G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
ARP1 actin-related protein 1 homolog A, centractin alpha (yeast)
G00000587 (Mus musculus)

Databases (8)

Curated Gene
OTTHUMG00000018956 (Vega human gene)
ENSG00000138107 (Ensembl human gene)
10121 (Entrez Gene)
985 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
ACTR1A (GeneCards)
605143 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
Protein Sequence
P61163 (UniProt)

Synonyms (1)

  • ARP1

Literature (32)

Pubmed - other

  • Transcriptome sequencing of malignant pleural mesothelioma tumors.

    Sugarbaker DJ, Richards WG, Gordon GJ, Dong L, De Rienzo A, Maulik G, Glickman JN, Chirieac LR, Hartman ML, Taillon BE, Du L, Bouffard P, Kingsmore SF, Miller NA, Farmer AD, Jensen RV, Gullans SR and Bueno R

    International Mesothelioma Program, Division of Thoracic Surgery, Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 75 Francis Street, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

    Cancers arise by the gradual accumulation of mutations in multiple genes. We now use shotgun pyrosequencing to characterize RNA mutations and expression levels unique to malignant pleural mesotheliomas (MPMs) and not present in control tissues. On average, 266 Mb of cDNA were sequenced from each of four MPMs, from a control pulmonary adenocarcinoma (ADCA), and from normal lung tissue. Previously observed differences in MPM RNA expression levels were confirmed. Point mutations were identified by using criteria that require the presence of the mutation in at least four reads and in both cDNA strands and the absence of the mutation from sequence databases, normal adjacent tissues, and other controls. In the four MPMs, 15 nonsynonymous mutations were discovered: 7 were point mutations, 3 were deletions, 4 were exclusively expressed as a consequence of imputed epigenetic silencing, and 1 was putatively expressed as a consequence of RNA editing. Notably, each MPM had a different mutation profile, and no mutated gene was previously implicated in MPM. Of the seven point mutations, three were observed in at least one tumor from 49 other MPM patients. The mutations were in genes that could be causally related to cancer and included XRCC6, PDZK1IP1, ACTR1A, and AVEN.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: P20CA9057801-A1, R01 CA 120528, R01 CA120528, R21 CA100315, R21/R33 CA 100315, R33 CA100315, U01 CA065170, U01 CA65170-07, U24 CA114725, U24CA114725-01

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2008;105;9;3521-6

  • The PITSLRE/CDK11p58 protein kinase promotes centrosome maturation and bipolar spindle formation.

    Petretti C, Savoian M, Montembault E, Glover DM, Prigent C and Giet R

    CNRS UMR 6061 Université de Rennes I, Equipe Labellisée Ligue Nationale Contre le Cancer, IFR140 GFAS, Faculté de Médecine, France.

    The CDK11 (cyclin-dependent kinase 11) gene has an internal ribosome entry site (IRES), allowing the expression of two protein kinases. The longer 110-kDa isoform is expressed at constant levels during the cell cycle and the shorter 58-kDa isoform is expressed only during G2 and M phases. By means of RNA interference (RNAi), we show that the CDK11 gene is required for mitotic spindle formation. CDK11 RNAi leads to mitotic checkpoint activation. Mitotic cells are arrested with short or monopolar spindles. gamma-Tubulin as well as Plk1 and Aurora A protein kinase levels are greatly reduced at centrosomes, resulting in microtubule nucleation defects. We show that the mitotic CDK11(p58) isoform, but not the CDK11(p110) isoform, associates with mitotic centrosomes and rescues the phenotypes resulting from CDK11 RNAi. This work demonstrates for the first time the role of CDK11(p58) in centrosome maturation and bipolar spindle morphogenesis.

    EMBO reports 2006;7;4;418-24

  • The LIFEdb database in 2006.

    Mehrle A, Rosenfelder H, Schupp I, del Val C, Arlt D, Hahne F, Bechtel S, Simpson J, Hofmann O, Hide W, Glatting KH, Huber W, Pepperkok R, Poustka A and Wiemann S

    Division Molecular Genome Analysis, German Cancer Research Center, Im Neuenheimer Feld 580, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany. a.mehrle@dkfz.de

    LIFEdb (http://www.LIFEdb.de) integrates data from large-scale functional genomics assays and manual cDNA annotation with bioinformatics gene expression and protein analysis. New features of LIFEdb include (i) an updated user interface with enhanced query capabilities, (ii) a configurable output table and the option to download search results in XML, (iii) the integration of data from cell-based screening assays addressing the influence of protein-overexpression on cell proliferation and (iv) the display of the relative expression ('Electronic Northern') of the genes under investigation using curated gene expression ontology information. LIFEdb enables researchers to systematically select and characterize genes and proteins of interest, and presents data and information via its user-friendly web-based interface.

    Nucleic acids research 2006;34;Database issue;D415-8

  • Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network.

    Rual JF, Venkatesan K, Hao T, Hirozane-Kishikawa T, Dricot A, Li N, Berriz GF, Gibbons FD, Dreze M, Ayivi-Guedehoussou N, Klitgord N, Simon C, Boxem M, Milstein S, Rosenberg J, Goldberg DS, Zhang LV, Wong SL, Franklin G, Li S, Albala JS, Lim J, Fraughton C, Llamosas E, Cevik S, Bex C, Lamesch P, Sikorski RS, Vandenhaute J, Zoghbi HY, Smolyar A, Bosak S, Sequerra R, Doucette-Stamm L, Cusick ME, Hill DE, Roth FP and Vidal M

    Center for Cancer Systems Biology and Department of Cancer Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, 44 Binney Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    Systematic mapping of protein-protein interactions, or 'interactome' mapping, was initiated in model organisms, starting with defined biological processes and then expanding to the scale of the proteome. Although far from complete, such maps have revealed global topological and dynamic features of interactome networks that relate to known biological properties, suggesting that a human interactome map will provide insight into development and disease mechanisms at a systems level. Here we describe an initial version of a proteome-scale map of human binary protein-protein interactions. Using a stringent, high-throughput yeast two-hybrid system, we tested pairwise interactions among the products of approximately 8,100 currently available Gateway-cloned open reading frames and detected approximately 2,800 interactions. This data set, called CCSB-HI1, has a verification rate of approximately 78% as revealed by an independent co-affinity purification assay, and correlates significantly with other biological attributes. The CCSB-HI1 data set increases by approximately 70% the set of available binary interactions within the tested space and reveals more than 300 new connections to over 100 disease-associated proteins. This work represents an important step towards a systematic and comprehensive human interactome project.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R33 CA132073; NHGRI NIH HHS: P50 HG004233, R01 HG001715, RC4 HG006066, U01 HG001715; NHLBI NIH HHS: U01 HL098166

    Nature 2005;437;7062;1173-8

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • From ORFeome to biology: a functional genomics pipeline.

    Wiemann S, Arlt D, Huber W, Wellenreuther R, Schleeger S, Mehrle A, Bechtel S, Sauermann M, Korf U, Pepperkok R, Sültmann H and Poustka A

    Molecular Genome Analysis, German Cancer Research Center, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany. s.wiemann@dkfz.de

    As several model genomes have been sequenced, the elucidation of protein function is the next challenge toward the understanding of biological processes in health and disease. We have generated a human ORFeome resource and established a functional genomics and proteomics analysis pipeline to address the major topics in the post-genome-sequencing era: the identification of human genes and splice forms, and the determination of protein localization, activity, and interaction. Combined with the understanding of when and where gene products are expressed in normal and diseased conditions, we create information that is essential for understanding the interplay of genes and proteins in the complex biological network. We have implemented bioinformatics tools and databases that are suitable to store, analyze, and integrate the different types of data from high-throughput experiments and to include further annotation that is based on external information. All information is presented in a Web database (http://www.dkfz.de/LIFEdb). It is exploited for the identification of disease-relevant genes and proteins for diagnosis and therapy.

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2136-44

  • The DNA sequence and comparative analysis of human chromosome 10.

    Deloukas P, Earthrowl ME, Grafham DV, Rubenfield M, French L, Steward CA, Sims SK, Jones MC, Searle S, Scott C, Howe K, Hunt SE, Andrews TD, Gilbert JG, Swarbreck D, Ashurst JL, Taylor A, Battles J, Bird CP, Ainscough R, Almeida JP, Ashwell RI, Ambrose KD, Babbage AK, Bagguley CL, Bailey J, Banerjee R, Bates K, Beasley H, Bray-Allen S, Brown AJ, Brown JY, Burford DC, Burrill W, Burton J, Cahill P, Camire D, Carter NP, Chapman JC, Clark SY, Clarke G, Clee CM, Clegg S, Corby N, Coulson A, Dhami P, Dutta I, Dunn M, Faulkner L, Frankish A, Frankland JA, Garner P, Garnett J, Gribble S, Griffiths C, Grocock R, Gustafson E, Hammond S, Harley JL, Hart E, Heath PD, Ho TP, Hopkins B, Horne J, Howden PJ, Huckle E, Hynds C, Johnson C, Johnson D, Kana A, Kay M, Kimberley AM, Kershaw JK, Kokkinaki M, Laird GK, Lawlor S, Lee HM, Leongamornlert DA, Laird G, Lloyd C, Lloyd DM, Loveland J, Lovell J, McLaren S, McLay KE, McMurray A, Mashreghi-Mohammadi M, Matthews L, Milne S, Nickerson T, Nguyen M, Overton-Larty E, Palmer SA, Pearce AV, Peck AI, Pelan S, Phillimore B, Porter K, Rice CM, Rogosin A, Ross MT, Sarafidou T, Sehra HK, Shownkeen R, Skuce CD, Smith M, Standring L, Sycamore N, Tester J, Thorpe A, Torcasso W, Tracey A, Tromans A, Tsolas J, Wall M, Walsh J, Wang H, Weinstock K, West AP, Willey DL, Whitehead SL, Wilming L, Wray PW, Young L, Chen Y, Lovering RC, Moschonas NK, Siebert R, Fechtel K, Bentley D, Durbin R, Hubbard T, Doucette-Stamm L, Beck S, Smith DR and Rogers J

    The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton CB10 1SA, UK. panos@sanger.ac.uk

    The finished sequence of human chromosome 10 comprises a total of 131,666,441 base pairs. It represents 99.4% of the euchromatic DNA and includes one megabase of heterochromatic sequence within the pericentromeric region of the short and long arm of the chromosome. Sequence annotation revealed 1,357 genes, of which 816 are protein coding, and 430 are pseudogenes. We observed widespread occurrence of overlapping coding genes (either strand) and identified 67 antisense transcripts. Our analysis suggests that both inter- and intrachromosomal segmental duplications have impacted on the gene count on chromosome 10. Multispecies comparative analysis indicated that we can readily annotate the protein-coding genes with current resources. We estimate that over 95% of all coding exons were identified in this study. Assessment of single base changes between the human chromosome 10 and chimpanzee sequence revealed nonsense mutations in only 21 coding genes with respect to the human sequence.

    Nature 2004;429;6990;375-81

  • Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.

    Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, Otsuki T, Sugiyama T, Irie R, Wakamatsu A, Hayashi K, Sato H, Nagai K, Kimura K, Makita H, Sekine M, Obayashi M, Nishi T, Shibahara T, Tanaka T, Ishii S, Yamamoto J, Saito K, Kawai Y, Isono Y, Nakamura Y, Nagahari K, Murakami K, Yasuda T, Iwayanagi T, Wagatsuma M, Shiratori A, Sudo H, Hosoiri T, Kaku Y, Kodaira H, Kondo H, Sugawara M, Takahashi M, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Furuya T, Kikkawa E, Omura Y, Abe K, Kamihara K, Katsuta N, Sato K, Tanikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ninomiya K, Ishibashi T, Yamashita H, Murakawa K, Fujimori K, Tanai H, Kimata M, Watanabe M, Hiraoka S, Chiba Y, Ishida S, Ono Y, Takiguchi S, Watanabe S, Yosida M, Hotuta T, Kusano J, Kanehori K, Takahashi-Fujii A, Hara H, Tanase TO, Nomura Y, Togiya S, Komai F, Hara R, Takeuchi K, Arita M, Imose N, Musashino K, Yuuki H, Oshima A, Sasaki N, Aotsuka S, Yoshikawa Y, Matsunawa H, Ichihara T, Shiohata N, Sano S, Moriya S, Momiyama H, Satoh N, Takami S, Terashima Y, Suzuki O, Nakagawa S, Senoh A, Mizoguchi H, Goto Y, Shimizu F, Wakebe H, Hishigaki H, Watanabe T, Sugiyama A, Takemoto M, Kawakami B, Yamazaki M, Watanabe K, Kumagai A, Itakura S, Fukuzumi Y, Fujimori Y, Komiyama M, Tashiro H, Tanigami A, Fujiwara T, Ono T, Yamada K, Fujii Y, Ozaki K, Hirao M, Ohmori Y, Kawabata A, Hikiji T, Kobatake N, Inagaki H, Ikema Y, Okamoto S, Okitani R, Kawakami T, Noguchi S, Itoh T, Shigeta K, Senba T, Matsumura K, Nakajima Y, Mizuno T, Morinaga M, Sasaki M, Togashi T, Oyama M, Hata H, Watanabe M, Komatsu T, Mizushima-Sugano J, Satoh T, Shirai Y, Takahashi Y, Nakagawa K, Okumura K, Nagase T, Nomura N, Kikuchi H, Masuho Y, Yamashita R, Nakai K, Yada T, Nakamura Y, Ohara O, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Helix Research Institute, 1532-3 Yana, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0812, Japan.

    As a base for human transcriptome and functional genomics, we created the "full-length long Japan" (FLJ) collection of sequenced human cDNAs. We determined the entire sequence of 21,243 selected clones and found that 14,490 cDNAs (10,897 clusters) were unique to the FLJ collection. About half of them (5,416) seemed to be protein-coding. Of those, 1,999 clusters had not been predicted by computational methods. The distribution of GC content of nonpredicted cDNAs had a peak at approximately 58% compared with a peak at approximately 42%for predicted cDNAs. Thus, there seems to be a slight bias against GC-rich transcripts in current gene prediction procedures. The rest of the cDNAs unique to the FLJ collection (5,481) contained no obvious open reading frames (ORFs) and thus are candidate noncoding RNAs. About one-fourth of them (1,378) showed a clear pattern of splicing. The distribution of GC content of noncoding cDNAs was narrow and had a peak at approximately 42%, relatively low compared with that of protein-coding cDNAs.

    Nature genetics 2004;36;1;40-5

  • Polo-like kinase 1 regulates Nlp, a centrosome protein involved in microtubule nucleation.

    Casenghi M, Meraldi P, Weinhart U, Duncan PI, Körner R and Nigg EA

    Department of Cell Biology, Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry, Am Klopferspitz 18a, D-82152, Martinsried, Germany.

    In animal cells, most microtubules are nucleated at centrosomes. At the onset of mitosis, centrosomes undergo a structural reorganization, termed maturation, which leads to increased microtubule nucleation activity. Centrosome maturation is regulated by several kinases, including Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1). Here, we identify a centrosomal Plk1 substrate, termed Nlp (ninein-like protein), whose properties suggest an important role in microtubule organization. Nlp interacts with two components of the gamma-tubulin ring complex and stimulates microtubule nucleation. Plk1 phosphorylates Nlp and disrupts both its centrosome association and its gamma-tubulin interaction. Overexpression of an Nlp mutant lacking Plk1 phosphorylation sites severely disturbs mitotic spindle formation. We propose that Nlp plays an important role in microtubule organization during interphase, and that the activation of Plk1 at the onset of mitosis triggers the displacement of Nlp from the centrosome, allowing the establishment of a mitotic scaffold with enhanced microtubule nucleation activity.

    Developmental cell 2003;5;1;113-25

  • ARP1 interacts with the 5' flanking region of the coagulation factor VII gene.

    Carew JA, Jackson AA and Bauer KA

    VA Boston Healthcare System, Building 3, Room 2A106(151), 1400 VFW Parkway, West Roxbury, MA 02132, USA. josephine_carew@hms.harvard.edu

    Factor (F)VII plays a critical role in initiation of coagulation. Several segments within the 5' flanking region of the FVII gene were previously demonstrated to recognize hepatic nuclear proteins, but few have been identified. To identify a regulatory protein binding the nuclear hormone response region (-237 to -200) of the FVII 5' flanking region and demonstrate that the interaction is functional. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays and mutation analysis showed that ARP1, an orphan nuclear hormone receptor, interacted with two regions of the FVII 5' flanking region, the hepatic nuclear factor 4 binding region (-77 to -47) and the nuclear hormone response region (-237 to -200). Transfection experiments demonstrated that reporter gene expression was decreased from vectors including the nuclear hormone response segment compared with that containing only the minimal promoter between positions -109 and +1, and that ARP1 also repressed expression through an interaction with the minimal promoter. These data indicate a role for ARP1 in transcriptional modulation of the FVII gene.

    Journal of thrombosis and haemostasis : JTH 2003;1;6;1220-7

  • Centrosomal proteins CG-NAP and kendrin provide microtubule nucleation sites by anchoring gamma-tubulin ring complex.

    Takahashi M, Yamagiwa A, Nishimura T, Mukai H and Ono Y

    Biosignal Research Center, Kobe University, Japan.

    Microtubule assembly is initiated by the gamma-tubulin ring complex (gamma-TuRC). In yeast, the microtubule is nucleated from gamma-TuRC anchored to the amino-terminus of the spindle pole body component Spc110p, which interacts with calmodulin (Cmd1p) at the carboxy-terminus. However, mammalian protein that anchors gamma-TuRC remains to be elucidated. A giant coiled-coil protein, CG-NAP (centrosome and Golgi localized PKN-associated protein), was localized to the centrosome via the carboxyl-terminal region. This region was found to interact with calmodulin by yeast two-hybrid screening, and it shares high homology with the carboxyl-terminal region of another centrosomal coiled-coil protein, kendrin. The amino-terminal region of either CG-NAP or kendrin indirectly associated with gamma-tubulin through binding with gamma-tubulin complex protein 2 (GCP2) and/or GCP3. Furthermore, endogenous CG-NAP and kendrin were coimmunoprecipitated with each other and with endogenous GCP2 and gamma-tubulin, suggesting that CG-NAP and kendrin form complexes and interact with gamma-TuRC in vivo. These proteins were localized to the center of microtubule asters nucleated from isolated centrosomes. Pretreatment of the centrosomes by antibody to CG-NAP or kendrin moderately inhibited the microtubule nucleation; moreover, the combination of these antibodies resulted in stronger inhibition. These results imply that CG-NAP and kendrin provide sites for microtubule nucleation in the mammalian centrosome by anchoring gamma-TuRC.

    Molecular biology of the cell 2002;13;9;3235-45

  • beta III spectrin binds to the Arp1 subunit of dynactin.

    Holleran EA, Ligon LA, Tokito M, Stankewich MC, Morrow JS and Holzbaur EL

    Department of Cell and Molecular Pharmacology, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143, USA.

    Cytoplasmic dynein is an intracellular motor responsible for endoplasmic reticulum-to-Golgi vesicle trafficking and retrograde axonal transport. The accessory protein dynactin has been proposed to mediate the association of dynein with vesicular cargo. Dynactin contains a 37-nm filament made up of the actin-related protein, Arp1, which may interact with a vesicle-associated spectrin network. Here, we demonstrate that Arp1 binds directly to the Golgi-associated betaIII spectrin isoform. We identify two Arp1-binding sites in betaIII spectrin, one of which overlaps with the actin-binding site conserved among spectrins. Although conventional actin binds weakly to betaIII spectrin, Arp1 binds robustly in the presence of excess F-actin. Dynein, dynactin, and betaIII spectrin co-purify on vesicles isolated from rat brain, and betaIII spectrin co-immunoprecipitates with dynactin from rat brain cytosol. In interphase cells, betaIII spectrin and dynactin both localize to cytoplasmic vesicles, co-localizing most significantly in the perinuclear region of the cell. In dividing cells, betaIII spectrin and dynactin co-localize to the developing cleavage furrow and mitotic spindle, a novel localization for betaIII spectrin. We hypothesize that the interaction between betaIII spectrin and Arp1 recruits dynein and dynactin to intracellular membranes and provides a direct link between the microtubule motor complex and its membrane-bounded cargo.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM48661

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2001;276;39;36598-605

  • Mammalian Golgi-associated Bicaudal-D2 functions in the dynein-dynactin pathway by interacting with these complexes.

    Hoogenraad CC, Akhmanova A, Howell SA, Dortland BR, De Zeeuw CI, Willemsen R, Visser P, Grosveld F and Galjart N

    MGC Department of Cell Biology, Erasmus University, PO Box 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

    Genetic analysis in Drosophila suggests that Bicaudal-D functions in an essential microtubule-based transport pathway, together with cytoplasmic dynein and dynactin. However, the molecular mechanism underlying interactions of these proteins has remained elusive. We show here that a mammalian homologue of Bicaudal-D, BICD2, binds to the dynamitin subunit of dynactin. This interaction is confirmed by mass spectrometry, immunoprecipitation studies and in vitro binding assays. In interphase cells, BICD2 mainly localizes to the Golgi complex and has properties of a peripheral coat protein, yet it also co-localizes with dynactin at microtubule plus ends. Overexpression studies using green fluorescent protein-tagged forms of BICD2 verify its intracellular distribution and co-localization with dynactin, and indicate that the C-terminus of BICD2 is responsible for Golgi targeting. Overexpression of the N-terminal domain of BICD2 disrupts minus-end-directed organelle distribution and this portion of BICD2 co-precipitates with cytoplasmic dynein. Nocodazole treatment of cells results in an extensive BICD2-dynactin-dynein co-localization. Taken together, these data suggest that mammalian BICD2 plays a role in the dynein- dynactin interaction on the surface of membranous organelles, by associating with these complexes.

    The EMBO journal 2001;20;15;4041-54

  • LDL-receptor-related protein 6 is a receptor for Dickkopf proteins.

    Mao B, Wu W, Li Y, Hoppe D, Stannek P, Glinka A and Niehrs C

    Division of Molecular Embryology, Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Heidelberg, Germany.

    Wnt glycoproteins have been implicated in diverse processes during embryonic patterning in metazoa. They signal through frizzled-type seven-transmembrane-domain receptors to stabilize beta-catenin. Wnt signalling is antagonized by the extracellular Wnt inhibitor dickkopf1 (dkk1), which is a member of a multigene family. dkk1 was initially identified as a head inducer in Xenopus embryos but the mechanism by which it blocks Wnt signalling is unknown. LDL-receptor-related protein 6 (LRP6) is required during Wnt/beta-catenin signalling in Drosophila, Xenopus and mouse, possibly acting as a co-receptor for Wnt. Here we show that LRP6 (ref. 7) is a specific, high-affinity receptor for Dkk1 and Dkk2. Dkk1 blocks LRP6-mediated Wnt/beta-catenin signalling by interacting with domains that are distinct from those required for Wnt/Frizzled interaction. dkk1 and LRP6 interact antagonistically during embryonic head induction in Xenopus where LRP6 promotes the posteriorizing role of Wnt/beta-catenin signalling. Thus, DKKs inhibit Wnt co-receptor function, exemplifying the modulation of LRP signalling by antagonists.

    Nature 2001;411;6835;321-5

  • The centrosomal protein C-Nap1 is required for cell cycle-regulated centrosome cohesion.

    Mayor T, Stierhof YD, Tanaka K, Fry AM and Nigg EA

    Department of Molecular Biology, Sciences II, University of Geneva, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland.

    Duplicating centrosomes are paired during interphase, but are separated at the onset of mitosis. Although the mechanisms controlling centrosome cohesion and separation are important for centrosome function throughout the cell cycle, they remain poorly understood. Recently, we have proposed that C-Nap1, a novel centrosomal protein, is part of a structure linking parental centrioles in a cell cycle-regulated manner. To test this model, we have performed a detailed structure-function analysis on C-Nap1. We demonstrate that antibody-mediated interference with C-Nap1 function causes centrosome splitting, regardless of the cell cycle phase. Splitting occurs between parental centrioles and is not dependent on the presence of an intact microtubule or microfilament network. Centrosome splitting can also be induced by overexpression of truncated C-Nap1 mutants, but not full-length protein. Antibodies raised against different domains of C-Nap1 prove that this protein dissociates from spindle poles during mitosis, but reaccumulates at centrosomes at the end of cell division. Use of the same antibodies in immunoelectron microscopy shows that C-Nap1 is confined to the proximal end domains of centrioles, indicating that a putative linker structure must contain additional proteins. We conclude that C-Nap1 is a key component of a dynamic, cell cycle-regulated structure that mediates centriole-centriole cohesion.

    The Journal of cell biology 2000;151;4;837-46

  • DNA cloning using in vitro site-specific recombination.

    Hartley JL, Temple GF and Brasch MA

    Life Technologies, Inc., Rockville, Maryland 20850, USA. jhartley@lifetech.com

    As a result of numerous genome sequencing projects, large numbers of candidate open reading frames are being identified, many of which have no known function. Analysis of these genes typically involves the transfer of DNA segments into a variety of vector backgrounds for protein expression and functional analysis. We describe a method called recombinational cloning that uses in vitro site-specific recombination to accomplish the directional cloning of PCR products and the subsequent automatic subcloning of the DNA segment into new vector backbones at high efficiency. Numerous DNA segments can be transferred in parallel into many different vector backgrounds, providing an approach to high-throughput, in-depth functional analysis of genes and rapid optimization of protein expression. The resulting subclones maintain orientation and reading frame register, allowing amino- and carboxy-terminal translation fusions to be generated. In this paper, we outline the concepts of this approach and provide several examples that highlight some of its potential.

    Genome research 2000;10;11;1788-95

  • Systematic subcellular localization of novel proteins identified by large-scale cDNA sequencing.

    Simpson JC, Wellenreuther R, Poustka A, Pepperkok R and Wiemann S

    Department of Cell Biology and Biophysics, EMBL Heidelberg, Germany.

    As a first step towards a more comprehensive functional characterization of cDNAs than bioinformatic analysis, which can only make functional predictions for about half of the cDNAs sequenced, we have developed and tested a strategy that allows their systematic and fast subcellular localization. We have used a novel cloning technology to rapidly generate N- and C-terminal green fluorescent protein fusions of cDNAs to examine the intracellular localizations of > 100 expressed fusion proteins in living cells. The entire analysis is suitable for automation, which will be important for scaling up throughput. For > 80% of these new proteins a clear intracellular localization to known structures or organelles could be determined. For the cDNAs where bioinformatic analyses were able to predict possible identities, the localization was able to support these predictions in 75% of cases. For those cDNAs where no homologies could be predicted, the localization data represent the first information.

    EMBO reports 2000;1;3;287-92

  • ARP1 in Golgi organisation and attachment of manchette microtubules to the nucleus during mammalian spermatogenesis.

    Fouquet J, Kann M, Souès S and Melki R

    Laboratoire de Biologie Cellulaire, Centre Universitaire des Saints-Pères, Université René Descartes, Paris V, France. jean-pierre.fouquet@biomedicale.univ-paris5.fr

    Actin related protein of vertebrate, Arp1, is a major component of the dynactin complex. To characterise and localise Arp1 during mammalian spermatogenesis, polyclonal antibodies were raised against a human recombinant Arp1. Anti-Arp1 antibodies were used for western-immunoblotting, indirect immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy. In round spermatids, Arp1 was detected at the centrosome and at the Golgi apparatus. In elongated spermatids, Arp1 was predominantly found along microtubules of the manchette and at their site of attachment to the nuclear envelope. In maturing spermatids, Arp1 was still present in the pericentriolar material, but in testicular spermatozoa it was not detectable. These various localisations of Arp1 and their changes during spermatid differentiation suggest that the dynactin complex in association with dynein might contribute to several activities: the functional organisation of the centrosome and of the Golgi apparatus and the shaping of the nucleus by manchette microtubules.

    Journal of cell science 2000;113 ( Pt 5);877-86

  • A dynactin subunit with a highly conserved cysteine-rich motif interacts directly with Arp1.

    Karki S, Tokito MK and Holzbaur EL

    Department of Animal Biology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA.

    Dynactin is a multisubunit complex and a required cofactor for most, or all, of the cellular processes powered by the microtubule-based motor cytoplasmic dynein. Using a dynein affinity column, the previously uncharacterized p62 subunit of dynactin was isolated and microsequenced. Two peptide sequences were used to clone human cDNAs encoding p62. Sequence analysis of the predicted human polypeptide of 53 kDa revealed a highly conserved pattern of eleven cysteine residues, eight of which fit the consensus sequence for a Zn(2+)-binding RING domain. We have characterized p62 as an integral component of 20 S dynactin by biochemical and immunocytochemical methods. Affinity chromatography experiments demonstrate that p62 binds directly to the Arp1 subunit of dynactin. Immunocytochemistry with antibodies to p62 demonstrates that this polypeptide has a punctate cytoplasmic distribution as well as centrosomal distribution typical of dynactin. In transfected cells, overexpression of p62 did not disrupt microtubule organization or the integrity of the Golgi but did cause both cytosolic and nuclear distribution of the protein, suggesting that this polypeptide may be targeted to the nucleus at very high expression levels.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM48661

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2000;275;7;4834-9

  • Human centromeres and neocentromeres show identical distribution patterns of >20 functionally important kinetochore-associated proteins.

    Saffery R, Irvine DV, Griffiths B, Kalitsis P, Wordeman L and Choo KH

    The Murdoch Institute, Royal Children's Hospital, Flemington Road, Parkville 3052, Australia.

    Using combined immunofluorescence and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis we have extensively characterized the proteins associating with two different homologue human neocentromeres at interphase and prometaphase/metaphase, and compared these directly with those found with normal human centromeres. Antisera to CENP-A, CENP-B, CENP-C, CENP-E, CENP-F, INCENP, CLIP-170, dynein, dynactin subunits p150 (Glued) and Arp1, MCAK, Tsg24, p55CDC, HZW10, HBUB1, HBUBR1, BUB3, MAD2, ERK1, 3F3/2, topoisomerase II and a murine HP1 homologue, M31, were used in immuno-fluorescence experiments in conjunction with FISH employing specific DNA probes to clearly identify neocentromeric DNA. We found that except for the total absence of CENP-B binding, neocentromeres are indistinguishable from their alpha satellite-containing counterparts in terms of protein composition and distribution. This suggests that the DNA base of a potential centromeric locus is of minimal importance in determining the overall structure of a functional kinetochore and that, once seeded, the events leading to functional kinetochore formation occur independently of primary DNA sequence.

    Human molecular genetics 2000;9;2;175-85

  • Overexpression of normal and mutant Arp1alpha (centractin) differentially affects microtubule organization during mitosis and interphase.

    Clark IB and Meyer DI

    Department of Biological Chemistry, UCLA School of Medicine and the Molecular Biology Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90024-1737, USA. dimeyer@ucla.edu

    Dynactin is a large multisubunit complex that regulates cytoplasmic dynein-mediated functions. To gain insight into the role of dynactin's most abundant component, Arp1alpha was transiently overexpressed in mammalian cells. Arp1alpha overexpression resulted in a cell cycle delay at prometaphase. Intracellular dynactin, dynein and nuclear/mitotic apparatus (NuMA) protein were recruited to multiple foci associated with ectopic cytoplasmic aggregates of Arp1alpha in transfected cells. These ectopic aggregates nucleated supernumerary microtubule asters at prometaphase. Point mutations were generated in Arp1alpha that identified specific amino acids required for the prometaphase delay and for the formation of supernumerary microtubule asters. The mutant Arp1alpha proteins formed aggregates in cells that colocalized with dynactin and dynein peptides, but in contrast to wild-type Arp1alpha, NuMA localization remained unaffected. Although expression of mutant Arp1alpha proteins had no effect on mitotic cells, in interphase cells expression of the mutants resulted in disruption of the microtubule network. Immunoprecipitation studies demonstrated that overexpressed Arp1alpha interacts with dynactin and NuMA proteins in cell extracts, and that these interactions are destabilized in the Arp1alpha mutants. We conclude that the amino acids altered in the Arp1alpha mutant proteins participate in stabilizing interactions between overexpressed Arp1alpha and components of the endogenous dynactin complex as well as the NuMA protein.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM 49330

    Journal of cell science 1999;112 ( Pt 20);3507-18

  • Specific isoforms of actin-binding proteins on distinct populations of Golgi-derived vesicles.

    Heimann K, Percival JM, Weinberger R, Gunning P and Stow JL

    Centre for Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland 4072, Australia.

    Golgi membranes and Golgi-derived vesicles are associated with multiple cytoskeletal proteins and motors, the diversity and distribution of which have not yet been defined. Carrier vesicles were separated from Golgi membranes, using an in vitro budding assay, and different populations of vesicles were separated using sucrose density gradients. Three main populations of vesicles labeled with beta-COP, gamma-adaptin, or p200/myosin II were separated and analyzed for the presence of actin/actin-binding proteins. beta-Actin was bound to Golgi cisternae and to all populations of newly budded vesicles. Centractin was selectively associated with vesicles co-distributing with beta-COP-vesicles, while p200/myosin II (non-muscle myosin IIA) and non-muscle myosin IIB were found on different vesicle populations. Isoforms of the Tm5 tropomyosins were found on selected Golgi-derived vesicles, while other Tm isoforms did not colocalize with Tm5 indicating the association of specialized actin filaments with Golgi-derived vesicles. Golgi-derived vesicles were shown to bind to F-actin polymerized from cytosol with Jasplakinolide. Thus, newly budded, coated vesicles derived from Golgi membranes can bind to actin and are customized for differential interactions with microfilaments by the presence of selective arrays of actin-binding proteins.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1999;274;16;10743-50

  • Self-regulated polymerization of the actin-related protein Arp1.

    Bingham JB and Schroer TA

    Department of Biology The Johns Hopkins University Baltimore Maryland 21218 USA.

    The actin-related protein Arp1 (or centractin, actin RPV) is the major subunit of dynactin, a key component of the cytoplasmic dynein motor machinery [1] [2] [3]. Of the ubiquitously expressed members of the Arp superfamily, Arp1 is most similar to conventional actin [4] [5] [6] and, on the basis of conserved sequence features, is predicted to bind ATP and possibly polymerize. In vivo, all cytosolic Arp1 sediments at 20S [7] suggesting that it assembles into oligomers, most likely dynactin - a multiprotein complex known to contain eight or nine Arp1 monomers in a 37 nm filament [8]. The uniform length of Arp1 polymers suggests a novel assembly mechanism that may be governed by a 'ruler' activity. In dynactin, the Arp1 filament is bounded by actin-capping protein at one end and a heterotetrameric protein complex containing the p62 subunit (D.M. Eckley, S.R. Gill, J.B.B., J.E. Heuser, T.A.S., unpublished observations) at the other [8]. In the present study, we analyzed the behavior of highly purified, native Arp1. Arp1 was found to polymerize rapidly into short filaments that were similar, but not identical, in length to those in dynactin. With time, these filaments appeared to anneal to form longer assemblies but never attained the length of conventional actin filaments.

    Current biology : CB 1999;9;4;223-6

  • Localization of motor-related proteins and associated complexes to active, but not inactive, centromeres.

    Faulkner NE, Vig B, Echeverri CJ, Wordeman L and Vallee RB

    Cell Biology Group, Worcester Foundation for Biomedical Research, Shrewsbury, MA 01545, USA.

    Multicentric chromosomes are often found in tumor cells and certain cell lines. How they are generated is not fully understood, though their stability suggests that they are non-functional during chromosome segregation. Growing evidence has implicated microtubule motor proteins in attachment of chromosomes to the mitotic spindle and in chromosome movement. To better understand the molecular basis for the inactivity of centromeres associated with secondary constrictions, we have tested these structures by immunofluorescence microscopy for the presence of motor complexes and associated proteins. We find strong immunoreactivity at the active, but not inactive, centromeres of prometaphase multicentric chromosomes using antibodies to the cytoplasmic dynein intermediate chains, three components of the dynactin complex (dynamitin, Arp1 and p150 Glued ), the kinesin-related proteins CENP-E and MCAK and the proposed structural and checkpoint proteins HZW10, CENP-F and Mad2p. These results offer new insight into the assembly and composition of both primary and secondary constrictions and provide a molecular basis for the apparent inactivity of the latter during chromosome segregation.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM478434

    Human molecular genetics 1998;7;4;671-7

  • Centractin (ARP1) associates with spectrin revealing a potential mechanism to link dynactin to intracellular organelles.

    Holleran EA, Tokito MK, Karki S and Holzbaur EL

    Cell and Molecular Biology Graduate Group, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia 19104, USA.

    Centractin (Arp1), an actin-related protein, is a component of the dynactin complex. To investigate potential functions of the protein, we used transient transfections to overexpress centractin in mammalian cells. We observed that the overexpressed polypeptide formed filamentous structures that were significantly longer and more variable in length than those observed in the native dynactin complex. The centractin filaments were distinct from conventional actin in subunit composition and pharmacology as demonstrated by the absence of immunoreactivity of these filaments with an actin-specific antibody, by resistance to treatment with the drug cytochalasin D, and by the inability to bind phalloidin. We examined the transfected cells for evidence of specific associations of the novel centractin filaments with cellular organelles or cytoskeletal proteins. Using immunocytochemistry we observed the colocalization of Golgi marker proteins with the centractin polymers. Additional immunocytochemical analysis using antibodies to non-erythroid spectrin (fodrin) and Golgi-spectrin (beta I sigma *) revealed that spectrin colocalized with the centractin filaments in transfected cells. Biochemical assays demonstrated that spectrin was present in dynactin-enriched cellular fractions, was coimmunoprecipitated from rat brain cytosol using antibodies to dynactin subunits, and was coeluted with dynactin using affinity chromatography. Immunoprecipitations and affinity chromatography also revealed that actin is not a bona fide component of dynactin. Our results indicate that spectrin is associated with the dynactin complex. We suggest a model in which dynactin associates with the Golgi through an interaction between the centractin filament of the dynactin complex and a spectrin-linked cytoskeletal network.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM48661

    The Journal of cell biology 1996;135;6 Pt 2;1815-29

  • Cell cycle regulation of the activity and subcellular localization of Plk1, a human protein kinase implicated in mitotic spindle function.

    Golsteyn RM, Mundt KE, Fry AM and Nigg EA

    Swiss Institute for Experimental Cancer Research (ISREC), Epalinges.

    Correct assembly and function of the mitotic spindle during cell division is essential for the accurate partitioning of the duplicated genome to daughter cells. Protein phosphorylation has long been implicated in controlling spindle function and chromosome segregation, and genetic studies have identified several protein kinases and phosphatases that are likely to regulate these processes. In particular, mutations in the serine/threonine-specific Drosophila kinase polo, and the structurally related kinase Cdc5p of Saccharomyces cerevisae, result in abnormal mitotic and meiotic divisions. Here, we describe a detailed analysis of the cell cycle-dependent activity and subcellular localization of Plk1, a recently identified human protein kinase with extensive sequence similarity to both Drosophila polo and S. cerevisiae Cdc5p. With the aid of recombinant baculoviruses, we have established a reliable in vitro assay for Plk1 kinase activity. We show that the activity of human Plk1 is cell cycle regulated, Plk1 activity being low during interphase but high during mitosis. We further show, by immunofluorescent confocal laser scanning microscopy, that human Plk1 binds to components of the mitotic spindle at all stages of mitosis, but undergoes a striking redistribution as cells progress from metaphase to anaphase. Specifically, Plk1 associates with spindle poles up to metaphase, but relocalizes to the equatorial plane, where spindle microtubules overlap (the midzone), as cells go through anaphase. These results indicate that the association of Plk1 with the spindle is highly dynamic and that Plk1 may function at multiple stages of mitotic progression. Taken together, our data strengthen the notion that human Plk1 may represent a functional homolog of polo and Cdc5p, and they suggest that this kinase plays an important role in the dynamic function of the mitotic spindle during chromosome segregation.

    The Journal of cell biology 1995;129;6;1617-28

  • The p150Glued component of the dynactin complex binds to both microtubules and the actin-related protein centractin (Arp-1).

    Waterman-Storer CM, Karki S and Holzbaur EL

    Department of Animal Biology, University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine, Philadelphia 19104-6046.

    p150Glued was first identified as a polypeptide that copurifies with cytoplasmic dynein, the minus-end-directed microtubule-based motor protein, and has more recently been shown to be present as a member of the oligomeric dynactin complex, which includes the actin-related protein centractin (Arp-1). Dynactin is thought to mediate dynein-driven vesicle motility, as well as nuclear transport, in lower eukaryotes. The mechanism by which dynactin may function in these cellular processes is unknown. To examine the role of the dynactin complex in vivo, we overexpressed the rat cDNA encoding p150Glued in Rat-2 fibroblasts. Overexpression of full-length, as well as C-terminal deletion, constructs resulted in the decoration of microtubules with the p150Glued polypeptides. This cellular evidence for microtubule association was corroborated by in vitro microtubule-binding assays. Amino acids 39-150 of p150Glued were determined to be sufficient for microtubule association. We also tested for a direct interaction between p150Glued and centractin. In vitro translated centractin was specifically retained by a p150Glued affinity column, and this interaction was blocked by a synthetic peptide which corresponds to a highly conserved motif from the C terminus of p150Glued. These results demonstrate that p150Glued, a protein implicated in cytoplasmic dynein-based microtubule motility, is capable of direct binding to both microtubules and centractin.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1995;92;5;1634-8

  • Beta-centractin: characterization and distribution of a new member of the centractin family of actin-related proteins.

    Clark SW, Staub O, Clark IB, Holzbaur EL, Paschal BM, Vallee RB and Meyer DI

    Department of Biological Chemistry, UCLA School of Medicine, USA.

    An examination of human-expressed sequence tags indicated the existence of an isoform of centractin, an actin-related protein localized to microtubule-associated structures. Using one of these tags, we isolated and determined the nucleotide sequence of a full-length cDNA clone. The protein encoded represents the first example of multiple isoforms of an actin-related protein in a single organism. Northern analysis using centractin-specific probes revealed three species of mRNA in HeLa cells that could encode centractin isoforms. One mRNA encodes the previously-identified centractin (now referred to as alpha-centractin). The full-length cDNA clone isolated using the expressed sequence tag encodes a new member of the centractin family, beta-centractin. A probe specific for alpha-centractin hybridized to the third species of mRNA observed (referred to as gamma-centractin). Comparisons of Northern blots of human tissues indicated that alpha-centractin and beta-centractin mRNAs are equally distributed in all populations of mRNA examined, whereas the expression of gamma-centractin appears to be tissue specific. The amino acid sequence of beta-centractin, deduced from the cDNA, indicates a 91% identity with alpha-centractin, increasing to 96% similarity when conservative amino acid changes are taken into account. As antibodies previously raised against alpha-centractin reacted only poorly with beta-centractin, new antibodies were produced and combined with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis to discriminate the two isoforms. Using this system, the subcellular distribution of the alpha- and beta-isoforms were determined. Both isoforms were found predominantly in the cytosolic fraction as a part of a previously identified 20S complex (referred to as the dynactin complex) with no evidence for a free pool of either isoform. The isoforms were found in a constant ratio of approximately 15:1 (alpha:beta) in the dynactin complex.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM-07185

    Molecular biology of the cell 1994;5;12;1301-10

  • Ultrastructural analysis of the dynactin complex: an actin-related protein is a component of a filament that resembles F-actin.

    Schafer DA, Gill SR, Cooper JA, Heuser JE and Schroer TA

    Department of Biology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218.

    The dynactin complex visualized by deepetch electron microscopy appears as a short filament 37-nm in length, which resembles F-actin, plus a thinner, laterally oriented filament that terminates in two globular heads. The locations of several of the constituent polypeptides were identified on this structure by applying antibodies to decorate the dynactin complex before processing for electron microscopy. Antibodies to the actin-related protein Arp1 (previously referred to as actin-RPV), bound at various sites along the filament, demonstrating that this protein assembles in a polymer similar to conventional actin. Antibodies to the barbed-end actin-binding protein, capping protein, bound to one end of the filament. Thus, an actin-binding protein that binds conventional actin may also bind to Arp1 to regulate its polymerization. Antibodies to the 62-kD component of the dynactin complex also bound to one end of the filament. An antibody that binds the COOH-terminal region of the 160/150-kD dynactin polypeptides bound to the globular domains at the end of the thin lateral filament, suggesting that the dynactin polypeptide comprises at least part of the sidearm structure.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM 29647, GM 38542, GM 44589, R01 GM038542

    The Journal of cell biology 1994;126;2;403-12

  • A vertebrate actin-related protein is a component of a multisubunit complex involved in microtubule-based vesicle motility.

    Lees-Miller JP, Helfman DM and Schroer TA

    Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, New York 11724.

    Actin is a cytoskeletal protein which is highly conserved across eukaryotic phyla. Actin filaments, in association with a family of myosin motor proteins, are required for cellular motile processes as diverse as vesicle transport, cell locomotion and cytokinesis. Many organisms have several closely related actin isoforms. In addition to conventional actins, yeasts contain actin-related proteins that are essential for viability. We show here that vertebrates also contain an actin-related protein (actin-RPV). Actin-RPV is a major component of the dynactin complex, an activator of dynein-driven vesicle movement, indicating that unlike conventional actins which work in conjunction with myosin motors, actin-RPV may be involved in cytoplasmic movements via a microtubule-based system.

    Nature 1992;359;6392;244-6

  • Centractin is an actin homologue associated with the centrosome.

    Clark SW and Meyer DI

    Department of Biological Chemistry, UCLA School of Medicine.

    Actin is one of the most ubiquitous, abundant and well-conserved proteins of eukaryotes, participating in many crucial cellular processes including the maintenance of cell shape, motility and cell division. Actins from the most divergent sources still share amino-acid identities in excess of 70% (ref. 3). This may well explain why low-abundance homologues of actin have been difficult to isolate. Genes encoding distant relatives of actin in budding and fisson yeast have now been cloned. We report here the discovery of a vertebrate actin-like protein, which we name centractin. A full-length complementary DNA clone was isolated whose sequence reveals amino-acid identities with actin of over 50%, increasing to more than 70% when conservative amino-acid changes are considered. Northern analysis and western blotting indicate a ubiquitous tissue and species distribution. Morphological and biochemical criteria show that centractin is associated with centrosomes.

    Nature 1992;359;6392;246-50

Gene lists (6)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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