G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
G00001828
Gene symbol
SYNPO (HGNC)
Species
Homo sapiens
Description
synaptopodin
Orthologue
G00000579 (Mus musculus)

Databases (7)

Gene
ENSG00000171992 (Ensembl human gene)
11346 (Entrez Gene)
333 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
SYNPO (GeneCards)
Literature
608155 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:30672 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
Q8N3V7 (UniProt)

Synonyms (1)

  • KIAA1029

Literature (24)

Pubmed - other

  • KIBRA modulates directional migration of podocytes.

    Duning K, Schurek EM, Schlüter M, Bayer M, Reinhardt HC, Schwab A, Schaefer L, Benzing T, Schermer B, Saleem MA, Huber TB, Bachmann S, Kremerskothen J, Weide T and Pavenstädt H

    Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik D, Universitätsklinikum Münster, Münster, Germany.

    Asymmetric delivery and distribution of macromolecules are essential for cell polarity and for cellular functions such as differentiation, division, and signaling. Injury of podocytes, which are polarized epithelial cells, changes the dynamics of the actin meshwork, resulting in foot process retraction and proteinuria. Although the spatiotemporal control of specific protein-protein interactions is crucial for the establishment of cell polarity, the mechanisms controlling polarity-dependent differentiation and division are incompletely understood. In this study, yeast two-hybrid screens were performed using a podocyte cDNA library and the polarity protein PATJ as bait. The protein KIBRA was identified as an interaction partner of PATJ and was localized to podocytes, tubular structures, and collecting ducts. The last four amino acids of KIBRA mediated binding to the eighth PDZ domain of PATJ. In addition, KIBRA directly bound to synaptopodin, an essential organizer of the podocyte cytoskeleton. Stable knockdown of KIBRA in immortalized podocytes impaired directed cell migration, suggesting that KIBRA modulates the motility of podocytes by linking polarity proteins and cytoskeleton-associated protein complexes.

    Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : JASN 2008;19;10;1891-903

  • Glomerular expression of nephrin and synaptopodin, but not podocin, is decreased in kidney sections from women with preeclampsia.

    Garovic VD, Wagner SJ, Petrovic LM, Gray CE, Hall P, Sugimoto H, Kalluri R and Grande JP

    Division of Nephrology and Hypertension Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, Minnesota 55905, USA. garovic.vesna@mayo.edu

    Background: Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific disorder characterized by hypertension and proteinuria. In other disease states, proteinuria has been linked to altered expressions of podocyte foot-process proteins, but this has not been studied in women with preeclampsia. We sought to test the hypothesis that proteinuria in preeclampsia is associated with dysregulated expression of the podocyte cytoskeleton and/or tight junction proteins.

    Methods: Renal tissue was obtained from autopsy material from seven women who had severe preeclampsia during the second half of their pregnancies up to 48 h after delivery, and who subsequently died. As controls, we used autopsy material from two women who died accidentally during the second half of their otherwise normal pregnancies. Immunohistochemical stains for nephrin, synaptopodin and podocin were performed on representative sections prepared from paraffin-embedded material.

    Results: Expression of both nephrin and synaptopodin was markedly decreased in preeclamptic compared with control kidney sections. By contrast, both cases and controls demonstrated strong staining for podocin.

    Conclusions: We conclude that down-regulation of nephrin and synaptopodin is associated with proteinuria in women with preeclampsia. Recent studies have demonstrated that soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (sFlt-1) levels are elevated in preeclampsia compared with normal pregnancy. Studies in mice have shown that sFlt-1 may play a role in inducing proteinuria by neutralizing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and suppressing nephrin. Proteinuria and elevations of sFlt-1 in preeclampsia are temporally related, further supporting a possible role of sFlt-1 in the dysregulation of podocyte foot-process proteins.

    Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation : official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association 2007;22;4;1136-43

  • Global, in vivo, and site-specific phosphorylation dynamics in signaling networks.

    Olsen JV, Blagoev B, Gnad F, Macek B, Kumar C, Mortensen P and Mann M

    Center for Experimental BioInformatics, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5230 Odense, Denmark.

    Cell signaling mechanisms often transmit information via posttranslational protein modifications, most importantly reversible protein phosphorylation. Here we develop and apply a general mass spectrometric technology for identification and quantitation of phosphorylation sites as a function of stimulus, time, and subcellular location. We have detected 6,600 phosphorylation sites on 2,244 proteins and have determined their temporal dynamics after stimulating HeLa cells with epidermal growth factor (EGF) and recorded them in the Phosida database. Fourteen percent of phosphorylation sites are modulated at least 2-fold by EGF, and these were classified by their temporal profiles. Surprisingly, a majority of proteins contain multiple phosphorylation sites showing different kinetics, suggesting that they serve as platforms for integrating signals. In addition to protein kinase cascades, the targets of reversible phosphorylation include ubiquitin ligases, guanine nucleotide exchange factors, and at least 46 different transcriptional regulators. The dynamic phosphoproteome provides a missing link in a global, integrative view of cellular regulation.

    Cell 2006;127;3;635-48

  • Expression of synaptopodin and GLEPP1 as markers of steroid responsiveness in primary focal segmental glomerulosclerosis.

    Hirakawa M, Tsuruya K, Yotsueda H, Tokumoto M, Ikeda H, Katafuchi R, Fujimi S, Hirakata H and Iida M

    Department of Medicine and Clinical Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Maidashi, Fukuoka, Japan.

    The crucial involvement of podocyte failure in the development of hereditary focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) indicates that specific podocyte proteins are closely related to podocyte function and biology. We hypothesized that podocyte failure, reflected by alteration of these proteins, leads not only to FSGS but also to resistance to steroid therapy. We investigated the association between expression of synaptopodin and glomerular epithelial protein 1 (GLEPP1) and response to corticosteroid therapy in primary FSGS. The subjects of this retrospective study were 17 adult patients with primary FSGS with nephrotic syndrome (NS) seen at Fukuoka Red Cross Hospital between 1979 and 2001. They were divided into two groups according to the response to steroid therapy at 6months: responders (n=10) and non-responders (persistence of nephrotic-range proteinuria, n=7). Expression levels of synaptopodin and GLEPP1 were examined immunohistochemically using image analysis software. Low expression levels of both proteins were associated with poor steroid responsiveness in FSGS. The average gray values for synaptopodin and GLEPP1 expression in responders vs. non-responders were 9.0+/-0.7 (mean+/-S.E.M.) vs. 6.3+/-0.9 (P=0.04) and 9.6+/-1.2 vs. 6.0+/-1.0 (P=0.04), respectively. The percentages of glomerular area staining for synaptopodin and GLEPP1 in responders vs. non-responders were 15.4+/-2.7% vs. 8.1+/-1.2% (P=0.045) and 11.9+/-1.6% vs. 6.0+/-1.3% (P=0.02), respectively. Synaptopodin expression correlated with the severity of proteinuria and with GLEPP1 expression. Reduced expression of both synaptopodin and GLEPP1 is associated with poor response to steroid therapy in primary FSGS.

    Life sciences 2006;79;8;757-63

  • Synaptopodin orchestrates actin organization and cell motility via regulation of RhoA signalling.

    Asanuma K, Yanagida-Asanuma E, Faul C, Tomino Y, Kim K and Mundel P

    Department of Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029, USA.

    The Rho family of small GTPases (RhoA, Rac1 and Cdc42) controls signal-transduction pathways that influence many aspects of cell behaviour, including cytoskeletal dynamics. At the leading edge, Rac1 and Cdc42 promote cell motility through the formation of lamellipodia and filopodia, respectively. On the contrary, RhoA promotes the formation of contractile actin-myosin-containing stress fibres in the cell body and at the rear. Here, we identify synaptopodin, an actin-associated protein, as a novel regulator of RhoA signalling and cell migration in kidney podocytes. We show that synaptopodin induces stress fibres by competitive blocking of Smurf1-mediated ubiquitination of RhoA, thereby preventing the targeting of RhoA for proteasomal degradation. Gene silencing of synaptopodin in kidney podocytes causes the loss of stress fibres and the formation of aberrant non-polarized filopodia and impairment of cell migration. Together, these data show that synaptopodin is essential for the integrity of the podocyte actin cytoskeleton and for the regulation of podocyte cell migration.

    Funded by: NIDA NIH HHS: DA18886; NIDDK NIH HHS: DK064236, DK57683

    Nature cell biology 2006;8;5;485-91

  • The LIFEdb database in 2006.

    Mehrle A, Rosenfelder H, Schupp I, del Val C, Arlt D, Hahne F, Bechtel S, Simpson J, Hofmann O, Hide W, Glatting KH, Huber W, Pepperkok R, Poustka A and Wiemann S

    Division Molecular Genome Analysis, German Cancer Research Center, Im Neuenheimer Feld 580, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany. a.mehrle@dkfz.de

    LIFEdb (http://www.LIFEdb.de) integrates data from large-scale functional genomics assays and manual cDNA annotation with bioinformatics gene expression and protein analysis. New features of LIFEdb include (i) an updated user interface with enhanced query capabilities, (ii) a configurable output table and the option to download search results in XML, (iii) the integration of data from cell-based screening assays addressing the influence of protein-overexpression on cell proliferation and (iv) the display of the relative expression ('Electronic Northern') of the genes under investigation using curated gene expression ontology information. LIFEdb enables researchers to systematically select and characterize genes and proteins of interest, and presents data and information via its user-friendly web-based interface.

    Nucleic acids research 2006;34;Database issue;D415-8

  • Diversification of transcriptional modulation: large-scale identification and characterization of putative alternative promoters of human genes.

    Kimura K, Wakamatsu A, Suzuki Y, Ota T, Nishikawa T, Yamashita R, Yamamoto J, Sekine M, Tsuritani K, Wakaguri H, Ishii S, Sugiyama T, Saito K, Isono Y, Irie R, Kushida N, Yoneyama T, Otsuka R, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Kondo H, Wagatsuma M, Murakawa K, Ishida S, Ishibashi T, Takahashi-Fujii A, Tanase T, Nagai K, Kikuchi H, Nakai K, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Life Science Research Laboratory, Central Research Laboratory, Hitachi, Ltd., Kokubunji, Tokyo, 185-8601, Japan.

    By analyzing 1,780,295 5'-end sequences of human full-length cDNAs derived from 164 kinds of oligo-cap cDNA libraries, we identified 269,774 independent positions of transcriptional start sites (TSSs) for 14,628 human RefSeq genes. These TSSs were clustered into 30,964 clusters that were separated from each other by more than 500 bp and thus are very likely to constitute mutually distinct alternative promoters. To our surprise, at least 7674 (52%) human RefSeq genes were subject to regulation by putative alternative promoters (PAPs). On average, there were 3.1 PAPs per gene, with the composition of one CpG-island-containing promoter per 2.6 CpG-less promoters. In 17% of the PAP-containing loci, tissue-specific use of the PAPs was observed. The richest tissue sources of the tissue-specific PAPs were testis and brain. It was also intriguing that the PAP-containing promoters were enriched in the genes encoding signal transduction-related proteins and were rarer in the genes encoding extracellular proteins, possibly reflecting the varied functional requirement for and the restricted expression of those categories of genes, respectively. The patterns of the first exons were highly diverse as well. On average, there were 7.7 different splicing types of first exons per locus partly produced by the PAPs, suggesting that a wide variety of transcripts can be achieved by this mechanism. Our findings suggest that use of alternate promoters and consequent alternative use of first exons should play a pivotal role in generating the complexity required for the highly elaborated molecular systems in humans.

    Genome research 2006;16;1;55-65

  • HIV-1 Nef induces dedifferentiation of podocytes in vivo: a characteristic feature of HIVAN.

    Husain M, D'Agati VD, He JC, Klotman ME and Klotman PE

    Department of Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York 10029, USA. mohammad.husain@mssm.edu

    Objective: To determine the specific role of Nef in the pathogenesis of HIV-associated nephropathy.

    Design: Podocytes are highly differentiated non-dividing cells in the normal glomerulus, however, they undergo dedifferentiation and acquire a proliferative phenotype in HIVAN patients, in HIV-transgenic mice and if infected by HIV-1 in vitro. These changes are accompanied by loss of the maturation markers synaptopodin and WT1, and expression of the proliferation marker Ki-67. Previously, we mapped the gene responsible for these changes in vitro to HIV-1 Nef. To determine the role of Nef in vivo, we developed a transgenic mouse model in which Nef was exclusively expressed in podocytes.

    Methods: Transgenic mice were generated using a construct in which Nef expression was blocked by a floxed lacZ intervening gene. When crossed with another transgenic mice expressing Cre under the Podocin promoter (a podocyte specific gene), the intervening lacZ gene was removed activating the expression of Nef in podocytes. The in vivo expression profiles of the Nef, the proliferation marker Ki-67, the differentiation markers synaptopodin and WT1, and phospho-Stat3, were determined by immunohistochemistry.

    Results: Podocyte-specific expression of Nef induced loss of synaptopodin and WT1, and expression of Ki-67 in podocytes. Furthermore, Nef activated expression of phospho-Stat3, one of the downstream signaling pathways for cell proliferation.

    Conclusions: We conclude that Nef induces the early molecular changes in podocytes that are essential for the dedifferentiation and proliferation of podocytes in HIVAN pathogenesis. These data provide the first clear molecular evidence that Nef alters the podocyte phenotype in vivo.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: 2 PO1 DK056492

    AIDS (London, England) 2005;19;17;1975-80

  • Synaptopodin regulates the actin-bundling activity of alpha-actinin in an isoform-specific manner.

    Asanuma K, Kim K, Oh J, Giardino L, Chabanis S, Faul C, Reiser J and Mundel P

    Department of Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York, New York, USA.

    Synaptopodin is the founding member of a novel class of proline-rich actin-associated proteins highly expressed in telencephalic dendrites and renal podocytes. Synaptopodin-deficient (synpo(-/-)) mice lack the dendritic spine apparatus and display impaired activity-dependent long-term synaptic plasticity. In contrast, the ultrastructure of podocytes in synpo(-/-) mice is normal. Here we show that synpo(-/-) mice display impaired recovery from protamine sulfate-induced podocyte foot process (FP) effacement and LPS-induced nephrotic syndrome. Similarly, synpo(-/-) podocytes show impaired actin filament reformation in vitro. We further demonstrate that synaptopodin exists in 3 isoforms, neuronal Synpo-short (685 AA), renal Synpo-long (903 AA), and Synpo-T (181 AA). The C terminus of Synpo-long is identical to that of Synpo-T. All 3 isoforms specifically interact with alpha-actinin and elongate alpha-actinin-induced actin filaments. synpo(-/-) mice lack Synpo-short and Synpo-long expression but show an upregulation of Synpo-T protein expression in podocytes, though not in the brain. Gene silencing of Synpo-T abrogates stress-fiber formation in synpo(-/-) podocytes, demonstrating that Synpo-T serves as a backup for Synpo-long in synpo(-/-) podocytes. In concert, synaptopodin regulates the actin-bundling activity of alpha-actinin in highly dynamic cell compartments, such as podocyte FPs and the dendritic spine apparatus.

    Funded by: NIDA NIH HHS: DA18886, R01 DA018886; NIDDK NIH HHS: DK062472, DK064236, DK57683, P50 DK064236, R01 DK057683, R01 DK062472

    The Journal of clinical investigation 2005;115;5;1188-98

  • Synaptopodin, a molecule involved in the formation of the dendritic spine apparatus, is a dual actin/alpha-actinin binding protein.

    Kremerskothen J, Plaas C, Kindler S, Frotscher M and Barnekow A

    Department for Experimental Tumorbiology, University of Muenster, Badestrasse 9, D-48149 Muenster, Germany. kremers@uni-muenster.de

    Synaptopodin (SYNPO) is a cytoskeletal protein that is preferentially located in mature dendritic spines, where it accumulates in the spine neck and closely associates with the spine apparatus. Formation of the spine apparatus critically depends on SYNPO. To further determine its molecular action, we screened for cellular binding partners. Using the yeast two-hybrid system and biochemical assays, SYNPO was found to associate with both F-actin and alpha-actinin. Ectopic expression of SYNPO in neuronal and non-neuronal cells induced actin aggregates, thus confirming a cytoplasmic interaction with the actin cytoskeleton. Whereas F-actin association is mediated by a central SYNPO motif, binding to alpha-actinin requires the C-terminal domain. Notably, the alpha-actinin binding domain is also essential for dendritic targeting and postsynaptic accumulation of SYNPO in primary neurons. Taken together, our data suggest that dendritic spine accumulation of SYNPO critically depends on its interaction with postsynaptic alpha-actinin and that SYNPO may regulate spine morphology, motility and function via its distinct modes of association with the actin cytoskeleton.

    Journal of neurochemistry 2005;92;3;597-606

  • Immunoaffinity profiling of tyrosine phosphorylation in cancer cells.

    Rush J, Moritz A, Lee KA, Guo A, Goss VL, Spek EJ, Zhang H, Zha XM, Polakiewicz RD and Comb MJ

    Cell Signaling Technology Inc., 166B Cummings Center, Beverly, Massachusetts 01915, USA.

    Tyrosine kinases play a prominent role in human cancer, yet the oncogenic signaling pathways driving cell proliferation and survival have been difficult to identify, in part because of the complexity of the pathways and in part because of low cellular levels of tyrosine phosphorylation. In general, global phosphoproteomic approaches reveal small numbers of peptides containing phosphotyrosine. We have developed a strategy that emphasizes the phosphotyrosine component of the phosphoproteome and identifies large numbers of tyrosine phosphorylation sites. Peptides containing phosphotyrosine are isolated directly from protease-digested cellular protein extracts with a phosphotyrosine-specific antibody and are identified by tandem mass spectrometry. Applying this approach to several cell systems, including cancer cell lines, shows it can be used to identify activated protein kinases and their phosphorylated substrates without prior knowledge of the signaling networks that are activated, a first step in profiling normal and oncogenic signaling networks.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: 1R43CA101106

    Nature biotechnology 2005;23;1;94-101

  • From ORFeome to biology: a functional genomics pipeline.

    Wiemann S, Arlt D, Huber W, Wellenreuther R, Schleeger S, Mehrle A, Bechtel S, Sauermann M, Korf U, Pepperkok R, Sültmann H and Poustka A

    Molecular Genome Analysis, German Cancer Research Center, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany. s.wiemann@dkfz.de

    As several model genomes have been sequenced, the elucidation of protein function is the next challenge toward the understanding of biological processes in health and disease. We have generated a human ORFeome resource and established a functional genomics and proteomics analysis pipeline to address the major topics in the post-genome-sequencing era: the identification of human genes and splice forms, and the determination of protein localization, activity, and interaction. Combined with the understanding of when and where gene products are expressed in normal and diseased conditions, we create information that is essential for understanding the interplay of genes and proteins in the complex biological network. We have implemented bioinformatics tools and databases that are suitable to store, analyze, and integrate the different types of data from high-throughput experiments and to include further annotation that is based on external information. All information is presented in a Web database (http://www.dkfz.de/LIFEdb). It is exploited for the identification of disease-relevant genes and proteins for diagnosis and therapy.

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2136-44

  • Nef stimulates proliferation of glomerular podocytes through activation of Src-dependent Stat3 and MAPK1,2 pathways.

    He JC, Husain M, Sunamoto M, D'Agati VD, Klotman ME, Iyengar R and Klotman PE

    Department of Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York, USA. cijiang.he@mssm.edu

    In collapsing focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) of HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN), podocytes exhibit a high proliferation rate and loss of differentiation markers. We have found previously that the nef gene of HIV-1 is responsible for these changes. Here, we investigated the signaling pathways induced by Nef and its role in the pathogenesis of HIVAN. Using conditionally immortalized podocytes after differentiation, we found that infection of podocytes with nef increased Src kinase activity and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) phosphorylation and activated the Ras-c-Raf-MAPK1,2 pathway. A dominant negative mutant of Src abolished the Nef effect, whereas inhibition of MAPK1,2 or dominant negative Stat3 reduced Nef effects partially. Reducing the expression of Nef with small interference RNA reversed the Nef effect. Mutation of Nef in the PxxP or R105R106 motifs diminished Nef signaling and the phenotypic changes in podocytes. Both phospho-MAPK1,2 and phospho-Stat3 staining increased in podocytes of kidneys from HIV-1 transgenic mice compared with their littermates and in podocytes of kidneys from HIVAN patients compared with HIV patients with non-HIVAN kidney diseases or non-HIV patients with idiopathic FSGS, classic FSGS, or minimal-change disease. These data suggest that Nef-induced activation of Stat3 and Ras-MAPK1,2 via Src-dependent pathways is responsible for podocyte proliferation and dedifferentiation, a characteristic finding in collapsing FSGS of HIVAN.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: K08 DK065495, P01 DK056492; NIGMS NIH HHS: R01 GM054508, R01 GM54508

    The Journal of clinical investigation 2004;114;5;643-51

  • Sequence comparison of human and mouse genes reveals a homologous block structure in the promoter regions.

    Suzuki Y, Yamashita R, Shirota M, Sakakibara Y, Chiba J, Mizushima-Sugano J, Nakai K and Sugano S

    Human Genome Center, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Minato-ku, Tokyo, 108-8639, Japan. ysuzuki@ims.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    Comparative sequence analysis was carried out for the regions adjacent to experimentally validated transcriptional start sites (TSSs), using 3324 pairs of human and mouse genes. We aligned the upstream putative promoter sequences over the 1-kb proximal regions and found that the sequence conservation could not be further extended at, on average, 510 bp upstream positions of the TSSs. This discontinuous manner of the sequence conservation revealed a "block" structure in about one-third of the putative promoter regions. Consistently, we also observed that G+C content and CpG frequency were significantly different inside and outside the blocks. Within the blocks, the sequence identity was uniformly 65% regardless of their length. About 90% of the previously characterized transcription factor binding sites were located within those blocks. In 46% of the blocks, the 5' ends were bounded by interspersed repetitive elements, some of which may have nucleated the genomic rearrangements. The length of the blocks was shortest in the promoters of genes encoding transcription factors and of genes whose expression patterns are brain specific, which suggests that the evolutional diversifications in the transcriptional modulations should be the most marked in these populations of genes.

    Genome research 2004;14;9;1711-8

  • Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.

    Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, Otsuki T, Sugiyama T, Irie R, Wakamatsu A, Hayashi K, Sato H, Nagai K, Kimura K, Makita H, Sekine M, Obayashi M, Nishi T, Shibahara T, Tanaka T, Ishii S, Yamamoto J, Saito K, Kawai Y, Isono Y, Nakamura Y, Nagahari K, Murakami K, Yasuda T, Iwayanagi T, Wagatsuma M, Shiratori A, Sudo H, Hosoiri T, Kaku Y, Kodaira H, Kondo H, Sugawara M, Takahashi M, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Furuya T, Kikkawa E, Omura Y, Abe K, Kamihara K, Katsuta N, Sato K, Tanikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ninomiya K, Ishibashi T, Yamashita H, Murakawa K, Fujimori K, Tanai H, Kimata M, Watanabe M, Hiraoka S, Chiba Y, Ishida S, Ono Y, Takiguchi S, Watanabe S, Yosida M, Hotuta T, Kusano J, Kanehori K, Takahashi-Fujii A, Hara H, Tanase TO, Nomura Y, Togiya S, Komai F, Hara R, Takeuchi K, Arita M, Imose N, Musashino K, Yuuki H, Oshima A, Sasaki N, Aotsuka S, Yoshikawa Y, Matsunawa H, Ichihara T, Shiohata N, Sano S, Moriya S, Momiyama H, Satoh N, Takami S, Terashima Y, Suzuki O, Nakagawa S, Senoh A, Mizoguchi H, Goto Y, Shimizu F, Wakebe H, Hishigaki H, Watanabe T, Sugiyama A, Takemoto M, Kawakami B, Yamazaki M, Watanabe K, Kumagai A, Itakura S, Fukuzumi Y, Fujimori Y, Komiyama M, Tashiro H, Tanigami A, Fujiwara T, Ono T, Yamada K, Fujii Y, Ozaki K, Hirao M, Ohmori Y, Kawabata A, Hikiji T, Kobatake N, Inagaki H, Ikema Y, Okamoto S, Okitani R, Kawakami T, Noguchi S, Itoh T, Shigeta K, Senba T, Matsumura K, Nakajima Y, Mizuno T, Morinaga M, Sasaki M, Togashi T, Oyama M, Hata H, Watanabe M, Komatsu T, Mizushima-Sugano J, Satoh T, Shirai Y, Takahashi Y, Nakagawa K, Okumura K, Nagase T, Nomura N, Kikuchi H, Masuho Y, Yamashita R, Nakai K, Yada T, Nakamura Y, Ohara O, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Helix Research Institute, 1532-3 Yana, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0812, Japan.

    As a base for human transcriptome and functional genomics, we created the "full-length long Japan" (FLJ) collection of sequenced human cDNAs. We determined the entire sequence of 21,243 selected clones and found that 14,490 cDNAs (10,897 clusters) were unique to the FLJ collection. About half of them (5,416) seemed to be protein-coding. Of those, 1,999 clusters had not been predicted by computational methods. The distribution of GC content of nonpredicted cDNAs had a peak at approximately 58% compared with a peak at approximately 42%for predicted cDNAs. Thus, there seems to be a slight bias against GC-rich transcripts in current gene prediction procedures. The rest of the cDNAs unique to the FLJ collection (5,481) contained no obvious open reading frames (ORFs) and thus are candidate noncoding RNAs. About one-fourth of them (1,378) showed a clear pattern of splicing. The distribution of GC content of noncoding cDNAs was narrow and had a peak at approximately 42%, relatively low compared with that of protein-coding cDNAs.

    Nature genetics 2004;36;1;40-5

  • Interaction of two actin-binding proteins, synaptopodin and alpha-actinin-4, with the tight junction protein MAGI-1.

    Patrie KM, Drescher AJ, Welihinda A, Mundel P and Margolis B

    Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 48109-0650, USA.

    In an attempt to find podocyte-expressed proteins that may interact with the tight junction protein MAGI-1, we screened a glomerulus-enriched cDNA library with a probe consisting of both WW domains of MAGI-1. One of the isolated clones contained two WW domain-binding motifs and was identified as a portion of the actin-bundling protein synaptopodin. In vitro binding assays confirmed this interaction between MAGI-1 and synaptopodin and identified the second WW domain of MAGI-1 to be responsible for the interaction. MAGI-1 and synaptopodin can also interact in vivo, as they can be immunoprecipitated together from HEK293 cell lysates. Another actin-bundling protein that is found in glomerular podocytes and shown to be mutated in an inheritable form of glomerulosclerosis is alpha-actinin-4. We show that alpha-actinin-4 is also capable of binding to MAGI-1 in in vitro binding assays and that this interaction is mediated by the fifth PDZ domain of MAGI-1 binding to the C terminus of alpha-actinin-4. Exogenously expressed synaptopodin and alpha-actinin-4 were found to colocalize along with endogenous MAGI-1 at the tight junction of Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. The interaction and colocalization of MAGI-1 with two actin-bundling proteins suggest that MAGI-1 may play a role in actin cytoskeleton dynamics within polarized epithelial cells.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: 2P50DK39255, 5F32DK09912-02, DK57683-01

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;33;30183-90

  • Toward a catalog of human genes and proteins: sequencing and analysis of 500 novel complete protein coding human cDNAs.

    Wiemann S, Weil B, Wellenreuther R, Gassenhuber J, Glassl S, Ansorge W, Böcher M, Blöcker H, Bauersachs S, Blum H, Lauber J, Düsterhöft A, Beyer A, Köhrer K, Strack N, Mewes HW, Ottenwälder B, Obermaier B, Tampe J, Heubner D, Wambutt R, Korn B, Klein M and Poustka A

    Molecular Genome Analysis, German Cancer Research Center, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany. s.wiemann@dkfz.de

    With the complete human genomic sequence being unraveled, the focus will shift to gene identification and to the functional analysis of gene products. The generation of a set of cDNAs, both sequences and physical clones, which contains the complete and noninterrupted protein coding regions of all human genes will provide the indispensable tools for the systematic and comprehensive analysis of protein function to eventually understand the molecular basis of man. Here we report the sequencing and analysis of 500 novel human cDNAs containing the complete protein coding frame. Assignment to functional categories was possible for 52% (259) of the encoded proteins, the remaining fraction having no similarities with known proteins. By aligning the cDNA sequences with the sequences of the finished chromosomes 21 and 22 we identified a number of genes that either had been completely missed in the analysis of the genomic sequences or had been wrongly predicted. Three of these genes appear to be present in several copies. We conclude that full-length cDNA sequencing continues to be crucial also for the accurate identification of genes. The set of 500 novel cDNAs, and another 1000 full-coding cDNAs of known transcripts we have identified, adds up to cDNA representations covering 2%--5 % of all human genes. We thus substantially contribute to the generation of a gene catalog, consisting of both full-coding cDNA sequences and clones, which should be made freely available and will become an invaluable tool for detailed functional studies.

    Genome research 2001;11;3;422-35

  • DNA cloning using in vitro site-specific recombination.

    Hartley JL, Temple GF and Brasch MA

    Life Technologies, Inc., Rockville, Maryland 20850, USA. jhartley@lifetech.com

    As a result of numerous genome sequencing projects, large numbers of candidate open reading frames are being identified, many of which have no known function. Analysis of these genes typically involves the transfer of DNA segments into a variety of vector backgrounds for protein expression and functional analysis. We describe a method called recombinational cloning that uses in vitro site-specific recombination to accomplish the directional cloning of PCR products and the subsequent automatic subcloning of the DNA segment into new vector backbones at high efficiency. Numerous DNA segments can be transferred in parallel into many different vector backgrounds, providing an approach to high-throughput, in-depth functional analysis of genes and rapid optimization of protein expression. The resulting subclones maintain orientation and reading frame register, allowing amino- and carboxy-terminal translation fusions to be generated. In this paper, we outline the concepts of this approach and provide several examples that highlight some of its potential.

    Genome research 2000;10;11;1788-95

  • Systematic subcellular localization of novel proteins identified by large-scale cDNA sequencing.

    Simpson JC, Wellenreuther R, Poustka A, Pepperkok R and Wiemann S

    Department of Cell Biology and Biophysics, EMBL Heidelberg, Germany.

    As a first step towards a more comprehensive functional characterization of cDNAs than bioinformatic analysis, which can only make functional predictions for about half of the cDNAs sequenced, we have developed and tested a strategy that allows their systematic and fast subcellular localization. We have used a novel cloning technology to rapidly generate N- and C-terminal green fluorescent protein fusions of cDNAs to examine the intracellular localizations of > 100 expressed fusion proteins in living cells. The entire analysis is suitable for automation, which will be important for scaling up throughput. For > 80% of these new proteins a clear intracellular localization to known structures or organelles could be determined. For the cDNAs where bioinformatic analyses were able to predict possible identities, the localization was able to support these predictions in 75% of cases. For those cDNAs where no homologies could be predicted, the localization data represent the first information.

    EMBO reports 2000;1;3;287-92

  • Prediction of the coding sequences of unidentified human genes. XIV. The complete sequences of 100 new cDNA clones from brain which code for large proteins in vitro.

    Kikuno R, Nagase T, Ishikawa K, Hirosawa M, Miyajima N, Tanaka A, Kotani H, Nomura N and Ohara O

    Kazusa DNA Research Institute, Kisarazu, Chiba, Japan.

    To extend our cDNA project for accumulating basic information on unidentified human genes, we newly determined the sequences of 100 cDNA clones from a set of size-fractionated human adult and fetal brain cDNA libraries, and predicted the coding sequences of the corresponding genes, named KIAA1019 to KIAA1118. The sequencing of these clones revealed that the average size of the inserts and corresponding open reading frames were 5.0 kb and 2.6 kb (880 amino acid residues), respectively. Database search of the predicted amino acid sequences classified 58 predicted gene products into the five functional categories, such as cell signaling/communication, cell structure/motility, nucleic acid management, protein management and cell division. It was also found that, for 34 gene products, homologues were detected in the databases, which were similar in sequence through almost the entire regions. The chromosomal locations of the genes were determined by using human-rodent hybrid panels unless their mapping data were already available in the public databases. The expression profiles of all the genes among 10 human tissues, 8 brain regions (amygdala, corpus callosum, cerebellum, caudate nucleus, hippocampus, substania nigra, subthalamic nucleus, and thalamus), spinal cord, fetal brain and fetal liver were also examined by reverse transcription-coupled polymerase chain reaction, products of which were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    DNA research : an international journal for rapid publication of reports on genes and genomes 1999;6;3;197-205

  • Synaptopodin: an actin-associated protein in telencephalic dendrites and renal podocytes.

    Mundel P, Heid HW, Mundel TM, Krüger M, Reiser J and Kriz W

    Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Heidelberg, Germany. peter.mundel@urz.uni-heidelberg.de

    Synaptopodin is an actin-associated protein of differentiated podocytes that also occurs as part of the actin cytoskeleton of postsynaptic densities (PSD) and associated dendritic spines in a subpopulation of exclusively telencephalic synapses. Amino acid sequences determined in purified rat kidney and forebrain synaptopodin and derived from human and mouse brain cDNA clones show no significant homology to any known protein. In particular, synaptopodin does not contain functional domains found in receptor-clustering PSD proteins. The open reading frame of synaptopodin encodes a polypeptide with a calculated Mr of 73.7 kD (human)/74.0 kD (mouse) and an isoelectric point of 9.38 (human)/9. 27 (mouse). Synaptopodin contains a high amount of proline ( approximately 20%) equally distributed along the protein, thus virtually excluding the formation of any globular domain. Sequence comparison between human and mouse synaptopodin revealed 84% identity at the protein level. In both brain and kidney, in vivo and in vitro, synaptopodin gene expression is differentiation dependent. During postnatal maturation of rat brain, synaptopodin is first detected by Western blot analysis at day 15 and reaches maximum expression in the adult animal. The exclusive synaptopodin synthesis in the telencephalon has been confirmed by in situ hybridization, where synaptopodin mRNA is only found in perikarya of the olfactory bulb, cerebral cortex, striatum, and hippocampus, i.e., the expression is restricted to areas of high synaptic plasticity. From these results and experiments with cultured cells we conclude that synaptopodin represents a novel kind of proline-rich, actin-associated protein that may play a role in modulating actin-based shape and motility of dendritic spines and podocyte foot processes.

    The Journal of cell biology 1997;139;1;193-204

  • Identification of 4370 expressed sequence tags from a 3'-end-specific cDNA library of human skeletal muscle by DNA sequencing and filter hybridization.

    Lanfranchi G, Muraro T, Caldara F, Pacchioni B, Pallavicini A, Pandolfo D, Toppo S, Trevisan S, Scarso S and Valle G

    A systematic study on the mRNA species expressed in the human skeletal muscle is presented in this paper. To carry on this study, a new method has been developed for the construction of unbiased cDNA libraries specially designed for the production of ESTs corresponding to the 3'-end portion of the mRNAs. The method has been applied to human skeletal muscle, where the analysis of the transcription profile is particularly difficult for the presence of several very abundant transcripts. To detect and quantify high-level mRNAs, the first 1054 ESTs were obtained from randomly selected clones. The 10 most abundant transcripts accounted for > 45% of the clones. Subsequently, these transcripts were identified by filter hybridization, thus making DNA sequencing more productive. Overall, 4370 clones were identified: 3372 by DNA sequencing and 998 by filter hybridization. The number of groups of sequences identifying individual transcripts was relatively low compared with other tissues, resulting in a total of 934 groups out of 4370 ESTs. Of these, 719 groups were represented by only one sequence.

    Genome research 1996;6;1;35-42

  • Initial assessment of human gene diversity and expression patterns based upon 83 million nucleotides of cDNA sequence.

    Adams MD, Kerlavage AR, Fleischmann RD, Fuldner RA, Bult CJ, Lee NH, Kirkness EF, Weinstock KG, Gocayne JD, White O et al.

    Institute for Genomic Research, Rockville, Maryland 20850, USA.

    In an effort to identify new genes and analyse their expression patterns, 174,472 partial complementary DNA sequences (expressed sequence tags (ESTs)), totalling more than 52 million nucleotides of human DNA sequence, have been generated from 300 cDNA libraries constructed from 37 distinct organs and tissues. These ESTs have been combined with an additional 118,406 ESTs from the database dbEST, for a total of 83 million nucleotides, and treated as a shotgun sequence assembly project. The assembly process yielded 29,599 distinct tentative human consensus (THC) sequences and 58,384 non-overlapping ESTs. Of these 87,983 distinct sequences, 10,214 further characterize previously known genes based on statistically significant similarity to sequences in the available databases; the remainder identify previously unknown genes. Thirty tissues were sampled by over 1,000 ESTs each; only eight genes were matched by ESTs from all 30 tissues, and 227 genes were represented in 20 or more of the tissues sampled with more than 1,000 ESTs. Approximately 40% of identified human genes appear to be associated with basic energy metabolism, cell structure, homeostasis and cell division, 22% with RNA and protein synthesis and processing, and 12% with cell signalling and communication.

    Nature 1995;377;6547 Suppl;3-174

Gene lists (7)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000013 G2C Homo sapiens Human mGluR5 Human orthologues of mouse mGluR5 complex adapted from Collins et al (2006) 52
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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