G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
transgelin 3
G00000597 (Mus musculus)

Databases (7)

ENSG00000144834 (Ensembl human gene)
29114 (Entrez Gene)
1039 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
TAGLN3 (GeneCards)
607953 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:29868 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
Q9UI15 (UniProt)

Synonyms (2)

  • NP22
  • NP25

Literature (8)

Pubmed - other

  • Expression of human neuronal protein 22, a novel cytoskeleton-associated protein, was decreased in the anterior cingulate cortex of schizophrenia.

    Ito M, Depaz I, Wilce P, Suzuki T, Niwa S and Matsumoto I

    Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Fukushima Medical University, Fukushima, Hikarigaoka 1 960-1295, Japan.

    Human neuronal protein 22 (hNP22) is a novel neuron-specific protein featuring numerous motifs previously described in cytoskeleton-associating and signaling proteins. Because previous studies have supported abnormalities in neuronal cytoarchitecture and/or development in the schizophrenia brain, we examined the expression of hNP22 in the anterior cingulate cortex, the hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex of schizophrenic and normal control postmortem brains using high-sensitive immunohistochemistry. Seven schizophrenic and seven age- and sex-matched control brains were examined. The ratio of hNP22-immunopositive cells/total cells was significantly reduced in layer V (p=.020) and layer VI (p=.022) of the anterior cingulate cortex of schizophrenic brain compared with controls. In contrast, there were no significant changes observed in the hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex. These results suggest that altered expression of hNP22 may be associated with modifications in neuronal cytoarchitecture leading to dysregulation of neural signal transduction in the anterior cingulate cortex of the schizophrenia brain.

    Neuroscience letters 2005;378;3;125-30

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • Expression of hNP22 is altered in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of the alcoholic human brain.

    Depaz I, Ito M, Matsumoto I, Niwa S, Kroon P and Wilce PA

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Molecular and Microbial Sciences, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Brisbane, Australia. iris.depaz@mailbox.uq.edu.au

    Background: Human neuronal protein (hNP22) is a gene with elevated messenger RNA expression in the prefrontal cortex of the human alcoholic brain. hNP22 has high homology with a rat protein (rNP22). These proteins also share homology with a number of cytoskeleton-interacting proteins.

    Methods: A rabbit polyclonal antibody to an 18-amino acid epitope was produced for use in Western and immunohistochemical analysis. Samples from the human frontal and motor cortices were used for Western blots (n = 10), whereas a different group of frontal cortex and hippocampal samples were obtained for immunohistochemistry (n = 12).

    Results: The hNP22 antibody detected a single protein in both rat and human brain. Western blots revealed a significant increase in hNP22 protein levels in the frontal cortex but not the motor cortex of alcoholic cases. Immunohistochemical studies confirmed the increased hNP22 protein expression in all cortical layers. This is consistent with results previously obtained using Northern analysis. Immunohistochemical analysis also revealed a significant increase of hNP22 immunoreactivity in the CA3 and CA4 but not other regions of the hippocampus.

    Conclusions: It is possible that this protein may play a role in the morphological or plastic changes observed after chronic alcohol exposure and withdrawal, either as a cytoskeleton-interacting protein or as a signaling molecule.

    Alcoholism, clinical and experimental research 2003;27;9;1481-8

  • Expressed sequence tag analysis of human retina for the NEIBank Project: retbindin, an abundant, novel retinal cDNA and alternative splicing of other retina-preferred gene transcripts.

    Wistow G, Bernstein SL, Wyatt MK, Ray S, Behal A, Touchman JW, Bouffard G, Smith D and Peterson K

    Section on Molecular Structure and Function, National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892-2740, USA. graeme@helix.nih.gov

    Purpose: Expressed sequence tag (EST) analysis was performed on un-normalized, unamplified cDNA libraries constructed from adult human retina to examine the expression profile of the tissue and to contribute resources for functional genomics studies.

    Methods: Two size fractionated cDNA libraries (designated hd and he) were constructed from human retina RNA. Clones were randomly selected for sequencing and analyzed using the bioinformatics program GRIST (GRouping and Identification of Sequence Tags). PCR, Northern blotting and other techniques have been used to examine selected novel transcripts.

    Results: After informatics analysis, 2200 retina cDNAs yield 1254 unique clusters, potentially representing individual genes. Opsin is the most abundant transcript and other retina transcripts are prominently represented. One abundant cluster of cDNAs encodes retbindin, a novel, retina preferred transcript which has sequence similarity to riboflavin binding proteins and whose gene is on chromosome 19. Variant transcripts of known retina genes are also observed, including an alternative exon in the coding sequence of the transcription factor NRL and a skipped coding sequence exon in the phosphodiesterase gammasubunit (PDE6G).

    Conclusions: The new retina cDNA libraries compare favorably in quality with those already represented in public databases. They are rich in retina specific sequences and include abundant cDNAs for a novel protein, retbindin. The function of retbindin remains to be determined, but it is a candidate for flavinoid or carotenoid binding. Analysis of multiple clones for highly expressed retina genes reveals several alternative splice variants in both coding and noncoding sequences which may have functional significance. The validated set of retina cDNAs will contribute to a nonredundant set for microarray construction.

    Molecular vision 2002;8;196-204

  • Molecular cloning and characterization of hNP22: a gene up-regulated in human alcoholic brain.

    Fan L, Jaquet V, Dodd PR, Chen W and Wilce PA

    Department of Biochemistry, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia. lfan@justine.umontreal.ca

    An improved differential display technique was used to search for changes in gene expression in the superior frontal cortex of alcoholics. A cDNA fragment was retrieved and cloned. Further sequence of the cDNA was determined from 5' RACE and screening of a human brain cDNA library. The gene was named hNP22 (human neuronal protein 22). The deduced protein sequence of hNP22 has an estimated molecular mass of 22.4 kDa with a putative calcium-binding site, and phosphorylation sites for casein kinase II and protein kinase C. The deduced amino acid sequence of hNP22 shares homology (from 67% to 42%) with four other proteins, SM22alpha, calponin, myophilin and mp20. Sequence homology suggests a potential interaction of hNP22 with cytoskeletal elements. hNP22 mRNA was expressed in various brain regions but in alcoholics, greater mRNA expression occurred in the superior frontal cortex, but not in the primary motor cortex or cerebellum. The results suggest that hNP22 may have a role in alcohol-related adaptations and may mediate regulatory signal transduction pathways in neurones.

    Journal of neurochemistry 2001;76;5;1275-81

  • Gene expression profiling in the human hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis and full-length cDNA cloning.

    Hu RM, Han ZG, Song HD, Peng YD, Huang QH, Ren SX, Gu YJ, Huang CH, Li YB, Jiang CL, Fu G, Zhang QH, Gu BW, Dai M, Mao YF, Gao GF, Rong R, Ye M, Zhou J, Xu SH, Gu J, Shi JX, Jin WR, Zhang CK, Wu TM, Huang GY, Chen Z, Chen MD and Chen JL

    Rui-Jin Hospital, Shanghai Institute of Endocrinology, Shanghai Second Medical University, China.

    The primary neuroendocrine interface, hypothalamus and pituitary, together with adrenals, constitute the major axis responsible for the maintenance of homeostasis and the response to the perturbations in the environment. The gene expression profiling in the human hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis was catalogued by generating a large amount of expressed sequence tags (ESTs), followed by bioinformatics analysis (http://www.chgc.sh.cn/ database). Totally, 25,973 sequences of good quality were obtained from 31,130 clones (83.4%) from cDNA libraries of the hypothalamus, pituitary, and adrenal glands. After eliminating 5,347 sequences corresponding to repetitive elements and mtDNA, 20,626 ESTs could be assembled into 9, 175 clusters (3,979, 3,074, and 4,116 clusters in hypothalamus, pituitary, and adrenal glands, respectively) when overlapping ESTs were integrated. Of these clusters, 2,777 (30.3%) corresponded to known genes, 4,165 (44.8%) to dbESTs, and 2,233 (24.3%) to novel ESTs. The gene expression profiles reflected well the functional characteristics of the three levels in the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis, because most of the 20 genes with highest expression showed statistical difference in terms of tissue distribution, including a group of tissue-specific functional markers. Meanwhile, some findings were made with regard to the physiology of the axis, and 200 full-length cDNAs of novel genes were cloned and sequenced. All of these data may contribute to the understanding of the neuroendocrine regulation of human life.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2000;97;17;9543-8

  • The identification of NP25: a novel protein that is differentially expressed by neuronal subpopulations.

    Ren WZ, Ng GY, Wang RX, Wu PH, O'Dowd BF, Osmond DH, George SR and Liew CC

    Department of Physiology, University of Toronto, Ont., Canada.

    A novel gene encoding a 25-kDa neuronal-specific protein, here named 'NP25', has been isolated as a cDNA clone from rat brain. The sequence of the NP25 cDNA reveals a single open reading frame that encodes a primary translation product of 206 amino acids. A search of the protein sequence databank indicates that NP25 is significantly homologous with three recently discovered muscle proteins: SM22 alpha, mp20 and calponin. The gene is specifically and ubiquitously expressed in the rat brain and has conserved sequences among chicken, rat, mouse and human. Rat brain NP25 was identified by Western blot using an antiserum elicited against trpE-NP25 fusion protein. On pH gradient electrophoresis, NP25 was separated into at least two isoforms with similar molecular weights. Immunocytochemistry and in situ hybridization demonstrated that NP25 was differentially expressed by neuronal subpopulations of the rat central nervous system. The highest concentration of NP25 protein was localized in central amygdaloid nuclei and glomeruli in the granule layer of cerebellum. The wide and differential distribution of NP25 in the brain suggests that it may play a particular important role in the function of specific neuronal systems.

    Brain research. Molecular brain research 1994;22;1-4;173-85

Gene lists (8)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000011 G2C Homo sapiens Human clathrin Human orthologues of mouse clathrin coated vesicle genes adapted from Collins et al (2006) 150
L00000012 G2C Homo sapiens Human Synaptosome Human orthologues of mouse synaptosome adapted from Collins et al (2006) 152
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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