G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
WAS protein family, member 1
G00000581 (Mus musculus)

Databases (8)

Curated Gene
OTTHUMG00000015357 (Vega human gene)
ENSG00000112290 (Ensembl human gene)
8936 (Entrez Gene)
1041 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
WASF1 (GeneCards)
605035 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:12732 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
Q92558 (UniProt)

Synonyms (4)

  • KIAA0269
  • SCAR1
  • WAVE
  • WAVE1

Literature (49)

Pubmed - other

  • CIP4 is a new ArgBP2 interacting protein that modulates the ArgBP2 mediated control of WAVE1 phosphorylation and cancer cell migration.

    Roignot J, Taïeb D, Suliman M, Dusetti NJ, Iovanna JL and Soubeyran P

    INSERM, U.624, Parc Scientifique de Luminy, Marseille, France.

    ArgBP2 is a multi-adapter protein involved in signal transduction associated to the cytoskeleton and was shown to regulate the migration and adhesion of pancreatic cancer cells thereby modulating their tumorigenicity. Here we describe the interaction of ArgBP2 with CIP4, a new associated protein identified by yeast two-hybrid. We found that both proteins modulated their reciprocal tyrosine phosphorylation catalyzed by the non-receptor tyrosine kinase c-Abl. We observed that, like ArgBP2, CIP4 directly interacted with WAVE1 and could enhance its phosphorylation by c-Abl. ArgBP2 and CIP4 acted synergistically to increase WAVE1 tyrosine phosphorylation. Finally, we could show that CIP4 was dispensable for the ArgBP2 induced blockade of cell migration whereas its overexpression was deleterious for this important function of ArgBP2.

    Cancer letters 2010;288;1;116-23

  • WAVE1 regulates Bcl-2 localization and phosphorylation in leukemia cells.

    Kang R, Tang D, Yu Y, Wang Z, Hu T, Wang H and Cao L

    Department of Pediatrics, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410008, People's Republic of China.

    Bcl-2 proteins are over-expressed in many tumors and are critically important for cell survival. Their anti-apoptotic activities are determined by intracellular localization and post-translational modifications (such as phosphorylation). Here, we showed that WAVE1, a member of the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein family, was over-expressed in blood cancer cell lines, and functioned as a negative regulator of apoptosis. Further enhanced expression of WAVE1 by gene transfection rendered leukemia cells more resistant to anti-cancer drug-induced apoptosis; whereas suppression of WAVE1 expression by RNA interference restored leukemia cells' sensitivity to anti-drug-induced apoptosis. WAVE1 was found to be associated with mitochondrial Bcl-2, and its depletion led to mitochondrial release of Bcl-2, and phosphorylation of ASK1/JNK and Bcl-2. Furthermore, depletion of WAVE1 expression increased anti-cancer drug-induced production of reactive oxygen species in leukemia cells. Taken together, these results suggest WAVE1 as a novel regulator of apoptosis, and potential drug target for therapeutic intervention of leukemia.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: R01 GM063075, R01 GM063075-06, R01 GM070817, R01 GM070817-04, R01GM063075, R01GM070817

    Leukemia 2010;24;1;177-86

  • Involvement of WAVE accumulation in Abeta/APP pathology-dependent tangle modification in Alzheimer's disease.

    Takata K, Kitamura Y, Nakata Y, Matsuoka Y, Tomimoto H, Taniguchi T and Shimohama S

    Department of Neurobiology and 21st Century COE Program, Kyoto Pharmaceutical University, Misasagi, Kyoto, Japan.

    Synaptic deficits are closely correlated with cognitive dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease (AD), and synaptic integrity is regulated by the actin cytoskeleton. We demonstrated here that the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein family verprolin-homologous protein (WAVE), a key molecule for actin assembly, co-aggregated with both hyperphosphorylated tau and phosphorylated collapsin response mediator protein 2 (CRMP2) in neurofibrillary tangles and abnormal neurites of the AD brain. Although phosphorylated CRMP2 accumulation was induced in the brains of JNPL3 mice, WAVE accumulation was not detected in the brains of either JNPL3 or Tg2576 mice that developed neurofibrillary tangles and amyloid-beta (Abeta) plaques, respectively. Interestingly, both phosphorylated CRMP2 accumulation and WAVE accumulation were recapitulated in the brains of 3xTg-AD mice that developed neurofibrillary tangles and Abeta plaques. In addition, we found an interaction between WAVE, CRMP2, and hyperphosphorylated tau in the cytosolic fraction of the AD brain. Taken together, WAVE accumulation may require both Abeta/amyloid precursor protein and tau pathologies, and an interaction between WAVE, CRMP2, and hyperphosphorylated tau may be involved in this process. Thus, WAVE accumulation may be involved in Abeta/amyloid precursor protein mediated-tangle modification, suggesting a possible correlation between WAVE accumulation and synaptic deficits induced by disturbances in actin assembly in AD brains.

    Funded by: NIA NIH HHS: AG022455, AG026478, K01 AG022455, R01 AG026478

    The American journal of pathology 2009;175;1;17-24

  • [Expression of WAVE1 and p22phox in children with acute lymphocytic leukemia and the relationship of WAVE1 with oxidative stress].

    He YL, Cao LZ, Yang J, Yang MH, Xu WQ, Xie M and Shi Z

    Department of Pediatrics, Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha 410008, China.

    Objective: To study the expression of WAVE1 and p22phox in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in children with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) and the relationship of WAVE1 with oxidative stress.

    Methods: Real-time PCR was used for detecting WAVE1 and p22phox expression in PBMCs in 41 children with ALL and 10 normal controls. Plasma activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) was measured by the xanthine oxidase method. Plasma activity of GSH-Px was measured by the DTNB reaction test.

    Results: The expression of WAVE1 and p22phox was significantly higher in the active ALL groups (newly diagnosed and relapse ALL) than that in the normal control and the complete remission (CR) ALL groups (<0.01). The CR ALL group showed increased WAVE1 and p22phox expression than those in the normal control group (<0.05). Plasma activities of SOD (22.62+/-7.39 U/mL) and GSH-Px (91.73+/-28.88 micromol/L) in the active ALL group were significantly lower than those in the normal control (166.35+/-27.93 U/mL and 490.94+/-39.38 micromol/L, respectively) and the CR ALL groups (107.11+/-28.57 U/mL and 267.56+/-82.64 micromol/L, respectively) (<0.01). WAVE1 expression was positively correlated with p22phox expression (r=0.34, <0.05) but negatively correlated with plasma activities of SOD and GSH-Px ( r=-0.336 and-0.408, respectively; <0.05).

    Conclusions: WAVE1 and p22phox expression in PBMCs increased and was associated with the disease course in children with ALL. Oxidative stress may be involved in the regulation of WAVE1 expression in ALL children.

    Zhongguo dang dai er ke za zhi = Chinese journal of contemporary pediatrics 2009;11;2;88-92

  • Hierarchical regulation of WASP/WAVE proteins.

    Padrick SB, Cheng HC, Ismail AM, Panchal SC, Doolittle LK, Kim S, Skehan BM, Umetani J, Brautigam CA, Leong JM and Rosen MK

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA.

    Members of the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) family control actin dynamics in eukaryotic cells by stimulating the actin nucleating activity of the Arp2/3 complex. The prevailing paradigm for WASP regulation invokes allosteric relief of autoinhibition by diverse upstream activators. Here we demonstrate an additional level of regulation that is superimposed upon allostery: dimerization increases the affinity of active WASP species for Arp2/3 complex by up to 180-fold, greatly enhancing actin assembly by this system. This finding explains a large and apparently disparate set of observations under a common mechanistic framework. These include WASP activation by the bacterial effector EspFu and a large number of SH3 domain proteins, the effects on WASP of membrane localization/clustering and assembly into large complexes, and cooperativity between different family members. Allostery and dimerization act in hierarchical fashion, enabling WASP/WAVE proteins to integrate different classes of inputs to produce a wide range of cellular actin responses.

    Funded by: Howard Hughes Medical Institute; NIAID NIH HHS: R01 AI046454, R01 AI046454-09, R01-AI46454; NIGMS NIH HHS: 1F32-GM06917902, F32 GM069179, F32 GM069179-03, R01 GM056322, R01 GM056322-12A1, R01-GM56322

    Molecular cell 2008;32;3;426-38

  • [Expression of WAVE1 in childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia and in the apoptosis of Jurkat cells induced by adriamycin].

    Wang Z, Hu T, Cao LZ, Kang R, Zhao MY, Yu Y and Xu WQ

    Department of Pediatrics, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha 410008, China.

    Objective: To investigate whether WASP/Verprolin homologous protein 1 (WAVE1) plays a role in the pathogenesis of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).

    Methods: WAVE1 mRNA and protein expression in bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMCs) was measured by RT-PCR and Western blotting respectively in 4 children with ALL relapse, 15 children with ALL in complete remission (CR) and 40 children with newly diagnosed ALL. Ten normal bone marrow samples were used as controls. Jurkat cells were treated with different concentrations of adriamycin (ADM). The cell proliferation was detected with MTT. The apoptosis rate was measured by flow cytometry. WAVE1 mRNA and protein expression of Jurkat cells treated with ADM was detected by RT-PCR and Western blotting respectively.

    Results: WAVE1 was not expressed or weakly expressed in BMMCs from normal controls and patients with ALL in CR. Higher WAVE1 mRNA and protein expression was found in BMMCs from patients with newly diagnosed ALL and patients with relapse ALL when compared with the controls and the patients in CR (P<0.01). ADM significantly inhibited the proliferation of the Jurkat cells and the inhibitory effect was dose-and time-dependent (P<0.05). After ADM treatment for 24 hrs, the percentage of apoptosis cells increased significantly and WAVE1 mRNA and protein expression of Jurkat cells decreased significantly when compared with the untreated controls (P<0.05).

    Conclusions: The WAVE1 expression increased in children with ALL. WAVE1 may be related to the development of ALL and may be severed as a marker for the evaluation of the severity of ALL in children.

    Zhongguo dang dai er ke za zhi = Chinese journal of contemporary pediatrics 2008;10;5;620-4

  • WAVE and Arp2/3 jointly inhibit filopodium formation by entering into a complex with mDia2.

    Beli P, Mascheroni D, Xu D and Innocenti M

    Institute of Biochemistry II, Goethe University Medical School, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt, Germany.

    Lamellipodia/ruffles and filopodia are protruding organelles containing short and highly branched or long and unbranched actin filaments, respectively. The microscopic morphology, dynamic development and protein signature of both lamellipodia/ruffles and filopodia have been investigated; however, little is known about the mechanisms by which cells coordinate the formation of these actin-based extensions. Here, we show that WAVE holds mDia2 and the Arp2/3 complex in a multimolecular complex. WAVE- and Arp2/3-dependent ruffling induced by EGF does not require mDia2. Conversely, the emission of mDia2-dependent filopodia correlates with its disengagement from WAVE. Consistently, the ability of EGF, Cdc42 and serum to induce mDia2-dependent formation of filopodia is increased in the absence of either the WAVE/Abi1/Nap1/PIR121 (WANP) or the Arp2/3 complex. Reintroduction of WAVE2 into WANP-complex knockdown cells markedly reduces filopodia formation independently of actin polymerization. Thus, WAVE and the Arp2/3 complex jointly orchestrate different types of actin-based plasma membrane protrusions by promoting ruffling and inhibiting mDia2-induced filopodia.

    Nature cell biology 2008;10;7;849-57

  • Toward a confocal subcellular atlas of the human proteome.

    Barbe L, Lundberg E, Oksvold P, Stenius A, Lewin E, Björling E, Asplund A, Pontén F, Brismar H, Uhlén M and Andersson-Svahn H

    Department of Biotechnology, AlbaNova University Center, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.

    Information on protein localization on the subcellular level is important to map and characterize the proteome and to better understand cellular functions of proteins. Here we report on a pilot study of 466 proteins in three human cell lines aimed to allow large scale confocal microscopy analysis using protein-specific antibodies. Approximately 3000 high resolution images were generated, and more than 80% of the analyzed proteins could be classified in one or multiple subcellular compartment(s). The localizations of the proteins showed, in many cases, good agreement with the Gene Ontology localization prediction model. This is the first large scale antibody-based study to localize proteins into subcellular compartments using antibodies and confocal microscopy. The results suggest that this approach might be a valuable tool in conjunction with predictive models for protein localization.

    Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 2008;7;3;499-508

  • WAVE1 controls neuronal activity-induced mitochondrial distribution in dendritic spines.

    Sung JY, Engmann O, Teylan MA, Nairn AC, Greengard P and Kim Y

    Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065, USA.

    Mitochondrial fission and trafficking to dendritic protrusions have been implicated in dendritic spine development. Here, we show that Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP)-family verprolin homologous protein 1 (WAVE1) controls depolarization-induced mitochondrial movement into dendritic spines and filopodia and regulates spine morphogenesis. Depolarization-induced degradation of the p35 regulatory subunit of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5), with the resultant decreased inhibitory phosphorylation on WAVE1, depend on NMDA receptor activation. Thus, WAVE1 dephosphorylation and activation are likely associated with mitochondrial redistribution and spine morphogenesis.

    Funded by: NIA NIH HHS: AG09464, P01 AG009464; NIDA NIH HHS: DA10044, P01 DA010044

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2008;105;8;3112-6

  • WAVE1 and regulation of actin nucleation in myelination.

    Sloane JA and Vartanian TK

    Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA.

    The myelin sheath can be compared to the neuronal growth cone in that the unfurled sheath looks like a giant lamellum. The authors recently tested this hypothesis by examining the importance of WAVE1, a regulator of lamellipodia formation in neurons and other cells, in myelinogenesis. They found that WAVE1 is critical for formation of oligodendrocyte lamellae and myelin sheaths. They review the regulation of WAVE1 and how WAVE1 is transported and localized to lamellipodia. Because they found that some but not all myelination was impaired by knockout of WAVE1 function, they hypothesize that other regulators of actin nucleation help oligodendrocytes produce myelin in parallel with WAVE1 function. Interestingly, they found that oligodendrocyte maturation also is disturbed with WAVE1 knockout and propose that proper localization and transport of signaling molecules relevant to the integrin signaling cascade are disrupted by loss of WAVE1 function.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: NS038475

    The Neuroscientist : a review journal bringing neurobiology, neurology and psychiatry 2007;13;5;486-91

  • An actin-based wave generator organizes cell motility.

    Weiner OD, Marganski WA, Wu LF, Altschuler SJ and Kirschner MW

    Department of Biochemistry, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America. orion.weiner@ucsf.edu

    Although many of the regulators of actin assembly are known, we do not understand how these components act together to organize cell shape and movement. To address this question, we analyzed the spatial dynamics of a key actin regulator--the Scar/WAVE complex--which plays an important role in regulating cell shape in both metazoans and plants. We have recently discovered that the Hem-1/Nap1 component of the Scar/WAVE complex localizes to propagating waves that appear to organize the leading edge of a motile immune cell, the human neutrophil. Actin is both an output and input to the Scar/WAVE complex: the complex stimulates actin assembly, and actin polymer is also required to remove the complex from the membrane. These reciprocal interactions appear to generate propagated waves of actin nucleation that exhibit many of the properties of morphogenesis in motile cells, such as the ability of cells to flow around barriers and the intricate spatial organization of protrusion at the leading edge. We propose that cell motility results from the collective behavior of multiple self-organizing waves.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM071794-03, GM26875, R01 GM026875, R01 GM071794

    PLoS biology 2007;5;9;e221

  • [Role of WAVE1 in drug resistance of K562/A02 leukemia cells].

    Kang R, Cao LZ, Yu Y, Hu T, Wang Z, Xu WQ and Xie M

    Department of Pediatrics, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha 410008, China.

    Objective: To investigate if WAVE1 is involved in mult drug-resistance (MDR) of human leukemia cell line K562/A02.

    Methods: The level of WAVE1 in K562 and K562/A02 cells was assayed by Western blot and RT-PCR; K562 cells and K562/A02 cells were transient transfected with pEFBOS-WAVE1 reconstructed plasmid or specifically siRNA to WAVE1. 50% inhibition concentration (IC50) of doxorubicin on K562/A02 was determined by WST-8 assay. Hoechst33258 staining was used to examine cell morphological changes and to calculate percentage of apoptotic nuclei. The mRNA level of mdrl was assayed by RT-PCR. The Bcl-2 protein was assayed by Western blot.

    Results: 1. The WAVE1 expression at mRNA and protein level in K562/A02 cells was increased by about 70% and 63% respectively as compared with that in K562 cells. 2. Overexpression of WAVE1 in K562 cells by transient transfection significantly increased the resistance to doxorubicin, and increased IC50 from (0.05 +/- 0.00) microg/ml to (2.99 +/- 0.12) microg/ml, and at 1 microg/ml or 5 microg/ml of doxorubicin treatment, cell apoptotic nuclei rate was decreased by 30% or 35% respectively. 3. Suppression of WAVE1 in K562/A02 cells by siRNA resulted in a reversal of MDR to doxorubicin, and decreased IC50 from (4.29 +/- 0.15) microg/ml to (1.85 +/- 0.07) microg/ml, and at 1 microg/ml or 5 microg/ml of doxorubicin treatment, cell apoptotic nuclei rate was increased by 24% or 21% respectively. 4. Overexpression of WAVE1 in K562 cells significantly increased the mdrl mRNA and the Bcl-2 protein, and suppression of WAVE1 in K562/A02 cells by siRNA decreased the mRNA and the protein.

    Conclusion: WAVE1 involves in the MDR mechanisms in K562/A02 leukemia cells through regulation the level of mdrl and Bcl-2.

    Zhonghua xue ye xue za zhi = Zhonghua xueyexue zazhi 2007;28;6;379-82

  • NESH (Abi-3) is present in the Abi/WAVE complex but does not promote c-Abl-mediated phosphorylation.

    Hirao N, Sato S, Gotoh T, Maruoka M, Suzuki J, Matsuda S, Shishido T and Tani K

    School of Life Sciences, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0392, Japan.

    Abl interactor (Abi) was identified as an Abl tyrosine kinase-binding protein and subsequently shown to be a component of the macromolecular Abi/WAVE complex, which is a key regulator of Rac-dependent actin polymerization. Previous studies showed that Abi-1 promotes c-Abl-mediated phosphorylation of Mammalian Enabled (Mena) and WAVE2. In addition to Abi-1, mammals possess Abi-2 and NESH (Abi-3). In this study, we compared the three Abi proteins in terms of the promotion of c-Abl-mediated phosphorylation and the formation of Abi/WAVE complex. Although Abi-2, like Abi-1, promoted the c-Abl-mediated phosphorylation of Mena and WAVE2, NESH (Abi-3) had no such effect. This difference was likely due to their binding abilities as to c-Abl. Immunoprecipitation revealed that NESH (Abi-3) is present in the Abi/WAVE complex. Our results suggest that NESH (Abi-3), like Abi-1 and Abi-2, is a component of the Abi/WAVE complex, but likely plays a different role in the regulation of c-Abl.

    FEBS letters 2006;580;27;6464-70

  • Phosphorylation of WAVE1 regulates actin polymerization and dendritic spine morphology.

    Kim Y, Sung JY, Ceglia I, Lee KW, Ahn JH, Halford JM, Kim AM, Kwak SP, Park JB, Ho Ryu S, Schenck A, Bardoni B, Scott JD, Nairn AC and Greengard P

    Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, New York 10021, USA.

    WAVE1--the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP)--family verprolin homologous protein 1--is a key regulator of actin-dependent morphological processes in mammals, through its ability to activate the actin-related protein (Arp2/3) complex. Here we show that WAVE1 is phosphorylated at multiple sites by cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) both in vitro and in intact mouse neurons. Phosphorylation of WAVE1 by Cdk5 inhibits its ability to regulate Arp2/3 complex-dependent actin polymerization. Loss of WAVE1 function in vivo or in cultured neurons results in a decrease in mature dendritic spines. Expression of a dephosphorylation-mimic mutant of WAVE1 reverses this loss of WAVE1 function in spine morphology, but expression of a phosphorylation-mimic mutant does not. Cyclic AMP (cAMP) signalling reduces phosphorylation of the Cdk5 sites in WAVE1, and increases spine density in a WAVE1-dependent manner. Our data suggest that phosphorylation/dephosphorylation of WAVE1 in neurons has an important role in the formation of the filamentous actin cytoskeleton, and thus in the regulation of dendritic spine morphology.

    Funded by: NIDA NIH HHS: P01 DA010044

    Nature 2006;442;7104;814-7

  • Identification and characterization of a G-protein regulatory motif in WAVE1.

    Song KS, Peterson YK, Freidman A, Blumer JB, Sato M and Lanier SM

    Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, 1901 Perdido Street, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA.

    The G-protein regulatory (GPR) motif is a approximately 25 amino acid sequence that stabilizes the GDP-bound conformation of Gialpha. To identify additional GPR motifs, we expanded a motif-based search strategy and identified an additional 4 mammalian proteins (WAVE1-3, rat GHRH) and 10 plant proteins with candidate GPR motifs. The WAVE1 GPR peptide inhibited GTPgammaS binding to purified G-protein. Endogenous Gialpha and WAVE1 coimmunoprecipitated from brain lysates. A WAVE1-G-protein complex was also observed following transfection of COS7 cells with Gialpha3 and WAVE1. The docking of Gialpha within a WAVE1 scaffolding complex may facilitate dynamic cycling and/or targeting for efficient and localized control of actin polymerization.

    Funded by: NIMH NIH HHS: F32 MH065092, MH90531; NINDS NIH HHS: NS24821

    FEBS letters 2006;580;8;1993-8

  • The adapter protein CrkII regulates neuronal Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein, actin polymerization, and tension development during contractile stimulation of smooth muscle.

    Tang DD, Zhang W and Gunst SJ

    Department of Cellular and Integrative Physiology, School of Medicine, Indiana University, Indianapolis, 46202, USA.

    Actin polymerization has been shown to occur in tracheal smooth muscle tissues and cells in response to contractile stimulation, and there is evidence that the polymerization of actin is required for contraction. In tracheal smooth muscle, agonist-induced actin polymerization is mediated by activation of neuronal Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (N-WASp) and the Arp (actin-related protein) 2/3 complex, and activation of the small GTPase Cdc42 regulates the activation of N-WASp. In the present study, the role of the adapter protein CrkII in the regulation of N-WASp and Cdc42 activation, actin polymerization, and tension development in smooth muscle tissues was evaluated. Stimulation of tracheal smooth muscle tissues with acetylcholine increased the association of CrkII with N-WASp. Plasmids encoding wild type CrkII or a CrkII mutant lacking the SH3 effector-binding ability, CrkII SH3N, were introduced into tracheal smooth muscle tissues, and the tissues were incubated for 2 days to allow for protein expression. Expression of the CrkII SH3N mutant in smooth muscle tissues inhibited the association of CrkII with N-WASp and the activation of Cdc42. The CrkII SH3N mutant also inhibited the increase in the association of N-WASp with Arp2, a major component of the Arp2/3 complex, in response to contractile stimulation, indicating inhibition of N-WASp activation. Expression of the CrkII SH3N mutant also inhibited tension generation and actin polymerization in response to contractile stimulation; however, it did not inhibit myosin light chain phosphorylation. These results suggest that CrkII plays a critical role in the regulation of N-WASp activation, perhaps by regulating the activation of Cdc42, and that it thereby regulates actin polymerization and active tension generation in tracheal smooth muscle. These studies suggest a novel signaling pathway for the regulation of N-WASp activation and active contraction in smooth muscle tissues.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL-29289, HL-74099, HL-75388, R01 HL029289, R01 HL029289-19, R01 HL074099, R01 HL074099-03, R01 HL075388

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2005;280;24;23380-9

  • WAVE/Scars in platelets.

    Oda A, Miki H, Wada I, Yamaguchi H, Yamazaki D, Suetsugu S, Nakajima M, Nakayama A, Okawa K, Miyazaki H, Matsuno K, Ochs HD, Machesky LM, Fujita H and Takenawa T

    Laboratory of Environmental Biology, Department of Preventive Medicine, Hokkaido University School of Medicine, Kitaku, Sapporo, 060-8638, Japan. aoda@med.hokudai.ac.jp

    Using specific antibodies against isoforms of WAVE (WASP [Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein] family Verprolin-homologous protein, also called Scar), we demonstrated that human platelets express all 3 isoforms. With the use of an in vitro pull-down technique, the src homology 3 (SH3) domain of insulin receptor substrate p53 (IRSp53) precipitated WAVE2 from platelet lysates more efficiently than did profilin I. The opposite was true for WAVE1, and neither precipitated WAVE3, suggesting that WAVE isoforms have different affinities to these ligands, while the SH3 domain of abl binds to all 3 isoforms. The 3 WAVE isoforms were distributed in the actin-rich Triton X-100-insoluble pellets following platelet aggregation induced by thrombin receptor-activating peptide. We also found that all 3 WAVE isoforms are substrates for calpain in vivo and in vitro. Although portions of these 3 isoforms were commonly distributed in the actin- and actin-related protein 2 and 3 (Arp2/3)-rich edge of the lamellipodia in spreading platelets, only WAVE2 remained in the cell fringe following detergent extraction or fixation of the cells. Finally, by mass spectrometry, we found that the proteins, which reportedly interact with WAVE/Scars, are present in platelets. These data suggest that the 3 WAVE isoforms exhibit common and distinct features and may potentially be involved in the regulation of actin cytoskeleton in platelets.

    Funded by: Medical Research Council: G117/569

    Blood 2005;105;8;3141-8

  • DISTORTED3/SCAR2 is a putative arabidopsis WAVE complex subunit that activates the Arp2/3 complex and is required for epidermal morphogenesis.

    Basu D, Le J, El-Essal Sel-D, Huang S, Zhang C, Mallery EL, Koliantz G, Staiger CJ and Szymanski DB

    Agronomy Department, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907-2054, USA.

    In a plant cell, a subset of actin filaments function as a scaffold that positions the endomembrane system and acts as a substrate on which organelle motility occurs. Other actin filament arrays appear to be more dynamic and reorganize in response to growth signals and external cues. The distorted group of trichome morphology mutants provides powerful genetic tools to study the control of actin filament nucleation in the context of morphogenesis. In this article, we report that DISTORTED3 (DIS3) encodes a plant-specific SCAR/WAVE homolog. Null alleles of DIS3, like those of other Arabidopsis thaliana WAVE and Actin-Related Protein (ARP) 2/3 subunit genes, cause trichome distortion, defects in cell-cell adhesion, and reduced hypocotyl growth in etiolated seedlings. DIS3 efficiently activates the actin filament nucleation and branching activity of vertebrate Arp2/3 and functions within a WAVE-ARP2/3 pathway in vivo. DIS3 may assemble into a WAVE complex via a physical interaction with a highly diverged Arabidopsis Abi-1-like bridging protein. These results demonstrate the utility of the Arabidopsis trichome system to understand how the WAVE and ARP2/3 complexes translate signaling inputs into a coordinated morphogenetic response.

    The Plant cell 2005;17;2;502-24

  • Expression and subcellular localization of WAVE isoforms in the megakaryocyte/platelet lineage.

    Kashiwagi H, Shiraga M, Kato H, Honda S, Sako M, Kurata Y, Kanakura Y and Tomiyama Y

    Department of Hematology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2, Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan. kashi@hp-blood.med.osaka-u.ac.jp

    WAVE isoforms, which consist of WAVE-1, WAVE-2 and WAVE-3, are members of the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) family. They are implicated in the regulation of actin-cytoskeletal reorganization downsteam of the small GTPase, Rac. Since platelet attachment to extracellular matrices leads to filopodial and lamellipodial extension, we examined the expression and subcellular localization of WAVEs in platelets. Employing primary megakaryocytic cells derived from cord blood as well as megakaryocytic cell lines, we also examined their expression during megakaryocytic differentiation. Immunoblotting and immunohistochemical analysis revealed that platelets expressed WAVE-1 and WAVE-2, whereas WAVE-3 expression was hardly to be detected. WAVE-1 expression was associated with megakaryocytic differentiation, whereas WAVE-2 and WAVE-3 expression was not changed by the differentiation. In adhered platelets both WAVE-1 and WAVE-2 were localized at the edge of the lamellipodia and at the tips of filopodia. In WASP-deficient platelets we found normal lamellipodial formation and localization of WAVE-1 and WAVE-2 at the edges of lamellipodia. Furthermore, we demonstrated that WAVE-1 and WAVE-2 moved from a detergent-soluble cytosolic fraction to insoluble cytoskeleton fraction after platelet aggregation. These results suggest that WAVE-1 and WAVE-2 regulate actin reorganization during platelet spreading and aggregate formation.

    Journal of thrombosis and haemostasis : JTH 2005;3;2;361-8

  • Control of SCAR activity in Dictyostelium discoideum.

    Blagg SL and Insall RH

    School of Biosciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK.

    The WASP (Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein)/SCAR (suppressor of cAMP receptor) family of adaptor proteins regulate actin polymerization by coupling Rho-family GTPases to the activation of the Arp2/3 complex. SCAR exists within a complex of proteins, including Nap1 (Nck-associated protein 1), PIR121 (p53-inducible mRNA 121), Abi2 (Abl-interactor 2) and HSPC300. This complex was first reported to inhibit SCAR activity, but there is now some controversy over whether the complex is inhibitory or activatory. This complex is currently being studied in a wide range of different systems, and model organisms such as the amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum have been used to remove genetically SCAR complex members to ascertain their specific roles.

    Biochemical Society transactions 2004;32;Pt 6;1113-4

  • Critical conformational changes in the Arp2/3 complex are induced by nucleotide and nucleation promoting factor.

    Goley ED, Rodenbusch SE, Martin AC and Welch MD

    Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA.

    Actin nucleation and branching by the Arp2/3 complex is tightly regulated by activating factors. However, the mechanism of Arp2/3 complex activation remains unclear. We used fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) to probe the conformational dynamics of the Arp2/3 complex accompanying its activation. We demonstrate that nucleotide binding promotes a substantial conformational change in the complex, with distinct conformations depending on the bound nucleotide. Nucleotide binding to each Arp is critical for activity and is coupled to nucleation promoting factor (NPF) binding. The binding of Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) family NPFs induces further conformational reorganization of the Arp2/3 complex, and the ability to promote this conformational reorganization correlates with activation efficiency. Using an Arp2/3 complex that is fused to the actin binding domain of WASP, we confirm that the NPF-induced conformational change is critical for activation, and that the actin and Arp2/3 binding activities of WASP are separable, but are independently essential for activity.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM59609, R01 GM059609, R01 GM059609-05

    Molecular cell 2004;16;2;269-79

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • Abi1 is essential for the formation and activation of a WAVE2 signalling complex.

    Innocenti M, Zucconi A, Disanza A, Frittoli E, Areces LB, Steffen A, Stradal TE, Di Fiore PP, Carlier MF and Scita G

    IFOM Istituto FIRC di Oncologia Molecolare Via Adamello 16, 20134, Milan, Italy.

    WAVE2 belongs to a family of proteins that mediates actin reorganization by relaying signals from Rac to the Arp2/3 complex, resulting in lamellipodia protrusion. WAVE2 displays Arp2/3-dependent actin nucleation activity in vitro, and does not bind directly to Rac. Instead, it forms macromolecular complexes that have been reported to exert both positive and negative modes of regulation. How these complexes are assembled, localized and activated in vivo remains to be established. Here we use tandem mass spectrometry to identify an Abi1-based complex containing WAVE2, Nap1 (Nck-associated protein) and PIR121. Abi1 interacts directly with the WHD domain of WAVE2, increases WAVE2 actin polymerization activity and mediates the assembly of a WAVE2-Abi1-Nap1-PIR121 complex. The WAVE2-Abi1-Nap1-PIR121 complex is as active as the WAVE2-Abi1 sub-complex in stimulating Arp2/3, and after Rac activation it is re-localized to the leading edge of ruffles in vivo. Consistently, inhibition of Abi1 by RNA interference (RNAi) abrogates Rac-dependent lamellipodia protrusion. Thus, Abi1 orchestrates the proper assembly of the WAVE2 complex and mediates its activation at the leading edge in vivo.

    Funded by: Telethon: D.090

    Nature cell biology 2004;6;4;319-27

  • CYFIP2 is highly abundant in CD4+ cells from multiple sclerosis patients and is involved in T cell adhesion.

    Mayne M, Moffatt T, Kong H, McLaren PJ, Fowke KR, Becker KG, Namaka M, Schenck A, Bardoni B, Bernstein CN and Melanson M

    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of Manitoba, Division of Neuroscience, St. Boniface Hospital Research Centre, Winnipeg, Canada. michael.mayne@nrc.gc.ca

    DNA microarray profiling of CD4(+) and CD8(+) cells from non-treated relapsing and remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) patients determined that the cytoplasmic binding partner of fragile X protein (CYFIP2, also called PIR121) was increased significantly compared to healthy controls. Western analysis confirmed that CYFIP2 protein was increased approximately fourfold in CD4(+) cells from MS compared to inflammatory bowel disorder (IBD) patients or healthy controls. Because CYFIP2 acts as part of a tetrameric complex that regulates WAVE1 activation we hypothesized that high levels of CYFIP2 facilitate T cell adhesion, which is elevated in MS patients. Several findings indicated that increased levels of CYFIP2 facilitated adhesion. First, adenoviral-mediated overexpression of CYFIP2 in Jurkat cells increased fibronectin-mediated adhesion. Secondly, CYFIP2 knock-down experiments using antisense oligodeoxynucleotides reduced fibronectin-mediated binding in Jurkat and CD4(+) cells. Thirdly, inhibition of Rac-1, a physical partner with CYFIP2 and regulator of WAVE1 activity, reduced fibronectin-mediated adhesion in Jurkat and CD4(+) cells. Finally, inhibition of Rac-1 or reduction of CYFIP2 protein decreased fibronectin-mediated adhesion in CD4(+) cells from MS patients to levels similar to controls. These studies suggest that overabundance of CYFIP2 protein facilitates increased adhesion properties of T cells from MS patients.

    European journal of immunology 2004;34;4;1217-27

  • Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.

    Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, Otsuki T, Sugiyama T, Irie R, Wakamatsu A, Hayashi K, Sato H, Nagai K, Kimura K, Makita H, Sekine M, Obayashi M, Nishi T, Shibahara T, Tanaka T, Ishii S, Yamamoto J, Saito K, Kawai Y, Isono Y, Nakamura Y, Nagahari K, Murakami K, Yasuda T, Iwayanagi T, Wagatsuma M, Shiratori A, Sudo H, Hosoiri T, Kaku Y, Kodaira H, Kondo H, Sugawara M, Takahashi M, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Furuya T, Kikkawa E, Omura Y, Abe K, Kamihara K, Katsuta N, Sato K, Tanikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ninomiya K, Ishibashi T, Yamashita H, Murakawa K, Fujimori K, Tanai H, Kimata M, Watanabe M, Hiraoka S, Chiba Y, Ishida S, Ono Y, Takiguchi S, Watanabe S, Yosida M, Hotuta T, Kusano J, Kanehori K, Takahashi-Fujii A, Hara H, Tanase TO, Nomura Y, Togiya S, Komai F, Hara R, Takeuchi K, Arita M, Imose N, Musashino K, Yuuki H, Oshima A, Sasaki N, Aotsuka S, Yoshikawa Y, Matsunawa H, Ichihara T, Shiohata N, Sano S, Moriya S, Momiyama H, Satoh N, Takami S, Terashima Y, Suzuki O, Nakagawa S, Senoh A, Mizoguchi H, Goto Y, Shimizu F, Wakebe H, Hishigaki H, Watanabe T, Sugiyama A, Takemoto M, Kawakami B, Yamazaki M, Watanabe K, Kumagai A, Itakura S, Fukuzumi Y, Fujimori Y, Komiyama M, Tashiro H, Tanigami A, Fujiwara T, Ono T, Yamada K, Fujii Y, Ozaki K, Hirao M, Ohmori Y, Kawabata A, Hikiji T, Kobatake N, Inagaki H, Ikema Y, Okamoto S, Okitani R, Kawakami T, Noguchi S, Itoh T, Shigeta K, Senba T, Matsumura K, Nakajima Y, Mizuno T, Morinaga M, Sasaki M, Togashi T, Oyama M, Hata H, Watanabe M, Komatsu T, Mizushima-Sugano J, Satoh T, Shirai Y, Takahashi Y, Nakagawa K, Okumura K, Nagase T, Nomura N, Kikuchi H, Masuho Y, Yamashita R, Nakai K, Yada T, Nakamura Y, Ohara O, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Helix Research Institute, 1532-3 Yana, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0812, Japan.

    As a base for human transcriptome and functional genomics, we created the "full-length long Japan" (FLJ) collection of sequenced human cDNAs. We determined the entire sequence of 21,243 selected clones and found that 14,490 cDNAs (10,897 clusters) were unique to the FLJ collection. About half of them (5,416) seemed to be protein-coding. Of those, 1,999 clusters had not been predicted by computational methods. The distribution of GC content of nonpredicted cDNAs had a peak at approximately 58% compared with a peak at approximately 42%for predicted cDNAs. Thus, there seems to be a slight bias against GC-rich transcripts in current gene prediction procedures. The rest of the cDNAs unique to the FLJ collection (5,481) contained no obvious open reading frames (ORFs) and thus are candidate noncoding RNAs. About one-fourth of them (1,378) showed a clear pattern of splicing. The distribution of GC content of noncoding cDNAs was narrow and had a peak at approximately 42%, relatively low compared with that of protein-coding cDNAs.

    Nature genetics 2004;36;1;40-5

  • Tuba, a novel protein containing bin/amphiphysin/Rvs and Dbl homology domains, links dynamin to regulation of the actin cytoskeleton.

    Salazar MA, Kwiatkowski AV, Pellegrini L, Cestra G, Butler MH, Rossman KL, Serna DM, Sondek J, Gertler FB and De Camilli P

    Department of Cell Biology and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06519, USA.

    Tuba is a novel scaffold protein that functions to bring together dynamin with actin regulatory proteins. It is concentrated at synapses in brain and binds dynamin selectively through four N-terminal Src homology-3 (SH3) domains. Tuba binds a variety of actin regulatory proteins, including N-WASP, CR16, WAVE1, WIRE, PIR121, NAP1, and Ena/VASP proteins, via a C-terminal SH3 domain. Direct binding partners include N-WASP and Ena/VASP proteins. Forced targeting of the C-terminal SH3 domain to the mitochondrial surface can promote accumulation of F-actin around mitochondria. A Dbl homology domain present in the middle of Tuba upstream of a Bin/amphiphysin/Rvs (BAR) domain activates Cdc42, but not Rac and Rho, and may thus cooperate with the C terminus of the protein in regulating actin assembly. The BAR domain, a lipid-binding module, may functionally replace the pleckstrin homology domain that typically follows a Dbl homology domain. The properties of Tuba provide new evidence for a close functional link between dynamin, Rho GTPase signaling, and the actin cytoskeleton.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA46128; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM58801, GM62299; NINDS NIH HHS: NS36251

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;49;49031-43

  • Vascular endothelial growth factor causes translocation of p47phox to membrane ruffles through WAVE1.

    Wu RF, Gu Y, Xu YC, Nwariaku FE and Terada LS

    University of Texas Southwestern and The Dallas Veterans Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75216, USA.

    Growth factors initiate cytoskeletal rearrangements tightly coordinated with nuclear signaling events. We hypothesized that the angiogenic growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), may utilize oxidants that are site-directed to a complex critical to both cytoskeletal and mitogenic signaling. We identified the WASP-family verprolin homologous protein-1 (WAVE1) as a binding partner for the NADPH oxidase adapter p47phox within membrane ruffles of VEGF-stimulated cells. Within 15 min of VEGF stimulation, p47phox coprecipitated with WAVE1, with the ruffle and oxidase agonist Rac1, and with the Rac1 effector PAK1. VEGF also increased p47phox phosphorylation, oxidant production, and ruffle formation, all of which were dependent upon PAK1 kinase activity. The antioxidant Mn (III) tetrakis(4-benzoic acid) porphyrin and ectopic expression of either the p47-binding WAVE1 domain or the WAVE1-binding p47phox domain decreased VEGF-induced ruffling, whereas the active mutant p4-(S303D, S304D,S328D) stimulated oxidant production and formation of circular dorsal ruffles. Both kinase-dead PAK1-(K298A) and Mn (III) tetrakis(4-benzoic acid) porphyrin decreased c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation by VEGF, whereas dominant-negative JNK did not block ruffle formation, suggesting a bifurcation of mitogenic and cytoskeletal signaling events at or distal to the oxidase but proximal to JNK. Thus, WAVE1 may act as a scaffold to recruit the NADPH oxidase to a complex involved with both cytoskeletal regulation and downstream JNK activation.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: R01 HL061897, R01 HL067256, R01-HL61897, R01-HL67256

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;38;36830-40

  • BAD and glucokinase reside in a mitochondrial complex that integrates glycolysis and apoptosis.

    Danial NN, Gramm CF, Scorrano L, Zhang CY, Krauss S, Ranger AM, Datta SR, Greenberg ME, Licklider LJ, Lowell BB, Gygi SP and Korsmeyer SJ

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Dana-Faber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    Glycolysis and apoptosis are considered major but independent pathways that are critical for cell survival. The activity of BAD, a pro-apoptotic BCL-2 family member, is regulated by phosphorylation in response to growth/survival factors. Here we undertook a proteomic analysis to assess whether BAD might also participate in mitochondrial physiology. In liver mitochondria, BAD resides in a functional holoenzyme complex together with protein kinase A and protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) catalytic units, Wiskott-Aldrich family member WAVE-1 as an A kinase anchoring protein, and glucokinase (hexokinase IV). BAD is required to assemble the complex in that Bad-deficient hepatocytes lack this complex, resulting in diminished mitochondria-based glucokinase activity and blunted mitochondrial respiration in response to glucose. Glucose deprivation results in dephosphorylation of BAD, and BAD-dependent cell death. Moreover, the phosphorylation status of BAD helps regulate glucokinase activity. Mice deficient for BAD or bearing a non-phosphorylatable BAD(3SA) mutant display abnormal glucose homeostasis including profound defects in glucose tolerance. This combination of proteomics, genetics and physiology indicates an unanticipated role for BAD in integrating pathways of glucose metabolism and apoptosis.

    Nature 2003;424;6951;952-6

  • A conserved amphipathic helix in WASP/Scar proteins is essential for activation of Arp2/3 complex.

    Panchal SC, Kaiser DA, Torres E, Pollard TD and Rosen MK

    Department of Biochemistry, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, 5323 Harry Hines Boulevard, Dallas, Texas 75390, USA.

    Members of the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) family link Rho GTPase signaling pathways to the cytoskeleton through a multiprotein assembly called Arp2/3 complex. The C-terminal VCA regions (verprolin-homology, central hydrophobic, and acidic regions) of WASP and its relatives stimulate Arp2/3 complex to nucleate actin filament branches. Here we show by differential line broadening in NMR spectra that the C (central) and A (acidic) segments of VCA domains from WASP, N-WASP and Scar bind Arp2/3 complex. The C regions of these proteins have a conserved sequence motif consisting of hydrophobic residues and an arginine residue. Point mutations in this conserved sequence motif suggest that it forms an amphipathic helix that is required in biochemical assays for activation of Arp2/3 complex. Key residues in this motif are buried through contacts with the GTPase binding domain in the autoinhibited structure of WASP and N-WASP, indicating that sequestration of these residues is an important aspect of autoinhibition.

    Nature structural biology 2003;10;8;591-8

  • The WRP component of the WAVE-1 complex attenuates Rac-mediated signalling.

    Soderling SH, Binns KL, Wayman GA, Davee SM, Ong SH, Pawson T and Scott JD

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Vollum Institute, 3181 Sam Jackson Park Road, Portland, Oregon 97239-3098, USA.

    WAVE-1, which is also known as Scar, is a scaffolding protein that directs actin reorganization by relaying signals from the GTPase Rac to the Arp2/3 complex. Although the molecular details of WAVE activation by Rac have been described, the mechanisms by which these signals are terminated remain unknown. Here we have used tandem mass spectrometry to identify previously unknown components of the WAVE signalling network including WRP, a Rac-selective GTPase-activating protein. WRP binds directly to WAVE-1 through its Src homology domain 3 and specifically inhibits Rac function in vivo. Thus, we propose that WRP is a binding partner of WAVE-1 that functions as a signal termination factor for Rac.

    Nature cell biology 2002;4;12;970-5

  • Motility determinants in WASP family proteins.

    Yarar D, D'Alessio JA, Jeng RL and Welch MD

    Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720, USA.

    In response to upstream signals, proteins in the Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome protein (WASP) family regulate actin nucleation via the Arp2/3 complex. Despite intensive study of the function of WASP family proteins in nucleation, it is not yet understood how their distinct structural organization contributes to actin-based motility. Herein, we analyzed the activities of WASP and Scar1 truncation derivatives by using a bead-based motility assay. The minimal region of WASP sufficient to direct movement was the C-terminal WCA fragment, whereas the corresponding region of Scar1 was insufficient. In addition, the proline-rich regions of WASP and Scar1 and the Ena/VASP homology 1 (EVH1) domain of WASP independently enhanced motility rates. The contributions of these regions to motility could not be accounted for by their direct effects on actin nucleation with the Arp2/3 complex, suggesting that they stimulate motility by recruiting additional factors. We have identified profilin as one such factor. WASP- and Scar1-coated bead motility rates were significantly reduced by depletion of profilin and VASP and could be more efficiently rescued by a combination of VASP and wild-type profilin than by VASP and a mutant profilin that cannot bind proline-rich sequences. Moreover, motility of WASP WCA beads was not affected by the depletion or addback of VASP and profilin. Our results suggest that recruitment of factors, including profilin, by the proline-rich regions of WASP and Scar1 and the EVH1 domain of WASP stimulates cellular actin-based motility.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM-59609, R01 GM059609, R01 GM059609-04

    Molecular biology of the cell 2002;13;11;4045-59

  • Mechanism of regulation of WAVE1-induced actin nucleation by Rac1 and Nck.

    Eden S, Rohatgi R, Podtelejnikov AV, Mann M and Kirschner MW

    Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, 240 Longwood Avenue Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    Rac signalling to actin -- a pathway that is thought to be mediated by the protein Scar/WAVE (WASP (Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein)-family verprolin homologous protein -- has a principal role in cell motility. In an analogous pathway, direct interaction of Cdc42 with the related protein N-WASP stimulates actin polymerization. For the Rac-WAVE pathway, no such direct interaction has been identified. Here we report a mechanism by which Rac and the adapter protein Nck activate actin nucleation through WAVE1. WAVE1 exists in a heterotetrameric complex that includes orthologues of human PIR121 (p53-inducible messenger RNA with a relative molecular mass (M(r)) of 140,000), Nap125 (NCK-associated protein with an M(r) of 125,000) and HSPC300. Whereas recombinant WAVE1 is constitutively active, the WAVE1 complex is inactive. We therefore propose that Rac1 and Nck cause dissociation of the WAVE1 complex, which releases active WAVE1-HSPC300 and leads to actin nucleation.

    Nature 2002;418;6899;790-3

  • Interaction of WASP/Scar proteins with actin and vertebrate Arp2/3 complex.

    Marchand JB, Kaiser DA, Pollard TD and Higgs HN

    Structural Biology Laboratory, Salk Institute for Biological Studies, 10010 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, California 92037, USA.

    The Wiskott-Aldrich-syndrome protein (WASP) regulates polymerization of actin by the Arp2/3 complex. Here we show, using fluorescence anisotropy assays, that the carboxy-terminal WA domain of WASP binds to a single actin monomer with a Kd of 0.6 microM in an equilibrium with rapid exchange rates. Both WH-2 and CA sequences contribute to actin binding. A favourable DeltaH of -10 kcal mol(-1) drives binding. The WA domain binds to the Arp2/3 complex with a Kd of 0.9 microM; both the C and A sequences contribute to binding to the Arp2/3 complex. Wiskott-Aldrich-syndrome mutations in the WA domain that alter nucleation by the Arp2/3 complex over a tenfold range without affecting affinity for actin or the Arp2/3 complex indicate that there may be an activation step in the nucleation pathway. Actin filaments stimulate nucleation by producing a fivefold increase in the affinity of WASP-WA for the Arp2/3 complex.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM-26338

    Nature cell biology 2001;3;1;76-82

  • IRSp53 is an essential intermediate between Rac and WAVE in the regulation of membrane ruffling.

    Miki H, Yamaguchi H, Suetsugu S and Takenawa T

    Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, and CREST, Japan Science and Technology Corporation.

    Neural Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (N-WASP) functions in several intracellular events including filopodium formation, vesicle transport and movement of Shigella frexneri and vaccinia virus, by stimulating rapid actin polymerization through the Arp2/3 complex. N-WASP is regulated by the direct binding of Cdc42 (refs 7, 8), which exposes the domain in N-WASP that activates the Arp2/3 complex. A WASP-related protein, WAVE/Scar, functions in Rac-induced membrane ruffling; however, Rac does not bind directly to WAVE, raising the question of how WAVE is regulated by Rac. Here we demonstrate that IRSp53, a substrate for insulin receptor with unknown function, is the 'missing link' between Rac and WAVE. Activated Rac binds to the amino terminus of IRSp53, and carboxy-terminal Src-homology-3 domain of IRSp53 binds to WAVE to form a trimolecular complex. From studies of ectopic expression, we found that IRSp53 is essential for Rac to induce membrane ruffling, probably because it recruits WAVE, which stimulates actin polymerization mediated by the Arp2/3 complex.

    Nature 2000;408;6813;732-5

  • Integration of multiple signals through cooperative regulation of the N-WASP-Arp2/3 complex.

    Prehoda KE, Scott JA, Mullins RD and Lim WA

    Department of Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143-0450, USA.

    The protein N-WASP [a homolog to the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP)] regulates actin polymerization by stimulating the actin-nucleating activity of the actin-related protein 2/3 (Arp2/3) complex. N-WASP is tightly regulated by multiple signals: Only costimulation by Cdc42 and phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-bisphosphate (PIP2) yields potent polymerization. We found that regulation requires N-WASP's constitutively active output domain (VCA) and two regulatory domains: a Cdc42-binding domain and a previously undescribed PIP(2)-binding domain. In the absence of stimuli, the regulatory modules together hold the VCA-Arp2/3 complex in an inactive "closed" conformation. In this state, both the Cdc42- and PIP2-binding sites are masked. Binding of either input destabilizes the closed state and enhances binding of the other input. This cooperative activation mechanism shows how combinations of simple binding domains can be used to integrate and amplify coincident signals.

    Science (New York, N.Y.) 2000;290;5492;801-6

  • Scar/WAVE-1, a Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein, assembles an actin-associated multi-kinase scaffold.

    Westphal RS, Soderling SH, Alto NM, Langeberg LK and Scott JD

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Vollum Institute, Portland, OR, USA.

    WAVE proteins are members of the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) family of scaffolding proteins that coordinate actin reorganization by coupling Rho-related small molecular weight GTPases to the mobilization of the Arp2/3 complex. We identified WAVE-1 in a screen for rat brain A kinase-anchoring proteins (AKAPs), which bind to the SH3 domain of the Abelson tyrosine kinase (Abl). Recombinant WAVE-1 interacts with cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and Abl kinases when expressed in HEK-293 cells, and both enzymes co-purify with endogenous WAVE from brain extracts. Mapping studies have defined binding sites for each kinase. Competition experiments suggest that the PKA-WAVE-1 interaction may be regulated by actin as the kinase binds to a site overlapping a verprolin homology region, which has been shown to interact with actin. Immunocytochemical analyses in Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts suggest that the WAVE-1 kinase scaffold is assembled dynamically as WAVE, PKA and Abl translocate to sites of actin reorganization in response to platelet-derived growth factor treatment. Thus, we propose a previously unrecognized function for WAVE-1 as an actin-associated scaffolding protein that recruits PKA and Abl.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK44239, P01 DK044239

    The EMBO journal 2000;19;17;4589-600

  • Influence of the C terminus of Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASp) and the Arp2/3 complex on actin polymerization.

    Higgs HN, Blanchoin L and Pollard TD

    Structural Biology Laboratory, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, California 92037, USA.

    The 70 C-terminal amino acids of Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASp WA) activate the actin nucleation activity of the Arp2/3 complex. WASp WA binds both the Arp2/3 complex and actin monomers, but the mechanism by which it activates the Arp2/3 complex is not known. We characterized the effect of WASp WA on actin polymerization in the absence and presence of the human Arp2/3 complex. WASp WA binds actin monomers with an apparent K(d) of 0.4 microM, inhibiting spontaneous nucleation and subunit addition to pointed ends, but not addition to barbed ends. A peptide containing only the WASp homology 2 motif behaves similarly but with a 10-fold lower affinity. In contrast to previously published results, neither WASp WA nor a similar region of the protein Scar1 significantly depolymerizes actin filaments under a variety of conditions. WASp WA and the Arp2/3 complex nucleate actin filaments, and the rate of this nucleation is a function of the concentrations of both WASp WA and the Arp2/3 complex. With excess WASp WA and <10 nM Arp2/3 complex, there is a 1:1 correspondence between the Arp2/3 complex and the concentration of filaments produced, but the filament concentration plateaus at an Arp2/3 complex concentration far below the cellular concentration determined to be 9.7 microM in human neutrophils. Preformed filaments increase the rate of nucleation by WASp WA and the Arp2/3 complex but not the number of filaments that are generated. We propose that filament side binding by the Arp2/3 complex enhances its activation by WASp WA.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM-26338

    Biochemistry 1999;38;46;15212-22

  • Interaction between Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome protein (WASP) and the Fyn protein-tyrosine kinase.

    Banin S, Gout I and Brickell P

    Leukaemia Research Fund Centre for Childhood Leukaemia, Molecular Haematology Unit, Institute of Child Health, London, UK.

    Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome (WAS) is a severe X-linked disorder characterised by immune deficiency, thrombocytopenia and eczema, resulting from abnormalities in a range of haematopoietic cell types. The protein that is defective in WAS, named WASP, appears to be involved in regulating changes in the cytoskeletal organisation of haematopoietic cells in response to external stimuli. In support of this idea, WASP has been found to be physically associated in haematopoietic cells in vivo with a number of SH3 domain-containing proteins involved in signal transduction, including the cytoplasmic protein-tyrosine kinase Fyn. Here, we have used a baculovirus expression system to explore the biochemical consequences of the interaction between WASP and Fyn. We find that the kinase activity of Fyn is stimulated as a result of binding to WASP, and that a cellular protein, which may be WASP itself, becomes phosphorylated on tyrosine as a result of the binding of WASP to Fyn.

    Molecular biology reports 1999;26;3;173-7

  • Identification of two human WAVE/SCAR homologues as general actin regulatory molecules which associate with the Arp2/3 complex.

    Suetsugu S, Miki H and Takenawa T

    Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Medical Science, Tokyo, Japan.

    WAVE/SCAR protein was identified as a protein which has similarity to WASP and N-WASP, especially in its C terminal. Recently, WAVE/SCAR protein has been shown to cooperate with the Arp2/3 complex, a nucleation core for actin polymerization in vitro. However, in spite of its general function, WAVE/SCAR expression is mainly restricted to the brain, suggesting the existence of related molecule(s). We here identified two human WAVE/SCAR homologues, which cover other organs. We named the original WAVE1 and newly identified ones WAVE2 and WAVE3. WAVE2 had a very wide distribution with strong expression in peripheral blood leukocytes and mapped on chromosome Xp11.21, next to the WASP locus. WAVE3 and WAVE1 had similar distributions. WAVE3 was strongly expressed in brain and mapped on chromosome 13q12. WAVE1 was mapped on chromosome 6q21-22. Ectopically expressed WAVE2 and WAVE3 induced actin filament clusters in a similar manner with WAVE1. These actin cluster formations were suppressed by deletion of their C-terminal VPH (verproline homology)/WH2 (WASP homology 2) domain. Further, WAVE2 and WAVE3 associate with the Arp2/3 complex as does WAVE1. Our identification of WAVE homologues suggests that WAVE family proteins have general function for regulating the actin cytoskeleton in many tissues.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 1999;260;1;296-302

  • Scar1 and the related Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein, WASP, regulate the actin cytoskeleton through the Arp2/3 complex.

    Machesky LM and Insall RH

    MRC-LMCB, Department of Molecular Medicine, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK. machesky@pugh.bip.bham

    Background: The actin-related proteins Arp2 and Arp3 are part of a seven-protein complex which is localized in the lamellipodia of a variety of cell types, and in actin-rich spots of unknown function. The Arp2/3 complex enhances actin nucleation and causes branching and crosslinking of actin filaments in vitro; in vivo it is thought to drive the formation of lamellipodia and to be a control center for actin-based motility. The Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein, WASP, is an adaptor protein implicated in the transmission of signals from tyrosine kinase receptors and small GTPases to the actin cytoskeleton. Scar1 is a member of a new family of proteins related to WASP, and it may also have a role in regulating the actin cytoskeleton. Scar1 is the human homologue of Dictyostelium Scar1, which is thought to connect G-protein-coupled receptors to the actin cytoskeleton. The mammalian Scar family contains at least four members. We have examined the relationships between WASP, Scar1, and the Arp2/3 complex.

    Results: We have identified WASP and its relative Scar1 as proteins that interact with the Arp2/3 complex. We have used deletion analysis to show that both WASP and Scar1 interact with the p21 subunit of the Arp2/3 complex through their carboxyl termini. Overexpression of carboxy-terminal fragments of Scar1 or WASP in cells caused a disruption in the localization of the Arp2/3 complex and, concomitantly, induced a complete loss of lamellipodia and actin spots. The induction of lamellipodia by platelet-derived growth factor was also suppressed by overexpression of the fragment of Scar1 that binds to the Arp2/3 complex.

    Conclusions: We have identified a conserved sequence domain in proteins of the WASP family that binds to the Arp2/3 complex. Overexpression of this domain in cells disrupts the localization of the Arp2/3 complex and inhibits lamellipodia formation. Our data suggest that WASP-related proteins may regulate the actin cytoskeleton through the Arp2/3 complex.

    Current biology : CB 1998;8;25;1347-56

  • WAVE, a novel WASP-family protein involved in actin reorganization induced by Rac.

    Miki H, Suetsugu S and Takenawa T

    Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108, Japan.

    Rac is a Rho-family small GTPase that induces the formation of membrane ruffles. However, it is poorly understood how Rac-induced reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton, which is essential for ruffle formation, is regulated. Here we identify a novel Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP)-family protein, WASP family Verprolin-homologous protein (WAVE), as a regulator of actin reorganization downstream of Rac. Ectopically expressed WAVE induces the formation of actin filament clusters that overlap with the expressed WAVE itself. In this actin clustering, profilin, a monomeric actin-binding protein that has been suggested to be involved in actin polymerization, was shown to be essential. The expression of a dominant-active Rac mutant induces the translocation of endogenous WAVE from the cytosol to membrane ruffling areas. Furthermore, the co-expression of a deltaVPH WAVE mutant that cannot induce actin reorganization specifically suppresses the ruffle formation induced by Rac, but has no effect on Cdc42-induced actin-microspike formation, a phenomenon that is also known to be dependent on rapid actin reorganization. The deltaVPH WAVE also suppresses membrane-ruffling formation induced by platelet-derived growth factor in Swiss 3T3 cells. Taken together, we conclude that WAVE plays a critical role downstream of Rac in regulating the actin cytoskeleton required for membrane ruffling.

    The EMBO journal 1998;17;23;6932-41

  • PSTPIP 2, a second tyrosine phosphorylated, cytoskeletal-associated protein that binds a PEST-type protein-tyrosine phosphatase.

    Wu Y, Dowbenko D and Lasky LA

    Department of Molecular Oncology, Genentech, Inc., South San Francisco, California 94080, USA.

    Although cytoskeletal regulation is critical to cell function during interphase and mitosis, the components of the cytoskeleton involved with its control are only beginning to be elucidated. Recently, we reported the identification of a cytoskeletal-associated protein, proline-serine-threonine phosphatase-interacting protein (PSTPIP), whose level of tyrosine phosphorylation was controlled by PEST-type protein-tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) bound to a novel protein interaction site in the PSTPIP predicted coiled-coil domain. We also showed that the PSTPIP SH3 domain interacts with the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP), a cytoskeletal regulatory protein, in a manner modulated by tyrosine phosphorylation. Here we describe the identification of PSTPIP 2, a widely expressed protein that is related to PSTPIP. PSTPIP 2 lacks an SH3 domain but contains a region predicted to bind to PEST-type PTPs, and structure-function analyses demonstrate that PSTPIP 2 interacts with the proline-rich C terminus of the PEST-type PTP hematopoietic stem cell factor in a manner similar to that previously demonstrated for PSTPIP. Confocal microscopy revealed that PSTPIP 2 colocalizes with PSTPIP in F actin-rich regions. PSTPIP 2 was found to be efficiently phosphorylated in v-Src-transfected or pervanadate-treated cells at two tyrosines conserved in PSTPIP, but in contrast to PSTPIP, tyrosine phosphorylated PSTPIP 2 was only weakly dephosphorylated in the presence of PTP HSCF. Finally, analysis of oligomer formation demonstrated that PSTPIP and PSTPIP 2 formed homo- but not heterodimers. These data suggest that a family of tyrosine phosphorylated, PEST PTP binding proteins may be implicated in cytoskeletal regulation.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1998;273;46;30487-96

  • SCAR, a WASP-related protein, isolated as a suppressor of receptor defects in late Dictyostelium development.

    Bear JE, Rawls JF and Saxe CL

    Department of Cell Biology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia 30322-3030, USA.

    G protein-coupled receptors trigger the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton in many cell types, but the steps in this signal transduction cascade are poorly understood. During Dictyostelium development, extracellular cAMP functions as a chemoattractant and morphogenetic signal that is transduced via a family of G protein-coupled receptors, the cARs. In a strain where the cAR2 receptor gene is disrupted by homologous recombination, the developmental program arrests before tip formation. In a genetic screen for suppressors of this phenotype, a gene encoding a protein related to the Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome protein was discovered. Loss of this protein, which we call SCAR (suppressor of cAR), restores tip formation and most later development to cAR2(-) strains, and causes a multiple-tip phenotype in a cAR2(+) strain as well as leading to the production of extremely small cells in suspension culture. SCAR-cells have reduced levels of F-actin staining during vegetative growth, and abnormal cell morphology and actin distribution during chemotaxis. Uncharacterized homologues of SCAR have also been identified in humans, mouse, Caenorhabditis elegans, and Drosophila. These data suggest that SCAR may be a conserved negative regulator of G protein-coupled signaling, and that it plays an important role in regulating the actin cytoskeleton.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM45705

    The Journal of cell biology 1998;142;5;1325-35

  • In mouse brain profilin I and profilin II associate with regulators of the endocytic pathway and actin assembly.

    Witke W, Podtelejnikov AV, Di Nardo A, Sutherland JD, Gurniak CB, Dotti C and Mann M

    Mouse Biology Programme, EMBL, Monterotondo/Rome, Italy. witke@embl-heidelberg.de

    Profilins are thought to be essential for regulation of actin assembly. However, the functions of profilins in mammalian tissues are not well understood. In mice profilin I is expressed ubiquitously while profilin II is expressed at high levels only in brain. In extracts from mouse brain, profilin I and profilin II can form complexes with regulators of endocytosis, synaptic vesicle recycling and actin assembly. Using mass spectrometry and database searching we characterized a number of ligands for profilin I and profilin II from mouse brain extracts including dynamin I, clathrin, synapsin, Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase, the Rac-associated protein NAP1 and a member of the NSF/sec18 family. In vivo, profilins co-localize with dynamin I and synapsin in axonal and dendritic processes. Our findings strongly suggest that in brain profilin I and profilin II complexes link the actin cytoskeleton and endocytic membrane flow, directing actin and clathrin assembly to distinct membrane domains.

    The EMBO journal 1998;17;4;967-76

  • Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein is associated with the adapter protein Grb2 and the epidermal growth factor receptor in living cells.

    She HY, Rockow S, Tang J, Nishimura R, Skolnik EY, Chen M, Margolis B and Li W

    Ben May Institute for Cancer Research, University of Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA.

    Src homology domains [i.e., Src homology domain 2 (SH2) and Src homology domain 3 (SH3)] play a critical role in linking receptor tyrosine kinases to downstream signaling networks. A well-defined function of the SH3-SH2-SH3 adapter Grb2 is to link receptor tyrosine kinases, such as the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), to the p21ras-signaling pathway. Grb2 has also been implicated to play a role in growth factor-regulated actin assembly and receptor endocytosis, although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we show that Grb2 interacts through its SH3 domains with the human Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASp), which plays a role in regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. We find that WASp is expressed in a variety of cell types and is exclusively cytoplasmic. Although the N-terminal SH3 domain of Grb2 binds significantly stronger than the C-terminal SH3 domain to WASp, full-length Grb2 shows the strongest binding. Both phosphorylation of WASp and its interaction with Grb2, as well as with another adapter protein Nck, remain constitutive in serum-starved or epidermal growth factor-stimulated cells. WASp coimmunoprecipitates with the activated EGFR after epidermal growth factor stimulation. Purified glutathione S-transferase-full-length-Grb2 fusion protein, but not the individual domains of Grb2, enhances the association of WASp with the EGFR, suggesting that Grb2 mediates the association of WASp with EGFR. This study suggests that Grb2 translocates WASp from the cytoplasm to the plasma membrane and the Grb2-WASp complex may play a role in linking receptor tyrosine kinases to the actin cytoskeleton.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R01CA65567-01A1

    Molecular biology of the cell 1997;8;9;1709-21

  • Prediction of the coding sequences of unidentified human genes. VI. The coding sequences of 80 new genes (KIAA0201-KIAA0280) deduced by analysis of cDNA clones from cell line KG-1 and brain.

    Nagase T, Seki N, Ishikawa K, Ohira M, Kawarabayasi Y, Ohara O, Tanaka A, Kotani H, Miyajima N and Nomura N

    Kazusa DNA Research Institute, Chiba, Japan.

    In this series of projects of sequencing human cDNA clones which correspond to relatively long and nearly full-length transcripts, we newly determined the sequences of 80 clones, and predicted the coding sequences of the corresponding genes, named KIAA0201 to KIAA0280. Among the sequenced clones, 68 were obtained from human immature myeloid cell line KG-1 and 12 from human brain. The average size of the clones was 5.3 kb, and that of distinct ORFs in clones was 2.8 kb, corresponding to a protein of approximately 100 kDa. Computer search against the public databases indicated that the sequences of 22 genes were unrelated to any reported genes, while the remaining 58 genes carried sequences which show some similarities to known genes. Protein motifs that matched those in the PROSITE motif database were found in 25 genes and significant transmembrane domains were identified in 30 genes. Among the known genes to which significant similarity was shown, the genes that play key roles in regulation of developmental stages, apoptosis and cell-to-cell interaction were included. Taking into account of both the search data on sequence similarity and protein motifs, at least seven genes were considered to be related to transcriptional regulation and six genes to signal transduction. When the expression profiles of the cDNA clones were examined with different human tissues, about half of the clones from brain (5 of 11) showed significant tissue-specificity, while approximately 80% of the genes from KG-1 were expressed ubiquitously.

    DNA research : an international journal for rapid publication of reports on genes and genomes 1996;3;5;321-9, 341-54

  • Molecular cloning of p125Nap1, a protein that associates with an SH3 domain of Nck.

    Kitamura T, Kitamura Y, Yonezawa K, Totty NF, Gout I, Hara K, Waterfield MD, Sakaue M, Ogawa W and Kasuga M

    Second Department of Internal Medicine, Kobe University School of Medicine, 7-5-1 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Japan.

    Binding proteins to the Src homology 3 (SH3) domains of Nck were screened by the use of glutathione S-transferase fusion proteins. Two proteins of 140 and 125 kDa were detected, both of which associated preferentially with the first SH3 domain of Nck. The 125-kDa protein, designated as Nap1 for Nck-associated protein 1, was purified and the corresponding rat cDNA was isolated. The predicted amino acid sequence revealed that p125Nap1 does not contain any known functional motif but shows sequence homology to Hem family gene. Using specific antibodies, p125Nap1 was shown to associate with Nck both in vitro and in intact cells. Further characterization of p125Nap1 may clarify the protein-protein interaction in the downstream signaling of Nck.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 1996;219;2;509-14

  • Preliminary biochemical characterization of two angiotensin II receptor subtypes.

    Whitebread S, Mele M, Kamber B and de Gasparo M

    Research Department, Ciba-Geigy Limited, Basle, Switzerland.

    Two angiotensin II receptor subtypes (A and B) are described from rat and human tissues. They have been characterised using specific peptidic and non-peptidic ligands with affinities differing by 1000 fold or more. These subtypes are present in adrenal glomerulosa of both species. Human uterus contains only subtype A, whereas both subtypes are found in rat uterus. Vascular smooth muscle cells in culture express only subtype B. Dithio-threitol totally inhibits binding to subtype B, but enhances the affinity to subtype A. There is a good correlation between the affinities of the selected agonists and antagonists for the two subtypes in the various tissues tested which is a usual requirement for receptor classification.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 1989;163;1;284-91

Gene lists (6)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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