G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
ADAM metallopeptidase domain 23
G00000588 (Mus musculus)

Databases (7)

ENSG00000114948 (Ensembl human gene)
8745 (Entrez Gene)
987 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
ADAM23 (GeneCards)
603710 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
Protein Sequence
O75077 (UniProt)

Synonyms (1)

  • MDC3

Literature (15)

Pubmed - other

  • Association and interaction analyses of eight genes under asthma linkage peaks.

    Ferreira MA, Zhao ZZ, Thomsen SF, James M, Evans DM, Postmus PE, Kyvik KO, Backer V, Boomsma DI, Martin NG, Montgomery GW and Duffy DL

    Queensland Institute of Medical Research, Brisbane, Australia.

    Background: Linkage studies have implicated the 2q33, 9p21, 11q13 and 20q13 regions in the regulation of allergic disease. The aim of this study was to test genetic variants in candidate genes from these regions for association with specific asthma traits.

    Methods: Ninety-five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) located in eight genes (CD28, CTLA4, ICOS, ADAM23, ADAMTSL1, MS4A2, CDH26 and HRH3) were genotyped in >5000 individuals from Australian (n = 1162), Dutch (n = 99) and Danish (n = 303) families. Traits tested included doctor-diagnosed asthma, atopy, airway obstruction, total serum immunoglobulin (Ig) E levels and eosinophilia. Association was tested using both multivariate and univariate methods, with gene-wide thresholds for significance determined through simulation. Gene-by-gene and gene-by-environment analyses were also performed.

    Results: There was no overall evidence for association with seven of the eight genes tested when considering all genetic variation assayed in each gene. The exception was MS4A2 on chromosome 11q13, which showed weak evidence for association with IgE (gene-wide P < 0.05, rs502581). There were no significant gene-by-gene or gene-by-environment interaction effects after accounting for the number of tests performed.

    Conclusions: The individual variants genotyped in the 2q33, 9p21 and 20q13 regions do not explain a large fraction of the variation in the quantitative traits tested or have a major impact on asthma or atopy risk. Our results are consistent with a weak effect of MS4A2 polymorphisms on the variation of total IgE levels.

    Funded by: Medical Research Council: G0600705, G0800582

    Allergy 2009;64;11;1623-8

  • Characterization of a specific interaction between ADAM23 and cellular prion protein.

    Costa MD, Paludo KS, Klassen G, Lopes MH, Mercadante AF, Martins VR, Camargo AA, Nakao LS and Zanata SM

    Department of Basic Pathology, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Centro Politécnico, 81531-990 Curitiba, PR, Brazil.

    ADAMs are transmembrane proteins implicated in several biological functions, including cytokine and growth factor shedding, fertilization, muscle and nervous system development. Here, we show for the first time that ADAM23, which is predominantly expressed in the central nervous system, co-localizes with cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) at plasma membrane of mouse hippocampal neurons and neuroblastoma cells. Co-immunoprecipitation and pull-down assay showed a physical interaction between ADAM23 and both recombinant and endogenous PrP(C). Glycosylation seems to be not relevant to the observed interaction since both ADAM23 and PrP(C) recombinant proteins expressed in bacteria or extracted from eukaryotic cells treated with tunicamycin are still able to bind each other. In vitro binding assays also suggested that the disintegrin domain of ADAM23 is able to interact directly with PrP(C). Taken together, these findings point out PrP(C) as a novel molecular partner for ADAM23 in the nervous systems.

    Neuroscience letters 2009;461;1;16-20

  • ADAM23 negatively modulates alpha(v)beta(3) integrin activation during metastasis.

    Verbisck NV, Costa ET, Costa FF, Cavalher FP, Costa MD, Muras A, Paixão VA, Moura R, Granato MF, Ierardi DF, Machado T, Melo F, Ribeiro KB, Cunha IW, Lima VC, Maciel Mdo S, Carvalho AL, Soares FF, Zanata S, Sogayar MC, Chammas R and Camargo AA

    Laboratory of Molecular Biology and Genomics, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, São Paulo SP, Brazil.

    The ADAM23 gene is frequently silenced in different types of tumors, and, in breast tumors, silencing is correlated with tumor progression, suggesting that it might be associated with the acquisition of a metastatic phenotype. ADAM23 exerts its function mainly through the disintegrin domain, because its metalloprotease domain is inactive. Analysis of ADAM23 binding to integrins has revealed a specific interaction with alpha(v)beta(3) integrin mediated by the disintegrin domain. Altered expression of alpha(v)beta(3) integrin has been observed in different types of tumors, and expression of this integrin in the activated form has been shown to promote metastasis formation. Here, we investigated the possibility that interaction between ADAM23 and alpha(v)beta(3) integrin might negatively modulate alpha(v)beta(3) activation during metastatic progression. ADAM23 expression was knocked down using short hairpin RNA in the MDA-MB-435 cell line, which has been extensively used as a model for alpha(v)beta(3) integrin activation. Ablation of ADAM23 enhanced alpha(v)beta(3) integrin activation by at least 2- to 4-fold and ADAM23 knockdown cells showed enhanced migration and adhesion to classic alpha(v)beta(3) integrin ligands. Ablation of ADAM23 expression also enhanced pulmonary tumor cell arrest in immunodeficient mice. To complement our findings with clinical evidence, we showed that silencing of ADAM23 gene by DNA promoter hypermethylation in a collection of 94 primary breast tumors was significantly associated with lower distant metastases-free and disease-specific survivals and was an independent prognostic factor for poor disease outcome. Our results strongly support a functional role of ADAM23 during metastatic progression by negatively modulating alpha(v)beta(3) integrin activation.

    Cancer research 2009;69;13;5546-52

  • Promoter hypermethylation of the ADAM23 gene in colorectal cancer cell lines and cancer tissues.

    Choi JS, Kim KH, Jeon YK, Kim SH, Jang SG, Ku JL and Park JG

    Laboratory of Cell Biology, Cancer Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

    Promoter hypermethylation of the ADAM23 gene, which is normally involved in cell-to-cell and cell-to matrix adhesion, has been reported in pancreatic, breast and brain cancer, and recently the role of this gene was examined in gastric cancer. In this study, we analyzed ADAM23 expression in colorectal cancer cell lines and examined its methylation by methylation-specific PCR (MSP) and bisulfate-modified DNA sequencing analysis. Methylated cells were treated with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine to restore the ADAM23 expression. We then examined ADAM23 methylation status in colorectal cancer tissues and their corresponding normal tissues. We found that ADAM23 was aberrantly silenced or expressed at very low levels in 28 of the 32 (88%) colorectal cancer cell lines. MSP analysis showed that ADAM23 was methylated in 29 of 32 (91%) colorectal cancer cell lines and attenuated expression of ADAM23 was found to be related to hypermethylation in its promoter region. Moreover, the CpG dinucleotide methylation threshold of 70-90% was found to be required for complete silencing. In addition, when some cell lines without ADAM23 expression were treated with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, ADAM23 was reexpressed. In colorectal cancer tissues, the promoter region of ADAM23 was hypermethylated in 36 of 76 (47%). These results demonstrated that ADAM23 may be down-regulated by aberrant promoter hypermethylation during the progression of colorectal cancer.

    International journal of cancer 2009;124;6;1258-62

  • ADAM23, a possible tumor suppressor gene, is frequently silenced in gastric cancers by homozygous deletion or aberrant promoter hypermethylation.

    Takada H, Imoto I, Tsuda H, Nakanishi Y, Ichikura T, Mochizuki H, Mitsufuji S, Hosoda F, Hirohashi S, Ohki M and Inazawa J

    Department of Molecular Cytogenetics, Medical Research Institute and School of Biomedical Science, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan.

    Array-based comparative genomic hybridization (CGH-array) has a powerful potential for high-throughput identification of genetic aberrations in cell genomes. We identified a homozygous loss of ADAM23 (2q33.3) in the course of a program to screen a panel of gastric cancer (GC) cell lines (1/32, 3.1%) for genomic copy-number aberrations using our custom-made CGH-array. Infrequent homozygous deletion of ADAM23 was also seen in primary gastric tumors (1/39, 2.6%). ADAM23 mRNA was expressed in normal stomach tissue, but not in the majority of GC cell lines without homozygous deletion of this gene. Expression of ADAM23 mRNA was restored to gene-silenced GC cells after treatment with 5-aza 2'-deoxycytidine. The methylation status of the ADAM23 CpG island, which showed promoter activity, correlated inversely with its expression. Methylation of this CpG island was observed both in GC cell lines and in primary GC tissues; in primary tumors with a hypermethylated CpG island, expression of ADAM23 was lower than in adjacent noncancerous tissues. Moreover, restoration of ADAM23 in GC cells reduced their numbers in colony-formation assays. These results suggest that genetic or epigenetic silencing by hypermethylation of the ADAM23 CpG-rich promoter region leads to loss of ADAM23 function, which may be a factor in gastric carcinogenesis.

    Oncogene 2005;24;54;8051-60

  • Quantitative phosphoproteome analysis using a dendrimer conjugation chemistry and tandem mass spectrometry.

    Tao WA, Wollscheid B, O'Brien R, Eng JK, Li XJ, Bodenmiller B, Watts JD, Hood L and Aebersold R

    The Bindley Bioscience Center and Department of Biochemistry, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907, USA.

    We present a robust and general method for the identification and relative quantification of phosphorylation sites in complex protein mixtures. It is based on a new chemical derivatization strategy using a dendrimer as a soluble polymer support and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). In a single step, phosphorylated peptides are covalently conjugated to a dendrimer in a reaction catalyzed by carbodiimide and imidazole. Modified phosphopeptides are released from the dendrimer via acid hydrolysis and analyzed by MS/MS. When coupled with an initial antiphosphotyrosine protein immunoprecipitation step and stable-isotope labeling, in a single experiment, we identified all known tyrosine phosphorylation sites within the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs (ITAM) of the T-cell receptor (TCR) CD3 chains, and previously unknown phosphorylation sites on total 97 tyrosine phosphoproteins and their interacting partners in human T cells. The dynamic changes in phosphorylation were quantified in these proteins.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: N01-HV-28179

    Nature methods 2005;2;8;591-8

  • ADAM23 methylation and expression analysis in brain tumors.

    Costa FF, Colin C, Shinjo SM, Zanata SM, Marie SK, Sogayar MC and Camargo AA

    Laboratory of Molecular Biology and Genomics, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, SP, Brazil.

    The ADAMs comprises a family of cell surface proteins with putative roles in cell-cell and/or cell-matrix interactions and in protease activities. In this work, we have examined the expression level and the methylation status of the 5' upstream region of the adhesion molecule ADAM23 in two brain tumor cell lines (A172 and T98G) as well as in three primary brain tumors (one grade II astrocytoma and two meningiomas) and 15 glioblastoma xenografts. Using bisulfite sequencing we verified that the percentage of methylated dinucleotides is higher in T98G when compared to A172 and that methylation significantly correlates with ADAM23 mRNA and protein expression. However, we were unable to detect methylation and down-regulation of the ADAM23 gene in brain tumors. Together, these results indicate that ADAM23 down-regulation by methylation in brain tumors is a rare event and it may help explain why brain tumor metastases are rarely found elsewhere in the body.

    Neuroscience letters 2005;380;3;260-4

  • Time-controlled transcardiac perfusion cross-linking for the study of protein interactions in complex tissues.

    Schmitt-Ulms G, Hansen K, Liu J, Cowdrey C, Yang J, DeArmond SJ, Cohen FE, Prusiner SB and Baldwin MA

    Institute for Neurodegenerative Disease, San Francisco, California 94143, USA. g.schmittulms@utoronto.ca

    Because of their sensitivity to solubilizing detergents, membrane protein assemblies are difficult to study. We describe a protocol that covalently conserves protein interactions through time-controlled transcardiac perfusion cross-linking (tcTPC) before disruption of tissue integrity. To validate tcTPC for identifying protein-protein interactions, we established that tcTPC allowed stringent immunoaffinity purification of the gamma-secretase complex in high salt concentrations and detergents and was compatible with mass spectrometric identification of cross-linked aph-1, presenilin-1 and nicastrin. We then applied tcTPC to identify more than 20 proteins residing in the vicinity of the cellular prion protein (PrPC), suggesting that PrP is embedded in specialized membrane regions with a subset of molecules that, like PrP, use a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor for membrane attachment. Many of these proteins have been implicated in cell adhesion/neuritic outgrowth, and harbor immunoglobulin C2 and fibronectin type III-like motifs.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: NCRR RR01614; NIA NIH HHS: AG010770, AG02132

    Nature biotechnology 2004;22;6;724-31

  • Transcriptome characterization elucidates signaling networks that control human ES cell growth and differentiation.

    Brandenberger R, Wei H, Zhang S, Lei S, Murage J, Fisk GJ, Li Y, Xu C, Fang R, Guegler K, Rao MS, Mandalam R, Lebkowski J and Stanton LW

    Geron Corporation, Menlo Park, California 94025, USA. rbrandenberger@geron.com

    Human embryonic stem (hES) cells hold promise for generating an unlimited supply of cells for replacement therapies. To characterize hES cells at the molecular level, we obtained 148,453 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from undifferentiated hES cells and three differentiated derivative subpopulations. Over 32,000 different transcripts expressed in hES cells were identified, of which more than 16,000 do not match closely any gene in the UniGene public database. Queries to this EST database revealed 532 significantly upregulated and 140 significantly downregulated genes in undifferentiated hES cells. These data highlight changes in the transcriptional network that occur when hES cells differentiate. Among the differentially regulated genes are several components of signaling pathways and transcriptional regulators that likely play key roles in hES cell growth and differentiation. The genomic data presented here may facilitate the derivation of clinically useful cell types from hES cells.

    Nature biotechnology 2004;22;6;707-16

  • Two novel isoforms of Adam23 expressed in the developmental process of mouse and human brains.

    Sun YP, Deng KJ, Wang F, Zhang J, Huang X, Qiao S and Zhao S

    State key Laboratory of Genetics Engineering, Institute of Genetics, School of Life Science, Fudan University, YiFu Building of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200433, PR China.

    A metalloprotease and disintegrin (ADAM) is a family of membrane-anchored proteins and all family members have a multi-domain structure containing a zinc metalloprotease domain and a disintegrin domain that may serve as an integrin ligand. Here we reported two novel mammalian transcripts of Adam23, named Adam23 beta and Adam23 gamma, to be involved in the development and functional activities of mammalian brains. Adam23 gamma was isolated from a 22-week human fetal brain cDNA library, using an EST homologous to Adam as a probe, and is 100% homologous to human Adam23 (Adam23 alpha) except that it lacks a fragment of 91 bp near the C-terminal, thus it could not form obvious transmembrane domain. Adam23 beta was discovered while the diversity at the transmembrane domain (TM) was analyzed. Adam23 beta has a different sequence in the 91 nucleotides and thus encode different transmembrane domain. Adam23 beta and Adam23 gamma are mainly expressed in brain like Adam23 alpha. RT-PCR experiments in mouse brain also detected the two isoforms, consistent with observation of Northern analysis of human RNAs. Furthermore, results of RT-PCR amplification of Adam23 gamma in mouse brains of different developmental stages revealed a developmentally regulated expression pattern: Adam23 gamma is expressed in embryonic and infant brain, and disappeared after the 10th postnatal day. This temporally changing expression pattern of Adam23 gamma suggests that ADAM23 gamma likely plays an important role in brain development.

    Gene 2004;325;171-8

  • ADAM 23/MDC3, a human disintegrin that promotes cell adhesion via interaction with the alphavbeta3 integrin through an RGD-independent mechanism.

    Cal S, Freije JM, López JM, Takada Y and López-Otín C

    Departamentos, Instituto Universitario de Oncología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Oviedo, 33006 Oviedo, Spain.

    ADAM 23 (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain)/MDC3 (metalloprotease, disintegrin, and cysteine-rich domain) is a member of the disintegrin family of proteins expressed in fetal and adult brain. In this work we show that the disintegrin-like domain of ADAM 23 produced in Escherichia coli and immobilized on culture dishes promotes attachment of different human cells of neural origin, such as neuroblastoma cells (NB100 and SH-S(y)5(y)) or astrocytoma cells (U373 and U87 MG). Analysis of ADAM 23 binding to integrins revealed a specific interaction with alphavbeta3, mediated by a short amino acid sequence present in its putative disintegrin loop. This sequence lacks any RGD motif, which is a common structural determinant supporting alphavbeta3-mediated interactions of diverse proteins, including other disintegrins. alphavbeta3 also supported adhesion of HeLa cells transfected with a full-length cDNA for ADAM 23, extending the results obtained with the recombinant protein containing the disintegrin domain of ADAM 23. On the basis of these results, we propose that ADAM 23, through its disintegrin-like domain, may function as an adhesion molecule involved in alphavbeta3-mediated cell interactions occurring in normal and pathological processes, including progression of malignant tumors from neural origin.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: R01 GM047157

    Molecular biology of the cell 2000;11;4;1457-69

  • MDC-L, a novel metalloprotease disintegrin cysteine-rich protein family member expressed by human lymphocytes.

    Roberts CM, Tani PH, Bridges LC, Laszik Z and Bowditch RD

    Department of Biochemistry, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73190, USA.

    The metalloprotease disintegrin cysteine-rich (MDC) proteins are a recently identified family of transmembrane proteins that function in proteolytic processing of cell surface molecules and in cell adhesion. Since lymphocytes must interact with a constantly changing environment, we hypothesized that lymphocytes would express unique MDC proteins. To identify MDC proteins expressed in human lymph node, a polymerase chain reaction-based strategy combined with degenerate oligonucleotide primers was employed. We report here the identification of MDC-L (ADAM 23), a novel member of the MDC protein family. The results obtained from cDNA cloning and Northern blot analysis of mRNA isolated from various lymphoid tissues indicate that a 2.8-kilobase mRNA encoding a transmembrane form, MDC-Lm, and a 2.2-kilobase mRNA encoding a secreted form, MDC-Ls, are expressed in a tissue-specific manner. MDC-L mRNA was shown to be predominantly expressed in secondary lymphoid tissues, such as lymph node, spleen, small intestine, stomach, colon, appendix, and trachea. Furthermore, immunohistochemical staining with an anti-MDC-L antibody demonstrated that cells with typical lymphocyte morphology are responsible for expression of the MDC-L antigen in these lymphoid tissues. MDC-Lm was found to be expressed on the surface of human peripheral blood lymphocytes and transformed B- and T-lymphocyte cell lines as an 87-kDa protein. Thus, we have identified a novel lymphocyte-expressed MDC protein family member.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM51616

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1999;274;41;29251-9

  • The identification of seven metalloproteinase-disintegrin (ADAM) genes from genomic libraries.

    Poindexter K, Nelson N, DuBose RF, Black RA and Cerretti DP

    Immunex Corporation, Seattle, WA 98101, USA.

    Metalloproteinase-disintegrins (ADAMs) are membrane-spanning multi-domain proteins containing a zinc metalloproteinase domain and a disintegrin domain which may serve as an integrin ligand. Based on a conserved sequence within the disintegrin domain, GE(E/Q)CDCG, seven genes were isolated from a human genomic library. Two of these genes lack introns and show testis-specific expression (ADAM20 and ADAM21), while the other two genes contain introns (ADAM22 and ADAM23) and are expressed predominantly in the brain. In addition, three pseudogenes were isolated; one of which evolved from ADAM21. Human chromosomal mapping indicated that ADAM22 and ADAM23 mapped to chromosome 7q21 and 2q33, respectively, while the three pseudogenes 1-2, 3-3, and 1-32 mapped to chromosome 14q24.1, 8p23, and 14q24.1, respectively. An ancestral analysis of all known ADAMs indicates that the zinc-binding motif in the catalytic domain arose once in a common ancestor and was lost by those members lacking this motif.

    Gene 1999;237;1;61-70

  • Metalloproteinase-like, disintegrin-like, cysteine-rich proteins MDC2 and MDC3: novel human cellular disintegrins highly expressed in the brain.

    Sagane K, Ohya Y, Hasegawa Y and Tanaka I

    Tsukuba Research Laboratories, Eisai Co., Ltd., Tokodai 5-1-3, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan. k1-sagane@eisai.co.jp

    Cellular disintegrins are a family of membrane-anchored proteins structurally related to snake venom disintegrins, and are potential regulators of cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. The members of this protein family are also called ADAMs (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase) or MDC proteins (metalloproteinase-like disintegrin-like cysteine-rich), because they all contain disintegrin-like and metalloproteinase-like domains. In this paper, we report the cloning and sequence analysis of two novel additional members of this family, which we have termed MDC2 and MDC3. The deduced amino acid sequences reveal that the two proteins possess typical cellular disintegrin structures [that is, pro-, metalloproteinase-like, disintegrin-like, cysteine-rich, epidermal growth factor-like, transmembrane, and cytoplasmic domains] and exhibit high sequence similarity with human MDC/ADAM11 protein [Katagiri, Harada, Emi and Nakamura (1995) Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 68, 39-44]. A zinc-binding motif, which is critical for proteinase activity, is disrupted in the metalloproteinase-like domain of MDC2 and MDC3, as well as MDC/ADAM11. In the disintegrin-like domain of snake venom short disintegrins, the RDG-containing loops are critical for integrin binding. These three MDCs do not contain the RDG sequences, but the corresponding loops in these proteins are similar to each other. Northern blot analysis revealed that the mRNAs of MDC2, MDC3 and MDC/ADAM11 are highly expressed in the brain. These findings suggest that these proteins may function as integrin ligands in the brain.

    The Biochemical journal 1998;334 ( Pt 1);93-8

Gene lists (5)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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