G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
adducin 3 (gamma)
G00000582 (Mus musculus)

Databases (8)

Curated Gene
OTTHUMG00000019032 (Vega human gene)
ENSG00000148700 (Ensembl human gene)
120 (Entrez Gene)
990 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
ADD3 (GeneCards)
601568 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
Protein Sequence
Q9UEY8 (UniProt)

Literature (18)

Pubmed - other

  • Arterial properties in relation to genetic variations in the adducin subunits in a white population.

    Seidlerová J, Staessen JA, Bochud M, Nawrot T, Casamassima N, Citterio L, Kuznetsova T, Jin Y, Manunta P, Richart T, Struijker-Boudier HA, Fagard R, Filipovský J and Bianchi G

    Studies Coordinating Centre, Division of Hypertension and Cardiovascular Rehabilitation, Department of Cardiovascular Diseases, University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

    Background: Adducin is a membrane skeleton protein, which consists of either alpha- and beta- or alpha- and gamma-subunits. We investigated whether arterial characteristics might be related to the genes encoding ADD1 (Gly460Trp-rs4961), ADD2 (C1797T-rs4984), and ADD3 (IVS11+386A>G-rs3731566).

    Methods: We randomly recruited 1,126 Flemish subjects (mean age, 43.8 years; 50.3% women). Using a wall-tracking ultrasound system, we measured the properties of the carotid, femoral, and brachial arteries. We studied multivariate-adjusted phenotype-genotype associations, using a population- and family-based approach.

    Results: In single-gene analyses, brachial diameter was 0.15 mm (P = 0.0022) larger, and brachial distensibility and cross-sectional compliance were 1.55 x 10(-3)/kPa (P = 0.013) and 0.017 mm(2)/kPa (P = 0.0029) lower in ADD3 AA than ADD3 GG homozygotes with an additive effect of the G allele. In multiple-gene analyses, the association of brachial diameter and distensibility with the ADD3 G allele occurred only in ADD1 GlyGly homozygotes. Otherwise, the associations between the arterial phenotypes in the three vascular beds and the ADD1 or ADD2 polymorphisms were not significant. In family-based analyses, the multivariate-adjusted heritability was 0.52, 0.38, and 0.30 for brachial diameter, distensibility, and cross-sectional compliance, respectively (P < 0.001). There was no evidence for population stratification (0.07 < or = P < or = 0.96). Transmission of the mutated ADD3 G allele was associated with smaller brachial diameter in 342 informative offspring (-0.12 +/- 0.04 mm; P = 0.0085) and in 209 offspring, who were ADD1 GlyGly homozygotes (-0.14 +/- 0.06 mm; P = 0.018).

    Conclusions: In ADD1 GlyGly homozygotes, the properties of the brachial artery are related to the ADD3 (A386G) polymorphism, but the underlying mechanism needs further clarification.

    American journal of hypertension 2009;22;1;21-6

  • Gly460Trp alpha-adducin mutation as a possible mechanism leading to endolymphatic hydrops in Ménière's syndrome.

    Teggi R, Lanzani C, Zagato L, Delli Carpini S, Manunta P, Bianchi G and Bussi M

    ENT Department, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Vita-Salute University San Raffaele, Milan, Italy. teggi.roberto@hsr.it

    Objective: Ménière's disease (MD) is an inner ear disorder characterized by recurrent episodic vertigo, hearing loss that is fluctuating in the first stages, aural fullness, and tinnitus. Raised endolymphatic pressure (hydrops) is commonly accepted as a causal condition. Approximately 90% of cases of MD are sporadic, whereas the remaining 10% of cases are linked to genetic factors. The ionic composition of endolymph may also depend on the activity of Na, K-ATPase. Adducin is a heterodimeric cytoskeleton protein consisting of 3 subunits (alpha, beta, and gamma) coded by 3 different genes (ADD1, ADD2, and ADD3). ADD1 Gly460Trp polymorphism is associated with salt-sensitive hypertension and increased Na-K pump activity in transfected cells. This study aims to verify the role of adducin in the development of MD.

    Methods: We genotyped 28 patients affected by definite MD according to American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation criteria. Results were compared with those from 2 different control populations (normotensive control group from San Raffaele Hospital and general population group).

    Results: We have not found any significant difference in the distribution of ADD2 C1797T and ADD3 IVS11+386A/G polymorphism genotypes. On the other hand, the frequency of ADD1 Trp allele is significantly increased in patients with MD compared with controls.

    Conclusion: We present data supporting the possibility that increased Na, K-ATPase activity may be one of the pathologic mechanisms inducing hyperosmolarity in endolymph which, in turn, may lead to hydrops.

    Otology & neurotology : official publication of the American Otological Society, American Neurotology Society [and] European Academy of Otology and Neurotology 2008;29;6;824-8

  • Effects of genetic variation in adducin on left ventricular diastolic function as assessed by tissue Doppler imaging in a Flemish population.

    Kuznetsova T, Citterio L, Herbots L, Carpini SD, Thijs L, Casamassima N, Richart T, Fagard RH, Bianchi G and Staessen JA

    Studies Coordinating Centre, Division of Hypertension and Cardiovascular Rehabilitation, Department of Cardiovascular Diseases, University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

    Background: We investigated the possible association between left ventricular diastolic function and the ADD1 Gly460Trp and ADD3 IVS11 +386A>G polymorphisms alone and in combination.

    Methods: In a family-based population study (473 subjects; 50.5% women; mean age 50.5 years), we measured early (Ea) and late (Aa) diastolic peak velocities of the mitral annulus by tissue Doppler imaging. In multivariate-adjusted analyses, we investigated phenotype-genotype associations, while accounting for confounders and family structure.

    Results: Lateral Ea/Aa ratio was higher in ADD1 Trp allele carriers than in GlyGly homozygotes (1.51 vs. 1.40; P = 0.005) and was lower in ADD3 A allele carriers than in GG homozygotes (1.42 vs. 1.55; P = 0.005). The effects of ADD1 on the lateral Ea and Ea/Aa weakened with older age (P < 0.05). The best fitting model for lateral Ea and Ea/Aa included ADD1, ADD3, and the three-way interaction term of both genes with age. Below the age of 50 years, the lateral Ea/Aa ratio was higher in ADD1 Trp allele carriers than in GlyGly homozygotes (1.91 vs. 1.73; P = 0.006), particularly in the presence of ADD3 GG homozygosity (2.46 vs. 1.80; P = 0.0008). In older subjects, these phenotype-genotype associations were not significant (P > 0.20). Transmission of the ADD1 Trp allele to offspring was associated with higher lateral Ea (+0.91; P = 0.026) and Ea/Aa ratio (+0.23; P = 0.0008).

    Conclusion: Our population-based study demonstrated that left ventricular diastolic relaxation is modulated by genetic variation in ADD1 and ADD3. This association was more prominent in younger subjects in whom longstanding environmental factors and ageing are less likely to mask genetic effects.

    Journal of hypertension 2008;26;6;1229-36

  • Global, in vivo, and site-specific phosphorylation dynamics in signaling networks.

    Olsen JV, Blagoev B, Gnad F, Macek B, Kumar C, Mortensen P and Mann M

    Center for Experimental BioInformatics, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5230 Odense, Denmark.

    Cell signaling mechanisms often transmit information via posttranslational protein modifications, most importantly reversible protein phosphorylation. Here we develop and apply a general mass spectrometric technology for identification and quantitation of phosphorylation sites as a function of stimulus, time, and subcellular location. We have detected 6,600 phosphorylation sites on 2,244 proteins and have determined their temporal dynamics after stimulating HeLa cells with epidermal growth factor (EGF) and recorded them in the Phosida database. Fourteen percent of phosphorylation sites are modulated at least 2-fold by EGF, and these were classified by their temporal profiles. Surprisingly, a majority of proteins contain multiple phosphorylation sites showing different kinetics, suggesting that they serve as platforms for integrating signals. In addition to protein kinase cascades, the targets of reversible phosphorylation include ubiquitin ligases, guanine nucleotide exchange factors, and at least 46 different transcriptional regulators. The dynamic phosphoproteome provides a missing link in a global, integrative view of cellular regulation.

    Cell 2006;127;3;635-48

  • A scan of chromosome 10 identifies a novel locus showing strong association with late-onset Alzheimer disease.

    Grupe A, Li Y, Rowland C, Nowotny P, Hinrichs AL, Smemo S, Kauwe JS, Maxwell TJ, Cherny S, Doil L, Tacey K, van Luchene R, Myers A, Wavrant-De Vrièze F, Kaleem M, Hollingworth P, Jehu L, Foy C, Archer N, Hamilton G, Holmans P, Morris CM, Catanese J, Sninsky J, White TJ, Powell J, Hardy J, O'Donovan M, Lovestone S, Jones L, Morris JC, Thal L, Owen M, Williams J and Goate A

    Celera Diagnostics, Alameda, CA, USA.

    Strong evidence of linkage to late-onset Alzheimer disease (LOAD) has been observed on chromosome 10, which implicates a wide region and at least one disease-susceptibility locus. Although significant associations with several biological candidate genes on chromosome 10 have been reported, these findings have not been consistently replicated, and they remain controversial. We performed a chromosome 10-specific association study with 1,412 gene-based single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), to identify susceptibility genes for developing LOAD. The scan included SNPs in 677 of 1,270 known or predicted genes; each gene contained one or more markers, about half (48%) of which represented putative functional mutations. In general, the initial testing was performed in a white case-control sample from the St. Louis area, with 419 LOAD cases and 377 age-matched controls. Markers that showed significant association in the exploratory analysis were followed up in several other white case-control sample sets to confirm the initial association. Of the 1,397 markers tested in the exploratory sample, 69 reached significance (P < .05). Five of these markers replicated at P < .05 in the validation sample sets. One marker, rs498055, located in a gene homologous to RPS3A (LOC439999), was significantly associated with Alzheimer disease in four of six case-control series, with an allelic P value of .0001 for a meta-analysis of all six samples. One of the case-control samples with significant association to rs498055 was derived from the linkage sample (P = .0165). These results indicate that variants in the RPS3A homologue are associated with LOAD and implicate this gene, adjacent genes, or other functional variants (e.g., noncoding RNAs) in the pathogenesis of this disorder.

    Funded by: Intramural NIH HHS; Medical Research Council: G0300429, G0701075, G9810900; NHGRI NIH HHS: T32 HG000045; NIA NIH HHS: AG 05146, AG05128, P01 AG003991, P01 AG03991, P50 AG005128, P50 AG005131, P50 AG005146, P50 AG005681, P50 AG008671, P50 AG016570, P50 AG05131, P50 AG05681, P50 AG16570, P50-AG08671, R01 AG016208, R01 AG16208, U24 AG021886; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM065509, P50 GM065509; NIMH NIH HHS: MH60451, P50 MH060451, U01 MH046281, U01 MH046290, U01 MH046373; NINDS NIH HHS: NS39764, P50 NS039764

    American journal of human genetics 2006;78;1;78-88

  • Expression of adducin genes during erythropoiesis: a novel erythroid promoter for ADD2.

    Yenerel MN, Sundell IB, Weese J, Bulger M and Gilligan DM

    Puget Sound Blood Center, University of Washington, Seattle, 98104, USA.

    Objective: The first objective of this study was to examine the differences in levels of adducin (ADD1, ADD2, ADD3) mRNA expression during human erythropoiesis. The second objective was to determine whether the rapid induction of ADD2 expression could be attributed to a novel erythroid-specific promoter.

    Methods: Expression of mRNA was quantified using real-time RT-PCR. Primary erythroid precursors were isolated from normal human bone marrow using fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Two model systems were compared: CD34(+) hematopoietic stem cells induced to differentiate with erythropoietin and HEL cells induced to differentiate with hemin. 5'RACE analysis was performed using primary human erythroblasts as starting material.

    Results: All three adducin genes showed different patterns of expression during erythropoietic differentiation of cultured CD34(+) stem cells. Levels of ADD3 mRNA were higher than levels of ADD2 mRNA at early stages of erythropoiesis. Expression of ADD2 was induced to very high levels (100 times baseline) in erythropoietin-stimulated cultures. 5'RACE analysis identified a novel starting exon and putative erythroid promoter for ADD2.

    Conclusion: These results suggest that expression of each adducin gene is regulated in a gene-specific manner during erythropoiesis. The early expression of ADD3 suggests that it may have a role in erythroblasts but is replaced by ADD2 in later stages of erythropoiesis. The very high levels of expression of ADD2 suggest that its promoter may be useful for directing erythroid-specific gene expression.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: R01-DK55005

    Experimental hematology 2005;33;7;758-66

  • Epistatic interaction between alpha- and gamma-adducin influences peripheral and central pulse pressures in white Europeans.

    Cwynar M, Staessen JA, Tichá M, Nawrot T, Citterio L, Kuznetsova T, Wojciechowska W, Stolarz K, Filipovský J, Kawecka-Jaszcz K, Grodzicki T, Struijker-Boudier HA, Thijs L, Van Bortel LM, Bianchi G and European Project On Genes in Hypertension (EPOGH) Investigators

    Department of Internal Medicine and Gerontology, Medical College, Jagiellonian University, Cracow, Poland.

    Background: Adducin is a membrane skeleton protein consisting of alpha- and beta- or alpha- and gamma-subunits. Mutations in alpha- and beta-adducin are associated with hypertension. In the European Project on Genes in Hypertension, we investigated whether polymorphisms in the genes encoding alpha-adducin (Gly460Trp), beta-adducin (C1797T) and gamma-adducin (A386G), alone or in combination, affected pulse pressure (PP), an index of vascular stiffness.

    Methods: We measured peripheral and central PP by conventional sphygmomanometry and applanation tonometry, respectively. We randomly recruited 642 subjects (162 nuclear families and 70 unrelated individuals) from three European populations. In multivariate analyses, we used generalized estimating equations and the quantitative transmission disequilibrium test.

    Results: Peripheral and central PP averaged 46.1 and 32.6 mmHg, respectively. Among carriers of the alpha-adducin Trp allele, peripheral and central PP were 5.8 and 4.7 mmHg higher in gamma-adducin GG homozygotes than in their AA counterparts, due to an increase in systolic pressure. gamma-Adducin GG homozygosity was associated with lower urinary Na/K ratio among alpha-adducin Trp allele carriers and with higher urinary aldosterone excretion among alpha-adducin GlyGly homozygotes. Sensitivity analyses in founders and offspring separately, and tests based on the transmission of the gamma-adducin G allele across families, confirmed the interaction between the alpha- and gamma-adducin genes.

    Conclusions: In alpha-adducin Trp allele carriers, peripheral and central PP increased with the gamma-adducin G allele. This epistatic interaction is physiologically consistent with the heterodimeric structure of the protein and its influence on transmembranous sodium transport.

    Journal of hypertension 2005;23;5;961-9

  • Role of the adducin family genes in human essential hypertension.

    Lanzani C, Citterio L, Jankaricova M, Sciarrone MT, Barlassina C, Fattori S, Messaggio E, Serio CD, Zagato L, Cusi D, Hamlyn JM, Stella A, Bianchi G and Manunta P

    Division of Nephrology, Dialysis and Hypertension University Vita-Salute, IRCCS San Raffaele Hospital, Milano, Italy. lanzani.chiara@hsr.it

    Objective: In both humans and rats, polymorphisms of the alpha adducin (ADD1) gene are involved in renal sodium handling, essential hypertension and some of its organ complications. Adducin functions within cells as a heterodimer composed of various combinations of three subunits that are coded by three genes (ADD1, 2, 3) each located on a different chromosome.

    Design: These characteristics provide the biochemical basis for investigating epistatic interactions among these loci.

    Methods: We examined the three adducin gene polymorphisms and their association with ambulatory blood pressure (ABPM) and with plasma levels of renin activity (PRA), endogenous ouabain (EO), in 512 newly discovered and never-treated hypertensive patients.

    Results: Relative to carriers of the wild type (Gly/Gly) ADD1 gene, patients carrying the mutated Trp ADD1 allele had higher blood pressure (systolic blood pressure (SBP) 143.2 +/- 1.0 versus 140.6 +/- 0.6 mmHg P = 0.027 and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) 94.2 +/- 0.77 versus 92.3 +/- 0.5 mmHg, P = 0.03), lower PRA and EO, consistent with the hypothesis of the renal sodium retaining effect of the Trp allele. Polymorphisms in the ADD2 and ADD3 genes taken alone were not associated with these variables. However, the differences in SBP and DBP between the two ADD1 genotypes were greatest in carriers of the ADD3 G allele (around + 8 mmHg). The significance of the interaction between ADD1 and ADD3 ranged between P = 0.020 to P = 0.006 according to the genetic model applied.

    Conclusions: The interaction of ADD1 and ADD3 gene variants in humans is statistically associated with variation in blood pressure, suggesting the presence of epistatic effects among these loci.

    Journal of hypertension 2005;23;3;543-9

  • Systematic identification and analysis of mammalian small ubiquitin-like modifier substrates.

    Gocke CB, Yu H and Kang J

    Department of Pharmacology, the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390, USA.

    Small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) regulates diverse cellular processes through its reversible, covalent attachment to target proteins. Many SUMO substrates are involved in transcription and chromatin structure. Sumoylation appears to regulate the functions of target proteins by changing their subcellular localization, increasing their stability, and/or mediating their binding to other proteins. Using an in vitro expression cloning approach, we have identified 40 human SUMO1 substrates. The spectrum of human SUMO1 substrates identified in our screen suggests general roles of sumoylation in transcription, chromosome structure, and RNA processing. We have validated the sumoylation of 24 substrates in living cells. Analysis of this panel of SUMO substrates leads to the following observations. 1) Sumoylation is more efficient in vitro than in living cells. Polysumoylation occurs on several substrates in vitro. 2) SUMO isopeptidases have little substrate specificity. 3) The SUMO ligases, PIAS1 and PIASxbeta, have broader substrate specificities than does PIASy. 4) Although SUMO1 and SUMO2 are equally efficiently conjugated to a given substrate in vitro, SUMO1 conjugation is more efficient in vivo. 5) Most SUMO substrates localize to the nucleus, and sumoylation does not generally affect their subcellular localization. Therefore, sumoylation appears to regulate the functions of its substrates through multiple, context-dependent mechanisms.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM61542

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2005;280;6;5004-12

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • Adducin in platelets: activation-induced phosphorylation by PKC and proteolysis by calpain.

    Gilligan DM, Sarid R and Weese J

    Department of Internal Medicine (Hematology), Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA. dianag@psbc.org

    Adducins are a family of cytoskeletal proteins encoded by 3 genes (alpha, beta, and gamma). Platelets express alpha and gamma adducins, in contrast to red blood cells that express alpha and beta adducins. During platelet activation with thrombin, calcium ionophore A23187, or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, alpha and gamma adducins were phosphorylated by protein kinase C (PKC) as detected by an antibody specific for a phosphopeptide sequence in the highly conserved carboxy terminus. Platelet activation also led to adducin proteolysis; inhibition by calpeptin suggests that the protease was calpain. The kinase inhibitor staurosporine inhibited PKC phosphorylation of adducin and also inhibited proteolysis of adducin. Experiments with recombinant alpha adducin demonstrated that the PKC-phosphorylated form was proteolyzed at a significantly faster rate than the unphosphorylated form. The concentration of adducin in platelets was estimated at 6 microM, similar to the concentration of capping protein. Fractionation of platelets into high-speed supernatant (cytosol) and pellet (membrane and cytoskeleton) revealed a shift of PKC-phosphorylated adducin to the cytosol during platelet activation. Platelet aggregation detected turbidometrically was decreased in the presence of staurosporine and was completely inhibited by calpeptin. Thrombin-induced changes in morphology were assessed by confocal microscopy with fluorescein phalloidin and were not prevented by staurosporine or calpeptin. Our results suggest that regulation of adducin function by PKC and calpain may play a role in platelet aggregation.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: R01 DK 55005

    Blood 2002;99;7;2418-26

  • Genomic organization of the human gamma adducin gene.

    Citterio L, Azzani T, Duga S and Bianchi G

    Division of Nephrology, Dialysis and Hypertension, San Raffaele Hospital, Milan, Italy.

    We report the genomic structure of the human gamma adducin gene (ADD3). Adducin is a protein involved in cytoskeletal assembly and composed of alpha-beta or alpha-gamma subunits which share a high degree of homology between human and rat. Mutations in alpha subunit have been shown associated to both human and rat hypertension. The human ADD3 gene spans over 20 kb and is composed of at least 13 introns and 14 exons covering the entire coding region. The exon size ranges from 81 bp to greater than 293 bp and the intron size from 111 bp to longer than 3.2 kb. We also demonstrate the presence of an alternative splicing event around exon 13, whose sequence, position, and expression is analogous in rat Add3 gene. Moreover, human ADD3 amino acid sequence presents 91.9% of identity compared to rat sequence. Characterization of human ADD3 gene provides an important tool for mutation analysis.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 1999;266;1;110-4

  • Targeted disruption of the beta adducin gene (Add2) causes red blood cell spherocytosis in mice.

    Gilligan DM, Lozovatsky L, Gwynn B, Brugnara C, Mohandas N and Peters LL

    Department of Internal Medicine (Hematology), Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06510, USA. Diana.Gilligan@yale.edu

    Adducins are a family of cytoskeleton proteins encoded by three genes (alpha, beta, gamma). In a comprehensive assay of gene expression, we show the ubiquitous expression of alpha- and gamma-adducins in contrast to the restricted expression of beta-adducin. beta-adducin is expressed at high levels in brain and hematopoietic tissues (bone marrow in humans, spleen in mice). To elucidate adducin's role in vivo, we created beta-adducin null mice by gene targeting, deleting exons 9-13. A 55-kDa chimeric polypeptide is produced from the first eight exons of beta-adducin and part of the neo cassette in spleen but is not detected in peripheral RBCs or brain. beta-adducin null RBCs are osmotically fragile, spherocytic, and dehydrated compared with the wild type, resembling RBCs from patients with hereditary spherocytosis. The lack of beta-adducin in RBCs leads to decreased membrane incorporation of alpha-adducin (30% of normal) and unexpectedly promotes a 5-fold increase in gamma-adducin incorporation into the RBC membrane skeleton. This study demonstrates adducin's importance to RBC membrane stability in vivo.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL55321, R01 HL055321; NIDDK NIH HHS: DK02070, DK26263, R01 DK026263, R37 DK026263

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1999;96;19;10717-22

  • Construction and characterization of a full length-enriched and a 5'-end-enriched cDNA library.

    Suzuki Y, Yoshitomo-Nakagawa K, Maruyama K, Suyama A and Sugano S

    International and Interdisciplinary Studies, The University of Tokyo, Japan.

    Using 'oligo-capped' mRNA [Maruyama, K., Sugano, S., 1994. Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with oligoribonucleotides. Gene 138, 171-174], whose cap structure was replaced by a synthetic oligonucleotide, we constructed two types of cDNA library. One is a 'full length-enriched cDNA library' which has a high content of full-length cDNA clones and the other is a '5'-end-enriched cDNA library', which has a high content of cDNA clones with their mRNA start sites. The 5'-end-enriched library was constructed especially for isolating the mRNA start sites of long mRNAs. In order to characterize these libraries, we performed one-pass sequencing of randomly selected cDNA clones from both libraries (84 clones for the full length-enriched cDNA library and 159 clones for the 5'-end-enriched cDNA library). The cDNA clones of the polypeptide chain elongation factor 1 alpha were most frequently (nine clones) isolated, and more than 80% of them (eight clones) contained the mRNA start site of the gene. Furthermore, about 80% of the cDNA clones of both libraries whose sequence matched with known genes had the known 5' ends or sequences upstream of the known 5' ends (28 out of 35 for the full length-enriched library and 51 out of 62 for the 5'-end-enriched library). The longest full-length clone of the full length-enriched cDNA library was about 3300 bp (among 28 clones). In contrast, seven clones (out of the 51 clones with the mRNA start sites) from the 5'-end-enriched cDNA library came from mRNAs whose length is more than 3500 bp. These cDNA libraries may be useful for generating 5' ESTs with the information of the mRNA start sites that are now scarce in the EST database.

    Gene 1997;200;1-2;149-56

  • Cloning, expression and chromosome mapping of adducin-like 70 (ADDL), a human cDNA highly homologous to human erythrocyte adducin.

    Katagiri T, Ozaki K, Fujiwara T, Shimizu F, Kawai A, Okuno S, Suzuki M, Nakamura Y, Takahashi E and Hirai Y

    Otsuka GEN Research Institute, Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Tokushima, Japan.

    From a human fetal-brain cDNA library we isolated a novel human cDNA, termed human adducin-like 70 (gene symbol ADDL), whose predicted amino acid sequence showed a high degree of homology to adducins. This cDNA clone (ADDL), which contained an open reading frame of 2,022 nucleotides encoding 674 amino acids, revealed 54%, 53%, and 59% identity in predicted amino acid sequence with alpha and beta components of human adducin and rat adducin 63, respectively. Human adducin-like 70 is likely to play an important role in the skeletal organization of the cell membrane. Northern blot analysis indicated ubiquitous expression of this gene in adult human tissues. We localized the gene to chromosome bands 10q24.2-->q24.3 by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH).

    Cytogenetics and cell genetics 1996;74;1-2;90-5

  • Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with oligoribonucleotides.

    Maruyama K and Sugano S

    Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Japan.

    We have devised a method to replace the cap structure of a mRNA with an oligoribonucleotide (r-oligo) to label the 5' end of eukaryotic mRNAs. The method consists of removing the cap with tobacco acid pyrophosphatase (TAP) and ligating r-oligos to decapped mRNAs with T4 RNA ligase. This reaction was made cap-specific by removing 5'-phosphates of non-capped RNAs with alkaline phosphatase prior to TAP treatment. Unlike the conventional methods that label the 5' end of cDNAs, this method specifically labels the capped end of the mRNAs with a synthetic r-oligo prior to first-strand cDNA synthesis. The 5' end of the mRNA was identified quite simply by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).

    Gene 1994;138;1-2;171-4

  • Adducin: Ca++-dependent association with sites of cell-cell contact.

    Kaiser HW, O'Keefe E and Bennett V

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710.

    Adducin is a protein recently purified from erythrocytes and brain that has properties in in vitro assays suggesting a role in assembly of a spectrin-actin lattice. This report describes the localization of adducin to plasma membranes of a variety of tissues and the discovery that adducin is concentrated at sites of cell-cell contact in the epithelial tissues where it is expressed. Adducin in tissues and cultured cells always was observed in association with spectrin and actin, although spectrin and actin were evident in the absence of adducin. In sections of intestinal epithelial cells spectrin was present on all plasma membrane surfaces while adducin was restricted to the lateral cell borders. Adducin also was not detected in association with actin stress fibers in cultured cells. The presence of adducin at cell-cell contact sites of cultured epithelial cells requires extracellular Ca++ and occurs within 15 min of addition of 0.3 mM Ca++. Redistribution of adducin after addition of extracellular Ca++ is independent of formation of desmosomal and adherens junctions since assembly of adducin at contact sites requires lower concentrations of Ca++ and occurs more rapidly than redistribution of desmoplakin or vinculin. Treatment of keratinocytes and MDCK cells with nanomolar concentrations of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) induces redistribution of adducin away from contact sites. The effect of TPA may be a direct consequence of phosphorylation of adducin, since adducin is phosphorylated in TPA-treated cells and the phosphorylation of adducin occurs before disassembly of adducin from sites of cell-cell contact. Spectrin and adducin are both present in a detergent-insoluble form at cell-cell contact sites of cultured cells. These observations are consistent with the idea that adducin recognizes and associates with specific "receptors" localized at regions of cell-cell contact and promotes assembly of spectrin into a more stable structure, perhaps analogous to the highly organized spectrin-actin network of erythrocyte membranes.

    Funded by: NIADDK NIH HHS: AM19808; NIAMS NIH HHS: AR25871; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM33996

    The Journal of cell biology 1989;109;2;557-69

Gene lists (6)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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