fascin-1 promoter activity is regulated by CREB and the aryl hydrocarbon receptor in human carcinoma cells.

    Hashimoto Y, Loftis DW and Adams JC

    Department of Cell Biology, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA.

    Background: Fascin is an actin-bundling protein that is absent from most normal epithelia yet is upregulated in multiple forms of human carcinoma, where its expression correlates clinically with a poor prognosis. How fascin-1 transcription is activated in carcinoma cells is largely unknown, although the hypothesis of regulation by beta-catenin signaling has received attention. The question is important because of the clinical significance of fascin expression in human carcinomas.

    Through comparative genomics we made an unbiased analysis of the DNA sequence of the fascin-1 promoter region from six mammalian species. We identified two regions in which highly conserved motifs are concentrated. Luciferase promoter reporter assays for the human fascin-1 promoter were carried out in fascin-positive and -negative human breast and colon carcinoma cells, and in human dermal fibroblasts that are constitutively fascin-positive. In all fascin-positive cells, the region -219/+114 that contains multiple highly conserved motifs had strong transcriptional activity. The region -2953/-1582 appeared to contain repressor activity. By examining the effects of single or multiple point mutations of conserved motifs within the -219/+114 region on transcriptional reporter activity, we identified for the first time that the conserved CREB and AhR binding motifs are major determinants of transcriptional activity in human colon carcinoma cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitations for CREB, AhR or beta-catenin from extracts from fascin-positive or -negative human colon carcinoma cells identified that CREB and AhR specifically associate with the -219/+114 region of the FSCN1 promoter in fascin-positive colon carcinoma cells. An association of beta-catenin was not specific to fascin-positive cells.

    Conclusion: Upregulation of fascin-1 in aggressive human carcinomas appears to have a multi-factorial basis. The data identify novel roles for CREB and AhR as major, specific regulators of FSCN-1 transcription in human carcinoma cells but do not support the hypothesis that beta-catenin signaling has a central role.

    PloS one 2009;4;4;e5130

  • Knockdown of fascin1 expression suppresses the proliferation and metastasis of gastric cancer cells.

    Fu H, Wen JF, Hu ZL, Luo GQ and Ren HZ

    Department of Pathology, Xiangya Medical School, Central South University, Hunan Province, China.

    Aims: Our current investigation attempts to study the role of the fascin1 gene in growth and metastasis of gastric cancer cell line MKN45.

    Methods: Small interfering RNA (siRNA) was used to inhibit fascin1 expression in the human gastric cancer cell line MKN45. Expression of fascin1 in fascin1 siRNA transfected cells (sifascin1), non-transfected cells (NT) and non-specific fascin1 siRNA cells (CON) were examined by Western blotting and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Cell growth ability in vitro was evaluated by MTT and clone formation assays. Cell mobility in vitro was examined by the Boyden chamber assay. Nude mice metastasis models were established by abdominal cavity transfer method. Tumour growth was evaluated by immunohistochemistry with proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA).

    Results: Knockdown of fascin1 expression in MKN45 cells resulted in decreased cellular proliferative and migratory abilities. In vitro, the cloning efficiency of siFascin1 cells (34.2%) was significantly lower compared to that in NT (78.5%) (p < 0.05). The migration rate in siFascin1 cells was significantly decreased (33.7%) compared with NT cells (89.4%) (p < 0.05). In vivo, the cell proliferation rate was lower in siFascin1 cells (25.8%) compared to that in NT (75.0%) (p < 0.05). The number of tumour clones in the liver was significantly lower in siFascin1 cells (2.0 +/- 1.1) compared to that in NT (5.1 +/- 1.6) (p < 0.05).

    Conclusions: Our study demonstrates that down-regulation of fascin1 suppresses the proliferation and migration of gastric cancer cells MKN45, suggesting that fascin1 siRNA may offer a novel potential gene therapy approach for human gastric cancer with fascin1 over-expression.

    Pathology 2009;41;7;655-60

  • Prognostic significance of fascin expression in extrahepatic bile duct carcinomas.

    Won KY, Kim GY, Lim SJ, Park YK and Kim YW

    Department of Pathology, College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

    Extrahepatic bile duct (EBD) carcinoma is an aggressive cancer with a poor prognosis. Fascin is an actin-bundling protein with roles in forming cell protrusions and mesenchymal and neuronal cell motility. Many human neoplasms up-regulate fascin. High fascin expression is thought to be a poor prognostic factor in some cancers; however, few data are available for the role of fascin in EBD carcinoma. We investigated fascin immunoreactivity in EBD carcinoma and tested it for correlations between fascin expression and clinicopathological parameters. Conventional tissue sections of 114 cases of EBD carcinomas were immunohistochemically analyzed for fascin expression. Fascin expression was tested by cytoplasmic staining. Negative, weak positive, and strong positive fascin staining was observed in 49 (43.0%), 32 (28.1%), and 33 cases (28.9%), respectively. Fascin expression in EBD carcinomas was significantly correlated with histological grade (P<0.0001), primary tumor (T) (P=0.002), TNM stage (P=0.036), lymphatic invasion (P=0.048), venous invasion (P=0.024), and adjacent organ invasion (P<0.0001). High fascin expression was a significant poor prognostic factor (P=0.0001) in EBD carcinoma. High fascin expression (P=0.004) and TNM stage (P=0.001) in EBD carcinoma were independent adverse prognostic factors. High fascin expression is significantly correlated with aggressive tumor phenotype in EBD carcinoma and is an independent poor prognostic factor in EBD carcinoma.

    Pathology, research and practice 2009;205;11;742-8

  • Fascin determination in urothelial carcinomas of the urinary bladder: a marker of invasiveness.

    Karasavvidou F, Barbanis S, Pappa D, Moutzouris G, Tzortzis V, Melekos MD and Koukoulis G

    Department of Pathology, University Hospital, Thessaly, Greece. fotkarasa@yahoo.gr

    Context: Invasion and the depth of invasion affect significantly the prognosis in urothelial carcinomas. The histopathologic evaluation of invasion may be problematic in some cases. Application of new immunohistochemical markers may facilitate the assessment of invasion. Fascin, one of these markers, is an actin-bundling protein involved in tumor cell migration. Fascin expression is increased in various carcinomas. Prior to this research, to our knowledge, only one study exists regarding fascin expression in urothelial carcinomas.

    Objective: To characterize the expression of fascin in additional cases of urothelial carcinoma and to verify statistically a relationship between fascin overexpression and invasiveness in these tumors.

    Design: We examined fascin immunoreactivity in 116 specimens of urothelial carcinomas obtained from 116 patients including 96 men and 20 women. Fifty-eight cases were ranked as low-grade carcinomas, pTa stage, and 58 cases were ranked as high-grade carcinomas--11 were ranked as stage pTa, 21 were ranked as pT1, and 26 were ranked as pT2 carcinomas. Fascin immunoreactivity was assessed semiquantitatively in tumor cells. In each case, we ascribed 3 immunoreactivity scores, one for extent, one for intensity, and a combined immunoreactivity score.

    Results: The combined immunoreactivity score was significantly higher in invasive carcinomas. In addition, strong staining was observed exclusively in invasive carcinomas. None of the pTa tumors demonstrated intense staining, including those ranked at the higher grade.

    Conclusions: Our results point to an association between fascin immunostaining and urothelial carcinoma invasiveness and suggest that fascin overexpression may be a marker of aggressive urothelial carcinomas.

    Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine 2008;132;12;1912-5

  • Recurrence of pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid gland--predictive value of cadherin-11 and fascin.

    Brieger J, Duesterhoeft A, Brochhausen C, Gosepath J, Kirkpatrick CJ and Mann WJ

    Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz, Germany. brieger@hno.klinik.uni-mainz.de

    The predictive value of cadherin-11, tenascin, fascin, and mucin-1 as markers for the likelihood of recurrence in pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid gland was examined. In this retrospective study we analysed 20 tumours from16 patients by immunohistochemistry. Staining intensities were measured using a semiquantitative scoring approach; localisation (tumour centre vs border) as well as clinical data were analysed and correlated with follow-up. Cadherin-11 was increased in recurrent tumours. However, no changes of fascin, tenascin or mucin-1 were observed. Cadherin-11 and fascin were increased in primary tumours of patients with later recurrence, with fascin upregulation restricted to the tumour border. In conclusion, cadherin-11 and fascin should be further analysed for their value as markers for later recurrence in pleomorphic adenoma. Our observations might reflect dysregulation of cellular pathways contributing to cellular dissemination, which might potentially result in later recurrence.

    APMIS : acta pathologica, microbiologica, et immunologica Scandinavica 2008;116;12;1050-7

  • Rac regulates the interaction of fascin with protein kinase C in cell migration.

    Parsons M and Adams JC

    Randall Division of Cell and Molecular Biophysics, King's College London, Guy's Campus, London SE1 1UL, UK. maddy.parsons@kcl.ac.uk

    Fascin is an actin-bundling protein that is low or absent in normal epithelia; its upregulation correlates with poor prognosis in many human carcinomas. We have recently demonstrated in mouse xenograft models that fascin contributes to tumour development and metastasis through its dual actin-bundling and active PKC-binding activities. Rac was implicated as a regulator of fascin-dependent colon carcinoma cell migration in vitro. Here, we tested the hypothesis that Rac regulates the interaction of fascin with active PKC. The major conventional PKC in colon carcinoma cells is protein kinase Cgamma (PKCgamma). Endogenous PKCgamma, fascin and Rac1 colocalised at lamellipodial margins of migrating cells. Colocalisation of fascin and PKCgamma depended on Rac activity, and inhibition of Rac decreased PKCgamma activity in cell extracts but not in vitro. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer/fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy uncovered that fascin and PKCgamma interact in protrusions and filopodia of migrating cells. Mechanistically, the interaction depended on phosphorylated fascin, active PKCgamma and active Rac, but not on active Cdc42. The activity of Rac on the fascin/PKC complex was mediated in part by Pak. Elucidation of this novel pathway for regulation of the fascin/PKCgamma complex in migrating carcinoma cells suggests novel targets for therapeutic intervention in metastasis.

    Funded by: Medical Research Council: G0100152; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM068073

    Journal of cell science 2008;121;Pt 17;2805-13

  • Expression of fascin in thyroid neoplasms: a novel diagnostic marker.

    Chen G, Zhang FR, Ren J, Tao LH, Shen ZY, Lv Z, Yu SJ, Dong BF, Xu LY and Li EM

    Department of General Surgery, The First Teaching Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin Province, People's Republic of China.

    Purpose: Fascin, an actin-bundling protein, is markedly upregulated in several epithelial tumors and its expression often correlates with high-grade, extensive invasion, and distant metastasis. However, reports about fascin expression in endocrine tumors remain rare. The aim of the present study was to assess the diagnostic significance of fascin in thyroid neoplasms.

    Methods: Thyroid samples from 177 cases were examined for fascin and Ki-67 expression by immunohistochemistry.

    Results: Fascin immunoreactivity was negative in normal follicles and nodular goiter. Fascin immunostaining was positive in 62.1% (41/66) of thyroid carcinomas and 26.4% (19/72) of thyroid adenomas; the difference being significant (P < 0.0001). In thyroid papillary carcinoma, upregulation of fascin was associated with both the Ki-67 labeling index and the occurrence of lymph node metastasis.

    Conclusion: Fascin may be a novel marker to distinguish thyroid carcinoma from benign lesions and may be involved in the proliferation and metastasis of papillary carcinoma.

    Journal of cancer research and clinical oncology 2008;134;9;947-51

  • A myosin motor that selects bundled actin for motility.

    Nagy S, Ricca BL, Norstrom MF, Courson DS, Brawley CM, Smithback PA and Rock RS

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA.

    Eukaryotic cells organize their contents through trafficking along cytoskeletal filaments. The leading edge of a typical metazoan cytoskeleton consists of a dense and complex arrangement of cortical actin. A dendritic mesh is found across the broad lamellopodium, with long parallel bundles at microspikes and filopodia. It is currently unclear whether and how myosin motors identify the few actin filaments that lead to the correct destination, when presented with many similar alternatives within the cortex. Here we show that myosin X, an actin-based motor that concentrates at the distal tips of filopodia, selects the fascin-actin bundle at the filopodial core for motility. Myosin X moves individual actin filaments poorly in vitro, often supercoiling actin into plectonemes. However, single myosin X motors move robustly and processively along fascin-actin bundles. This selection requires only parallel, closely spaced filaments, as myosin X is also processive on artificial actin bundles formed by molecular crowding. Myosin X filopodial localization is perturbed in fascin-depleted HeLa cells, demonstrating that fascin bundles also direct motility in vivo. Our results demonstrate that myosin X recognizes the local structural arrangement of filaments in long bundles, providing a mechanism for sorting cargo to distant target sites.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: R01 GM078450

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2008;105;28;9616-20

  • Toward a confocal subcellular atlas of the human proteome.

    Barbe L, Lundberg E, Oksvold P, Stenius A, Lewin E, Björling E, Asplund A, Pontén F, Brismar H, Uhlén M and Andersson-Svahn H

    Department of Biotechnology, AlbaNova University Center, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.

    Information on protein localization on the subcellular level is important to map and characterize the proteome and to better understand cellular functions of proteins. Here we report on a pilot study of 466 proteins in three human cell lines aimed to allow large scale confocal microscopy analysis using protein-specific antibodies. Approximately 3000 high resolution images were generated, and more than 80% of the analyzed proteins could be classified in one or multiple subcellular compartment(s). The localizations of the proteins showed, in many cases, good agreement with the Gene Ontology localization prediction model. This is the first large scale antibody-based study to localize proteins into subcellular compartments using antibodies and confocal microscopy. The results suggest that this approach might be a valuable tool in conjunction with predictive models for protein localization.

    Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 2008;7;3;499-508

  • The role of fascin in the migration and invasiveness of malignant glioma cells.

    Hwang JH, Smith CA, Salhia B and Rutka JT

    Department of Neurosurgery, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, South Korea.

    Malignant glioma is the most common primary brain tumor, and its ability to invade the surrounding brain parenchyma is a leading cause of tumor recurrence and treatment failure. Whereas the molecular mechanisms of glioma invasion are incompletely understood, there is growing evidence that cytoskeletal-matrix interactions contribute to this process. Fascin, an actin-bundling protein, induces parallel actin bundles in cell protrusions and increases cell motility in multiple human malignancies. The role of fascin in glioma invasion remains unclear. We demonstrate that fascin is expressed in a panel of human malignant glioma cell lines, and downregulation of fascin expression in glioma cell lines by small interfering RNA (siRNA) is associated with decreased cellular attachment to extracellular matrix (ECM) and reduced migration. Using immunofluorescence analysis, we show that fascin depletion results in a reduced number of filopodia as well as altered glioma cell shape. In vitro invasiveness of U251, U87, and SNB19 glioma cells was inhibited by fascin siRNA treatment by 52.2%, 40.3%, and 23.8% respectively. Finally, we show a decreased invasiveness of U251-GFP cells by fascin knockdown in an ex vivo rat brain slice model system. This is the first study to demonstrate a role for fascin in glioma cell morphology, motility, and invasiveness.

    Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.) 2008;10;2;149-59

  • Association of cortactin, fascin-1 and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression in ovarian carcinomas: correlation with clinicopathological parameters.

    Lin CK, Su HY, Tsai WC, Sheu LF and Jin JS

    Department of Pathology, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan.

    Cortactin, fascin-1 and EGFR are recognized as important factors in tumor progression. We tested the hypothesis that cortactin, fascin-1 and EGFR expression correlates with clinicopathological parameters of the four most common ovarian surface epithelial carcinomas--serous cystadenocarcinoma, mucinous cystadenocarcinoma, endometrioid adenocarcinoma, and clear cell carcinoma. Immunohistochemical analysis of cortactin, fascin-1 and EGFR was performed using tissue microarrays of 172 specimens comprising 69 serous cystadenocarcinomas, 44 mucinous cystadenocarcinomas, 45 endometrioid adenocarcinomas and 14 clear cell carcinomas. All ovarian carcinomas showed significant expression of cortactin, fascin-1 and EGFR in staining intensity, tumor percentages and immunostaining scores. In addition, higher immunostaining scores of fascin-1 correlated with more advanced cancer stages (TNM), poorer histological differentiation and poorer survival rate of mucinous cystadenocarcinoma. Similarly, higher immunostaining scores of cortactin correlated with T stages and histological differentiation of serous cystadenocarcinoma. The immunostaining scores of EGFR did not correlate with TNM stages, tumor differentiation or prognosis in the four ovarian surface epithelial carcinomas. Our findings suggest that cortactin and fascin-1 may serve as good biomarkers in evaluating aggressiveness of ovarian serous and mucinous cystadenocarcinoma. And the pharmacological inhibitors of fascin-1 activity may slow down tumor progression and prolong survival time in patients with mucinous cystadenocarcinoma.

    Disease markers 2008;25;1;17-26

  • Does the expression of fascin-1 and tumor subclassification help to assess the risk of recurrence and progression in t1 urothelial urinary bladder carcinoma?

    Soukup V, Babjuk M, Dusková J, Pesl M, Szakáczová M, Zámecník L and Dvorácek J

    Department of Urology, General Teaching Hospital, 1st Medical Faculty, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic. viktor.soukup@centrum.cz

    Introduction: To evaluate the prognostic value of T1 subclassification and fascin-1 expression in T1 human urothelial cell carcinoma of the bladder.

    In a prospective study with 105 consecutive patients, T1 tumors were subclassified into 2 groups according to the depth of tumor invasion. The tunica muscularis mucosae was used as a landmark. The expression of fascin-1 was examined by using an anti-fascin-1 mouse monoclonal antibody and was evaluated semiquantitatively for both intensity and distribution. The patients were followed up for 27.3 +/- 13.7 months.

    Results: The T1 tumor subclassification was feasible in 99 patients (94%). T1a tumor was detected in 77 patients (73%), T1b tumor in 22 patients (21%). An invasive tumor was found in 5 patients (4.8%) during the restaging transurethral resection of the bladder. The risk of understaging in patients with T1b tumor was 18%. There was not a significant difference in time to the recurrence in the T1a and the T1b group. The progression-free survival rates were significantly different between both groups (p = 0.0034). No correlation was found between fascin-1 positivity and the depth of tumor invasion. Fascin-1 positivity did not correlate with recurrence or the progression-free intervals. In the multivariate analysis, only the extent of lamina propria invasion was an independent predictor of the tumor progression. The fascin positivity was not an independent prognostic factor relating to the risk of recurrence or progression.

    Conclusion: The finding of T1b tumor was connected with a significantly higher risk of progression and understaging. The fascin-1 expression did not correlate with the depth of tumor invasion or with the tumor recurrence or progression.

    Urologia internationalis 2008;80;4;413-8

  • Fascin can be an auxiliary immunomarker of ovarian granulosa cell tumors: comparison with calretinin and inhibin-alpha.

    Kostopoulou E, Angelidou S, Daponte A, Galani C, Chiotoglou I, Terzis A and Koukoulis G

    Department of Pathology, University Hospital of Larissa, Medical School of Thessaly, Larissa, Greece. ekosto@med.uth.gr

    The histopathologic diagnosis of granulosa cell tumor adult type (AGCT) can be supported by the use of established immunomarkers such as inhibin-alpha and calretinin. Previously unreported data is presented on the detection of fascin in AGCT, in nonneoplastic granulosa cells and in other types of sex-cord stromal tumors. In addition, by staining a panel of various tumors, potentially included in the differential diagnosis of AGCT, we assessed the value of fascin as an auxiliary AGCT immunomarker. Intense and strong fascin staining may assist in cases with ambiguous calretinin or inhibin-alpha staining. On the contrary, absence of fascin should question a provisional morphologic diagnosis of AGCT.

    European journal of gynaecological oncology 2008;29;6;638-42

  • Intrinsic dynamic behavior of fascin in filopodia.

    Aratyn YS, Schaus TE, Taylor EW and Borisy GG

    Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL 60611, USA. y-aratyn@northwestern.edu

    Recent studies showed that the actin cross-linking protein, fascin, undergoes rapid cycling between filopodial filaments. Here, we used an experimental and computational approach to dissect features of fascin exchange and incorporation in filopodia. Using expression of phosphomimetic fascin mutants, we determined that fascin in the phosphorylated state is primarily freely diffusing, whereas actin bundling in filopodia is accomplished by fascin dephosphorylated at serine 39. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching analysis revealed that fascin rapidly dissociates from filopodial filaments with a kinetic off-rate of 0.12 s(-1) and that it undergoes diffusion at moderate rates with a coefficient of 6 microm(2)s(-1). This kinetic off-rate was recapitulated in vitro, indicating that dynamic behavior is intrinsic to the fascin cross-linker. A computational reaction-diffusion model showed that reversible cross-linking is required for the delivery of fascin to growing filopodial tips at sufficient rates. Analysis of fascin bundling indicated that filopodia are semiordered bundles with one bound fascin per 25-60 actin monomers.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM-70898, R01 GM070898; NINDS NIH HHS: F31 NS055565, NS055565-01

    Molecular biology of the cell 2007;18;10;3928-40

  • Association of cortactin and fascin-1 expression in gastric adenocarcinoma: correlation with clinicopathological parameters.

    Tsai WC, Jin JS, Chang WK, Chan DC, Yeh MK, Cherng SC, Lin LF, Sheu LF and Chao YC

    Department of Pathology, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Neihu, Taipei, Taiwan.

    Cortactin and fascin-1 are important factors in tumor progression. We tested the hypothesis that cortactin and fascin-1 expression correlates with clinicopathological parameters of gastric adenocarcinoma. Immunohistochemical analysis of cortactin and fascin-1 was done using tissue microarrays of 100 surgical specimens, including 20 well-differentiated, 20 moderately differentiated, and 60 poorly differentiated gastric adenocarcinomas. Among the 20 well-differentiated gastric adenocarcinomas, 15 cases (75%) showed negative or weak staining (1+); 5 cases (25%) had moderate (2+) or strong (3+) cortactin expression. Among the 60 poorly differentiated gastric adenocarcinomas, more than three-quarters of the cases (76.7%) had moderate or strong cortactin expression; 14 cases (23.3%) had weak staining. Of 20 well-differentiated gastric adenocarcinoma cases, 14 (70%) showed negative or weak staining of fascin-1, whereas nearly one-third (30%) had moderate or strong expression. Among the 60 poorly differentiated gastric adenocarcinomas, 32 (53.3%) exhibited moderate or strong fascin-1 expression; fewer than half of the cases showed negative or weak staining. Higher intensity of cortactin and fascin-1 staining correlated directly with more-advanced cancer stages (TNM) and inversely with survival rates. Our findings suggest the possibility that pharmacological inhibitors of cortactin and fascin-1 activity may slow down tumor progression and prolong survival time in patients with gastric adenocarcinomas.

    The journal of histochemistry and cytochemistry : official journal of the Histochemistry Society 2007;55;9;955-62

  • Fascin, a novel target of beta-catenin-TCF signaling, is expressed at the invasive front of human colon cancer.

    Vignjevic D, Schoumacher M, Gavert N, Janssen KP, Jih G, Laé M, Louvard D, Ben-Ze'ev A and Robine S

    UMR 144 Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique and Department of Pathology, Institut Curie, 25 rue d'Ulm, 75248 Paris Cedex 05, France. danijela.vignjevic@curie.fr

    Cancer cells become metastatic by acquiring a motile and invasive phenotype. This step requires remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton and the expression of exploratory, sensory organelles known as filopodia. Aberrant beta-catenin-TCF target gene activation plays a major role in colorectal cancer development. We identified fascin1, a key component of filopodia, as a target of beta-catenin-TCF signaling in colorectal cancer cells. Fascin1 mRNA and protein expression were increased in primary cancers in a stage-dependent manner. Fascin1 was exclusively localized at the invasive front of tumors also displaying nuclear beta-catenin. Forced expression of fascin1 in colorectal cancer cells increased their migration and invasion in cell cultures and caused cell dissemination and metastasis in vivo, whereas suppression of fascin1 expression by small interfering RNA reduces cell invasion. Although expression of fascin1 in primary tumors correlated with the presence of metastases, fascin1 was not expressed in metastases. Our studies show that fascin1 expression is tightly regulated during development of colon cancer metastases and is a novel target of beta-catenin-TCF signaling. We propose that transient up-regulation of fascin1 in colorectal cancer promotes the acquisition of migratory and invasive phenotypes that lead to metastasis. Moreover, the expression of fascin1 is down-regulated when tumor cells reach their metastatic destination where migration ceases and proliferation is enhanced. Although metastasis to vital organs is often the cause of mortality, only limited success has been attained in developing effective therapeutics against metastatic disease. We propose that genes involved in cell migration and invasion, such as fascin1, could serve as novel targets for metastasis prevention.

    Cancer research 2007;67;14;6844-53

  • Liver X receptors regulate dendritic cell phenotype and function through blocked induction of the actin-bundling protein fascin.

    Geyeregger R, Zeyda M, Bauer W, Kriehuber E, Säemann MD, Zlabinger GJ, Maurer D and Stulnig TM

    Department of Internal Medicine III, Clinical Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Medical University of Vienna, Austria.

    Liver X receptors (LXRs) are nuclear receptors regulating lipid and cholesterol metabolism. Recent data revealed a cross talk between LXR and Toll-like receptor signaling in macrophages, indicating a role in immunity. Here, we show that LXRalpha is expressed in human myeloid dendritic cells (DCs) and induced during differentiation of monocyte-derived DCs, whereas LXRbeta is expressed constitutively at a very low level. LXR activation by 2 different LXR agonists strongly interfered with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced but not with CD40L-induced DC maturation by altering DC morphology and suppressing interleukin-12-but enhancing interleukin-10-secretion. LXR activation in DCs largely blocked their T-cell stimulatory ability despite essentially unaltered expression of various antigen-presenting and costimulatory molecules. Immunologic synapse formation was significantly inhibited by LXR activation along with a complete block in LPS- but not CD40L-induced expression of the actin-bundling protein fascin. Notably, overexpression of fascin in LXR agonist-treated DCs restored immunologic synapse formation and restored their ability to activate T cells. In conclusion, our data reveal LXR as a potent modulator of DC maturation and function mediated in part by blocking the expression of fascin. Due to the central position of DCs in immunity, LXRalpha could be a potential novel target for immunomodulation.

    Blood 2007;109;10;4288-95

  • Large-scale mapping of human protein-protein interactions by mass spectrometry.

    Ewing RM, Chu P, Elisma F, Li H, Taylor P, Climie S, McBroom-Cerajewski L, Robinson MD, O'Connor L, Li M, Taylor R, Dharsee M, Ho Y, Heilbut A, Moore L, Zhang S, Ornatsky O, Bukhman YV, Ethier M, Sheng Y, Vasilescu J, Abu-Farha M, Lambert JP, Duewel HS, Stewart II, Kuehl B, Hogue K, Colwill K, Gladwish K, Muskat B, Kinach R, Adams SL, Moran MF, Morin GB, Topaloglou T and Figeys D

    Protana, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

    Mapping protein-protein interactions is an invaluable tool for understanding protein function. Here, we report the first large-scale study of protein-protein interactions in human cells using a mass spectrometry-based approach. The study maps protein interactions for 338 bait proteins that were selected based on known or suspected disease and functional associations. Large-scale immunoprecipitation of Flag-tagged versions of these proteins followed by LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis resulted in the identification of 24,540 potential protein interactions. False positives and redundant hits were filtered out using empirical criteria and a calculated interaction confidence score, producing a data set of 6463 interactions between 2235 distinct proteins. This data set was further cross-validated using previously published and predicted human protein interactions. In-depth mining of the data set shows that it represents a valuable source of novel protein-protein interactions with relevance to human diseases. In addition, via our preliminary analysis, we report many novel protein interactions and pathway associations.

    Molecular systems biology 2007;3;89

  • Overexpression of fascin-1 in advanced colorectal adenocarcinoma: tissue microarray analysis of immunostaining scores with clinicopathological parameters.

    Tsai WC, Chao YC, Sheu LF, Chang JL, Nieh S and Jin JS

    Department of Pathology, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan.

    Objective: Fascin-1 is an actin-binding protein that promotes cell proliferation, adhesion and motility. We tested the hypothesis that fascin-1 expression correlates with clinicopathological parameters of colorectal adenocarcinomas.

    Methods: Immunohistochemical analysis of fascin-1 was performed in tissue microarrays of 91 surgical specimens, including 32 well, 33 moderately, and 26 poorly differentiated colorectal adenocarcinomas; and in 22 specimens from colorectal adenomas with dysplasia.

    Results: Scattered fascin-1 expression was demonstrated in 9 control specimens of normal colonic glandular epithelia. Higher fascin-1 immunostaining scores were significantly associated with advanced dysplasia in colorectal adenomas (mild 4.2 +/- 1.3, moderate 13.5 +/- 5.3, and severe 22.5 +/- 6.7) and high-grade histopathological differentiation of colorectal adenocarcinomas (grade I 88.6 +/- 9, grade II 101 +/- 11, and grade III 144 +/- 13). Higher immunostaining scores of fascin-1 were also significantly associated with advanced T stage (T1: 42 +/- 10, T2: 60 +/- 12, T3: 108 +/- 12, and T4: 142 +/- 15). Higher fascin-1 scores were related with more advanced M and N stages of colorectal carcinomas, but not significant correlation.

    Conclusions: Higher expression of fascin-1 correlates significantly with tumor grades and TNM stages in colorectal adenocarcinomas and also with levels of dysplastic change in colorectal adenomas.

    Disease markers 2007;23;3;153-60

  • Increasing expression of fascin in renal cell carcinoma associated with clinicopathological parameters of aggressiveness.

    Jin JS, Yu CP, Sun GH, Lin YF, Chiang H, Chao TK, Tsai WC and Sheu LF

    Department of Pathology, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC. jsjin@ndmctsgh.edu.tw

    Aim: To determine whether higher expression of fascin, an actin-bundling protein associated with motility, in conventional renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is associated with more advanced stages of the disease.

    Methods: Immunohistochemical analysis of fascin expression was performed in tissue microarrays of 108 RCCs including 55 clear cell RCCs (CRCCs), 39 CRCCs with granular cell differentiation (GRCCs), 8 CRCCs with sarcomatoid differentiation (SRCCs) and 6 metastatic RCCs.

    Results: The expression of fascin was undetectable in normal renal tubules of all control cases. However, among the 108 RCC cases, fascin immunoreactivity was seen on the cell membrane and cytoplasm. The average immunostaining score for fascin was 128/400 in grade I, 170/400 in grade II, 207/400 in grade III, and 323/400 in grade IV RCC. The average immunostaining score of fascin was 187/400 for stage T1, 205/400 for stage T2, 288/400 for stage T3, and 355/400 for stage T4 cases of RCCs. Higher fascin scores in RCC were significantly correlated with higher T and N stages and nuclear grade. In addition, the fascin scores in GRCC (368+/-19) and SRCC (263+/-21) were significantly higher than in CRCC (95+/-18).

    Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate for the first time that increased expression of fascin is associated with clinicopathological parameters of aggressiveness in patients with RCC. Fascin may be a novel biomarker for diagnosis and treatment of RCC.

    Histology and histopathology 2006;21;12;1287-93

  • Prognostic significance of fascin expression in advanced colorectal cancer: an immunohistochemical study of colorectal adenomas and adenocarcinomas.

    Hashimoto Y, Skacel M, Lavery IC, Mukherjee AL, Casey G and Adams JC

    Department of Cell Biology, Lerner Research Institute, The Cleveland Clinic, 9500 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44195, USA. hashimy@ccf.org

    Background: Fascin is an actin bundling protein with roles in the formation of cell protrusions and motility of mesenchymal and neuronal cells. Fascin is normally low or absent from epithelia, but is upregulated in several epithelial neoplasms where it may contribute to an invasive phenotype. Here, we report on the prevalence and potential clinical significance of fascin expression in relation to the progression of colorectal adenocarcinoma and to tumor cell proliferation as measured by Ki67 index.

    Methods: Conventional tissue sections of 107 colorectal adenomas and 35 adenocarcinomas were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for fascin and Ki67 expression. Fascin expression and Ki67 proliferation index were also investigated by use of a tissue microarray containing cores from a further 158 colorectal adenocarcinomas and 15 adenomas linked to a CCF, IRB-approved database with a mean of 38 months of clinical follow-up. Survival analysis was carried out by the Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression methods.

    Results: Fascin was not expressed by the normal colonic epithelium. In conventional sections, 16% of adenomas and 26% of adenocarcinomas showed fascin expression in greater than 10% of the tumor cells. In the clinically-annotated tumors, fascin immunoreactivity was more common in tumors located in the proximal colon (p = 0.009), but was not associated with age, gender, or TNM stage. Patients with stage III/IV adenocarcinomas (n = 62) with strong fascin immunoreactivity had a worse prognosis than patients with low or absent fascin, (3-year overall survival of 11% versus 43% for fascin-negative patients; p = 0.023). In adenomas, fascin and Ki67 tended to be inversely correlated at the cellular level; this trend was less apparent in adenocarcinomas.

    Conclusion: Fascin is upregulated in a proportion of adenomas, where its expression is often focal. Strong and diffuse expression was seen in a subset of advanced colorectal adenocarcinomas that correlated with shorter survival in stage III and IV patients. Fascin may have prognostic value as an early biomarker for more aggressive colorectal adenocarcinomas.

    BMC cancer 2006;6;241

  • Prognostic significance of basal-like phenotype and fascin expression in node-negative invasive breast carcinomas.

    Rodríguez-Pinilla SM, Sarrió D, Honrado E, Hardisson D, Calero F, Benitez J and Palacios J

    Breast and Gynecological Cancer Group, Molecular Pathology Programme and Department of Human Genetics, Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Oncológicas, Madrid, Spain.

    Purpose: Basal-like phenotype tumors are frequently found among BRCA1 germ-line mutated breast carcinomas. They are biologically aggressive and have a tendency towards visceral metastasis when untreated. Nevertheless, it has been suggested that they respond to chemotherapy better than other types of tumors. Fascin expression has been associated with lung metastasis in breast cancer. The aim of this study was to determine whether basal-like phenotype and fascin were related in both sporadic and familial tumors and with prognosis in node-negative sporadic breast cancers.

    230 nonfamilial and 28 hereditary node-negative invasive breast carcinomas were immunohistochemically analyzed using tissue microarrays. Tumors that were estrogen receptor/HER2 negative and cytokeratin 5/6 and/or epidermal growth factor receptor positive were considered to have a basal-like phenotype.

    Results: A basal-like phenotype was found in 11.9% of sporadic cancers. Among patients not receiving adjuvant chemotherapy, a basal-like phenotype was associated with poor prognosis (P = 0.001, log-rank test) whereas no such association was found in patients receiving it. Tumors with a basal-like phenotype showed local recurrence (17.4%) or visceral metastasis (13%) but not bone metastasis (P = 0.001). Fascin expression was observed in 25.1% of sporadic invasive breast carcinomas and was associated with the basal-like phenotype, but not with prognosis or recurrence pattern. Fascin was expressed in 83.3% and 16.7% BRCA1- and BRCA2-associated carcinomas, respectively (P = 0.048).

    Conclusions: Basal-like tumors had a tendency towards visceral metastasis and their prognosis was dependent on the use of postoperative chemotherapy. Although fascin expression was associated with the basal-like phenotype, it was not associated with their metastatic behavior. Fascin expression is frequent in BRCA1-associated tumors.

    Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research 2006;12;5;1533-9

  • Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network.

    Rual JF, Venkatesan K, Hao T, Hirozane-Kishikawa T, Dricot A, Li N, Berriz GF, Gibbons FD, Dreze M, Ayivi-Guedehoussou N, Klitgord N, Simon C, Boxem M, Milstein S, Rosenberg J, Goldberg DS, Zhang LV, Wong SL, Franklin G, Li S, Albala JS, Lim J, Fraughton C, Llamosas E, Cevik S, Bex C, Lamesch P, Sikorski RS, Vandenhaute J, Zoghbi HY, Smolyar A, Bosak S, Sequerra R, Doucette-Stamm L, Cusick ME, Hill DE, Roth FP and Vidal M

    Center for Cancer Systems Biology and Department of Cancer Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, 44 Binney Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    Systematic mapping of protein-protein interactions, or 'interactome' mapping, was initiated in model organisms, starting with defined biological processes and then expanding to the scale of the proteome. Although far from complete, such maps have revealed global topological and dynamic features of interactome networks that relate to known biological properties, suggesting that a human interactome map will provide insight into development and disease mechanisms at a systems level. Here we describe an initial version of a proteome-scale map of human binary protein-protein interactions. Using a stringent, high-throughput yeast two-hybrid system, we tested pairwise interactions among the products of approximately 8,100 currently available Gateway-cloned open reading frames and detected approximately 2,800 interactions. This data set, called CCSB-HI1, has a verification rate of approximately 78% as revealed by an independent co-affinity purification assay, and correlates significantly with other biological attributes. The CCSB-HI1 data set increases by approximately 70% the set of available binary interactions within the tested space and reveals more than 300 new connections to over 100 disease-associated proteins. This work represents an important step towards a systematic and comprehensive human interactome project.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R33 CA132073; NHGRI NIH HHS: P50 HG004233, R01 HG001715, RC4 HG006066, U01 HG001715; NHLBI NIH HHS: U01 HL098166

    Nature 2005;437;7062;1173-8

  • A human protein-protein interaction network: a resource for annotating the proteome.

    Stelzl U, Worm U, Lalowski M, Haenig C, Brembeck FH, Goehler H, Stroedicke M, Zenkner M, Schoenherr A, Koeppen S, Timm J, Mintzlaff S, Abraham C, Bock N, Kietzmann S, Goedde A, Toksöz E, Droege A, Krobitsch S, Korn B, Birchmeier W, Lehrach H and Wanker EE

    Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine, 13092 Berlin-Buch, Germany.

    Protein-protein interaction maps provide a valuable framework for a better understanding of the functional organization of the proteome. To detect interacting pairs of human proteins systematically, a protein matrix of 4456 baits and 5632 preys was screened by automated yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) interaction mating. We identified 3186 mostly novel interactions among 1705 proteins, resulting in a large, highly connected network. Independent pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation assays validated the overall quality of the Y2H interactions. Using topological and GO criteria, a scoring system was developed to define 911 high-confidence interactions among 401 proteins. Furthermore, the network was searched for interactions linking uncharacterized gene products and human disease proteins to regulatory cellular pathways. Two novel Axin-1 interactions were validated experimentally, characterizing ANP32A and CRMP1 as modulators of Wnt signaling. Systematic human protein interaction screens can lead to a more comprehensive understanding of protein function and cellular processes.

    Cell 2005;122;6;957-68

  • Genes that mediate breast cancer metastasis to lung.

    Minn AJ, Gupta GP, Siegel PM, Bos PD, Shu W, Giri DD, Viale A, Olshen AB, Gerald WL and Massagué J

    Cancer Biology and Genetics Program, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10021, USA.

    By means of in vivo selection, transcriptomic analysis, functional verification and clinical validation, here we identify a set of genes that marks and mediates breast cancer metastasis to the lungs. Some of these genes serve dual functions, providing growth advantages both in the primary tumour and in the lung microenvironment. Others contribute to aggressive growth selectively in the lung. Many encode extracellular proteins and are of previously unknown relevance to cancer metastasis.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: P01 CA094060

    Nature 2005;436;7050;518-24

  • Minor expression of fascin-1 gene (FSCN1) in NTera2 cells depleted of CREB-binding protein.

    Megiorni F, Indovina P, Mora B and Mazzilli MC

    Department of Experimental Medicine and Pathology, La Sapienza University, Viale Regina Elena 324, 00161 Rome, Italy.

    CREB-binding protein (CBP) is a transcriptional coactivator whose mutations may cause a generalized perturbation of gene expression. We silenced the CBP gene in NT2 neuronal precursor cells by RNA interference. Hybridization experiments on 1.2K human cDNA microarrays showed that the FSCN1 gene, encoding for fascin-1 protein, was clearly less expressed in CBP-depleted cells than in controls. This reduction was confirmed by Real Time PCR and Western blotting assays. We also analyzed FSCN1 expression profile during NT2 neuronal differentiation induced by retinoic acid (RA), showing that FSCN1 was up-regulated during neurogenesis. This mRNA increasing suggests the importance of fascin-1 in the formation of mature neurons, in accordance with its actin-bundling function and its localization in neurites and neuronal growth cones. The lower amount of FSCN1 transcript in the absence of the CBP factor was also established in RA-treated cells. In conclusion, this research supports FSCN1 as a novel marker of NT2 neuronal differentiation and the possible role of CBP in its regulation.

    Neuroscience letters 2005;381;1-2;169-74

  • The expression of fascin, an actin-bundling motility protein, correlates with hormone receptor-negative breast cancer and a more aggressive clinical course.

    Yoder BJ, Tso E, Skacel M, Pettay J, Tarr S, Budd T, Tubbs RR, Adams JC and Hicks DG

    Department of Anatomic Pathology, The Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio 44195, USA.

    The invasion and metastasis of tumor cells is a major cause of mortality in cancer patients. In the current study, we investigated the expression of fascin, an actin-bundling motility-associated protein, in 210 invasive breast carcinomas with corresponding 5-year clinical follow-up. Fascin expression was compared with hormone receptor (ER/PR) status, HER2 status, cancer grade, cancer stage, metastasis pattern, disease-free survival, and overall survival. Fascin expression was seen in 16% (33/210) of the cases and correlated with ER negativity (22/33, P < 0.001), PR negativity (21/33, P < 0.001), Bloom-Richardson grade 3 (19/29, P < 0.001), and advanced stage (stage 3 or 4, P = 0.04). There was no correlation between fascin expression and HER2 status or pattern of metastases. Patients whose tumors were positive for fascin showed both a decreased mean disease-free survival (74.44 versus 100.52 months, P = 0.002) and mean overall survival (77.58 versus 98.98 months, P = 0.002), independent of tumor stage and HER2 status, but not independent of ER/PR status or cancer grade. Given fascin's role in altering cell motility, overexpression may contribute to a more aggressive clinical course in ER/PR-negative breast cancers. If so, then fascin may represent a new molecular target for therapeutic intervention in patients with ER-negative breast cancer.

    Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research 2005;11;1;186-92

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.

    Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, Otsuki T, Sugiyama T, Irie R, Wakamatsu A, Hayashi K, Sato H, Nagai K, Kimura K, Makita H, Sekine M, Obayashi M, Nishi T, Shibahara T, Tanaka T, Ishii S, Yamamoto J, Saito K, Kawai Y, Isono Y, Nakamura Y, Nagahari K, Murakami K, Yasuda T, Iwayanagi T, Wagatsuma M, Shiratori A, Sudo H, Hosoiri T, Kaku Y, Kodaira H, Kondo H, Sugawara M, Takahashi M, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Furuya T, Kikkawa E, Omura Y, Abe K, Kamihara K, Katsuta N, Sato K, Tanikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ninomiya K, Ishibashi T, Yamashita H, Murakawa K, Fujimori K, Tanai H, Kimata M, Watanabe M, Hiraoka S, Chiba Y, Ishida S, Ono Y, Takiguchi S, Watanabe S, Yosida M, Hotuta T, Kusano J, Kanehori K, Takahashi-Fujii A, Hara H, Tanase TO, Nomura Y, Togiya S, Komai F, Hara R, Takeuchi K, Arita M, Imose N, Musashino K, Yuuki H, Oshima A, Sasaki N, Aotsuka S, Yoshikawa Y, Matsunawa H, Ichihara T, Shiohata N, Sano S, Moriya S, Momiyama H, Satoh N, Takami S, Terashima Y, Suzuki O, Nakagawa S, Senoh A, Mizoguchi H, Goto Y, Shimizu F, Wakebe H, Hishigaki H, Watanabe T, Sugiyama A, Takemoto M, Kawakami B, Yamazaki M, Watanabe K, Kumagai A, Itakura S, Fukuzumi Y, Fujimori Y, Komiyama M, Tashiro H, Tanigami A, Fujiwara T, Ono T, Yamada K, Fujii Y, Ozaki K, Hirao M, Ohmori Y, Kawabata A, Hikiji T, Kobatake N, Inagaki H, Ikema Y, Okamoto S, Okitani R, Kawakami T, Noguchi S, Itoh T, Shigeta K, Senba T, Matsumura K, Nakajima Y, Mizuno T, Morinaga M, Sasaki M, Togashi T, Oyama M, Hata H, Watanabe M, Komatsu T, Mizushima-Sugano J, Satoh T, Shirai Y, Takahashi Y, Nakagawa K, Okumura K, Nagase T, Nomura N, Kikuchi H, Masuho Y, Yamashita R, Nakai K, Yada T, Nakamura Y, Ohara O, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Helix Research Institute, 1532-3 Yana, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0812, Japan.

    As a base for human transcriptome and functional genomics, we created the "full-length long Japan" (FLJ) collection of sequenced human cDNAs. We determined the entire sequence of 21,243 selected clones and found that 14,490 cDNAs (10,897 clusters) were unique to the FLJ collection. About half of them (5,416) seemed to be protein-coding. Of those, 1,999 clusters had not been predicted by computational methods. The distribution of GC content of nonpredicted cDNAs had a peak at approximately 58% compared with a peak at approximately 42%for predicted cDNAs. Thus, there seems to be a slight bias against GC-rich transcripts in current gene prediction procedures. The rest of the cDNAs unique to the FLJ collection (5,481) contained no obvious open reading frames (ORFs) and thus are candidate noncoding RNAs. About one-fourth of them (1,378) showed a clear pattern of splicing. The distribution of GC content of noncoding cDNAs was narrow and had a peak at approximately 42%, relatively low compared with that of protein-coding cDNAs.

    Nature genetics 2004;36;1;40-5

  • Polarized actin bundles formed by human fascin-1: their sliding and disassembly on myosin II and myosin V in vitro.

    Ishikawa R, Sakamoto T, Ando T, Higashi-Fujime S and Kohama K

    Department of Pharmacology, Gunma University School of Medicine, Maebashi, Japan. ryoki1@med.gunma-u.ac.jp

    Fascin-1 is a putative bundling factor of actin filaments in the filopodia of neuronal growth cones. Here, we examined the structure of the actin bundle formed by human fascin-1 (actin/fascin bundle), and its mode of interaction with myosin in vitro. The distance between cross-linked filaments in the actin/bundle was 8-9 nm, and the bundle showed the transverse periodicity of 36 nm perpendicular to the bundle axis, which was confirmed by electron microscopy. Decoration of the actin/fascin bundle with heavy meromyosin revealed that the arrowheads of filaments in the bundle pointed in the same direction, indicating that the bundle has polarity. This result suggested that fascin-1 plays an essential role in polarity of actin bundles in filopodia. In the in vitro motility assay, actin/fascin bundles slid as fast as single actin filaments on myosin II and myosin V. When myosin was attached to the surface at high density, the actin/fascin bundle disassembled to single filaments at the pointed end of the bundle during sliding. These results suggest that myosins may drive filopodial actin bundles backward by interacting with actin filaments on the surface, and may induce disassembly of the bundle at the basal region of filopodia.

    Journal of neurochemistry 2003;87;3;676-85

  • Interaction of fascin and protein kinase Calpha: a novel intersection in cell adhesion and motility.

    Anilkumar N, Parsons M, Monk R, Ng T and Adams JC

    MRC Laboratory for Molecular Cell Biology and Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, UK.

    Coordination of protrusive and contractile cell-matrix contacts is important for cell adhesion and migration, but the mechanisms involved are not well understood. We report an unexpected direct association between fascin, an actin-bundling component of filopodia, microspikes and lamellipodial ribs, and protein kinase Calpha (PKCalpha), a regulator of focal adhesions. The association is detectable by protein-protein binding in vitro, by coimmunoprecipitation from cell extracts, and in live cells as fluorescence resonance energy transfer detected by fluorescence imaging lifetime microscopy. The interaction is physiologically regulated by the extracellular matrix context of cells, depends on activation of PKCalpha and is mediated by the C1B domain of PKCalpha. Strikingly, a fascin mutant, fascin S39D, associates constitutively with PKCalpha. Through use of a newly developed set of membrane-permeable peptides that separately inhibit either fascin/PKCalpha or fascin/actin binding, we have uncovered that specific blockade of the fascin/PKCalpha interaction increases cell migration on fibronectin in conjunction with increased fascin protrusions and remodeling of focal adhesions. These results identify the fascin-PKCalpha interaction as an important novel intersection in the regulation and networking of cell-matrix contacts.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: R01 068073

    The EMBO journal 2003;22;20;5390-402

  • The human fascin gene promoter is highly active in mature dendritic cells due to a stage-specific enhancer.

    Bros M, Ross XL, Pautz A, Reske-Kunz AB and Ross R

    Clinical Research Unit Allergology, Department of Dermatology, Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz, Germany.

    Dendritic cells (DC), regarded as the most efficient APCs of the immune system, are capable of activating naive T cells. Thus, DC are primary targets in immunotherapy. However, little is known about gene regulation in DC, and for efficient transcriptional targeting of human DC, a suitable promoter is still missing. Recently, we successfully used the promoter of the murine actin-bundling protein fascin to transcriptionally target DC by DNA vaccination in mice. In this study, we report on isolation of the human fascin promoter and characterization of its regulatory elements. The actively expressed gene was distinguished from a conserved inactive genomic locus and a continuous region of 14 kb covering the gene and 3 kb of 5'-flanking sequences was subcloned, sequenced, and analyzed for regulatory elements. Regulatory sequences were found solely in the 5'-flanking promoter region. The promoter exerted robust activity in DC and a fascin-positive neuronal cell line, but not in the fascin-negative cells tested. Notably, promoter activity in DC markedly increased with maturation of DC. By progressive 5' deletion, we identified a core promoter region, harboring a putative GC box, a composite cAMP responsive element/AP-1 binding site and a TATA box. By internal deletion, we demonstrated functional importance of either regulatory element. Furthermore, we identified a more distal stage-specific enhancer region also containing silencer elements. Taken together, the human fascin promoter allows for transcriptional targeting of mature DC and represents a promising tool for immunotherapy. To our knowledge, this study reports for the first time on promoter activity in human monocyte-derived DC.

    Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 2003;171;4;1825-34

  • Neurotrophin-induced melanoma cell migration is mediated through the actin-bundling protein fascin.

    Shonukan O, Bagayogo I, McCrea P, Chao M and Hempstead B

    Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology/Oncology, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, FL 33136, USA. oshonukan@med.miami.edu

    Expression of the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75(NTR)) in primary melanomas is associated with deeply invasive lesions. In turn, there is expression of high levels of neurotrophins at the invasion front of normal tissue adjacent to brain metastases, thus implicating this growth factor-receptor system in melanoma tumorigenesis. The neurotrophins nerve growth factor (NGF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) are potent chemotactic agents for human melanoma cells which express p75(NTR)in vitro. Here we show that the actin-bundling protein fascin specifically interacts with p75(NTR) in an NGF-dependent manner by co-immunoprecipitation and colocalization in melanoma cells that express the two proteins endogenously. In addition, expression of a fascin point mutant at the serine phosphorylation site (serine 39) regulating actin binding abrogates neurotrophin-induced migration. These results suggest a causal role for NGF-mediated dephosphorylation of serine 39 on fascin in mediating actin binding and subsequent melanoma cell migration.

    Oncogene 2003;22;23;3616-23

  • Independent prognostic value of fascin immunoreactivity in stage I nonsmall cell lung cancer.

    Pelosi G, Pastorino U, Pasini F, Maissoneuve P, Fraggetta F, Iannucci A, Sonzogni A, De Manzoni G, Terzi A, Durante E, Bresaola E, Pezzella F and Viale G

    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Milan School of Medicine, Italy. guiseppe.pelosi@ieo.it

    Fascin-1, the most expressed form of fascin in vertebrate tissues, is an actin-bundling protein that induces cell membrane protrusions and increases motility of normal and transformed epithelial cells. Very few data are available on the role of this protein in nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Two hundred and twenty patients with stage I NSCLC and long-term follow-up were evaluated immunocytochemically for fascin expression. Overall, variable fascin immunoreactivity was detected in 98% of 116 squamous cell carcinomas, in 78% of 96 adenocarcinomas, in 83% of six large cell carcinomas, and in the two adenosquamous carcinomas under study. Neoplastic emboli were commonly decorated by the antifascin antibody (P<0.001), also when the surrounding invasive carcinoma was unreactive. Fascin immunoreactivity correlated with high tumour grade (P=0.017) and, in adenocarcinomas, with high Ki-67 labelling index (P=0.021). Adenocarcinomas with a prevalent bronchiolo-alveolar in situ component were less commonly immunoreactive for fascin than invasive tumours (P=0.005). Contralateral thoracic or distant metastases were associated significantly with diffuse (>60% immunoreactive tumour cells) fascin expression in adenocarcinomas (P=0.043), and marginally with strong fascin immunostaining in squamous cell carcinomas (P=0.13). No associations were noted with any other clinicopathological variables tested. Patients with tumours showing diffuse (>60% immunoreactive neoplastic cells) and/or strong immunoreactivity for fascin had a shorter survival (P=0.006 for adenocarcinomas and P=0.026 for squamous cell carcinomas), even after multivariate analysis (P=0.014 and 0.050, respectively). The current study documents for the first time that fascin is upregulated in invasive and more aggressive NSCLC, being an independent prognostic predictor of unfavourable clinical course of the disease. Targetting the fascin pathway could be a novel therapeutic strategy of NSCLC.

    British journal of cancer 2003;88;4;537-47

  • Actin-binding protein fascin expression in skin neoplasia.

    Goncharuk VN, Ross JS and Carlson JA

    Department of Pathology, Albany Medical College, Albany, NY 12208, USA.

    Background: Fascin containing actin bundles provide mechanical support to cellular protrusions and stress fibers. In cancers, some malignant cells (e.g. subsets of breast and ovarian carcinomas) express fascin. In skin cancer, the role of fascin is unknown.

    Methods: Cases of 61 keratocytic neoplasms, 35 melanocytic neoplasms, nine extramammary Paget's disease (four with adenocarcinoma) and five sarcomas (angiosarcoma and atypical fibroxanthoma) were examined by immunohistochemistry, using monoclonal antihuman fascin antibody, clone 55 k-2 (Dako Corporation, Carpinteria, CA, USA).

    Results: Fascin labeled all sarcomas and all keratinocytic neoplasms except for pagetoid pattern Bowen's disease. The regions of most intense fascin labeling were seen in the basal cells of infiltrative tumor margins. A minority of Merkel cell carcinomas exhibited weak or absent immunoreactivity. All melanocytic nevi except for some junctional nests of dysplastic melanocytic nevi expressed fascin. However, pagetoid cells of melanoma in situ and epithelioid cells of invasive melanoma weakly expressed or did not express fascin, whereas melanoma cells exhibiting spindle cell morphologies labeled intensely with fascin. Lastly, all cells of extramammary Paget's disease and most associated adenocarcinomas cells did not or were faintly labeled by fascin antibodies. Decreased or absent fascin expression was significantly associated with skin cancers with a high risk for metastasis (e.g. melanoma) vs. those with a low risk (e.g. basal cell carcinoma) (24% vs. 100% with > 50% immunoreactivity; p = 0.0001, chi-squared test).

    Conclusion: Fascin is expressed by skin tumors that locally infiltrate and replace surrounding tissues indicating a role for fascin in cell adhesion, cell motility and invasiveness. No or weak fascin expression is exhibited by cancers with pagetoid intraepidermal spread and by invasive tumors with a high risk of metastasis. Downregulation or loss of fascin's actin-bundling properties, probably associated with disorganization of cell-cell and cell-matrix contacts, may be a crucial step in the progression from locally invasive to widely disseminating cancers.

    Journal of cutaneous pathology 2002;29;7;430-8

  • Fascin expression in CD30-positive cutaneous lymphoproliferative disorders.

    Kempf W, Levi E, Kamarashev J, Kutzner H, Pfeifer W, Petrogiannis-Haliotis T, Burg G and Kadin ME

    Department of Pathology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston MA 02215, USA.

    Background: CD30-positive cutaneous lymphoproliferative disorders (LPD) represent a spectrum of diseases ranging from low-grade (lymphomatoid papulosis; LyP) to high-grade (pleomorphic and anaplastic large-cell lymphoma; PTL, ALCL) with overlapping morphologic and immunophenotypic features. The common phenotypic hallmark is the expression of CD30-antigen by the tumor cells which morphologically resemble Reed-Sternberg cells. Although LyP is a non-fatal recurring disorder, it is associated with systemic lymphomas including Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL), mycosis fungoides (MF) and ALCL in 5-20% of the cases. Currently there is no marker to predict the development of systemic lymphomas in patients with LyP. Fascin, an actin bundling protein, has recently been shown to be a unique marker found in almost 100% of classical HL.

    Methods: Because of the association of LyP with HL, fascin expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry in LyP (n = 45), cutaneous CD30+ ALCL (n = 17) and pleomorphic T-cell lymphoma (n = 9) (PTL) and LyP associated with systemic lymphomas (7 HL, 2 ALCL, 1 MF), with the intent to determine if fascin expression can predict disease progression.

    Results: Fascin was expressed by tumor cells in 11/45 (24%) cases of LyP, 11/17 (64%) cases of ALCL, 7/9 (77%) cases of PTL and 6/10 (60%) cases of LyP associated with systemic lymphomas. Fascin expression in LyP was significantly less frequent than in ALCL (p < 0.001) and also than in LyP associated with lymphomas (p < 0.05). There was no significant difference of fascin expression within the histological subtypes of LyP. We found no evidence of ALK expression nor of Epstein-Barr virus expression in any case either by in situ hybridization or immunohistochemistry in the LyP cases associated with HL.

    Conclusions: This is the first study to demonstrate that fascin is expressed in cutaneous CD30+ LPD and that it is a candidate marker of disease progression in LyP.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: 2P0 1CA384913

    Journal of cutaneous pathology 2002;29;5;295-300

  • Characterization of human retinal fascin gene (FSCN2) at 17q25: close physical linkage of fascin and cytoplasmic actin genes.

    Tubb BE, Bardien-Kruger S, Kashork CD, Shaffer LG, Ramagli LS, Xu J, Siciliano MJ and Bryan J

    Department of Cell Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, 77030, USA. bt691174@bcm.tmc.edu

    Retinal fascin is a newly identified photoreceptor-specific paralog of the actin-bundling protein fascin. Fascins crosslink f-actin into highly ordered bundles within dynamic cell extensions such as neuronal growth cone filopodia. We have isolated cDNA and genomic clones of human retinal fascin and characterized the structure of the human retinal fascin gene (FSCN2). The cDNA predicts a protein of 492 amino acids and molecular mass 55,057 that shows 94% identity to bovine retinal fascin and 56% identity to human fascin. Promoter analysis reveals a consensus retinoic acid response element and several potential binding sites for transcription factors Crx and Nrl, which correlates with the retina-specific expression of FSCN2 mRNA. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis and genomic clone sequencing indicate that the FSCN2 gene lies within 200 kb of the actin gene ACTG1 at 17q25. Database searches revealed that the human fascin gene FSCN1 and actin gene ACTB at 7p22 also coexist within a 200-kb genomic clone. The close physical linkage of these fascin/actin gene pairs suggests that they derive from a common gene duplication event and allows comparison of fascin and actin phylogenetic analyses. Finally, a possible link to the retinitis pigmentosa 17 allele (RP17) at distal 17q was excluded by demonstration of multiple independent segregation events in two RP17 kindreds. Informative FSCN2 polymorphisms were identified and will serve as useful markers in future linkage studies. The likely function of retinal fascin, in light of known fascin roles in other cell types, is to assemble actin microfilaments in support of photoreceptor disk morphogenesis.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: R01 GM26091

    Genomics 2000;65;2;146-56

  • Glucocorticoid down-regulation of fascin protein expression is required for the steroid-induced formation of tight junctions and cell-cell interactions in rat mammary epithelial tumor cells.

    Wong V, Ching D, McCrea PD and Firestone GL

    Department of Molecular and Cell Biology and the Cancer Research Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720-3200, USA.

    Glucocorticoid hormones, which are physiological regulators of mammary epithelium development, induce the formation of tight junctions in rat Con8 mammary epithelial tumor cells. We have discovered that, as part of this process, the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone strongly and reversibly down-regulated the expression of fascin, an actin-bundling protein that also interacts with the adherens junction component beta-catenin. Ectopic constitutive expression of full-length mouse fascin containing a Myc epitope tag (Myc-fascin) in Con8 cells inhibited the dexamethasone stimulation of transepithelial electrical resistance, disrupted the induced localization of the tight junction protein occludin and the adherens junction protein beta-catenin to the cell periphery, and prevented the rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton. Ectopic expression of either the carboxyl-terminal 213 amino acids of fascin, which includes the actin and beta-catenin-binding sites, or the amino-terminal 313 amino acids of fascin failed to disrupt the glucocorticoid induction of tight junction formation. Mammary tumor cells expressing the full-length Myc-fascin remained generally glucocorticoid responsive and displayed no changes in the levels or protein-protein interactions of junctional proteins or the amount of cytoskeletal associated actin filaments. However, a cell aggregation assay demonstrated that the expression of Myc-fascin abrogated the dexamethasone induction of cell-cell adhesion. Our results implicate the down-regulation of fascin as a key intermediate step that directly links glucocorticoid receptor signaling to the coordinate control of junctional complex formation and cell-cell interactions in mammary tumor epithelial cells.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK-42799

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1999;274;9;5443-53

  • The actin-bundling protein fascin is involved in the formation of dendritic processes in maturing epidermal Langerhans cells.

    Ross R, Ross XL, Schwing J, Längin T and Reske-Kunz AB

    Department of Dermatology, Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz, Germany.

    Dendritic cells (DC) are characterized by their unique potential to prime naive T cells. Epidermal Langerhans cells (LC), the DC resident in the epidermis, gain this immunostimulatory capacity following Ag contact in vivo or during in vitro culture of epidermal cell suspensions. To analyze differential gene expression in maturing LC, we constructed a highly representative cDNA library of cultivated LC (cLC) in lambda ZAP II containing 18 x 10(6) independent clones. This library was screened with freshly isolated Langerhans cell (fLC)- and cLC-derived probes for cLC-specific cDNAs. The cDNAs identified were sequenced and analyzed by database searches. Two cDNA fragments were identified as fragments of fascin, indicating that fascin is differentially expressed in LC. By competitive RT-PCR, we confirmed that fascin is highly expressed in cLC cultivated for 1, 2, and 3 days, while no signals were obtained with fLC. Western blot and immunofluorescence analysis revealed cLC-specific expression of fascin on the protein level as well. Fascin is known to be involved in the organization of the actin cytoskeleton in cytoplasmatic extensions of nerve growth cones. Its differential expression in maturing LC coincides with the formation of numerous dendritic projections in LC. Their formation was inhibited by incubation of LC with fascin antisense oligonucleotides during cultivation. Therefore, we conclude that fascin is necessary for the formation of the dendritic processes of maturing Langerhans cells and may thus influence T cell-LC interaction.

    Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) 1998;160;8;3776-82

  • Immunohistochemical study of actin binding protein (p55) in the human kidney.

    Sonderbye L, Meehan S, Palsson R, Ahsan N, Ladefoged J and Langhoff E

    Department of Medicine/Nephrology, The Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Penn State University, Hershey 17033, USA.

    Background: In clinical transplantation, "passenger" dendritic cells (DCs) in the allograft have been thought to induce allograft rejection. However, the presence of DCs in the normal human kidney is controversial. Most reports have relied on the examination of MHC class I and II antigen expression in combination with DC morphology for identification of DCs.

    Methods: The distribution of the p55 antigen (fascin), which is selectively expressed by human blood and lymphoid DCs, was investigated by immunohistochemistry.

    Results: Our study demonstrates that p55-positive DCs are absent from the normal human kidney and CD1a- and S100-positive cells are absent or very rare. Furthermore, HLA-DR and factor VIII-related antigen show almost complete colocalization in capillaries. In contrast, all 16 kidney biopsies from patients with inflammatory processes demonstrated p55-positive DCs in the cellular infiltrates.

    Conclusions: These results suggest that DCs are not present or are very rare in normal renal tissues but may migrate into the renal interstitium with inflammatory changes.

    Funded by: NIAID NIH HHS: AI28734

    Transplantation 1998;65;7;1004-8

  • Fascin, a sensitive new marker for Reed-Sternberg cells of hodgkin's disease. Evidence for a dendritic or B cell derivation?

    Pinkus GS, Pinkus JL, Langhoff E, Matsumura F, Yamashiro S, Mosialos G and Said JW

    Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

    Immunohistochemical localization of human fascin, a distinct 55-kd actin-bundling protein, was determined for a wide variety of lymphoid tissues (364 specimens total). In non-neoplastic tissues, reactivity was highly selective and localized predominantly in dendritic cells. In the thymus, this protein was distinctly localized to medullary dendritic cells. In reactive nodes, interdigitating reticulum cells of T zones, cells in subcapsular areas, and cells of the reticular network were reactive, with variable reactivity observed for follicular dendritic cells. Splenic dendritic cells of the white pulp and sinus-lining cells of the red pulp were reactive. Endothelial cells of all tissues exhibited variable reactivity. Lymphoid cells, myeloid cells, and plasma cells were uniformly nonreactive. In the peripheral blood, only dendritic (veiled) cells were reactive for fascin. A striking finding was observed for cases of Hodgkin's disease (total 187 cases). In all cases of nodular sclerosis (132), mixed cellularity (34), lymphocyte depletion (2), and unclassified types (5), all or nearly all Reed-Sternberg cells and variants were immunoreactive for fascin. Neoplastic cells exhibited strong diffuse cytoplasmic staining and frequently assumed dendritic shapes, particularly in the nodular sclerosis type, producing an interdigitating meshwork or syncytial network of cells. In cases of mixed cellularity type, neoplastic cells generally appeared more discrete. In all 14 cases of nodular lymphocyte predominance type, L&H variants were nonreactive. By contrast, neoplastic lymphoid cells of only 24 of 156 (15%) other lymphoid neoplasms (127 B cell, 27 T cell, and two null cell evaluated) were reactive for fascin. Fascin represents a highly effective marker for detection of certain dendritic cells in normal and neoplastic tissues, is an extremely consistent marker for Reed-Sternberg cells and variants of Hodgkin's disease (except L&H types), and may be helpful to distinguish between Hodgkin's disease and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in difficult cases. The staining profile for fascin raises the possibility of a dendritic cell derivation, particularly an interdigitating reticulum cell, for the neoplastic cells of Hodgkin's disease, notably in nodular sclerosis type. However, as fascin expression may be induced by Epstein-Barr virus infection of B cells, the possibility that viral induction of fascin in lymphoid or other cell types must also be considered in Epstein-Barr virus-positive cases.

    The American journal of pathology 1997;150;2;543-62

  • Identification of an actin binding region and a protein kinase C phosphorylation site on human fascin.

    Ono S, Yamakita Y, Yamashiro S, Matsudaira PT, Gnarra JR, Obinata T and Matsumura F

    Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Nelson Laboratory, Busch Campus, Rutgers University, Piscataway New Jersey 08855-1059, USA.

    Fascin is a 55-58-kDa actin-bundling protein, the actin binding of which is regulated by phosphorylation (Yamakita, Y., Ono, S., Matsumura, F., and Yamashiro, S. (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271, 12632-12638). To understand the mechanism of fascin-actin interactions, we dissected the actin binding region and its regulatory site by phosphorylation of human fascin. First, we found that the C-terminal half constitutes an actin binding domain. Partial digestion of human recombinant fascin with trypsin yielded the C-terminal fragment with molecular masses of 32, 30, and 27 kDa. The 32- and 27-kDa fragments purified as a mixture formed a dimer and bound to F-actin at a saturation ratio of 1 dimer:11 actin molecules with an affinity of 1.4 x 10(6) M-1. Second, we identified the phosphorylation site of fascin as Ser-39 by sequencing a tryptic phosphopeptide purified by chelating column chromatography followed by C-18 reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography. Peptide map analyses revealed that the purified peptide represented the major phosphorylation site of in vivo as well as in vitro phosphorylated fascin. The mutation replacing Ser-39 with Ala eliminated the phosphorylation-dependent regulation of actin binding of fascin, indicating that phosphorylation at this site regulates the actin binding ability of fascin.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R37 CA42742

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1997;272;4;2527-33

  • NG2 proteoglycan and the actin-binding protein fascin define separate populations of actin-containing filopodia and lamellipodia during cell spreading and migration.

    Lin XH, Grako KA, Burg MA and Stallcup WB

    La Jolla Cancer Research Center, Burnham Institute, California 92037, USA.

    The transmembrane proteoglycan NG2 is able to interact both with components of the extracellular matrix and with the actin cytoskeleton. An examination of the distribution of NG2 during cell spreading suggests that NG2 can associate with two distinct types of actin-containing cytoskeletal structures, depending on the nature of the stimulus derived from the substratum. On fibronectin-coated dishes, cell surface NG2 associates exclusively with stress fibers developing within the cell. On poly-L-lysine-coated dishes, cell surface NG2 is associated with radial processes extending from the cell periphery. Spreading on fibronectin/poly-L-lysine mixtures, as well as on matrix components such as laminin, tenascin, and type VI collagen, produces cells with mosaic characteristics, i.e., NG2 is associated with both types of structures. NG2-positive radial processes are distinct from a second population of radial structures that contain fascin. NG2-positive extensions appear to be individual self-contained units (filopodia), whereas fascin is associated with actin ribs within sheets of membrane (lamellipodia). NG2- and fascin-positive structures are often localized to opposite poles of spreading cells, suggesting a possible role for the two classes of cellular extensions in the establishment of cell polarity during morphogenesis or migration. Time lapse imaging confirms the presence of lamellipodia on the leading edges of migrating cells, while numerous filopodia are present on trailing edges.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: 5 T32 CA09579; NICHD NIH HHS: P01HD25938; NINDS NIH HHS: NS21990

    Molecular biology of the cell 1996;7;12;1977-93

  • Phosphorylation of human fascin inhibits its actin binding and bundling activities.

    Yamakita Y, Ono S, Matsumura F and Yamashiro S

    Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08855-1059, USA.

    Human fascin is an actin-bundling protein that is thought to be involved in the assembly of actin filament bundles present in microspikes as well as in membrane ruffles and stress fibers. We have found that human fascin is phosphorylated in vivo upon treatment with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate, a tumor promoter. The in vivo phosphorylation is gradually increased from 0.13 to 0.30 mol/mol during 2 h of treatment, concomitant with disappearance of human fascin from stress fibers, membrane ruffles, and microspikes. Human fascin can also be phosphorylated in vitro as judged by phosphopeptide mapping. The extent of phosphorylation depends on pH: the stoichiometries are 0.05, 0.38, and 0.6 alone does not affect fascin-actin binding. With the incorporation of 0.25 mol of phosphate/mol of protein, the actin binding affinity is reduced from 6.7 x 10(6) to 1.5 x 10(6) m(-1). The actin bundling activity is also decreased. These results suggest that phosphorylation of fascin plays a role in actin reorganization after treatment with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R37 CA42742

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1996;271;21;12632-8

  • Circulating human dendritic cells differentially express high levels of a 55-kd actin-bundling protein.

    Mosialos G, Birkenbach M, Ayehunie S, Matsumura F, Pinkus GS, Kieff E and Langhoff E

    Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics and Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

    This study was initiated to examine the differential expression of an evolutionary conserved human 55-kd actin-bundling (p55) protein that is induced in B lymphocytes by Epstein-Barr virus infection. Our study demonstrates that p55 is specifically expressed at constitutively high levels in human peripheral blood dendritic cells and lymph node (interdigitating) dendritic cells. Blood dendritic cells constitute a minority (< 2%) of all blood leukocytes but are a distinct population of potent antigen-presenting cells. Immunofluorescence microscopy with a monoclonal antibody specific for p55 showed that 87% of peripheral blood dendritic cells stained brightly in the cytoplasm and in the veiled cytoplasmic extensions. In contrast, monocytes, granulocytes, T cells, and B lymphocytes showed no expression of the p55 protein. Western blot analysis confirmed that only the dendritic cell component of peripheral blood expressed high levels of p55. Staining of human lymph node sections demonstrated selective expression of the p55 antigen by dendritic cells in the T-cell-dependent areas but not in the B cell follicles. p55 is likely to be involved in the organization of a specialized microfilament cytoskeleton in the dendritic cells, and the anti-p55 antibody should be useful for further characterization of this important population of antigen-presenting cells in clinical transplantation, HIV-1 pathogenesis, and autoimmune diseases.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: A128734

    The American journal of pathology 1996;148;2;593-600

  • Epstein-Barr virus infection induces expression in B lymphocytes of a novel gene encoding an evolutionarily conserved 55-kilodalton actin-bundling protein.

    Mosialos G, Yamashiro S, Baughman RW, Matsudaira P, Vara L, Matsumura F, Kieff E and Birkenbach M

    Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115.

    A novel human mRNA whose expression is induced over 200-fold in B lymphocytes by latent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection was reverse transcribed, cloned, and sequenced. The mRNA is predicted to encode a protein containing four peptides which precisely match amino acid sequences from a previously identified 55-kDa actin-bundling protein, p55. In vitro translation of the cDNA results in a 55-kDa protein which binds to actin filaments in the presence of purified p55 from HeLa cells. The p55 mRNA is undetectable in non-EBV-infected B- and T-cell lines or in a myelomonocytic cell line (U937). Newly infected primary human B lymphocytes, EBV-transformed B-cell lines, latently infected Burkitt tumor cells expressing EBNA2 and LMP1, a chronic myelogenous leukemia cell line (K562), and an osteosarcoma cell line (TK143) contain high levels of p55 mRNA or protein. In EBV-transformed B cells, p55 localizes to perinuclear cytoplasm and to cell surface processes that resemble filopodia. The p55 mRNA is detected at high levels in spleen and brain tissues, at moderate levels in lung and placenta tissues, and at low levels in skeletal muscle, liver, and tonsil tissues and is undetectable in heart, kidney, pancreas, and bone marrow tissues. Immunohistochemical staining of human brain tissue demonstrates p55 localization to the perinuclear cytoplasm and dendritic processes of many, but not all, types of cortical or cerebellar neurons, to glial cells, and to capillary endothelial cells. In cultured primary rat neurons, p55 is distributed throughout the perinuclear cytoplasm and in subcortical filamentous structures of dendrites and growth cones. p55 is highly evolutionarily conserved since it shows 40% amino acid sequence identity to the Drosophila singed gene product and 37% identity to fascin, an echinoderm actin-bundling protein. The evolutionary conservation of p55 and its lack of extensive homology to other actin-binding proteins suggest that p55 has specific microfilament-associated functions in cells in which it is differentially expressed, including neural cells and EBV-transformed B lymphocytes.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA42742, CA44704, CA47006

    Journal of virology 1994;68;11;7320-8

  • cDNA cloning and expression of the human homolog of the sea urchin fascin and Drosophila singed genes which encodes an actin-bundling protein.

    Duh FM, Latif F, Weng Y, Geil L, Modi W, Stackhouse T, Matsumura F, Duan DR, Linehan WM, Lerman MI et al.

    Program Resources, Inc./DynCorp, Frederick, MD 21702-1201.

    cDNA clones having extensive sequence identity with the sea urchin fascin and the Drosophila singed gene products were isolated from a human teratocarcinoma cDNA library. The human homolog, termed hsn, is a single-copy gene that was localized to human chromosome 7p22 by fluorescence in situ hybridization and is predicted to encode a 493-amino-acid product with a molecular mass of approximately 55,000. This protein would be similar in size to the fascin and singed proteins, as well as a previously described 55-kD actin-bundling protein that was purified from HeLa cells. Monoclonal antibodies directed against the 55-kD HeLa protein were reactive against a bacterially expressed hsn fusion protein, indicating that the hsn gene probably encodes the 55-kD protein. The hsn mRNA was variably expressed in all human tissues analyzed and was highly expressed in actively growing renal carcinoma cell lines and in activated, but not in resting, lymphocytes, suggesting a functional role for hsn in proliferation. The fascin family lacks homology with other characterized actin-binding proteins, and the high degree of evolutionary conservation of these proteins indicates a functional importance of their actin-bundling properties.

    DNA and cell biology 1994;13;8;821-7

  • Treatment of Haemophilus aphrophilus endocarditis with ciprofloxacin.

    Dawson SJ and White LA

    Department of Microbiology, Southampton General Hospital, U.K.

    A patient with Haemophilus aphrophilus endocarditis was successfully treated with ciprofloxacin. The response to treatment with cefotaxime and netilmicin for 12 days was poor but was satisfactory to a 6 weeks' course of ciprofloxacin.

    The Journal of infection 1992;24;3;317-20

  • Purification and characterization of an F-actin-bundling 55-kilodalton protein from HeLa cells.

    Yamashiro-Matsumura S and Matsumura F

    An F-actin-bundling protein with Mr of 55,000 has been purified from HeLa cells by a simple method using its affinity to F-actin. Briefly, muscle actin was mixed with supernatants of HeLa cell homogenates, and the resultant actin gel was precipitated by low speed centrifugation. The 55-kDa protein in the actin gel was dissociated by depolymerization of F-actin and purified sequentially by chromatography on DEAE-cellulose and hydroxylapatite. The Stokes radius and sedimentation coefficient of the 55-kDa protein were 32 A and 4.35 (S20,w), respectively. These results suggest that the 55-kDa protein is a monomeric globular protein with a native molecular weight of 57,000. The globular form of the protein was confirmed by electron microscopy of rotary shadowed specimens. The binding of the protein to actin was saturated at an approximate stoichiometry of 4 actin monomers to one 55-kDa molecule. The protein made F-actin aggregate side-by-side into bundles as has been reported for other F-actin-bundling proteins such as fimbrin (Mr = 68,000) and fascin (Mr = 58,000). The 55-kDa protein is a new actin-binding protein based on biochemical, morphological, and immunological characterization. Skeletal muscle tropomyosin inhibited the actin-bundling activity of 55-kDa protein by competitive binding to actin, suggesting that the 55-kDa protein binding site on F-actin is in the vicinity of the tropomyosin-binding site.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA35738, P01 CA13106-11

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1985;260;8;5087-97

Gene lists (6)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000049 G2C Homo sapiens TAP-PSD-95-CORE TAP-PSD-95 pull-down core list (ortho) 120
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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