G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
cytoskeleton-associated protein 4
G00000602 (Mus musculus)

Databases (7)

ENSG00000136026 (Ensembl human gene)
10970 (Entrez Gene)
999 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
CKAP4 (GeneCards)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:16991 (HGNC)
Protein Expression
278 (human protein atlas)
Protein Sequence
Q07065 (UniProt)

Synonyms (3)

  • CLIMP-63
  • ERGIC-63
  • P63

Literature (25)

Pubmed - other

  • p73 and p63 sustain cellular growth by transcriptional activation of cell cycle progression genes.

    Lefkimmiatis K, Caratozzolo MF, Merlo P, D'Erchia AM, Navarro B, Levrero M, Sbisa' E and Tullo A

    Istituto di Tecnologie Biomediche CNR-Bari, Universita' degli Studi di Bari, Bari, Italy.

    Despite extensive studies on the role of tumor suppressor p53 protein and its homologues, p73 and p63, following their overexpression or cellular stress, very little is known about the regulation of the three proteins in cells during physiologic cell cycle progression. We report a role for p73 and p63 in supporting cellular proliferation through the transcriptional activation of the genes involved in G(1)-S and G(2)-M progression. We found that in MCF-7 cells, p73 and p63, but not p53, are modulated during the cell cycle with a peak in S phase, and their silencing determines a significant suppression of proliferation compared with the control. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis shows that in cycling cells, p73 and p63 are bound to the p53-responsive elements (RE) present in the regulatory region of cell cycle progression genes. On the contrary, when the cells are arrested in G(0)-G(1), p73 detaches from the REs and it is replaced by p53, which represses the expression of these genes. When the cells move in S phase, p73 is recruited again and p53 is displaced or is weakly bound to the REs. These data open new possibilities for understanding the involvement of p73 and p63 in cancer. The elevated concentrations of p73 and p63 found in many cancers could cause the aberrant activation of cell growth progression genes and therefore contribute to cancer initiation or progression under certain conditions.

    Cancer research 2009;69;22;8563-71

  • Defining the human deubiquitinating enzyme interaction landscape.

    Sowa ME, Bennett EJ, Gygi SP and Harper JW

    Department of Pathology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

    Deubiquitinating enzymes (Dubs) function to remove covalently attached ubiquitin from proteins, thereby controlling substrate activity and/or abundance. For most Dubs, their functions, targets, and regulation are poorly understood. To systematically investigate Dub function, we initiated a global proteomic analysis of Dubs and their associated protein complexes. This was accomplished through the development of a software platform called CompPASS, which uses unbiased metrics to assign confidence measurements to interactions from parallel nonreciprocal proteomic data sets. We identified 774 candidate interacting proteins associated with 75 Dubs. Using Gene Ontology, interactome topology classification, subcellular localization, and functional studies, we link Dubs to diverse processes, including protein turnover, transcription, RNA processing, DNA damage, and endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation. This work provides the first glimpse into the Dub interaction landscape, places previously unstudied Dubs within putative biological pathways, and identifies previously unknown interactions and protein complexes involved in this increasingly important arm of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway.

    Funded by: NIA NIH HHS: AG085011, R01 AG011085, R01 AG011085-16; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM054137, GM67945, R01 GM054137, R01 GM054137-14, R01 GM067945

    Cell 2009;138;2;389-403

  • Palmitoylation of cytoskeleton associated protein 4 by DHHC2 regulates antiproliferative factor-mediated signaling.

    Planey SL, Keay SK, Zhang CO and Zacharias DA

    Whitney Laboratory, Department of Neuroscience, University of Florida, St. Augustine, FL 32080, USA. splaney@tcmedc.org

    Previously, we identified cytoskeleton-associated protein 4 (CKAP4) as a major substrate of the palmitoyl acyltransferase, DHHC2, using a novel proteomic method called palmitoyl-cysteine identification, capture and analysis (PICA). CKAP4 is a reversibly palmitoylated and phosphorylated protein that links the ER to the cytoskeleton. It is also a high-affinity receptor for antiproliferative factor (APF), a small sialoglycopeptide secreted from bladder epithelial cells of patients with interstitial cystitis (IC). The role of DHHC2-mediated palmitoylation of CKAP4 in the antiproliferative response of HeLa and normal bladder epithelial cells to APF was investigated. Our data show that siRNA-mediated knockdown of DHHC2 and consequent suppression of CKAP4 palmitoylation inhibited the ability of APF to regulate cellular proliferation and blocked APF-induced changes in the expression of E-cadherin, vimentin, and ZO-1 (genes known to play a role in cellular proliferation and tumorigenesis). Immunocytochemistry revealed that CKAP4 palmitoylation by DHHC2 is required for its trafficking from the ER to the plasma membrane and for its nuclear localization. These data suggest an important role for DHHC2-mediated palmitoylation of CKAP4 in IC and in opposing cancer-related cellular behaviors and support the idea that DHHC2 is a tumor suppressor.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: R01 DK052596, R01 DK52596; NIMH NIH HHS: MH071400-01, R21 MH071400; NINDS NIH HHS: NS053638-01

    Molecular biology of the cell 2009;20;5;1454-63

  • Role of P63 (CKAP4) in binding of surfactant protein-A to type II pneumocytes.

    Bates SR, Kazi AS, Tao JQ, Yu KJ, Gonder DS, Feinstein SI and Fisher AB

    Institute for Environmental Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. batekenn@mail.med.upenn.edu

    We have recently described a putative receptor for lung surfactant protein-A (SP-A) on rat type II pneumocytes. The receptor, P63, is a 63-kDa type II transmembrane protein. Coincubation of type II cells with P63 antibody (Ab) reversed the inhibitory effect of SP-A on secretagogue-stimulated surfactant secretion from type II cells. To further characterize SP-A interactions with P63, we expressed recombinant P63 protein in Escherichia coli and generated antibodies to P63. Immunogold electron microscopy confirmed endoplasmic reticulum and plasma membrane localization of P63 in type II cells with prominent labeling of microvilli. Binding characteristics of iodinated SP-A to type II cells in the presence of P63 Ab were determined. Binding (4 degrees C, 1 h) of (125)I-SP-A to type II cells demonstrated both specific (calcium-dependent) and nonspecific (calcium-independent) components. Ab to P63 protein blocked the specific binding of (125)I-SP-A to type II cells and did not change the nonspecific SP-A association. A549 cells, a pneumocyte model cell line, expressed substantial levels of P63 and demonstrated specific binding of (125)I-SP-A that was inhibited by the P63 Ab. The secretagogue (cAMP)-stimulated increase in calcium-dependent binding of SP-A to type II cells was blocked by the presence of P63 Ab. Transfection of type II cells with small interfering RNA to P63 reduced P63 protein expression, attenuated P63-specific SP-A binding, and reversed the ability of SP-A to prevent surfactant secretion from the cells. Our results further substantiate the role of P63 as an SP-A receptor protein localized on the surface of lung type II cells.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL-19737

    American journal of physiology. Lung cellular and molecular physiology 2008;295;4;L658-69

  • Identification of CKAP4/p63 as a major substrate of the palmitoyl acyltransferase DHHC2, a putative tumor suppressor, using a novel proteomics method.

    Zhang J, Planey SL, Ceballos C, Stevens SM, Keay SK and Zacharias DA

    The Whitney Laboratory, Department of Neuroscience, University of Florida, St. Augustine, Florida 32080, USA.

    Protein palmitoylation is the post-translational addition of the 16-carbon fatty acid palmitate to specific cysteine residues by a labile thioester linkage. Palmitoylation is mediated by a family of at least 23 palmitoyl acyltransferases (PATs) characterized by an Asp-His-His-Cys (DHHC) motif. Many palmitoylated proteins have been identified, but PAT-substrate relationships are mostly unknown. Here we present a method called palmitoyl-cysteine isolation capture and analysis (or PICA) to identify PAT-substrate relationships in a living vertebrate system and demonstrate its effectiveness by identifying CKAP4/p63 as a substrate of DHHC2, a putative tumor suppressor.

    Funded by: NIMH NIH HHS: MH071400-01, R21 MH071400; NINDS NIH HHS: NS053638-01, R21 NS053638

    Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 2008;7;7;1378-88

  • Squamous cell carcinomas with single cell infiltration: a potential diagnostic pitfall and the utility of MNF116 and p63.

    Ko CJ, McNiff JM and Glusac EJ

    Department of Dermatology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA. christine.ko@yale.edu

    Numerous variants of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) have been described. We recently encountered four examples of SCC composed primarily of single, atypical cells that were cytokeratin (CK) MNF116-positive and p63-positive. One case was particularly difficult to diagnose as the single cells were obscured by a dense inflammatory infiltrate. We have also noted similar single cell infiltration toward the periphery of four additional cases of more typical SCC. These foci resemble the single tumor cells that may infiltrate at the borders of spindle cell and desmoplastic SCCs. CK MNF116 and p63 were useful in identifying each of these neoplasms. This single--cell pattern of SCC can easily be misdiagnosed, and CK MNF116 and/or p63 are diagnostically helpful in recognizing it.

    Journal of cutaneous pathology 2008;35;4;353-7

  • A new, unexpected action of olomoucine, a CDK inhibitor, on normal human cells: up-regulation of CLIMP-63, a cytoskeleton-linking membrane protein.

    Wesierska-Gadek J, Gueorguieva M, Kramer MP, Ranftler C, Sarg B and Lindner H

    Cell Cycle Regulation Group, Department of Medicine I, Institute of Cancer Research, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria. jozefa.gadek-wesierski@meduniwien.ac.at

    Inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) is a novel strategy in the therapy of human malignancies. The pharmacological CDK inhibitors representing a few distinct classes of compounds exert different target specificity. Considering the fact that dividing and quiescent cells differ in their CDK activity and in the pattern of their expression, one might expect that anti-proliferative efficiency of the pharmacological CDK inhibitors would depend on the mitotic index of treated cells. The present article shows that olomoucine (OLO), a weak CDK2 inhibitor has new, unexpected activity. At concentrations up to 100 microM OLO did not inhibit proliferation of normal human cells, but arrested growth of human HL-60 leukemia cells. The anti-proliferative effect of OLO was clearly weaker than that of roscovitine (ROSC). Surprisingly, OLO at low doses strongly up-regulated a cellular protein with approximately 65 kDa in normal, but not in immortalized and cancer cells. By mass spectrometric analysis CLIMP-63, a cytoskeleton-linking membrane protein was identified as the major component of the up-regulated protein band. These results were subsequently confirmed by immunoblotting. Further experiments revealed that OLO, but not ROSC, strongly up-regulates CLIMP-63 in a dose- and time-dependent manner solely in senescent cells.

    Journal of cellular biochemistry 2007;102;6;1405-19

  • Immunohistochemical staining of papillary breast lesions.

    Troxell ML, Masek M and Sibley RK

    Department of Pathology, Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. troxellm@ohsu.edu

    The separation of ductal papilloma from intraductal papillary carcinoma of the breast on hematoxylin and eosin stained sections often presents diagnostic difficulty. Immunohistochemical staining is often employed in diagnosis, historically with smooth muscle actin (SMA). In this study, the staining characteristics of a panel of myoepithelial markers (calponin, p63, P-cadherin), were compared with SMA, and the epithelial expression of CD44s was assessed in 99 papillary lesions. SMA, calponin, and p63 demonstrated myoepithelial cells in 61%, 63%, and 65% of papillary lesions, respectively. However, specificity was quite variable. Calponin-stained stromal myofibroblasts (35% of cases), vessel pericytes (92%), and endothelial cells (69%), though each to a lesser degree than SMA. Calponin also showed cross reactivity with epithelium in 18% of cases. p63 was almost completely restricted to myoepithelial cell nuclei, and did not stain vascular smooth muscle or myofibroblasts. However, p63 stained the epithelial component in one papillary carcinoma, a basal layer of cells in 1 biphasic invasive carcinoma, and the cytoplasm in 1 case. P-cadherin stained both epithelial and myoepithelial cells. The epithelial expression of CD44s and did not distinguish papillomas from papillary carcinomas. Thus, P-cadherin and CD44s are not useful in the characterization of papillary lesions. Given increased specificity as compared with SMA, the combination of p63 and calponin is recommended for analysis of breast papillary lesions.

    Applied immunohistochemistry & molecular morphology : AIMM 2007;15;2;145-53

  • CKAP4/p63 is a receptor for the frizzled-8 protein-related antiproliferative factor from interstitial cystitis patients.

    Conrads TP, Tocci GM, Hood BL, Zhang CO, Guo L, Koch KR, Michejda CJ, Veenstra TD and Keay SK

    Laboratory of Proteomics and Analytical Technologies, SAIC-Frederick, Inc., NCI, National Institutes of Health, Frederick, Maryland 21702, USA.

    Antiproliferative factor (APF) is a low molecular weight sialoglycopeptide that is secreted by bladder cells from interstitial cystitis patients and is a potent inhibitor of both normal bladder epithelial and bladder carcinoma cell proliferation. We hypothesized that APF may produce its antiproliferative effects by binding to a transmembrane receptor. This study demonstrates that cytoskeleton-associated protein 4/p63 (CKAP4/p63), a type II transmembrane receptor, binds with high affinity to APF. The antiproliferative activity of APF is effectively inhibited by preincubation with anti-CKAP4/p63-specific antibodies, as well as by short interfering RNA knockdown of CKAP4/p63. Immunofluorescent confocal microscopy showed co-localization of anti-CKAP4/p63 and rhodamine-labeled synthetic APF binding in both cell membrane and perinuclear areas. APF also inhibits the proliferation of HeLa cervical carcinoma cells that are known to express CKAP4/p63. These data indicate that CKAP4/p63 is an important epithelial cell receptor for APF.

    Funded by: Intramural NIH HHS; NIDDK NIH HHS: R01 DK52596

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2006;281;49;37836-43

  • Exclusion of p63 as a candidate gene for autosomal-dominant amelogenesis imperfecta.

    Gu X, Bäckman B, Coates PJ, Cullman I, Hellman U, Lind L and Nylander K

    Department of Medical Biosciences/Pathology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden. xiaolian.gu@medbio.umu.se

    Objective: Mutations within the p63 gene have been shown to cause ectodermal dysplasia syndromes affecting a spectrum of developmental abnormalities, including ectodermal appendages, e.g. enamel. The affected teeth have a similar phenotype as another dental disorder, amelogenesis imperfecta (AI), a disease of genetically determined abnormal enamel formation in the absence of systemic symptoms. The genetic basis of particular forms of AI has been found, although the gene(s) responsible for the most prevalent AI types has not been identified.

    DNA samples of 41 individuals (25 affected and 16 unaffected) from 6 Swedish families with autosomal-dominant AI were screened for mutations (by partially denaturing HPLC) and sequenced.

    Results: No mutation in p63 was found in these families.

    Conclusions: p63 is not responsible for different forms of autosomal-dominant AI in the Swedish families studied. The roles of p63 in tooth development and in the genetic etiology of AI remain to be identified.

    Acta odontologica Scandinavica 2006;64;2;111-4

  • Regulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p57Kip2 expression by p63.

    Beretta C, Chiarelli A, Testoni B, Mantovani R and Guerrini L

    Department of Biomolecular and Biotechnological Sciences, University of Milan, Milan, Italy.

    The cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor p57Kip2 is a negative regulator of cell proliferation, binding to a variety of cyclin-CDK complexes and inhibiting their kinase activities. The p57Kip2 gene was recognized as a target gene for p73beta, one member of the p53 family. In spite of this, the phenotypes of p73 and p57Kip2 knockout mice do not resemble each other while there is a phenotypic overlap between the p57Kip2 null mice, the p63 null mice and patients affected by p63 associated syndromes, suggesting that p57Kip2 could be indeed a downstream target of p63. By ChIP we determined that in the HaCaT cell line the DeltaNp63alpha protein is associated to three different regions of the p57Kip2 gene. DeltaNp63 can activate both the endogenous p57Kip2 gene and a reporter vector containing a -2191 promoter fragment of the p57Kip2 gene. Natural p63 mutants, associated to the AEC syndrome, show a partial or complete lack of transactivation potential of the p57Kip2 promoter, while three other natural p63 mutants, associated to the EEC, LMS and SHFM-4 syndromes, were less affected. These data suggests that p63 play an important role in the regulation of p57Kip2 expression and that this regulation is subverted in AEC p63 mutants.

    Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.) 2005;4;11;1625-31

  • The differential regulation of human telomerase reverse transcriptase and vascular endothelial growth factor may contribute to the clinically more aggressive behavior of p63-positive breast carcinomas.

    Ribeiro-Silva A, Becker de Moura H, Ribeiro do Vale F and Zucoloto S

    Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Brazil. arsilva@fmrp.usp.br

    p63, a p53 homologue, is a myoepithelial cell marker in the normal mammary gland but p63-positive neoplastic cells may be found in up to 11% of invasive breast carcinomas. This study aims to verify the relationship between p63 expression and several clinicopathological features and tumor markers of clinical significance in breast pathology including key regulators of the cell cycle, oncogenes, apoptosis-related proteins, metalloproteinases and their inhibitors. Immunohistochemistry with 27 primary antibodies was performed in 100 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples of invasive ductal carcinomas. p63-positive cells were found in 16% of carcinomas. p63-positive carcinomas were poorly differentiated, hormone receptor-negative neoplasms with a high proliferation rate. p63 also correlated with advanced pathological stage, tumor size, and the expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP1) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The expression of TIMP1 suggests that the anti-proteolytic stimuli may be preponderant in p63-positive carcinomas. hTERT activity is associated with nodal metastases and cellular proliferation. VEGF regulates angiogenesis, which is also a fundamental event in the process of tumor growth and metastatic dissemination. Thus, the differential regulation of hTERT and VEGF in p63-positive breast carcinomas may contribute to the clinically more aggressive behavior of these neoplasms.

    The International journal of biological markers 2005;20;4;227-34

  • A human protein-protein interaction network: a resource for annotating the proteome.

    Stelzl U, Worm U, Lalowski M, Haenig C, Brembeck FH, Goehler H, Stroedicke M, Zenkner M, Schoenherr A, Koeppen S, Timm J, Mintzlaff S, Abraham C, Bock N, Kietzmann S, Goedde A, Toksöz E, Droege A, Krobitsch S, Korn B, Birchmeier W, Lehrach H and Wanker EE

    Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine, 13092 Berlin-Buch, Germany.

    Protein-protein interaction maps provide a valuable framework for a better understanding of the functional organization of the proteome. To detect interacting pairs of human proteins systematically, a protein matrix of 4456 baits and 5632 preys was screened by automated yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) interaction mating. We identified 3186 mostly novel interactions among 1705 proteins, resulting in a large, highly connected network. Independent pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation assays validated the overall quality of the Y2H interactions. Using topological and GO criteria, a scoring system was developed to define 911 high-confidence interactions among 401 proteins. Furthermore, the network was searched for interactions linking uncharacterized gene products and human disease proteins to regulatory cellular pathways. Two novel Axin-1 interactions were validated experimentally, characterizing ANP32A and CRMP1 as modulators of Wnt signaling. Systematic human protein interaction screens can lead to a more comprehensive understanding of protein function and cellular processes.

    Cell 2005;122;6;957-68

  • Phosphorylation controls CLIMP-63-mediated anchoring of the endoplasmic reticulum to microtubules.

    Vedrenne C, Klopfenstein DR and Hauri HP

    Biozentrum, University of Basel, Switzerland.

    The microtubule-binding 63-kDa cytoskeleton-linking membrane protein (CLIMP-63) is an integral membrane protein that links the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to microtubules. Here, we tested whether this interaction is regulated by phosphorylation. Metabolic labeling with (32)P showed that CLIMP-63 is a phosphoprotein with increased phosphorylation during mitosis. CLIMP-63 of mitotic cells is unable to bind to microtubules in vitro. Mitotic phosphorylation can be prevented by mutation of serines 3, 17, and 19 in the cytoplasmic domain of CLIMP-63. When these residues are mutated to glutamic acid, and hence mimic mitotic phosphorylation, CLIMP-63 does no longer bind to microtubules in vitro. Overexpression of the phospho-mimicking mitotic form of CLIMP-63 in interphase cells leads to a collapse of the ER around the nucleus, leaving the microtubular network intact. The results suggest that CLIMP-63-mediated stable anchoring of the ER to microtubules is required to maintain the spatial distribution of the ER during interphase and that this interaction is abolished by phosphorylation of CLIMP-63 during mitosis.

    Molecular biology of the cell 2005;16;4;1928-37

  • Interaction of microtubule-associated protein-2 and p63: a new link between microtubules and rough endoplasmic reticulum membranes in neurons.

    Farah CA, Liazoghli D, Perreault S, Desjardins M, Guimont A, Anton A, Lauzon M, Kreibich G, Paiement J and Leclerc N

    Département de Pathologie et Biologie Cellulaire, Université de Montréal, CP 6128, Succ. Centre-ville, Montréal, Québec H3C 3J7, Canada.

    Neurons are polarized cells presenting two distinct compartments, dendrites and an axon. Dendrites can be distinguished from the axon by the presence of rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER). The mechanism by which the structure and distribution of the RER is maintained in these cells is poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the role of the dendritic microtubule-associated protein-2 (MAP2) in the RER membrane positioning by comparing their distribution in brain subcellular fractions and in primary hippocampal cells and by examining the MAP2-microtubule interaction with RER membranes in vitro. Subcellular fractionation of rat brain revealed a high MAP2 content in a subfraction enriched with the endoplasmic reticulum markers ribophorin and p63. Electron microscope morphometry confirmed the enrichment of this subfraction with RER membranes. In cultured hippocampal neurons, MAP2 and p63 were found to concomitantly compartmentalize to the dendritic processes during neuronal differentiation. Protein blot overlays using purified MAP2c protein revealed its interaction with p63, and immunoprecipitation experiments performed in HeLa cells showed that this interaction involves the projection domain of MAP2. In an in vitro reconstitution assay, MAP2-containing microtubules were observed to bind to RER membranes in contrast to microtubules containing tau, the axonal MAP. This binding of MAP2c microtubules was reduced when an anti-p63 antibody was added to the assay. The present results suggest that MAP2 is involved in the association of RER membranes with microtubules and thereby could participate in the differential distribution of RER membranes within a neuron.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2005;280;10;9439-49

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • [One family investigation and pathogeny research on ectrodactyly, absence of radius side part palm and split foot malformation].

    Hu ZJ, Yu XF, Li QH, Zhang AJ, Deng X and Zhang AY

    Chenzhou Maternity and Child Health Hospital, Chenzhou, Hunan, 423000 P.R. China. huzhoujun5019@vip.sina.com

    Objective: The paper is a study on the clinical symptoms and pathogeny of ectrodactyly and absence of radius side part palm and split foot malformation of some patients in one family.

    Methods: Based on the patient family investigation,a normal control group and a patient group were established. Then, polymerase chain reaction technique was used for DNA sequencing and analysis of the two groups for their exons 5-8 gene group DNA of P63 gene.

    Results: The medical examination found that the patients' upper bilateral limbs are short of thumbs, forefingers and middle fingers, and have radius side part palm and double lower limbs foot clefts malformation. The pathogeny research revealed that the PCR expansion pieces of the exons 5-8 of P63 are 284 bp, 259 bp, 245 bp and 259 bp respectively, and the size of the expansion piece of the patients was the same as that of the normal people group. However, a respective comparison between the DNA serial of the expansion piece of the patient and that of the normal people group and that of the P63 gene in the human gene bank showed that mutation occurs at the number 665 base pair of exon 5 of P63, namely a mutation from G to A.

    Conclusion: The ectrodactyly, absence of radius side part palm and split foot malformation are caused by the mutation of base pair at number 665 of the exon 5 of P63.

    Zhonghua yi xue yi chuan xue za zhi = Zhonghua yixue yichuanxue zazhi = Chinese journal of medical genetics 2004;21;5;482-4

  • Functional regulation of tissue plasminogen activator on the surface of vascular smooth muscle cells by the type-II transmembrane protein p63 (CKAP4).

    Razzaq TM, Bass R, Vines DJ, Werner F, Whawell SA and Ellis V

    School of Biological Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ, United Kingdom.

    We have demonstrated that tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) binds specifically to human vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) in a functionally relevant manner, both increasing plasminogen activation and decreasing tPA inhibition (Ellis, V., and Whawell, S. A. (1997) Blood 90, 2312-2322; Werner, F., Razzaq, T. M., and Ellis, V. (1999) J. Biol. Chem. 274, 21555-21561). To further understand this system we have now identified and characterized the protein responsible for this binding. Rat VSMC were surface-labeled with 125I, and cell lysates were subjected to an affinity chromatography scheme based on the previously identified tPA binding characteristics. A single radiolabeled protein of 63 kDa bound specifically and was eluted at low pH. This protein was isolated from large scale preparations of VSMC and unambiguously identified as the rat homologue of the human type-II transmembrane protein p63 (CKAP4) by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization and nano-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry of tryptic fragments. In confirmation of this, a monoclonal antibody raised against authentic human p63 recognized the isolated protein in Western blotting. Immunofluorescence microscopy demonstrated that p63 was located principally in the endoplasmic reticulum but was also detected in significant quantities on the surface of human VSMC. In support of the hypothesis that p63 is the functional tPA binding site on VSMC, an anti-p63 monoclonal antibody was found to block tPA binding. Furthermore, heterologous expression of an N-terminally truncated mutant of p63, which targets exclusively to the plasma membrane, led to an increase in tPA-catalyzed plasminogen activation. Therefore, p63 on the surface of VSMC may contribute to the functional regulation of the plasminogen activation system in the vessel wall.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;43;42679-85

  • Subdomain-specific localization of CLIMP-63 (p63) in the endoplasmic reticulum is mediated by its luminal alpha-helical segment.

    Klopfenstein DR, Klumperman J, Lustig A, Kammerer RA, Oorschot V and Hauri HP

    Department of Pharmacology and Neurobiology, Biozentrum, University of Basel, CH-4056 Basel, Switzerland.

    The microtubule-binding integral 63 kD cytoskeleton-linking membrane protein (CLIMP-63; former name, p63) of the rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is excluded from the nuclear envelope. We studied the mechanism underlying this ER subdomain-specific localization by mutagenesis and structural analysis. Deleting the luminal but not cytosolic segment of CLIMP-63 abrogated subdomain-specific localization, as visualized by confocal microscopy in living cells and by immunoelectron microscopy using ultrathin cryosections. Photobleaching/recovery analysis revealed that the luminal segment determines restricted diffusion and immobility of the protein. The recombinant full-length luminal segment of CLIMP-63 formed alpha-helical 91-nm long rod-like structures as evident by circular dichroism spectroscopy and electron microscopy. In the analytical ultracentrifuge, the luminal segment sedimented at 25.7 S, indicating large complexes. The complexes most likely arose by electrostatic interactions of individual highly charged coiled coils. The findings indicate that the luminal segment of CLIMP-63 is necessary and sufficient for oligomerization into alpha-helical complexes that prevent nuclear envelope localization. Concentration of CLIMP-63 into patches may enhance microtubule binding on the cytosolic side and contribute to ER morphology by the formation of a protein scaffold in the lumen of the ER.

    The Journal of cell biology 2001;153;6;1287-300

  • Construction and characterization of a full length-enriched and a 5'-end-enriched cDNA library.

    Suzuki Y, Yoshitomo-Nakagawa K, Maruyama K, Suyama A and Sugano S

    International and Interdisciplinary Studies, The University of Tokyo, Japan.

    Using 'oligo-capped' mRNA [Maruyama, K., Sugano, S., 1994. Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with oligoribonucleotides. Gene 138, 171-174], whose cap structure was replaced by a synthetic oligonucleotide, we constructed two types of cDNA library. One is a 'full length-enriched cDNA library' which has a high content of full-length cDNA clones and the other is a '5'-end-enriched cDNA library', which has a high content of cDNA clones with their mRNA start sites. The 5'-end-enriched library was constructed especially for isolating the mRNA start sites of long mRNAs. In order to characterize these libraries, we performed one-pass sequencing of randomly selected cDNA clones from both libraries (84 clones for the full length-enriched cDNA library and 159 clones for the 5'-end-enriched cDNA library). The cDNA clones of the polypeptide chain elongation factor 1 alpha were most frequently (nine clones) isolated, and more than 80% of them (eight clones) contained the mRNA start site of the gene. Furthermore, about 80% of the cDNA clones of both libraries whose sequence matched with known genes had the known 5' ends or sequences upstream of the known 5' ends (28 out of 35 for the full length-enriched library and 51 out of 62 for the 5'-end-enriched library). The longest full-length clone of the full length-enriched cDNA library was about 3300 bp (among 28 clones). In contrast, seven clones (out of the 51 clones with the mRNA start sites) from the 5'-end-enriched cDNA library came from mRNAs whose length is more than 3500 bp. These cDNA libraries may be useful for generating 5' ESTs with the information of the mRNA start sites that are now scarce in the EST database.

    Gene 1997;200;1-2;149-56

  • Protein palmitoylation in membrane trafficking.

    Mundy DI

    Cell Biology Laboratory, Imperial Cancer Research Fund, London, UK.

    Biochemical Society transactions 1995;23;3;572-6

  • Reassessment of the subcellular localization of p63.

    Schweizer A, Rohrer J, Slot JW, Geuze HJ and Kornfeld S

    Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA.

    p63 is a type II integral membrane protein that has previously been suggested to be a resident protein of a membrane network interposed between the ER and the Golgi apparatus. In the present study, we have produced a polyclonal antibody against the purified human p63 protein to reassess the subcellular distribution of p63 by confocal immunofluorescence, immunoelectron microscopy, and cell fractionation. Double immunofluorescence of COS cells showed significant colocalization of p63 and a KDEL-containing lumenal ER marker protein, except for differences in the staining of the outer nuclear membrane. Immunoelectron microscopy of native HepG2 cells and of COS cells transfected with p63 revealed that both endogenous and overexpressed p63 are predominantly localized in the rough ER. While p63 was colocalized with protein disulfide isomerase, an ER marker protein, very little overlap of p63 was found with ERGIC-53, an established marker for the ER-Golgi intermediate compartment. When rough and smooth membranes were prepared from rat liver, p63 was found to copurify with ribophorin II, a rough ER protein. Both p63 and ribophorin II were predominantly recovered in rough microsomes and were largely separated from the intermediate compartment marker protein p58. From these results it is concluded that p63 is localized in the rough ER.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA08759

    Journal of cell science 1995;108 ( Pt 6);2477-85

  • Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with oligoribonucleotides.

    Maruyama K and Sugano S

    Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Japan.

    We have devised a method to replace the cap structure of a mRNA with an oligoribonucleotide (r-oligo) to label the 5' end of eukaryotic mRNAs. The method consists of removing the cap with tobacco acid pyrophosphatase (TAP) and ligating r-oligos to decapped mRNAs with T4 RNA ligase. This reaction was made cap-specific by removing 5'-phosphates of non-capped RNAs with alkaline phosphatase prior to TAP treatment. Unlike the conventional methods that label the 5' end of cDNAs, this method specifically labels the capped end of the mRNAs with a synthetic r-oligo prior to first-strand cDNA synthesis. The 5' end of the mRNA was identified quite simply by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).

    Gene 1994;138;1-2;171-4

  • A reversibly palmitoylated resident protein (p63) of an ER-Golgi intermediate compartment is related to a circulatory shock resuscitation protein.

    Schweizer A, Rohrer J, Jenö P, DeMaio A, Buchman TG and Hauri HP

    Department of Pharmacology, University of Basel, Switzerland.

    The recently identified 63 kDa membrane protein, p63, is a resident protein of a membrane network interposed in between rough ER and Golgi apparatus. To characterize p63 at the molecular level a 2.91 kb cDNA encoding p63 has been isolated from a human placenta lambda gt10 cDNA library. Sequence analysis of tryptic peptides prepared from isolated p63 confirmed the identify of the cloned gene. The translated amino acid sequence consists of 601 amino acids (65.8 kDa) with a single putative membrane-spanning region and a N-terminal cytoplasmic domain of 106 amino acids. The human p63 cDNA exhibits a high level of sequence identify to the pig hepatic cDNA 3AL (accession number M27092) whose expression is enhanced after resuscitation from circulatory shock. An additional remarkable feature of p63 is that it becomes reversibly palmitoylated when intracellular protein transport is blocked by the drug brefeldin A. Overexpression of p63 in COS cells led to the development of a striking tubular membrane network in the cytoplasm. This suggests that the protein may be determinant for the structure of the p63 compartment.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM 39756, GM 48095

    Journal of cell science 1993;104 ( Pt 3);685-94

  • Mitosis and inhibition of intracellular transport stimulate palmitoylation of a 62-kD protein.

    Mundy DI and Warren G

    Imperial Cancer Research Fund, London, United Kingdom.

    Recent studies suggest that a cycle of acylation/deacylation is involved in the vesicular transport of proteins between intracellular compartments at both the budding and the fusion stage (Glick, B. S., and J. E. Rothman. 1987. Nature (Lond.). 326:309-312). Since a number of cellular processes requiring vesicular transport are inhibited during mitosis, we examined the fatty acylation of proteins in interphase and mitotic cells. We have identified a major palmitoylated protein with an apparent molecular weight of 62,000 (p62), whose level of acylation increases 5-10-fold during mitosis. Acylation was reversible and p62 was no longer palmitoylated in cells that have exited mitosis and entered G1. p62 is tightly bound to the cytoplasmic side of membranes, since it was sensitive to digestion with proteases in the absence of detergent and was not removed by treatment with 1 M KCl. p62 is removed from membranes by nonionic detergents or concentrations of urea greater than 4 M. The localization of p62 by subcellular fractionation is consistent with it being in the cis-Golgi or the cis-Golgi network. A palmitoylated protein of the same molecular weight was also observed in interphase cells treated with inhibitors of intracellular transport, such as brefeldin A, monensin, carbonylcyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone, or aluminum fluoride. The protein palmitoylated in the presence of brefeldin A was shown to be the same as that palmitoylated during mitosis using partial proteolysis. Digestion with two enzymes, alkaline protease and endoprotease lys-C, generated the same 3H-palmitate-labeled peptide fragments from p62 from mitotic or brefeldin A-treated cells. We suggest that the acylation and deacylation of p62 may be important in vesicular transport and that this process may be regulated during mitosis.

    The Journal of cell biology 1992;116;1;135-46

Gene lists (6)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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