G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
ankyrin 2, neuronal
G00000576 (Mus musculus)

Databases (8)

Curated Gene
OTTHUMG00000132912 (Vega human gene)
ENSG00000145362 (Ensembl human gene)
287 (Entrez Gene)
992 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
ANK2 (GeneCards)
106410 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
Protein Sequence
Q01484 (UniProt)

Literature (41)

Pubmed - other

  • An ankyrin-based mechanism for functional organization of dystrophin and dystroglycan.

    Ayalon G, Davis JQ, Scotland PB and Bennett V

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Departments of Cell Biology, Biochemistry, and Neurobiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA.

    beta-dystroglycan (DG) and the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex (DGC) are localized at costameres and neuromuscular junctions in the sarcolemma of skeletal muscle. We present evidence for an ankyrin-based mechanism for sarcolemmal localization of dystrophin and beta-DG. Dystrophin binds ankyrin-B and ankyrin-G, while beta-DG binds ankyrin-G. Dystrophin and beta-DG require ankyrin-G for retention at costameres but not delivery to the sarcolemma. Dystrophin and beta-DG remain intracellular in ankyrin-B-depleted muscle, where beta-DG accumulates in a juxta-TGN compartment. The neuromuscular junction requires ankyrin-B for localization of dystrophin/utrophin and beta-DG and for maintenance of its postnatal morphology. A Becker muscular dystrophy mutation reduces ankyrin binding and impairs sarcolemmal localization of dystrophin-Dp71. Ankyrin-B also binds to dynactin-4, a dynactin subunit. Dynactin-4 and a subset of microtubules disappear from sarcolemmal sites in ankyrin-B-depleted muscle. Ankyrin-B thus is an adaptor required for sarcolemmal localization of dystrophin, as well as dynactin-4.

    Cell 2008;135;7;1189-200

  • Common genetic variants in ANK2 modulate QT interval: results from the KORA study.

    Sedlacek K, Stark K, Cunha SR, Pfeufer A, Weber S, Berger I, Perz S, Kääb S, Wichmann HE, Mohler PJ, Hengstenberg C and Jeron A

    Klinik und Poliklinik für Innere Medizin II, Universitätsklinikum Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany.

    Background: Spatial and timely variations in QT interval, even within its normal range, may underlie susceptibility to cardiac arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. Given its important role in cardiac electrophysiology, we hypothesized that common genetic variation in ankyrin-B gene (ANK2) might modify QT interval length.

    The study population consisted of 1188 participants of the World Health Organizational Multinational Monitoring of Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Disease (WHO MONICA) general population survey Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg (KORA S3). Corrected QT interval was calculated using population specific linear regression formulas. A total of 22 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the genomic region of ANK2 gene were genotyped using TaqMan technology. In a replication study, 6 single nucleotide polymorphisms were genotyped in 3890 individuals from a second population study (KORA S4). The rare variant of the single-nucleotide polymorphism rs6850768 (allele frequency, 0.28) significantly influenced duration of the QT interval, both in KORA S3 and KORA S4 populations. In homozygotes, the shortening of the QT interval was 3.79 ms (95% CI, 1.48 to 5.58; P=0.001 and P=0.0008 for log-additive and dominant model, respectively) in KORA S3 and 2.94 ms (95% CI, 1.11 to 4.77; P=0.001 and P=0.006 for log-additive and dominant genetic model, respectively) in KORA S4. A common 2-locus haplotype (rs11098171-rs6850768; population frequency, 28%) was associated with a QT interval difference of 2.85 ms (permutation; P=0.006) in KORA S3 and 1.23 ms (permutation; P=0.009) in KORA S4. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction expression analysis of the human ANK2 5' genomic region in the human left ventricular tissue revealed 2 previously unidentified ANK2 5' exons in the proximity of the identified variants.

    Conclusions: Common genetic variants juxtaposed with novel exons in the distant 5' genomic region of ANK2 influence the QT interval length in the general population. These findings support the role of ankyrin-B in normal cardiac electric activity.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL083422, HL084583

    Circulation. Cardiovascular genetics 2008;1;2;93-9

  • Exon organization and novel alternative splicing of the human ANK2 gene: implications for cardiac function and human cardiac disease.

    Cunha SR, Le Scouarnec S, Schott JJ and Mohler PJ

    Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA. shane-cunha@uiowa.edu

    Recent findings illustrate a critical role for ankyrin-B function in normal cardiovascular physiology. Specifically, decreased expression of ankyrin-B in mice or human mutations in the ankyrin-B gene (ANK2) results in potentially fatal cardiac arrhythmias. Despite the clear role of ankyrin-B in heart, the mechanisms underlying transcriptional regulation of ANK2 are unknown. In fact, to date there is no description of ANK2 genomic organization. The aims of this study were to provide a comprehensive description of the ANK2 gene and to evaluate the relative expression of alternative splicing events associated with ANK2 transcription in heart. Using reverse-transcriptase PCR on mRNA isolated from human hearts, we identify seven new exons associated with the ANK2 gene including an alternative first exon located approximately 145 kb upstream of the previously-identified first exon. In addition, we identify over thirty alternative splicing events associated with ANK2 mRNA transcripts. Using real-time PCR and exon boundary-spanning primers to selectively amplify these splice variants, we demonstrate that these variants are expressed at varying levels in human heart. Finally, ankyrin-B immunoblot analysis demonstrates the expression of a heterogeneous population of ankyrin-B polypeptides in heart. ANK2 consists of 53 exons that span approximately 560 kb on human chromosome 4. Additionally, our data demonstrates that ANK2 is subject to complex transcriptional regulation that likely results in differential ankyrin-B polypeptide function.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL083422, HL084583, R01 HL083422, R01 HL084583, R01 HL084583-01

    Journal of molecular and cellular cardiology 2008;45;6;724-34

  • Obscurin targets ankyrin-B and protein phosphatase 2A to the cardiac M-line.

    Cunha SR and Mohler PJ

    Department of Internal Medicine, University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA. shane-cunha@uiowa.edu

    Ankyrin-B targets ion channels and transporters in excitable cells. Dysfunction in ankyrin-B-based pathways results in defects in cardiac physiology. Despite a wealth of knowledge regarding the role of ankyrin-B for cardiac function, little is known regarding the mechanisms underlying ankyrin-B regulation. Moreover, the pathways underlying ankyrin-B targeting in heart are unclear. We report that alternative splicing regulates ankyrin-B localization and function in cardiomyocytes. Specifically, we identify a novel exon (exon 43') in the ankyrin-B regulatory domain that mediates interaction with the Rho-GEF obscurin. Ankyrin-B transcripts harboring exon 43' represent the primary cardiac isoform in human and mouse. We demonstrate that ankyrin-B and obscurin are co-localized at the M-line of myocytes and co-immunoprecipitate from heart. We define the structural requirements for ankyrin-B/obscurin interaction to two motifs in the ankyrin-B regulatory domain and demonstrate that both are critical for obscurin/ankyrin-B interaction. In addition, we demonstrate that interaction with obscurin is required for ankyrin-B M-line targeting. Specifically, both obscurin-binding motifs are required for the M-line targeting of a GFP-ankyrin-B regulatory domain. Moreover, this construct acts as a dominant-negative by competing with endogenous ankyrin-B for obscurin-binding at the M-line, thus providing a powerful new tool to evaluate the function of obscurin/ankyrin-B interactions. With this new tool, we demonstrate that the obscurin/ankyrin-B interaction is critical for recruitment of PP2A to the cardiac M-line. Together, these data provide the first evidence for the molecular basis of ankyrin-B and PP2A targeting and function at the cardiac M-line. Finally, we report that ankyrin-B R1788W is localized adjacent to the ankyrin-B obscurin-binding motif and increases binding activity for obscurin. In summary, our new findings demonstrate that ANK2 is subject to alternative splicing that gives rise to unique polypeptides with diverse roles in cardiac function.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL083422, HL084583

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2008;283;46;31968-80

  • Dysfunction in ankyrin-B-dependent ion channel and transporter targeting causes human sinus node disease.

    Le Scouarnec S, Bhasin N, Vieyres C, Hund TJ, Cunha SR, Koval O, Marionneau C, Chen B, Wu Y, Demolombe S, Song LS, Le Marec H, Probst V, Schott JJ, Anderson ME and Mohler PJ

    Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale, UMR 915, F-44000 Nantes, France.

    The identification of nearly a dozen ion channel genes involved in the genesis of human atrial and ventricular arrhythmias has been critical for the diagnosis and treatment of fatal cardiovascular diseases. In contrast, very little is known about the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying human sinus node dysfunction (SND). Here, we report a genetic and molecular mechanism for human SND. We mapped two families with highly penetrant and severe SND to the human ANK2 (ankyrin-B/AnkB) locus. Mice heterozygous for AnkB phenocopy human SND displayed severe bradycardia and rate variability. AnkB is essential for normal membrane organization of sinoatrial node cell channels and transporters, and AnkB is required for physiological cardiac pacing. Finally, dysfunction in AnkB-based trafficking pathways causes abnormal sinoatrial node (SAN) electrical activity and SND. Together, our findings associate abnormal channel targeting with human SND and highlight the critical role of local membrane organization for sinoatrial node excitability.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL079031, HL083422, HL084583, HL090905, HL62494, HL70250, R01 HL062494, R01 HL070250, R01 HL079031, R01 HL083422, R01 HL084583, R01 HL090905

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2008;105;40;15617-22

  • Revisiting ankyrin-InsP3 receptor interactions: ankyrin-B associates with the cytoplasmic N-terminus of the InsP3 receptor.

    Kline CF, Cunha SR, Lowe JS, Hund TJ and Mohler PJ

    Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Cardiology, University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA.

    Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP(3)) receptors are calcium-release channels found in the endoplasmic/sarcoplasmic reticulum (ER/SR) membrane of diverse cell types. InsP(3) receptors release Ca(2+) from ER/SR lumenal stores in response to InsP(3) generated from various stimuli. The complex spatial and temporal patterns of InsP(3) receptor-mediated Ca(2+) release regulate many cellular processes, ranging from gene transcription to memory. Ankyrins are adaptor proteins implicated in the targeting of ion channels and transporters to specialized membrane domains. Multiple independent studies have documented in vitro and in vivo interactions between ankyrin polypeptides and the InsP(3) receptor. Moreover, loss of ankyrin-B leads to loss of InsP(3) receptor membrane expression and stability in cardiomyocytes. Despite extensive biochemical and functional data, the validity of in vivo ankyrin-InsP(3) receptor interactions remains controversial. This controversy is based on inconsistencies between a previously identified ankyrin-binding region on the InsP(3) receptor and InsP(3) receptor topology data that demonstrate the inaccessibility of this lumenal binding site on the InsP(3) receptor to cytosolic ankyrin polypeptides. Here we use two methods to revisit the requirements on InsP(3) receptor for ankyrin binding. We demonstrate that ankyrin-B interacts with the cytoplasmic N-terminal domain of InsP(3) receptor. In summary, our findings demonstrate that the ankyrin-binding site is located on the cytoplasmic face of the InsP(3) receptor, thus validating the feasibility of in vivo ankyrin-InsP(3) receptor interactions.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: 5 T32 HL007121, R01 HL083422, R01 HL083422-05, R01 HL084583, R01 HL084583-04, R01HL083422, R01HL084583; NICHD NIH HHS: T32 HD007131

    Journal of cellular biochemistry 2008;104;4;1244-53

  • Ankyrin B modulates the function of Na,K-ATPase/inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor signaling microdomain.

    Liu X, Spicarová Z, Rydholm S, Li J, Brismar H and Aperia A

    Department of Woman and Child Health, Karolinska Institutet, Astrid Lindgren Children's Hospital, Q2:09, SE-171 76 Stockholm, Sweden.

    Na,K-ATPase and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptor (IP3R) can form a signaling microdomain that in the presence of ouabain triggers highly regular calcium oscillations. Downstream effects include NF-kappaB activation. Here we report that ankyrin B (Ank-B), expressed in most mammalian cells, plays a pivotal role in the function of the Na,K-ATPase/IP3R signaling microdomain. In studies performed on a monkey kidney cell line, we show that Ank-B co-precipitates with both Na,K-ATPase and IP3R. We identify the N terminus tail of the Na,K-ATPase catalytic subunit and the N-terminal portion 1-604 of the IP3R as novel binding sites for Ank-B. Knockdown of Ank-B with small interfering RNA reduced the expression of Ank-B to 15-30%. This down-regulation of Ank-B attenuated the interaction between Na,K-ATPase and IP3R, reduced the number of cells responding to pm doses of ouabain with calcium oscillations, altered the calcium oscillatory pattern, and abolished the ouabain effect on NF-kappaB. In contrast, Ank-B down-regulation had no effect on the ion transporting function of Na,K-ATPase and no effect on the distribution and apparent mobility of Na,K-ATPase in the plasma membrane.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2008;283;17;11461-8

  • Mutation analysis of candidate genes SCN1B, KCND3 and ANK2 in patients with clinical diagnosis of long QT syndrome.

    Raudenská M, Bittnerová A, Novotný T, Floriánová A, Chroust K, Gaillyová R, Semrád B, Kadlecová J, Sisáková M, Toman O and Spinar J

    Department of Genetics and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.

    The long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a monogenic disorder characterized by prolongation of the QT interval on electrocardiogram and syncope or sudden death caused by polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (torsades de pointes). In general, mutations in cardiac ion channel genes (KCNQ1, KCNH2, SCN5A, KCNE1, KCNE2) have been identified as a cause for LQTS. About 50-60 % of LQTS patients have an identifiable LQTS causing mutation in one of mentioned genes. In a group of 12 LQTS patients with no identified mutations in these genes we have tested a hypothesis that other candidate genes could be involved in LQTS pathophysiology. SCN1B and KCND3 genes encode ion channel proteins, ANK2 gene encodes cytoskeletal protein interacting with ion channels. To screen coding regions of genes SCN1B, KCND3, and 10 exons of ANK2 following methods were used: PCR, SSCP, and DNA sequencing. Five polymorphisms were found in screened candidate genes, 2 polymorphisms in KCND3 and 3 in SCN1B. None of found polymorphisms has coding effect nor is located close to splice sites or has any similarity to known splicing enhancer motifs. Polymorphism G246T in SCN1B is a novel one. No mutation directly causing LQTS was found. Molecular mechanism of LQTS genesis in these patients remains unclear.

    Physiological research 2008;57;6;857-62

  • Ankyrin-B syndrome: enhanced cardiac function balanced by risk of cardiac death and premature senescence.

    Mohler PJ, Healy JA, Xue H, Puca AA, Kline CF, Allingham RR, Kranias EG, Rockman HA and Bennett V

    Department of Internal Medicine, University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, Iowa, United States of America. peter-mohler@uiowa.edu

    Here we report the unexpected finding that specific human ANK2 variants represent a new example of balanced human variants. The prevalence of certain ANK2 (encodes ankyrin-B) variants range from 2 percent of European individuals to 8 percent in individuals from West Africa. Ankyrin-B variants associated with severe human arrhythmia phenotypes (eg E1425G, V1516D, R1788W) were rare in the general population. Variants associated with less severe clinical and in vitro phenotypes were unexpectedly common. Studies with the ankyrin-B(+/-) mouse reveal both benefits of enhanced cardiac contractility, as well as costs in earlier senescence and reduced lifespan. Together these findings suggest a constellation of traits that we term "ankyrin-B syndrome", which may contribute to both aging-related disorders and enhanced cardiac function.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL-26057, HL-64018, HL-77101, HL056687, HL083422, HL084583, P50 HL077101, R01 HL026057, R01 HL056687, R01 HL064018, R01 HL083422, R01 HL084583, R37 HL026057

    PloS one 2007;2;10;e1051

  • Systematic identification of SH3 domain-mediated human protein-protein interactions by peptide array target screening.

    Wu C, Ma MH, Brown KR, Geisler M, Li L, Tzeng E, Jia CY, Jurisica I and Li SS

    Department of Biochemistry and the Siebens-Drake Research Institute, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada.

    Systematic identification of direct protein-protein interactions is often hampered by difficulties in expressing and purifying the corresponding full-length proteins. By taking advantage of the modular nature of many regulatory proteins, we attempted to simplify protein-protein interactions to the corresponding domain-ligand recognition and employed peptide arrays to identify such binding events. A group of 12 Src homology (SH) 3 domains from eight human proteins (Swiss-Prot ID: SRC, PLCG1, P85A, NCK1, GRB2, FYN, CRK) were used to screen a peptide target array composed of 1536 potential ligands, which led to the identification of 921 binary interactions between these proteins and 284 targets. To assess the efficiency of the peptide array target screening (PATS) method in identifying authentic protein-protein interactions, we examined a set of interactions mediated by the PLCgamma1 SH3 domain by coimmunoprecipitation and/or affinity pull-downs using full-length proteins and achieved a 75% success rate. Furthermore, we characterized a novel interaction between PLCgamma1 and hematopoietic progenitor kinase 1 (HPK1) identified by PATS and demonstrated that the PLCgamma1 SH3 domain negatively regulated HPK1 kinase activity. Compared to protein interactions listed in the online predicted human interaction protein database (OPHID), the majority of interactions identified by PATS are novel, suggesting that, when extended to the large number of peptide interaction domains encoded by the human genome, PATS should aid in the mapping of the human interactome.

    Proteomics 2007;7;11;1775-85

  • Targeting and stability of Na/Ca exchanger 1 in cardiomyocytes requires direct interaction with the membrane adaptor ankyrin-B.

    Cunha SR, Bhasin N and Mohler PJ

    Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Cardiology, University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA.

    Na/Ca exchanger activity is important for calcium extrusion from the cardiomyocyte cytosol during repolarization. Animal models exhibiting altered Na/Ca exchanger expression display abnormal cardiac phenotypes. In humans, elevated Na/Ca exchanger expression/activity is linked with pathophysiological conditions including arrhythmia and heart failure. Whereas the molecular mechanisms underlying Na/Ca exchanger biophysical properties are widely studied and generally well characterized, the cellular pathways and molecular partners underlying the specialized membrane localization of Na/Ca exchanger in cardiac tissue are essentially unknown. In this report, we present the first direct evidence for a protein pathway required for Na/Ca exchanger localization and stability in primary cardiomyocytes. We define the minimal structural requirements on ankyrin-B for direct Na/Ca exchanger interactions. Moreover, using ankyrin-B mutants that lack Na/Ca exchanger binding activity, and primary cardiomyocytes with reduced ankyrin-B expression, we demonstrate that direct interaction with the membrane adaptor ankyrin-B is required for the localization and post-translational stability of Na/Ca exchanger 1 in neonatal mouse cardiomyocytes. These results raise exciting new questions regarding potentially dynamic roles for ankyrin proteins in the biogenesis and maintenance of specialized membrane domains in excitable cells.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: R01HL083422, R01HL084583; NIMH NIH HHS: T32MH065215

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2007;282;7;4875-83

  • Defining the cellular phenotype of "ankyrin-B syndrome" variants: human ANK2 variants associated with clinical phenotypes display a spectrum of activities in cardiomyocytes.

    Mohler PJ, Le Scouarnec S, Denjoy I, Lowe JS, Guicheney P, Caron L, Driskell IM, Schott JJ, Norris K, Leenhardt A, Kim RB, Escande D and Roden DM

    Department of Internal Medicine, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, USA. peter-mohler@uiowa.edu

    Background: Mutations in the ankyrin-B gene (ANK2) cause type 4 long-QT syndrome and have been described in kindreds with other arrhythmias. The frequency of ANK2 variants in large populations and molecular mechanisms underlying the variability in the clinical phenotypes are not established. More importantly, there is no cellular explanation for the range of severity of cardiac phenotypes associated with specific ANK2 variants.

    We performed a comprehensive screen of ANK2 in populations (control, congenital arrhythmia, drug-induced long-QT syndrome) of different ethnicities to discover unidentified ANK2 variants. We identified 7 novel nonsynonymous ANK2 variants; 4 displayed abnormal activity in cardiomyocytes. Including the 4 new variants, 9 human ANK2 loss-of-function variants have been identified. However, the clinical phenotypes associated with these variants vary strikingly, from no obvious phenotype to manifest long-QT syndrome and sudden death, suggesting that mutants confer a spectrum of cellular phenotypes. We then characterized the relative severity of loss-of-function properties of all 9 nonsynonymous ANK2 variants identified to date in primary cardiomyocytes and identified a range of in vitro phenotypes, including wild-type, simple loss-of-function, and severe loss-of-function activity, seen with the variants causing severe human phenotypes.

    Conclusions: We present the first description of differences in cellular phenotypes conferred by specific ANK2 variants. We propose that the various degrees of ankyrin-B loss of function contribute to the range of severity of cardiac dysfunction. These data identify ANK2 variants as modulators of human arrhythmias, provide the first insight into the clinical spectrum of "ankyrin-B syndrome," and reinforce the role of ankyrin-B-dependent protein interactions in regulating cardiac electrogenesis.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL65962, R01HL083422, R01HL084583

    Circulation 2007;115;4;432-41

  • Association of torsades de pointes with novel and known single nucleotide polymorphisms in long QT syndrome genes.

    Mank-Seymour AR, Richmond JL, Wood LS, Reynolds JM, Fan YT, Warnes GR, Milos PM and Thompson JF

    Pharmacogenomics, Molecular Profiling, Groton, CT, USA.

    Background: Reduction of drug-induced adverse events may be achievable through a better understanding of the underlying causes of such events. Identifying phenotypes and genotypes that allow event prediction would provide greater safety margins for new therapeutics. Torsades de pointes (TdP) is one such life-threatening adverse event and can arise from excessive lengthening of the QT interval. This study was designed to better understand the role of genetics in the development of TdP and to determine whether genotypes can be used to predict susceptibility and thus reduce adverse events.

    Methods: Seven known familial long QT syndrome genes were scanned for sequence variations in 34 patients with TdP. This group of patients is the largest such cohort ever assembled for this type of analysis. The allele frequencies for novel and known polymorphisms in these patients were compared with those in healthy control subjects.

    Results: Six novel mutations--4 in ANK2, 1 in KCNQ1, and 1 in SCN5A--were found in the patients with TdP. Two mutations were also found in 595 healthy control subjects, whereas the others were unique to patients with TdP. Two common single nucleotide polymorphisms may be associated with the risk of TdP. The entire ANK2 gene had not been screened in a population this large previously.

    Conclusions: Genotypes alone could not be used to completely predict susceptibility to TdP, even when used with phenotypes. The best model using genotypic and phenotypic variables was unable to predict all events. It is unclear what other risk genes or environmental effects might be necessary to predict such cases.

    American heart journal 2006;152;6;1116-22

  • Global, in vivo, and site-specific phosphorylation dynamics in signaling networks.

    Olsen JV, Blagoev B, Gnad F, Macek B, Kumar C, Mortensen P and Mann M

    Center for Experimental BioInformatics, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5230 Odense, Denmark.

    Cell signaling mechanisms often transmit information via posttranslational protein modifications, most importantly reversible protein phosphorylation. Here we develop and apply a general mass spectrometric technology for identification and quantitation of phosphorylation sites as a function of stimulus, time, and subcellular location. We have detected 6,600 phosphorylation sites on 2,244 proteins and have determined their temporal dynamics after stimulating HeLa cells with epidermal growth factor (EGF) and recorded them in the Phosida database. Fourteen percent of phosphorylation sites are modulated at least 2-fold by EGF, and these were classified by their temporal profiles. Surprisingly, a majority of proteins contain multiple phosphorylation sites showing different kinetics, suggesting that they serve as platforms for integrating signals. In addition to protein kinase cascades, the targets of reversible phosphorylation include ubiquitin ligases, guanine nucleotide exchange factors, and at least 46 different transcriptional regulators. The dynamic phosphoproteome provides a missing link in a global, integrative view of cellular regulation.

    Cell 2006;127;3;635-48

  • Analysis of ankyrin-B gene mutations in patients with long QT syndrome.

    Zhou X, Shimizu M, Konno T, Ino H, Fujino N, Uchiyama K, Mabuchi T, Kaneda T, Fujita T, Masuda E, Kato H, Funada A and Mabuchi H

    Department of Pathophysiology, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515, China. zhouslm93@yahoo.com.cn

    Objective: To identify the ankyrin-B gene mutations that cause long QT syndrome (LQTS) and determine the prevalence of such mutations in Japanese patients with LQTS.

    Methods: We conducted a search for ankyrin-B gene mutation in 78 unrelated patients with LQTS (28 males and 50 females, aged 2 to 89 years). With informed consent from all the subjects and/or their parents, genomic DNA was purified from the white blood cells of the patients and amplified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Single-strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP) analysis of the amplified DNA was performed to screen for mutations and aberrant SSCP products were isolated and sequenced by dye terminator cycle sequencing method using an automated fluorescent sequencer. PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis was carried out to further confirm the missense mutations by comparison with samples from 150 normal healthy individuals.

    Results: We identified a T to A transition mutation at position 4,603 in exon 40, resulting in the substitution of arginine for a tryptophan at amino acid residue 1,535 (W1535R) in the regulatory domain of 220-kD ankyrin-B, which is a highly conserved domain shared by different species.

    Conclusion: This novel missense mutation in the ankyrin-B gene may be a cause of type 4 LQTS. Ankyrin-B gene mutation might not play the major role in LQTS in Japanese.

    Nan fang yi ke da xue xue bao = Journal of Southern Medical University 2006;26;7;901-3, 909

  • Ankyrin-B coordinates the Na/K ATPase, Na/Ca exchanger, and InsP3 receptor in a cardiac T-tubule/SR microdomain.

    Mohler PJ, Davis JQ and Bennett V

    Department of Pathology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, USA. peter.j.mohler@vanderbilt.edu

    We report identification of an ankyrin-B-based macromolecular complex of Na/K ATPase (alpha 1 and alpha 2 isoforms), Na/Ca exchanger 1, and InsP3 receptor that is localized in cardiomyocyte T-tubules in discrete microdomains distinct from classic dihydropyridine receptor/ryanodine receptor "dyads." E1425G mutation of ankyrin-B, which causes human cardiac arrhythmia, also blocks binding of ankyrin-B to all three components of the complex. The ankyrin-B complex is markedly reduced in adult ankyrin-B(+/-) cardiomyocytes, which may explain elevated [Ca2+]i transients in these cells. Thus, loss of the ankyrin-B complex provides a molecular basis for cardiac arrhythmia in humans and mice. T-tubule-associated ankyrin-B, Na/Ca exchanger, and Na/K ATPase are not present in skeletal muscle, where ankyrin-B is expressed at 10-fold lower levels than in heart. Ankyrin-B also is not abundantly expressed in smooth muscle. We propose that the ankyrin-B-based complex is a specialized adaptation of cardiomyocytes with a role for cytosolic Ca2+ modulation.

    PLoS biology 2005;3;12;e423

  • Targeted mutational analysis of ankyrin-B in 541 consecutive, unrelated patients referred for long QT syndrome genetic testing and 200 healthy subjects.

    Sherman J, Tester DJ and Ackerman MJ

    Mayo Medical School, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, MN 55905, USA.

    Background: Mutations in ANK2-encoded ankyrin-B underlie long QT syndrome type 4 (LQT4) and various other dysrhythmia phenotypes.

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and spectrum of ankyrin-B mutations in a large cohort of unrelated patients referred for LQTS genetic testing and among healthy control subjects.

    Methods: Between August 1997 and July 2004, 541 consecutive, unrelated patients (358 females, average age at diagnosis 24 years, average QTc 482 ms) were referred to Mayo Clinic's Sudden Death Genomics Laboratory for comprehensive mutational analysis of the five cardiac channel genes implicated in LQTS: KCNQ1 (LQT1), KCNH2 (LQT2), SCN5A (LQT3), KCNE1 (LQT5), and KCNE2 (LQT6). Based on this prior analysis, 269 of 541 cases lacked an identifiable mutation (genotype negative). In this study, targeted mutational analysis of 10 ANK2 exons (36,37,39-46) encoding the critical C-terminal regulatory domain or implicated previously as hosting pathogenic mutations was performed on genomic DNA from 541 patients and 200 control subjects using polymerase chain reaction, denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography, and direct DNA sequencing.

    Results: Overall, 14 distinct nonsynonymous variants (10 novel) were observed in 9 (3.3%) of 269 genotype-negative LQTS patients, 5 (1.8%) of 272 genotype-positive LQTS cases, 4 (4%) of 100 white controls, and 9 (9%) of 100 black controls. Four variants found in controls (L1622I, T1626N, R1788W, and E1813K) were implicated previously as LQT4-associated mutations and displayed functional perturbations in vitro. All genotype-negative LQTS cases hosting ANK2 variants had been diagnosed as "atypical" or "borderline" cases, most presenting with normal QTc, nonexertional syncope, U waves, and/or sinus bradycardia.

    Conclusion: Nonsynonymous ankyrin-B variants were detected in nearly 3% of unrelated LQTS patients and nearly 7% of healthy control subjects. Genotype-negative LQTS patients with a single ANK2 variant displayed nonexertional syncope, U waves, sinus bradycardia, and extracardiac findings. Whether the identification of previously reported functionally significant variants residing in 2% of apparently healthy subjects suggests proarrhythmic potential or potential misclassification warrants further scrutiny.

    Funded by: NICHD NIH HHS: HD 42569

    Heart rhythm 2005;2;11;1218-23

  • The ammonium transporter RhBG: requirement of a tyrosine-based signal and ankyrin-G for basolateral targeting and membrane anchorage in polarized kidney epithelial cells.

    Lopez C, Métral S, Eladari D, Drevensek S, Gane P, Chambrey R, Bennett V, Cartron JP, Le Van Kim C and Colin Y

    INSERM, U665, Institut National de la Transfusion Sanguine, Paris F-75015, France.

    RhBG is a nonerythroid member of the Rhesus (Rh) protein family, mainly expressed in the kidney and belonging to the Amt/Mep/Rh superfamily of ammonium transporters. The epithelial expression of renal RhBG is restricted to the basolateral membrane of the connecting tubule and collecting duct cells. We report here that sorting and anchoring of RhBG to the basolateral plasma membrane require a cis-tyrosine-based signal and an association with ankyrin-G, respectively. First, we show by using a model of polarized epithelial Madin-Darby canine kidney cells that the targeting of transfected RhBG depends on a YED motif localized in the cytoplasmic C terminus of the protein. Second, we reveal by yeast two-hybrid analysis a direct interaction between an FLD determinant in the cytoplasmic C-terminal tail of RhBG and the third and fourth repeat domains of ankyrin-G. The biological relevance of this interaction is supported by two observations. (i) RhBG and ankyrin-G were colocalized in vivo in the basolateral domain of epithelial cells from the distal nephron by immunohistochemistry on kidney sections. (ii) The disruption of the FLD-binding motif impaired the membrane expression of RhBG leading to retention on cytoplasmic structures in transfected Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. Mutation of both targeting signal and ankyrin-G-binding site resulted in the same cell surface but nonpolarized expression pattern as observed for the protein mutated on the targeting signal alone, suggesting the existence of a close relationship between sorting and anchoring of RhBG to the basolateral domain of epithelial cells.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2005;280;9;8221-8

  • L1-mediated branching is regulated by two ezrin-radixin-moesin (ERM)-binding sites, the RSLE region and a novel juxtamembrane ERM-binding region.

    Cheng L, Itoh K and Lemmon V

    Department of Neurosciences, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106, USA.

    We investigated how the neural cell adhesion molecule L1 mediates neurite outgrowth through L1-L1 homophilic interactions. Wild-type L1 and L1 with mutations in the cytoplasmic domain (CD) were introduced into L1 knock-out neurons, and transfected neurons were grown on an L1 substrate. Neurite length and branching were compared between wild-type L1 and L1CD mutations. Surprisingly, the L1CD is not required for L1-mediated neurite outgrowth but plays a critical role in neurite branching, through both the juxtamembrane region and the RSLE region. We demonstrate that both regions serve as ezrin-moesin-radixin-binding sites. A truncation mutant that deletes 110 of 114 amino acids of the L1CD still supports neurite outgrowth on an L1 substrate, suggesting that a coreceptor binds to L1 in cis and mediates neurite outgrowth and that L1-ankyrin interactions are not essential for neurite initiation or outgrowth. These data are consistent with a model in which L1 can influence L1-mediated neurite outgrowth and branching through both the L1CD and a coreceptor.

    Funded by: NEI NIH HHS: EY-05285, EY-11373, P30 EY011373, R01 EY005285, R01 EY005285-23; NICHD NIH HHS: HD39884, R01 HD039884, R01 HD039884-06

    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 2005;25;2;395-403

  • Ankyrin-B targets beta2-spectrin to an intracellular compartment in neonatal cardiomyocytes.

    Mohler PJ, Yoon W and Bennett V

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA. p.mohler@cellbio.duke.edu

    Ankyrin-B is a spectrin-binding protein that is required for localization of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor and ryanodine receptor in neonatal cardiomyocytes. This work addresses the interaction between ankyrin-B and beta(2)-spectrin in these cells. Ankyrin-B and beta(2)-spectrin are colocalized in an intracellular striated compartment overlying the M-line and distinct from T-tubules, sarcoplasmic reticulum, Golgi, endoplasmic reticulum, lysosomes, and endosomes. Beta(2)-Spectrin is absent in ankyrin-B-null cardiomyocytes and is restored to a normal striated pattern by rescue with green fluorescent protein-220-kDa ankyrin-B. We identified two mutants (A1000P and DAR976AAA) located in the ZU5 domain which eliminate spectrin binding activity of ankyrin-B. Ankyrin-B mutants lacking spectrin binding activity are normally targeted but do not reestablish beta(2)-spectrin in ankyrin-B(+/-) cardiomyocytes. However, both mutant forms of ankyrin-B are still capable of restoring inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor localization and normal contraction frequency of cardiomyocytes. Therefore, direct binding of beta(2)-spectrin to ankyrin-B is required for the normal targeting of beta(2)-spectrin in neonatal cardiomyocytes. In contrast, ankyrin-B localization and function are independent of beta(2)-spectrin. In summary, this work demonstrates that interaction between members of the ankyrin and beta-spectrin families previously established in erythrocytes and axon initial segments also occurs in neonatal cardiomyocytes with ankyrin-B and beta(2)-spectrin. This work also establishes a functional hierarchy in which ankyrin-B determines the localization of beta(2)-spectrin and operates independently of beta(2)-spectrin in its role in organizing membrane-spanning proteins.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2004;279;38;40185-93

  • Analysis of erythrocyte and platelet membrane proteins in various forms of beta-thalassemia.

    Alekperova GA, Orudzhev AG and Javadov SA

    Azerbaijan Medical University, Baku 370022, Azerbaijan.

    Major membrane proteins have been quantitatively analyzed in erythrocytes and platelets from patients with homozygous (splenectomized and non-splenectomized) and heterozygous forms of beta-thalassemia depending on severity of clinical manifestation of this disease. Quantitative analysis of erythrocyte membrane proteins revealed increase in alpha- and beta-spectrin. (In non-splenectomized patients with homozygous beta-thalassemia the amount of this protein was lower than in corresponding controls.) Besides spectrin, the increase of 2.1-2.3 fractions of ankyrin, and the decrease of band 3 protein (anion-transport protein), 4.1, palladin, and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase were also found. Analysis of major platelet membrane proteins revealed significant increase in gelsolin. This increase was found in all forms of beta-thalassemia irrespective of gender. Significant changes in platelet membrane protein fractions were found in patients (especially non-splenectomized) with homozygous beta-thalassemia. These included significant decrease in myosin, profilin, and gamma-actin and increase in actin-binding protein in both male and female patients. The content of other protein fractions (alpha-actinin, tubulin, tropomyosin) remained unchanged. Changes in protein fractions of erythrocytes and platelets correlated with severity of clinical manifestation of the disease.

    Biochemistry. Biokhimiia 2004;69;7;748-53

  • A cardiac arrhythmia syndrome caused by loss of ankyrin-B function.

    Mohler PJ, Splawski I, Napolitano C, Bottelli G, Sharpe L, Timothy K, Priori SG, Keating MT and Bennett V

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Cell Biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA. p.mohler@cellbio.duke.edu

    220-kDa ankyrin-B is required for coordinated assembly of Na/Ca exchanger, Na/K ATPase, and inositol trisphosphate (InsP(3)) receptor at transverse-tubule/sarcoplasmic reticulum sites in cardiomyocytes. A loss-of-function mutation of ankyrin-B identified in an extended kindred causes a dominantly inherited cardiac arrhythmia, initially described as type 4 long QT syndrome. Here we report the identification of eight unrelated probands harboring ankyrin-B loss-of-function mutations, including four previously undescribed mutations, whose clinical features distinguish the cardiac phenotype associated with loss of ankyrin-B activity from classic long QT syndromes. Humans with ankyrin-B mutations display varying degrees of cardiac dysfunction including bradycardia, sinus arrhythmia, idiopathic ventricular fibrillation, catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia, and risk of sudden death. However, a prolonged rate-corrected QT interval was not a consistent feature, indicating that ankyrin-B dysfunction represents a clinical entity distinct from classic long QT syndromes. The mutations are localized in the ankyrin-B regulatory domain, which distinguishes function of ankyrin-B from ankyrin-G in cardiomyocytes. All mutations abolish ability of ankyrin-B to restore abnormal Ca(2+) dynamics and abnormal localization and expression of Na/Ca exchanger, Na/K ATPase, and InsP(3)R in ankyrin-B(+/-) cardiomyocytes. This study, considered together with the first description of ankyrin-B mutation associated with cardiac dysfunction, supports a previously undescribed paradigm for human disease due to abnormal coordination of multiple functionally related ion channels and transporters, in this case the Na/K ATPase, Na/Ca exchanger, and InsP(3) receptor.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: P50 HL052338, P50-HL-52338, R01 HL046401, R01HL46401; Telethon: GP0227Y01

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2004;101;24;9137-42

  • Isoform specificity among ankyrins. An amphipathic alpha-helix in the divergent regulatory domain of ankyrin-b interacts with the molecular co-chaperone Hdj1/Hsp40.

    Mohler PJ, Hoffman JA, Davis JQ, Abdi KM, Kim CR, Jones SK, Davis LH, Roberts KF and Bennett V

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Departments of Cell Biology, Biochemistry, and Neurosciences, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA. pmohler@cellbio.duke.edu

    Ankyrins-R, -B, and -G are a family of membrane-associated adaptors required for localization of structurally diverse proteins to specialized membrane domains, including axon initial segments, cardiomyocyte T-tubules, and epithelial cell lateral membranes. Ankyrins are often co-expressed in the same cells and, although structurally similar, have non-overlapping functions. We previously determined that the regulatory domain of ankyrin-B defines specificity between ankyrins B and G in cardiomyocytes. Here, we identify key residues on the surface of an amphipathic alpha-helix unique to the regulatory domain of ankyrin-B that are essential for the function of ankyrin-B in cardiomyocytes. Using circular dichroism, we determined that a peptide representing the predicted helix folds as a helix in solution. Alanine-scanning mutagenesis revealed that residues 1773, 1777, 1780, 1784, and 1788 located in a patch on one surface the helix are critical for ankyrin-B function in cardiomyocytes. In a parallel set of experiments we determined that the molecular co-chaperone human DnaJ homologue 1 (Hdj1)/Hsp40 interacts with the ankyrin-B regulatory domain. Moreover, interaction of Hdj1/Hsp40 with the regulatory domain was mapped by random mutagenesis to same surface of the alpha-helix that is required for ankyrin-B function. These results provide new insight into the molecular basis for specificity between ankyrin-based pathways by defining a key alpha-helix structure in the divergent regulatory domain of ankyrin-B as well as interaction of the helix with Hdj1/Hsp40, the first downstream target for ankyrin-B-specific function.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2004;279;24;25798-804

  • Transcriptome characterization elucidates signaling networks that control human ES cell growth and differentiation.

    Brandenberger R, Wei H, Zhang S, Lei S, Murage J, Fisk GJ, Li Y, Xu C, Fang R, Guegler K, Rao MS, Mandalam R, Lebkowski J and Stanton LW

    Geron Corporation, Menlo Park, California 94025, USA. rbrandenberger@geron.com

    Human embryonic stem (hES) cells hold promise for generating an unlimited supply of cells for replacement therapies. To characterize hES cells at the molecular level, we obtained 148,453 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from undifferentiated hES cells and three differentiated derivative subpopulations. Over 32,000 different transcripts expressed in hES cells were identified, of which more than 16,000 do not match closely any gene in the UniGene public database. Queries to this EST database revealed 532 significantly upregulated and 140 significantly downregulated genes in undifferentiated hES cells. These data highlight changes in the transcriptional network that occur when hES cells differentiate. Among the differentially regulated genes are several components of signaling pathways and transcriptional regulators that likely play key roles in hES cell growth and differentiation. The genomic data presented here may facilitate the derivation of clinically useful cell types from hES cells.

    Nature biotechnology 2004;22;6;707-16

  • Identification of a common genetic substrate underlying postpartum cardiac events in congenital long QT syndrome.

    Khositseth A, Tester DJ, Will ML, Bell CM and Ackerman MJ

    Department of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine/Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota 55905, USA.

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to elucidate the genetic basis for long QT syndrome (LQTS) in patients with a personal or family history of postpartum cardiac events.

    Background: The postpartum period is a time of increased arrhythmogenic susceptibility in women with LQTS.

    Methods: Between August 1997 and May 2003, 388 unrelated patients (260 females, average age at diagnosis, 23 years, and average QTc, 482 ms) were referred to Mayo Clinic's Sudden Death Genomics Laboratory for LQTS genetic testing. Comprehensive mutational analysis of the 5 LQTS-causing channel genes was performed. The postpartum period was defined as the 20 weeks after delivery. Cardiac events included sudden cardiac death, aborted cardiac arrest, and syncope. The presence of a personal and/or family history of cardiac events during postpartum period was determined by review of the medical records and/or phone interviews and was blinded to the status of genetic testing.

    Results: Fourteen patients (3.6% of cohort) had personal (n = 4) and/or family history (n = 11) of cardiac events during the defined postpartum period. Thirteen of 14 patients (93%) possessed an LQT2 mutation and 1 had an LQT1 mutation. Postpartum cardiac events were found more commonly in patients with LQT2 (13 of 80, 16%) than in patients with LQT1 (1 of 103, <1%, P = .0001).

    Conclusions: There is a relatively gene-specific molecular basis underlying cardiac events during the postpartum period in LQTS. Along with previous gene-specific associations involving swimming and LQT1 as well as auditory triggers and LQT2, this association between postpartum cardiac events and LQT2 can facilitate strategic genotyping.

    Funded by: NICHD NIH HHS: HD42569

    Heart rhythm 2004;1;1;60-4

  • Plasma membrane-cytoskeleton-endoplasmic reticulum complexes in neurons and astrocytes.

    Lencesova L, O'Neill A, Resneck WG, Bloch RJ and Blaustein MP

    Department of Physiology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21201, USA.

    The possibility that certain integral plasma membrane (PM) proteins involved in Ca(2+) homeostasis form junctional units with adjacent endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in neurons and glia was explored using immunoprecipitation and immunocytochemistry. Rat brain membranes were solubilized with the mild, non-ionic detergent, IGEPAL CA-630. Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger type 1 (NCX1), a key PM Ca(2+) transporter, was immunoprecipitated from the detergent-soluble fraction. Several abundant PM proteins co-immunoprecipitated with NCX1, including the alpha2 and alpha3 isoforms of the Na(+) pump catalytic (alpha) subunit, and the alpha2 subunit of the dihydropyridine receptor. The adaptor protein, ankyrin 2 (Ank 2), and the cytoskeletal proteins, alpha-fodrin and beta-spectrin, also selectively co-immunoprecipitated with NCX1, as did the ER proteins, Ca(2+) pump type 2 (SERCA 2), and inositol-trisphosphate receptor type 1 (IP(3)R-1). In contrast, a number of other abundant PMs, adaptors, and cytoskeletal proteins did not co-immunoprecipitate with NCX1, including the Na(+) pump alpha1 isoform, PM Ca(2+) pump type 1 (PMCA1), beta-fodrin, and Ank 3. In reciprocal experiments, immunoprecipitation with antibodies to the Na(+) pump alpha2 and alpha3 isoforms, but not alpha1, co-immunoprecipitated NCX1; the antibodies to alpha1 did, however, co-immunoprecipitate PMCA1. Antibodies to Ank 2, alpha-fodrin, beta-spectrin and IP(3)R-1 all co-immunoprecipitated NCX1. Immunocytochemistry revealed partial co-localization of beta-spectrin with NCX1, Na(+) pump alpha3, and IP(3)R-1 in neurons and of alpha-fodrin with NCX1 and SERCA2 in astrocytes. The data support the idea that in neurons and glia PM microdomains containing NCX1 and Na(+) pumps with alpha2 or alpha3 subunits form Ca(2+) signaling complexes with underlying ER containing SERCA2 and IP(3)R-1. These PM and ER components appear to be linked through the cytoskeletal spectrin network, to which they are probably tethered by Ank 2.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL-45215, HL-64304; NINDS NIH HHS: NS-16106, NS-17282

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2004;279;4;2885-93

  • Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.

    Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, Otsuki T, Sugiyama T, Irie R, Wakamatsu A, Hayashi K, Sato H, Nagai K, Kimura K, Makita H, Sekine M, Obayashi M, Nishi T, Shibahara T, Tanaka T, Ishii S, Yamamoto J, Saito K, Kawai Y, Isono Y, Nakamura Y, Nagahari K, Murakami K, Yasuda T, Iwayanagi T, Wagatsuma M, Shiratori A, Sudo H, Hosoiri T, Kaku Y, Kodaira H, Kondo H, Sugawara M, Takahashi M, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Furuya T, Kikkawa E, Omura Y, Abe K, Kamihara K, Katsuta N, Sato K, Tanikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ninomiya K, Ishibashi T, Yamashita H, Murakawa K, Fujimori K, Tanai H, Kimata M, Watanabe M, Hiraoka S, Chiba Y, Ishida S, Ono Y, Takiguchi S, Watanabe S, Yosida M, Hotuta T, Kusano J, Kanehori K, Takahashi-Fujii A, Hara H, Tanase TO, Nomura Y, Togiya S, Komai F, Hara R, Takeuchi K, Arita M, Imose N, Musashino K, Yuuki H, Oshima A, Sasaki N, Aotsuka S, Yoshikawa Y, Matsunawa H, Ichihara T, Shiohata N, Sano S, Moriya S, Momiyama H, Satoh N, Takami S, Terashima Y, Suzuki O, Nakagawa S, Senoh A, Mizoguchi H, Goto Y, Shimizu F, Wakebe H, Hishigaki H, Watanabe T, Sugiyama A, Takemoto M, Kawakami B, Yamazaki M, Watanabe K, Kumagai A, Itakura S, Fukuzumi Y, Fujimori Y, Komiyama M, Tashiro H, Tanigami A, Fujiwara T, Ono T, Yamada K, Fujii Y, Ozaki K, Hirao M, Ohmori Y, Kawabata A, Hikiji T, Kobatake N, Inagaki H, Ikema Y, Okamoto S, Okitani R, Kawakami T, Noguchi S, Itoh T, Shigeta K, Senba T, Matsumura K, Nakajima Y, Mizuno T, Morinaga M, Sasaki M, Togashi T, Oyama M, Hata H, Watanabe M, Komatsu T, Mizushima-Sugano J, Satoh T, Shirai Y, Takahashi Y, Nakagawa K, Okumura K, Nagase T, Nomura N, Kikuchi H, Masuho Y, Yamashita R, Nakai K, Yada T, Nakamura Y, Ohara O, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Helix Research Institute, 1532-3 Yana, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0812, Japan.

    As a base for human transcriptome and functional genomics, we created the "full-length long Japan" (FLJ) collection of sequenced human cDNAs. We determined the entire sequence of 21,243 selected clones and found that 14,490 cDNAs (10,897 clusters) were unique to the FLJ collection. About half of them (5,416) seemed to be protein-coding. Of those, 1,999 clusters had not been predicted by computational methods. The distribution of GC content of nonpredicted cDNAs had a peak at approximately 58% compared with a peak at approximately 42%for predicted cDNAs. Thus, there seems to be a slight bias against GC-rich transcripts in current gene prediction procedures. The rest of the cDNAs unique to the FLJ collection (5,481) contained no obvious open reading frames (ORFs) and thus are candidate noncoding RNAs. About one-fourth of them (1,378) showed a clear pattern of splicing. The distribution of GC content of noncoding cDNAs was narrow and had a peak at approximately 42%, relatively low compared with that of protein-coding cDNAs.

    Nature genetics 2004;36;1;40-5

  • L1-dependent neuritogenesis involves ankyrinB that mediates L1-CAM coupling with retrograde actin flow.

    Nishimura K, Yoshihara F, Tojima T, Ooashi N, Yoon W, Mikoshiba K, Bennett V and Kamiguchi H

    Laboratory for Neuronal Growth Mechanisms, Brain Science Institute, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198, Japan.

    The cell adhesion molecule L1 (L1-CAM) plays critical roles in neurite growth. Its cytoplasmic domain (L1CD) binds to ankyrins that associate with the spectrin-actin network. This paper demonstrates that L1-CAM interactions with ankyrinB (but not with ankyrinG) are involved in the initial formation of neurites. In the membranous protrusions surrounding the soma before neuritogenesis, filamentous actin (F-actin) and ankyrinB continuously move toward the soma (retrograde flow). Bead-tracking experiments show that ankyrinB mediates L1-CAM coupling with retrograde F-actin flow in these perisomatic structures. Ligation of the L1-CAM ectodomain by an immobile substrate induces L1CD-ankyrinB binding and the formation of stationary ankyrinB clusters. Neurite initiation preferentially occurs at the site of these clusters. In contrast, ankyrinB is involved neither in L1-CAM coupling with F-actin flow in growth cones nor in L1-based neurite elongation. Our results indicate that ankyrinB promotes neurite initiation by acting as a component of the clutch module that transmits traction force generated by F-actin flow to the extracellular substrate via L1-CAM.

    The Journal of cell biology 2003;163;5;1077-88

  • Ankyrin-B mutation causes type 4 long-QT cardiac arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death.

    Mohler PJ, Schott JJ, Gramolini AO, Dilly KW, Guatimosim S, duBell WH, Song LS, Haurogné K, Kyndt F, Ali ME, Rogers TB, Lederer WJ, Escande D, Le Marec H and Bennett V

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Departments of Cell Biology, Biochemistry, and Neuroscience, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA.

    Mutations in ion channels involved in the generation and termination of action potentials constitute a family of molecular defects that underlie fatal cardiac arrhythmias in inherited long-QT syndrome. We report here that a loss-of-function (E1425G) mutation in ankyrin-B (also known as ankyrin 2), a member of a family of versatile membrane adapters, causes dominantly inherited type 4 long-QT cardiac arrhythmia in humans. Mice heterozygous for a null mutation in ankyrin-B are haploinsufficient and display arrhythmia similar to humans. Mutation of ankyrin-B results in disruption in the cellular organization of the sodium pump, the sodium/calcium exchanger, and inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (all ankyrin-B-binding proteins), which reduces the targeting of these proteins to the transverse tubules as well as reducing overall protein level. Ankyrin-B mutation also leads to altered Ca2+ signalling in adult cardiomyocytes that results in extrasystoles, and provides a rationale for the arrhythmia. Thus, we identify a new mechanism for cardiac arrhythmia due to abnormal coordination of multiple functionally related ion channels and transporters.

    Nature 2003;421;6923;634-9

  • Binding of an ankyrin-1 isoform to obscurin suggests a molecular link between the sarcoplasmic reticulum and myofibrils in striated muscles.

    Bagnato P, Barone V, Giacomello E, Rossi D and Sorrentino V

    Molecular Medicine Section, Department of Neuroscience, University of Siena, 53100 Siena, Italy.

    Assembly of specialized membrane domains, both of the plasma membrane and of the ER, is necessary for the physiological activity of striated muscle cells. The mechanisms that mediate the structural organization of the sarcoplasmic reticulum with respect to the myofibrils are, however, not known. We report here that ank1.5, a small splice variant of the ank1 gene localized on the sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane, is capable of interacting with a sequence of 25 aa located at the COOH terminus of obscurin. Obscurin is a giant sarcomeric protein of approximately 800 kD that binds to titin and has been proposed to mediate interactions between myofibrils and other cellular structures. The binding sites and the critical aa required in the interaction between ank1.5 and obscurin were characterized using the yeast two-hybrid system, in in vitro pull-down assays and in experiments in heterologous cells. In differentiated skeletal muscle cells, a transfected myc-tagged ank1.5 was found to be selectively restricted near the M line region where it colocalized with endogenous obscurin. The M line localization of ank1.5 required a functional obscurin-binding site, because mutations of this domain resulted in a diffused distribution of the mutant ank1.5 protein in skeletal muscle cells. The interaction between ank1.5 and obscurin represents the first direct evidence of two proteins that may provide a direct link between the sarcoplasmic reticulum and myofibrils. In keeping with the proposed role of obscurin in mediating an interaction with ankyrins and sarcoplasmic reticulum, we have also found that a sequence with homology to the obscurin-binding site of ank1.5 is present in the ank2.2 isoform, which in striated muscles has been also shown to associate with the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Accordingly, a peptide containing the COOH terminus of ank2.2 fused with GST was found to bind to obscurin. Based on reported evidence showing that the COOH terminus of ank2.2 is necessary for the localization of ryanodine receptors and InsP3 receptors in the sarcoplasmic reticulum, we propose that obscurin, through multiple interactions with ank1.5 and ank2.2 isoforms, may assemble a large protein complex that, in addition to a structural function, may play a role in the organization of specific subdomains in the sarcoplasmic reticulum.

    Funded by: Telethon: GGP02168

    The Journal of cell biology 2003;160;2;245-53

  • The ankyrin-B C-terminal domain determines activity of ankyrin-B/G chimeras in rescue of abnormal inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate and ryanodine receptor distribution in ankyrin-B (-/-) neonatal cardiomyocytes.

    Mohler PJ, Gramolini AO and Bennett V

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Cell Biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA. p.mohler@cellbio.duke.edu

    Ankyrins are a closely related family of membrane adaptor proteins that are believed to participate in targeting diverse membrane proteins to specialized domains in the plasma membrane and endoplasmic reticulum. This study addresses the question of how individual ankyrin isoforms achieve functional specificity when co-expressed in the same cell. Cardiomyocytes from ankyrin-B (-/-) mice display mis-localization of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors and ryanodine receptors along with reduced contraction rates that can be rescued by expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-ankyrin-B but not GFP-ankyrin-G. We developed chimeric GFP expression constructs containing all combinations of the three major domains of ankyrin-B and ankyrin-G to determine which domain(s) of ankyrin-B are required for ankyrin-B-specific functions. The death/C-terminal domain of ankyrin-B determined activity of ankyrin-B/G chimeras in localization in a striated pattern in cardiomyocytes and in restoration of a normal striated distribution of both ryanodine and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors as well as normal beat frequency of contracting cardiomyocytes. Further deletions within the death/C-terminal domain demonstrated that the C-terminal domain determines ankyrin-B activity, whereas deletion of the death domain had no effect. C-terminal domains are the most divergent between ankyrin isoforms and are candidates to encode the signal(s) that enable ankyrins to selectively target proteins to diverse cellular sites.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;12;10599-607

  • Targeted ablation of NrCAM or ankyrin-B results in disorganized lens fibers leading to cataract formation.

    Moré MI, Kirsch FP and Rathjen FG

    Max-Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine, Robert-Rössle-Strasse 10, D-13092 Berlin, Germany.

    The NgCAM-related cell adhesion molecule (NrCAM) is an immunoglobulin superfamily member of the L1 subgroup that interacts intracellularly with ankyrins. We reveal that the absence of NrCAM causes the formation of mature cataracts in the mouse, whereas significant pathfinding errors of commissural axons at the midline of the spinal cord or of proprioceptive axon collaterals are not detected. Cataracts, the most common cause of visual impairment, are generated in NrCAM-deficient mice by a disorganization of lens fibers, followed by cellular disintegration and accumulation of cellular debris. The disorganization of fiber cells becomes histologically distinct during late embryonic development and includes abnormalities of the cytoskeleton and of connexin50-containing gap junctions. Furthermore, analysis of lenses of ankyrin-B mutant mice also reveals a disorganization of lens fibers at postnatal day 1, indistinguishable from that generated by the absence of NrCAM, indicating that NrCAM and ankyrin-B are required to maintain contact between lens fiber cells. Also, these studies provide genetic evidence of an interaction between NrCAM and ankyrin-B.

    The Journal of cell biology 2001;154;1;187-96

  • Regulating ankyrin dynamics: Roles of sigma-1 receptors.

    Hayashi T and Su TP

    Cellular Pathobiology Unit, Cellular Neurobiology Research Branch, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse/National Institutes of Health, 5500 Nathan Shock Drive, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA.

    Ankyrin is a cytoskeletal adaptor protein that controls important cellular functions, including Ca(2+) efflux at inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP(3)R) on the endoplasmic reticulum. The present study found that sigma-1 receptors (Sig-1R), unique endoplasmic reticulum proteins that bind certain steroids, neuroleptics, and psychotropic drugs, form a trimeric complex with ankyrin B and IP(3)R type 3 (IP(3)R-3) in NG-108 cells. The trimeric complex could be coimmunoprecipitated by antibodies against any of the three proteins. Sig-1R agonists such as pregnenolone sulfate and cocaine caused the dissociation of an ankyrin B isoform (ANK 220) from IP(3)R-3. This effect caused by Sig-1R agonists was blocked by a Sig-1R antagonist. The degree of dissociation of ANK 220 from IP(3)R-3 caused by Sig-1R ligands correlates excellently with the ligands' efficacies in potentiating the bradykinin-induced increase in cytosolic free Ca(2+) concentration. Immunocytohistochemistry showed that Sig-1R, ankyrin B, and IP(3)R-3 are colocalized in NG-108 cells in perinuclear areas and in regions of cell-to-cell communication. These results suggest that Sig-1R and associated ligands may play important roles in cells by controlling the function of cytoskeletal proteins and that the Sig-1R/ANK220/IP(3)R-3 complex regulating Ca(2+) signaling may represent a site of action for neurosteroids and cocaine.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2001;98;2;491-6

  • Ankyrin-B is required for intracellular sorting of structurally diverse Ca2+ homeostasis proteins.

    Tuvia S, Buhusi M, Davis L, Reedy M and Bennett V

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Departments of Cell Biology and Biochemistry, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA.

    This report describes a congenital myopathy and major loss of thymic lymphocytes in ankyrin-B (-/-) mice as well as dramatic alterations in intracellular localization of key components of the Ca(2+) homeostasis machinery in ankyrin-B (-/-) striated muscle and thymus. The sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) and SR/T-tubule junctions are apparently preserved in a normal distribution in ankyrin-B (-/-) skeletal muscle based on electron microscopy and the presence of a normal pattern of triadin and dihydropyridine receptor. Therefore, the abnormal localization of SR/ER Ca ATPase (SERCA) and ryanodine receptors represents a defect in intracellular sorting of these proteins in skeletal muscle. Extrapolation of these observations suggests defective targeting as the basis for abnormal localization of ryanodine receptors, IP3 receptors and SERCA in heart, and of IP3 receptors in the thymus of ankyrin-B (-/-) mice. Mis-sorting of SERCA 2 and ryanodine receptor 2 in ankyrin-B (-/-) cardiomyocytes is rescued by expression of 220-kD ankyrin-B, demonstrating that lack of the 220-kD ankyrin-B polypeptide is the primary defect in these cells. Ankyrin-B is associated with intracellular vesicles, but is not colocalized with the bulk of SERCA 1 or ryanodine receptor type 1 in skeletal muscle. These data provide the first evidence of a physiological requirement for ankyrin-B in intracellular targeting of the calcium homeostasis machinery of striated muscle and immune system, and moreover, support a catalytic role that does not involve permanent stoichiometric complexes between ankyrin-B and targeted proteins. Ankyrin-B is a member of a family of adapter proteins implicated in restriction of diverse proteins to specialized plasma membrane domains. Similar mechanisms involving ankyrins may be essential for segregation of functionally defined proteins within specialized regions of the plasma membrane and within the Ca(2+) homeostasis compartment of the ER.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: R01 DK29808

    The Journal of cell biology 1999;147;5;995-1008

  • Nervous system defects of AnkyrinB (-/-) mice suggest functional overlap between the cell adhesion molecule L1 and 440-kD AnkyrinB in premyelinated axons.

    Scotland P, Zhou D, Benveniste H and Bennett V

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Departments of Cell Biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA.

    The L1 CAM family of cell adhesion molecules and the ankyrin family of spectrin-binding proteins are candidates to collaborate in transcellular complexes used in diverse contexts in nervous systems of vertebrates and invertebrates. This report presents evidence for functional coupling between L1 and 440-kD ankyrinB in premyelinated axons in the mouse nervous system. L1 and 440-kD ankyrinB are colocalized in premyelinated axon tracts in the developing nervous system and are both down-regulated after myelination. AnkyrinB (-/-) mice exhibit a phenotype similar to, but more severe, than L1 (-/-) mice and share features of human patients with L1 mutations. AnkyrinB (-/-) mice exhibit hypoplasia of the corpus callosum and pyramidal tracts, dilated ventricles, and extensive degeneration of the optic nerve, and they die by postnatal day 21. AnkyrinB (-/-) mice have reduced L1 in premyelinated axons of long fiber tracts, including the corpus callosum, fimbria, and internal capsule in the brain, and pyramidal tracts and lateral columns of the spinal cord. L1 was evident in the optic nerve at postnatal day 1 but disappeared by postnatal day 7 in mutant mice while NCAM was unchanged. Optic nerve axons of ankyrinB (-/-) mice become dilated with diameters up to eightfold greater than normal, and they degenerated by day 20. These findings provide the first evidence for a role of ankyrinB in the nervous system and support an interaction between 440-kD ankyrinB and L1 that is essential for maintenance of premyelinated axons in vivo.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: P41 RR005959, P41RR05959

    The Journal of cell biology 1998;143;5;1305-15

  • Mapping of a gene for long QT syndrome to chromosome 4q25-27.

    Schott JJ, Charpentier F, Peltier S, Foley P, Drouin E, Bouhour JB, Donnelly P, Vergnaud G, Bachner L, Moisan JP et al.

    Laboratoire de Physiopathologie et Pharmacologie Cellulaires et Moléculaires, URA CNRS 1340, CHU de Nantes, France.

    Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a heterogeneous inherited disorder causing syncope and sudden death from ventricular arrhythmias. A first locus for this disorder was mapped to chromosome 11p15.5. However, locus heterogeneity has been demonstrated in several families, and two other loci have recently been located on chromosomes 7q35-36 and 3p21-24. We used linkage analysis to map the locus in a 65-member family in which LQTS was associated with more marked sinus bradycardia than usual, leading to sinus node dysfunction. Linkage to chromosome 11p15.5, 7q35-36, or 3p21-24 was excluded. Positive linkage was obtained for markers located on chromosome 4q25-27. A maximal LOD score of 7.05 was found for marker D4S402. The identification of a fourth locus for LQTS confirms its genetic heterogeneity. Locus 4q25-27 is associated with a peculiar phenotype within the LQTS entity.

    American journal of human genetics 1995;57;5;1114-22

  • 440-kD ankyrinB: structure of the major developmentally regulated domain and selective localization in unmyelinated axons.

    Chan W, Kordeli E and Bennett V

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710.

    440-kD ankyrinB is an alternatively spliced variant of 220-kD ankyrinB, with a predicted 220-kD sequence inserted between the membrane/spectrin binding domains and COOH-terminal domain (Kunimoto, M., E. Otto, and V. Bennett. 1991. J. Cell Biol. 236:1372-1379). This paper presents the sequence of 2085 amino acids comprising the alternatively spliced portion of 440-kD ankyrinB, and provides evidence that much of the inserted sequence has the configuration of an extended random coil. Notable features of the inserted sequence include a hydrophilicity profile that contains few hydrophobic regions, and 220 predicted sites for phosphorylation by protein kinases (casein kinase 2, protein kinase C, and proline-directed protein kinase). Secondary structure and folding of the inserted amino acid residues were deduced from properties of recombinant polypeptides. Frictional ratios of 1.9-2.4 were calculated from Stokes radii and sedimentation coefficients, for polypeptides comprising 70% of the inserted sequence, indicating a highly asymmetric shape. Circular dichroism spectra of these polypeptides indicate a nonglobular structure with negligible alpha-helix or beta sheet folding. These results suggest a ball-and-chain model for 440-kD ankyrinB with a membrane-associated globular head domain and an extended filamentous tail domain encoded by the inserted sequence. Immunofluorescence and immunoblot studies of developing neonatal rat optic nerve indicate that 440-kD ankyrinB is selectively targeted to premyelinated axons, and that 440-kD ankyrinB disappears from these axons coincident with myelination. Hypomyelinated nerve tracts of the myelin-deficient Shiverer mice exhibit elevated levels of 440-kD ankyrinB. 440-kD ankyrinB thus is a specific component of unmyelinated axons and expression of 440-kD ankyrinB may be downregulated as a consequence of myelination.

    The Journal of cell biology 1993;123;6 Pt 1;1463-73

  • Isolation and chromosomal localization of a novel nonerythroid ankyrin gene.

    Tse WT, Menninger JC, Yang-Feng TL, Francke U, Sahr KE, Lux SE, Ward DC and Forget BG

    Department of Human Genetics, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06510.

    Immunoreactive isoforms of erythrocyte ankyrin have been shown to be present in a variety of nonerythroid tissues. Isolation of the genes that encode these isoforms will clarify their relationship to erythrocyte ankyrin. Using an erythrocyte ankyrin cDNA clone as a hybridization probe, we screened a human genomic library and isolated a clone that hybridizes with the probe at low stringency but not at high stringency. Partial nucleotide sequence of the clone revealed the presence of a 99-bp segment that is homologous to an exon of the erythrocyte ankyrin gene. Northern analysis showed that a labeled fragment of the clone hybridized to a 7-kb message in RNA of fetal brain but not of erythroid cells, suggesting that this clone is part of a novel gene that is expressed predominantly in nonerythroid tissue. Comparison of the sequence of the genomic clone with that of a recently isolated cDNA clone for brain ankyrin (Otto et al., 1989) showed identity of 96 of 99 bp between the putative exon and a segment of the cDNA clone (V. Bennett, personal communication, 1991), suggesting that the genomic clone is part of a gene for nonerythroid ankyrin, which we have designated ANK2. By analysis of somatic cell hybrids and fluorescence in situ hybridization, we assigned ANK2 to human chromosome 4 at a position equivalent to bands 4q25-q27.

    Genomics 1991;10;4;858-66

  • Isolation and characterization of cDNAs encoding human brain ankyrins reveal a family of alternatively spliced genes.

    Otto E, Kunimoto M, McLaughlin T and Bennett V

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710.

    Ankyrins are a family of membrane-associated proteins that can be divided into two immunologically distinct groups: (a) erythrocyte-related isoforms (ankyrinR) that have polarized distributions in particular cell types; and (b) brain-related isoforms (ankyrinB) that display a broader distribution. In this paper, we report the isolation and sequences of cDNAs related to two ankyrinB isoforms, human brain ankyrin 1 and 2, and show that these isoforms are produced from alternatively spliced mRNAs of a single gene. Human brain ankyrin 1 and 2 share a common NH2-terminus that is similar to human erythrocyte ankyrins, with the most striking conservation occurring between areas composed of a repeated 33-amino acid motif and between areas corresponding to the central portion of the spectrin-binding domain. In contrast, COOH-terminal sequences of brain ankyrin 1 and 2 are distinct from one another and from human erythrocyte ankyrins, and thus are candidates to mediate protein interactions that distinguish these isoforms. The brain ankyrin 2 cDNA sequence includes a stop codon and encodes a polypeptide with a predicted molecular mass of 202 kD, which is similar to the Mr of the major form of ankyrin in adult bovine brain membranes. Moreover, an antibody raised against the conserved NH2-terminal domain of brain ankyrin cross-reacts with a single Mr = 220 kD polypeptide in adult human brain. These results strongly suggest that the amino acid sequence of brain ankyrin 2 determined in this report represents the complete coding sequence of the major form of ankyrin in adult human brain. In contrast, the brain ankyrin 1 cDNAs encode only part of a larger isoform. An immunoreactive polypeptide of Mr = 440 kD, which is evident in brain tissue of young rats, is a candidate to be encoded by brain ankyrin 1 mRNA. The COOH-terminal portion of brain ankyrin 1 includes 15 contiguous copies of a novel 12-amino acid repeat. Analysis of DNA from a panel of human/rodent cell hybrids linked this human brain ankyrin gene to chromosome 4. This result, coupled with previous reports assigning the human erythrocyte ankyrin gene to chromosome 8, demonstrates that human brain and erythrocyte ankyrins are encoded by distinct members of a multigene family.

    The Journal of cell biology 1991;114;2;241-53

  • Associations of human erythrocyte band 4.2. Binding to ankyrin and to the cytoplasmic domain of band 3.

    Korsgren C and Cohen CM

    Department of Biomedical Research, St. Elizabeth's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02135.

    We have examined the associations of purified red cell band 4.2 with red cell membrane and membrane skeletal proteins using in vitro binding assays. Band 4.2 bound to the purified cytoplasmic domain of band 3 with a Kd between 2 and 8 X 10(-7) M. Binding was saturable and slow, requiring 2-4 h to reach equilibrium. This finding confirms previous work suggesting that the principal membrane-binding site for band 4.2 lies within the 43-kDa cytoplasmic domain of band 3 (Korsgren, C., and Cohen, C. M. (1986) J. Biol. Chem. 261, 5536-5543). Band 4.2 also bound to purified ankyrin in solution with a Kd between 1 and 3.5 X 10(-7) M. As with the cytoplasmic domain of band 3, binding was saturable and required 4-5 h to reach equilibrium. Reconstitution with ankyrin of inside-out vesicles stripped of all peripheral proteins had no effect upon band 4.2 binding to membranes; similarly, reconstitution with band 4.2 had no effect upon ankyrin binding. This shows that ankyrin and band 4.2 bind to distinct loci within the 43-kDa band 3 cytoplasmic domain. Coincubation of ankyrin and band 4.2 in solution partially blocked the binding of both proteins to the membrane. Similarly, coincubation of bands 4.1 and 4.2 in solution partially blocked binding of both to membranes. In all cases, the data suggest the possibility that domains on each of these proteins responsible for low affinity membrane binding are principally affected. The data also provide evidence for an association of band 4.2 with band 4.1. Our results show that band 4.2 can form multiple associations with red cell membrane proteins and may therefore play an as yet unrecognized structural role on the membrane.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL 36090, HL 37462

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1988;263;21;10212-8

Gene lists (6)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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