G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
adducin 1 (alpha)
G00000569 (Mus musculus)

Databases (7)

ENSG00000087274 (Ensembl human gene)
118 (Entrez Gene)
988 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
ADD1 (GeneCards)
102680 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
Protein Sequence
P35611 (UniProt)

Literature (148)

Pubmed - other

  • Lack of association between alpha-adducin G460W polymorphism and hypertension: evidence from a case-control study and a meta-analysis.

    Niu WQ, Zhang Y, Ji KD, Gao PJ and Zhu DL

    State Key Laboratory of Medical Genomics, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, PR China.

    The past two decades have seen an upsurge in detecting the genetic determinants of hypertension. Thereafter, alpha-adducin gene ranks high and one polymorphism, G460W (rs4961), has attracted special attention. We first performed a case-control study to investigate the association of this polymorphism with essential hypertension among Shanghai residents, and then meta-analyzed all available evidence. A total of 950 subjects were recruited for genetic association study. Genotyping for G460W was conducted using PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism techniques. Meta-analysis search was limited to articles published in English and studies on humans. Data and study quality were assessed in duplicate. Publication bias was evaluated using the fail-safe number. Our case-control study provided no evidence for the association of G460W with essential hypertension, even under assumptions of three genetic modes of inheritance (P>0.05). The subsequent meta-analysis including 15 studies with 4417 cases and 5716 controls also failed to demonstrate overall this association, even upon stratification by race (Caucasians and Asians). For example, the summary odds ratio (OR) under a random effects model indicated that carriers of 460W allele were 1.09 times more likely to develop hypertension (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.96-1.24; P=0.19) among Asians, whereas a protective effect of this allele was observed in Caucasians (OR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.73-1.18; P=0.54). The fail-safe number at the level of 0.05 was in favour of our findings. Our case-control study and the following meta-analysis failed to provide evidence for the genetic association of alpha-adducin gene G460W polymorphism with hypertension.

    Journal of human hypertension 2010;24;7;467-74

  • alpha- and beta-Adducin polymorphisms affect podocyte proteins and proteinuria in rodents and decline of renal function in human IgA nephropathy.

    Ferrandi M, Cusi D, Molinari I, Del Vecchio L, Barlassina C, Rastaldi MP, Schena FP, Macciardi F, Marcantoni C, Roccatello D, Peters LL, Armelloni S, Min L, Giardino L, Mattinzoli D, Camisasca C, Palazzo F, Manunta P, Ferrari P and Bianchi G

    Prassis sigma-tau Research Institute, Settimo Milanese, Milan, Italy.

    Adducins are cytoskeletal actin-binding proteins (alpha, beta, gamma) that function as heterodimers and heterotetramers and are encoded by distinct genes. Experimental and clinical evidence implicates alpha- and beta-adducin variants in hypertension and renal dysfunction. Here, we have addressed the role of alpha- and beta-adducin on glomerular function and disease using beta-adducin null mice, congenic substrains for alpha- and beta-adducin from the Milan hypertensive (MHS) and Milan normotensive (MNS) rats and patients with IgA nephropathy. Targeted deletion of beta-adducin in mice reduced urinary protein excretion, preceded by an increase of podocyte protein expression (phospho-nephrin, synaptopodin, alpha-actinin, ZO-1, Fyn). The introgression of polymorphic MHS beta-adducin locus into MNS (Add2, 529R) rats was associated with an early reduction of podocyte protein expression (nephrin, synaptopodin, alpha-actinin, ZO-1, podocin, Fyn), followed by severe glomerular and interstitial lesions and increased urinary protein excretion. These alterations were markedly attenuated when the polymorphic MHS alpha-adducin locus was also present (Add1, 316Y). In patients with IgA nephropathy, the rate of decline of renal function over time was associated to polymorphic beta-adducin (ADD2, 1797T, rs4984) with a significant interaction with alpha-adducin (ADD1, 460W, rs4961). These findings suggest that adducin genetic variants participate in the development of glomerular lesions by modulating the expression of specific podocyte proteins.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: 1 R01 HL075714, R01 HL075714; Telethon: E.C0861

    Journal of molecular medicine (Berlin, Germany) 2010;88;2;203-17

  • The influence of six cardiovascular polymorphisms on a first event of ischemic heart disease is modified by sex and age.

    Plat AW, Stoffers HE, de Leeuw PW, van Schayck CP, Soomers FL, Kester AD, Aretz K and Kroon AA

    Department of General Practice, School for Public Health and Primary Care (CAPHRI), Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

    Objective: To examine the contribution of six cardiovascular polymorphisms to the occurrence of a first event of ischemic heart disease (IHD) in a primary care population with a high prevalence of hypertension. Furthermore, we specified the data for sex and age.

    Methods: In this cross sectional case-control study, patients with a first event of IHD (157) and event-free controls (571) were studied. Both the groups were genotyped for the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (A1166C), angiotensinogen (M235 T), angiotensin converting enzyme (4656rpt), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (E298D), G-protein beta3 subunit (C825 T), and alpha-adducin (G460W) polymorphisms. Univariate and multivariate odds ratios (ORs) were calculated to assess the association between a first ischemic event and these polymorphisms. Sliding mean analyses were performed to show age-specific associations.

    Results: Multivariate ORs indicated a protective association for the carrier status of the T-allele of AGT, overall [OR = 0.69 (0.34-0.90)] and for males [OR = 0.58 (0.27-0.89)]. Sliding mean analyses showed a continuous protective association with IHD of the T-allele of AGT with increasing age in males, whereas in females an increased risk for IHD was observed with a maximum OR of 1.6 at the age of 56 years.

    Conclusion: In this population the T-allele of the AGT polymorphism is protective for a first event of IHD in males.

    Coronary artery disease 2009;20;8;499-505

  • Genetic factors are relevant and independent determinants of antihypertensive drug effects in a multiracial population.

    van Rijn-Bikker PC, Mairuhu G, van Montfrans GA, Sijbrands EJ, Zwinderman AH, Guchelaar HJ and Koopmans RP

    Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. p.c.bikker@amc.uva.nl

    Background: The success of antihypertensive drugs may be improved by better prediction of their efficacy in individual patients. The objective of our study was to determine whether genetic variation predicts the individual systolic blood pressure (SBP) response to antihypertensive drugs and to assess to what extent the individual treatment response could be explained by the combined effects of known demographic, environmental, and genetic factors.

    Methods: A population-based, crossover, open-label randomized treatment study stratified for ethnicity in 102 mildly hypertensive patients aged 35-60 years in an outpatient hypertension clinic (the ROTATE study). Patients underwent five successive 6-week treatment episodes of single-drug treatment in a randomized order with representatives of the major antihypertensive drug classes. The primary outcome measure was the DeltaSBP after 6-week drug therapy.

    Results: Participants (n = 97) completed 407 treatment episodes. The estimated unpredictable natural variation of SBP within individuals was 65% of the total study variance. The primary analysis model that considered the effects of environmental, demographic, and genetic factors and their interactions to SBP response to antihypertensive drugs, explained 23% of the total variance accounting for 66% of the predictable variance. Ethnicity, low sodium intake, and ADD1 614G-->T polymorphism were the only drug-related predictors. A number of genetic variants (ADD1 614G-->T, ADRB1 145A-->G, ADRB2 79C-->G, CYP11B2 -344C-->T, and SLC12A3 78G-->A) contributed significantly (9%) to the total variance of the SBP response. The contribution of each individual single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) ranged from 1.1 to 2.4%.

    Conclusions: Genetic factors are relevant and independent determinants of antihypertensive drug effects in a multiracial population.

    American journal of hypertension 2009;22;12;1295-302

  • Sex-specific effect of the alpha-adducin (G460W) and AGTR1 (A1166C) polymorphism on carotid intima-media thickness.

    Plat AW, Stoffers HE, de Leeuw PW, van Schayck CP, Soomers FL, Kester AD, Aretz K and Kroon AA

    Department of General Practice, School for Public Health and Primary Care (CAPHRI), The Netherlands.

    Objective: In a primary care population covering a broad spectrum of cardiovascular risk (HIPPOCRATES project) the relationship between carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and six cardiovascular polymorphisms were analyzed in a cross-sectional study.

    Methods: CIMT was assessed in 618 participants, who were genotyped for the AGTR1 (A1166C), AGT (M235T), ACE (4656(rpt)), NOS3 (E298D), GNB3 (C825T) and ADD1 (G460W) polymorphisms. Linear regression analyses were performed to assess the relationship between CIMT and the polymorphisms.

    Results: The study population included 289 men (46.8%) and 329 (53.2%) women of whom 52.3% were treated with cardiovascular medication. CIMT was significantly associated with age, female sex, use of cardiovascular medication, waist circumference and dyslipidemia. After correction for these covariates, multivariate linear regression analyses showed that only in women the C-allele of AGTR1 was associated with a thicker CIMT (P = 0.03). The T-allele of ADD1 was associated with a smaller CIMT in both men and women, but this only reached statistical significance in women (P = 0.03).

    Conclusion: Although the effect of both genetic variants on CIMT was small, this study showed a statistically significant effect of AGTR1 and ADD1 in women. However, our findings should be viewed as hypothesis-generating and require further confirmation in prospective epidemiological primary care studies.

    Journal of hypertension 2009;27;11;2165-73

  • The contribution of six polymorphisms to cardiovascular risk in a Dutch high-risk primary care population: the HIPPOCRATES project.

    Plat AW, Stoffers HE, Klungel OH, van Schayck CP, de Leeuw PW, Soomers FL, Schiffers PM, Kester AD and Kroon AA

    Department of General Practice, School for Public Health and Primary Care (CAPHRI), Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

    This study was designed to examine the contribution of six polymorphisms to the occurrence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in a Dutch primary care population with a high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors. In this cross-sectional case-control study, 232 patients with CVD and 571 event-free controls were studied. Patients were genotyped for the AGTR1 (A1166C), AGT (M235T), ACE (4656rpt), NOS3 (E298D), GNB3 (C825T) and ADD1 (G460W) polymorphisms. Univariate and multivariate odds ratios (ORs) were calculated to assess the relationship between genotypes and CVD. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to quantify the contribution of the polymorphisms to the prediction of CVD. No differences in either genotype or allele frequencies were found between CVD cases and controls. Multivariate analyses, corrected for multiple testing according to Bonferroni, showed significant protective associations for the T-allele of AGT (OR=0.55 (0.34-0.84)) and for the T-allele of ADD1 (OR=0.52 (0.31-0.82)). ROC analysis showed only a very small improvement of CVD risk prediction by adding the six polymorphisms to a model with traditional risk factors. Our data suggest that a major attribution of the six polymorphisms to the cardiovascular risk prediction in a primary care population such as HIPPOCRATES is unlikely.

    Journal of human hypertension 2009;23;10;659-67

  • Angiotensin-converting enzyme and adducin-1 polymorphisms in women with preeclampsia and gestational hypertension.

    C, Antonazzo P, Tabano S, Zanutto S, Pileri P, Somigliana E, Colleoni F, Martinelli A, Zolin A, Benedetto C, Marozio L, Neri I, Facchinetti F, Miozzo M and Cetin I

    Unit of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Department of Clinical Sciences L. Sacco, University of Milan, Italy.

    The angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism and the Adducin-1 (ADD1) G460W nonsense single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) have previously been associated to hypertension, whereas their association with preeclampsia (PE) and gestational hypertension (GH) is still controversial. We genotyped ACE I/D, ADD1 G460W, and ADD1 S586C polymorphisms in 672 unrelated pregnant women: 204 PE (81/204 mild PE), 56 GH, and 412 controls, evaluating both their single and combined effects on these pathologies. The genotype combination of the 3 polymorphisms was not statistically different in cases versus controls, nor were ACE and ADD1 polymorphisms in GH. Nevertheless, the distribution of ACE genotypes was different in PE. This was confirmed in mild PE, whereas no significance was found in severe PE. This could suggest that different factors may lead to mild and severe PE, with ACE polymorphism playing a more important role in the mild form.

    Reproductive sciences (Thousand Oaks, Calif.) 2009;16;9;819-26

  • Hypertension genes and retinal vascular calibre: the Cardiovascular Health Study.

    Sun C, Wang JJ, Islam FM, Heckbert SR, Klein R, Siscovick DS, Klein BE and Wong TY

    Centre for Eye Research Australia, University of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

    We examined the associations of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in three candidate hypertension genes, alpha-adducin (ADD1/G460W), beta2-adrenergic receptor (ADRB2/Arg16Gly and Gln27Glu) and G-protein beta3 subunit (GNB3/C825T), with retinal arteriolar calibre (an intermediate marker of chronic hypertension) and venular calibre. Data in 1842 participants (1554 whites and 288 African Americans) aged 69-96 years from the Cardiovascular Health Study with genotype and retinal vascular calibre data were included. A computer-assisted method was used to measure retinal vascular calibre. We analysed four SNPs and multilocus interaction for three genes. All SNPs were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in whites and African Americans. The e31 study had sufficient power to detect 0.5% of the total variance of retinal vascular calibre contributed by each SNP in the total population, except for the GNB3 gene variant. No significant associations between these SNPs in the genes studied and mean retinal arteriolar and venular calibre were found in single-gene or multilocus analysis (for example, age-, gender-, race-adjusted mean retinal arteriolar calibre was similar between participants who were ADD1/460W homozygotes and ADD1/G allele carriers, 166.2 vs 167.7 microm). In conclusion, this study found no evidence of an association of SNPs in candidate hypertension genes studied here with retinal vascular calibre.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: N01 HC-55222, N01 HC015103, N01 HC035129, N01 HC045133, N01-HC-75150, N01-HC-85079, N01-HC-85086, N01HC75150, N01HC85079, N01HC85086, R21 HL077166, R21 HL077166-01, R21-HL077166, U01 HL080295; NIA NIH HHS: AG015366

    Journal of human hypertension 2009;23;9;578-84

  • Novel genetic variants in the alpha-adducin and guanine nucleotide binding protein beta-polypeptide 3 genes and salt sensitivity of blood pressure.

    Kelly TN, Rice TK, Gu D, Hixson JE, Chen J, Liu D, Jaquish CE, Bazzano LA, Hu D, Ma J, Gu CC, Huang J, Hamm LL and He J

    Department of Epidemiology, Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA. tkelly@tulane.edu

    Background: We examined the association between 12 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the alpha-adducin (ADD1) and guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein) beta-polypeptide 3 (GNB3) genes and systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP), and mean arterial (MAP) pressure responses to salt intake.

    Methods: A 7-day low-sodium (51.3 mmol sodium/day) followed by a 7-day high-sodium intervention (307.8 mmol sodium/day) was conducted among 1,906 Han participants from rural North China. Blood pressure (BP) measurements were obtained at baseline and at the end of each intervention period using a random-zero sphygmomanometer.

    Results: We identified a significant association between a rare ADD1 variant rs17833172 and SBP, DBP, and MAP responses to high sodium (P values <0.0001) and DBP response to low sodium (P value = 0.002). Participants homozygous for the variant A allele of this marker had SBP, DBP, and MAP responses (95% confidence interval) to high salt of 1.6 (-1.8, 4.9), -0.8 (-5.6, 4.0), and -0.1 (-4.0, 3.9) mm Hg, respectively, vs. corresponding responses of 4.6 (2.5, 6.6), 1.7 (-0.2, 3.6), and 2.7 (0.9, 4.4) mm Hg, respectively, for those who were heterozygous or homozygous for the G allele. In addition, participants with at least one copy of the A allele of SNP rs1129649 of the GNB3 gene had significantly decreased MAP response to low salt compared to homozygotes for the C allele (P value = 0.004) with responses of -3.4 (-3.8, -3.0) vs. -4.2 (-4.6, -3.8) mm Hg, respectively.

    Conclusions: These data support a role for the ADD1 and GNB3 genes in BP salt sensitivity. Future studies aimed at replicating these novel findings are warranted.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: K08 HL091108, K08 HL091108-02, K08 HL091108-03, R01 HL087263, R01 HL087263-02, R01 HL090682, R01 HL090682-02, U01 HL072507, U01 HL072507-05, U01 HL072507-06, U01HL072507

    American journal of hypertension 2009;22;9;985-92

  • Adducin forms a bridge between the erythrocyte membrane and its cytoskeleton and regulates membrane cohesion.

    Anong WA, Franco T, Chu H, Weis TL, Devlin EE, Bodine DM, An X, Mohandas N and Low PS

    Department of Chemistry, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2084, USA.

    The erythrocyte membrane skeleton is the best understood cytoskeleton. Because its protein components have homologs in virtually all other cells, the membrane serves as a fundamental model of biologic membranes. Modern textbooks portray the membrane as a 2-dimensional spectrin-based membrane skeleton attached to a lipid bilayer through 2 linkages: band 3-ankyrin-beta-spectrin and glycophorin C-protein 4.1-beta-spectrin.(1-7) Although evidence supports an essential role for the first bridge in regulating membrane cohesion, rupture of the glycophorin C-protein 4.1 interaction has little effect on membrane stability.(8) We demonstrate the existence of a novel band 3-adducin-spectrin bridge that connects the spectrin/actin/protein 4.1 junctional complex to the bilayer. As rupture of this bridge leads to spontaneous membrane fragmentation, we conclude that the band 3-adducin-spectrin bridge is important to membrane stability. The required relocation of part of the band 3 population to the spectrin/actin junctional complex and its formation of a new bridge with adducin necessitates a significant revision of accepted models of the erythrocyte membrane.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM24417-29, R01 GM024417, R37 GM024417

    Blood 2009;114;9;1904-12

  • Phenotype-genotype interactions on renal function in type 2 diabetes: an analysis using structural equation modelling.

    Song XY, Lee SY, Ma RC, So WY, Cai JH, Tam C, Lam V, Ying W, Ng MC and Chan JC

    Department of Statistics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong, SAR, People's Republic of China.

    Cardiovascular and renal diseases share common risk factors. We used structural equation modelling (SEM) to evaluate the independent and combined effects of phenotypes and genotypes implicated in cardiovascular diseases on renal function in type 2 diabetes.

    Methods: 1,188 type 2 diabetic patients were stratified into high-risk and low-risk groups according to bimodal distributions of the logarithmically transformed (log(e)) urinary albumin:creatinine ratio and plasma creatinine levels. Models for these groups, comprising continuous and non-ranking categorical data, were developed separately to evaluate the inter-relationships among measured variables and latent factors using non-linear SEMs, Bayesian estimation and model selection as assessed by a goodness-of-fit statistic.

    Results: Inter-correlated measured variables (obesity, glycaemia, lipid, blood pressure) and variants of the genes encoding endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS), beta-adrenergic receptor (ADRB), components of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and lipid metabolism were loaded onto their respective latent factors of phenotypes and genotypes. In addition to direct and indirect effects, latent factors of obesity, lipid and BP interacted with latent factors of ADRB and RAS genotypes to influence renal function. Together with variants of the genes encoding peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, atrial natriuretic peptide, adducin, G protein beta(3) subunit, epithelial sodium channel alpha subunit and matrix metallopeptidase 3, these parameters explained 39-80% of the variance in renal function in the high-risk and low-risk models.

    SEM is a useful tool for confirming and quantifying multiple interactions of biological pathways with genetic determinants. The combined and interactive effects of blood pressure, lipid and obesity on renal function may have therapeutic implications, especially in type 2 diabetic individuals with genetic risk factors.

    Diabetologia 2009;52;8;1543-53

  • A candidate gene association study of 77 polymorphisms in migraine.

    Schürks M, Kurth T, Buring JE and Zee RY

    Division of Preventive Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 900 CommonwealthAvenue East, 3rd Floor, Boston, MA 02215-1204, SUA. mschuerks@rics.bwh.harvard.edu

    Unlabelled: Population-based studies have established an association between migraine and cardiovascular disease (CVD). We sought to investigate whether genetic variants implicated in CVD are associated with migraine. We performed an association study among 25,713 women participating in the Women's Health Study, with information on 77 previously characterized polymorphisms. Migraine and migraine aura status were self-reported. We used logistic regression to investigate the genotype-migraine association. At baseline, 4705 (18.3%) women reported history of migraine; 39.6% of the 3306 women with active migraine indicated aura. Regarding any history of migraine, the multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for TNF rs673 were 0.52 (0.30 to 0.89), for TGFB1 rs1800469 0.93 (0.89 to 0.98), and for CCR2 rs1799864 1.12 (1.03 to 1.21). Among active migraine with aura, the odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) were 1.35 (1.0 to 1.81) for TNF rs1800750, 1.13 (1.02 to 1.26) for TNF rs1800629, and 1.22 (1.07 to 1.40) for CCR2 rs1799864; among active migraine without aura, 0.9 (0.84 to 0.97) for TGFB1 rs1800469, 1.13 (1.01 to 1.27) for NOS3 rs3918226, and 1.12 (1.02 to 1.24) for IL9 rs2069885. After correction for multiple testing using the false discovery rate, none of the results remained significant. Our data suggest an association of polymorphisms implicated in inflammatory pathways and migraine in women. TNF, CCR2, TGFB1, NOS3, and IL9 warrant further investigation.

    Perspective: This article presents results from an association study of 77 polymorphisms, implicated in CVD, 85a and migraine. Variants in TNF, CCR2, TGFB1, NOS3, and IL9 were found to be associated with migraine but did not remain significant after adjustment for multiple testing. Variations in these genes warrant further investigation.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA-47988, R01 CA047988, R01 CA047988-09, R01 CA047988-10, R01 CA047988-11, R01 CA047988-12, R01 CA047988-13, R01 CA047988-14, R01 CA047988-15, R01 CA047988-16, R01 CA047988-17, R01 CA047988-18; NHLBI NIH HHS: R01 HL043851, R01 HL043851-09, R01 HL043851-10

    The journal of pain : official journal of the American Pain Society 2009;10;7;759-66

  • The genomic basis of cerebral palsy: a HuGE systematic literature review.

    O'Callaghan ME, MacLennan AH, Haan EA, Dekker G and South Australian Cerebral Palsy Research Group

    Discipline of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, Australia, michael.ocallaghan@student.adelaide.edu.au

    Cerebral palsy has been associated with a number of candidate genes. To date, no systematic review has been conducted to synthesise genetic polymorphism associations with cerebral palsy. We apply the HuGE NET guidelines to search PubMed and EMBASE databases for publications investigating single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and cerebral palsy outcome. 22 papers were identified and are discussed in this review. Candidate genes were grouped as (1) thrombophilic, (2) cytokine, (3) apolipoprotein E or (4) other SNPs, largely related to cardiovascular physiology/pathophysiology and the functioning of the immune system. Of the studies identified, cohorts were usually small, without adequate control and ethnically diverse, making direct comparison between studies difficult. The most promising candidate genes include factor V Leiden, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase, lymphotoxin-alpha, tumour necrosis factor-alpha, eNOS and mannose binding lectin. Large case-control studies are needed to confirm these candidates with attention given to cohort ethnicity, cerebral palsy subtype analysis and possible multiple gene and gene-environment interactions.

    Human genetics 2009;126;1;149-72

  • Variation in Renin-Angiotensin system and salt-sensitivity genes and the risk of diabetes mellitus associated with the use of thiazide diuretics.

    Bozkurt O, de Boer A, Grobbee DE, de Leeuw PW, Kroon AA, Schiffers P and Klungel OH

    Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacotherapy, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

    Background: Variation in the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and salt-sensitivity genes may influence the effect of thiazides on the risk of diabetes. We assessed whether polymorphisms in RAS and salt-sensitivity genes influenced the risk of diabetes associated with thiazides.

    Methods: Nested case-control study was conducted among antihypertensive drug users. Pharmacy records and questionnaires were used to assess new onset diabetes (cases), to ascertain antihypertensive use and risk factors for diabetes. Cases were matched to controls (up to five) who were not (yet) diagnosed with diabetes mellitus. We genotyped angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) (G4656C), angiotensinogen (AGT) (M235T), angiotensin II type 1 receptor, (AGTR1) (A1166C), adducin 1 (alpha) (ADD1) (G460T), guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), beta-polypeptide 3 (GNB3) (C825T).

    Results: Among 497 incident cases of type 2 diabetes and 2,633 controls, AGTR1 CC genotype carriers had no increased risk of diabetes due to thiazides (odds ratio (OR) 0.63 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.28-1.40)) compared to AGTR1 1166A allele carriers (OR 1.79 (95% CI: 1.43-2.23)) receiving thiazides (synergy index (SI) for interaction 0.32 (95% CI: 0.15-0.68)). Although homozygous ACE GG subjects and ACE C allele carriers both had an increased risk of diabetes associated with thiazide use, this risk was more increased for ACE GG subjects (SI 1.70 (95% CI: 1.08-2.66)), particularly at doses > or =1 daily defined dose (DDD) (=25 mg hydrochlorothiazide)/day (SI 2.0 (95% CI: 1.20-3.32)). Among GNB3 T allele carriers, the risk of diabetes due to thiazide use was less increased than among homozygous GNB3 CC subjects (SI 0.62 (95% CI: 0.41-0.93)).

    Conclusion: The risk of diabetes due to thiazide use was not increased among AGTR1 1166 CC homozygous subjects and less increased among GNB3 T allele carriers. The ACE 4656 GG genotype enhanced the risk of diabetes due to thiazides.

    American journal of hypertension 2009;22;5;545-51

  • Genetic risk factors in recurrent venous thromboembolism: A multilocus, population-based, prospective approach.

    Zee RY, Bubes V, Shrivastava S, Ridker PM and Glynn RJ

    Center for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA. rzee@rics.bwh.harvard.edu

    Background: Recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a common, complex disorder; however, genetic factors have been suggested to play a role in the disease development. We therefore conducted a multi-locus genetic study examining the potential associations of candidate gene variants in inflammation, thrombosis, coagulation, and lipid metabolism pathways, individually or interactively, with risk of recurrent VTE.

    Methods: Using DNA samples collected at baseline in the Prevention of Recurrent Venous Thromboembolism trial (PREVENT), we genotyped 86 candidate genes polymorphisms among 43 individuals who subsequently developed recurrent VTE and among 396 individuals who remained free of recurrent event over a mean follow-up period of 2.1 years to prospectively determine whether these gene polymorphisms contribute to the risk of recurrent VTE.

    Results: Using a single-marker 'uncorrected' analysis, CCR5 A(-2459)G [rs1799864], MMP3 5A(-1171)6A [rs3025058] and PON1 gln192arg [rs662] gene variants were associated with increased risk, and CETP C(-629)A [rs1800775] gene variant with reduced risk of recurrent VTE, respectively. Furthermore, potentially important gene-gene-interactions were detected b 1f40 y the Monte Carlo Markov chain Logic Regression method.

    Conclusions: Although the present findings are hypothesis-generating and require confirmation in an independent investigation, our study provides a practical example of detecting epistasis in common, complex diseases.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL-57951, HL-58036, R01 HL057951, R01 HL057951-02, R01 HL057951-03, R01 HL057951-04, R01 HL057951-05, R01 HL058036, R01 HL058036-02; NIA NIH HHS: AG031061, R01 AG031061, R01 AG031061-01

    Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry 2009;402;1-2;189-92

  • A meta-analysis of candidate gene polymorphisms and ischemic stroke in 6 study populations: association of lymphotoxin-alpha in nonhypertensive patients.

    Wang X, Cheng S, Brophy VH, Erlich HA, Mannhalter C, Berger K, Lalouschek W, Browner WS, Shi Y, Ringelstein EB, Kessler C, Luedemann J, Lindpaintner K, Liu L, Ridker PM, Zee RY, Cook NR and RMS Stroke SNP Consortium

    Laboratory of Human Genetics, Beijing Hypertension League Institute, Beijing, China.

    Ischemic stroke is a multifactorial disease with a strong genetic component. Pathways, including lipid metabolism, systemic chronic inflammation, coagulation, blood pressure regulation, and cellular adhesion, have been implicated in stroke pathophysiology, and candidate gene polymorphisms in these pathways have been proposed as genetic risk factors.

    Methods: We genotyped 105 simple deletions and single nucleotide polymorphisms from 64 candidate genes in 3550 patients and 6560 control subjects from 6 case-control association studies conducted in the United States, Europe, and China. Genotyping was performed using the same immobilized probe typing system and meta-analyses were based on summary logistic regressions for each study. The primary analyses were fixed-effects meta-analyses adjusting for age and sex with additive, dominant, and recessive models of inheritance.

    Results: Although 7 polymorphisms showed a nominal additive association, none remained statistically significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons. In contrast, after stratification for hypertension, 2 lymphotoxin-alpha polymorphisms, which are in strong linkage disequilibrium, were significantly associated among nonhypertensive individuals: LTA 252A>G (additive model; OR, 1.41 with 95% CI, 1.20 to 1.65; P=0.00002) and LTA 26Thr>Asn (OR, 1.19 with 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.34; P=0.003). LTA 252A>G remained significant after adjustment for multiple testing using either the false discovery rate or by permutation testing. The 2 single nucleotide polymorphisms showed no association in hypertensive subjects (eg, LTA 252A>G, OR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.84 to 1.03; P=0.17).

    Conclusions: These observations may indicate an important role of LTA-mediated inflammatory processes in the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL-58755, HL-63293, R01 HL058755-02, R01 HL058755-03, R01 HL063293, R01 HL063293-01, R01 HL063293-02, R01 HL063293-03, R01 HL063293-04; NIA NIH HHS: 2 R01 AG005394-22A1, 2 R01 AG027574-22A1, AG05394, AG05407, R01 AG005394, R01 AG005407, R01 AG005407-14, R01 AG005407-15, R01 AG005407-16, R01 AG005407-17, R01 AG005407-18, R01 AG005407-19, R01 AG005407-20, R01 AG005407-21A1, R01 AG005407-22, R01 AG005407-23, R01 AG027574, R01 AG027576, R01 AG027576-22; NIAMS NIH HHS: AR35582, AR35583, AR35584, R01 AR035582, R01 AR035583, R01 AR035584

    Stroke 2009;40;3;683-95

  • Analysis of renin-angiotensin aldosterone system gene polymorphisms in Malaysian essential hypertensive and type 2 diabetic subjects.

    Ramachandran V, Ismail P, Stanslas J and Shamsudin N

    Genetic Research Group, Department of Biomedical Science, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia. vasuphd@gmail.com

    Background: The renin-angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) plays an important role in regulating the blood 1f40 pressure and the genetic polymorphisms of RAAS genes has been extensively studied in relation to the cardiovascular diseases in various populations with conflicting results. The aim of this study was to determine the association of five genetic polymorphisms (A6G and A20C of angiotensinogen (AGT), MboI of renin, Gly460Trp of aldosterone synthase and Lys173Arg of adducin) of RAAS genes in Malaysian essential hypertensive and type 2 diabetic subjects.

    Methods: RAAS gene polymorphisms were determined using mutagenically separated PCR and PCR-RFLP method in a total of 270 subjects consisting of 70 hypertensive subjects without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), 60 T2DM, 65 hypertensive subjects with T2DM and 75 control subjects.

    Results: There was significant difference found in age, body mass index, systolic/diastolic blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose and high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels between the hypertensive subjects with or without T2DM and control subjects. No statistically significant differences between groups were found in the allele frequency and genotype distribution for A20C variant of AGT gene, MboI of renin, Gly460Trp of aldosterone and Lys173Arg of adducin (p > 0.05). However, the results for A6G of AGT gene revealed significant differences in allele and genotype frequencies in essential hypertension with or without T2DM (p < 0.001).

    Conclusion: Among the five polymorphisms of RAAS genes only A6G variant of AGT gene was significantly associated in Malaysian essential hypertensive and type 2 diabetic subjects. Therefore, A6G polymorphism of the AGT gene could be a potential genetic marker for increased susceptibility to essential hypertension with or without T2DMin Malaysian subjects.

    Cardiovascular diabetology 2009;8;11

  • Usefulness of genetic polymorphisms and conventional risk factors to predict coronary heart disease in patients with familial hypercholesterolemia.

    van der Net JB, Janssens AC, Defesche JC, Kastelein JJ, Sijbrands EJ and Steyerberg EW

    Department of Public Health, Erasmus MC-University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

    Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an autosomal dominant disorder with an associated high risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). The considerable variation in age of onset of CHD in patients with FH is believed to arise from conventional risk factors, as well as genetic variation other than in the low-density lipoprotein receptor gene. The degree to which currently known genetic variants can improve the prediction of CHD risk beyond conventional risk factors in this disorder was investigated. Fourteen genetic variants recently identified for association with CHD in a Dutch FH population were considered. Prediction models were constructed using Cox proportional hazards models, and predictive value was assessed using a concordance statistic (c statistic). A total of 1,337 patients with FH were completely genotyped for all genetic variants. Hazard ratios of the genetic variants ranged from 0.61 to 0.74 and 1.24 to 2.33. The c statistic of the CHD prediction model based on genetic variants was 0.59, denoting little discrimination. The model based on conventional risk factors had a c statistic of 0.75, denoting moderate discrimination. Adding genetic test results to this model increased the c statistic to 0.76. In conclusion, the contribution of 14 genetic variants to the prediction of CHD risk in patients with FH was limited. To improve genome-based prediction of CHD, larger numbers of genetic variants need to be identified that either on their own or in gene-gene interaction have substantial effects on CHD risk.

    The American journal of cardiology 2009;103;3;375-80

  • [Association of the polymorphisms of sodium transport related genes with essential hypertension].

    Gong PY, Shen GM, Peng HM, Luo Y, Shen Y and Zhao X

    Department of Medical Genetics, Medical College, Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang, Henan, 471003 PR China. gpy1026@163.com

    Objective: To investigate the association of the polymorphisms of rs4961 in alpha-adducin (ADD1) and rs28933400 in Na+/K+ -ATPase a2 (ATP1A2) genes, the products of which are important for sodium transport, with essential hypertension.

    Methods: Mutagenically separated PCR (MS-PCR) was used to detect the genotypes of the two loci. The subjects were recruited randomly including 196 patients of essential hypertension and 192 healthy controls.

    Results: The frequencies of genotypes and alleles of in the ADD1 gene were significantly different between the patients and controls respectively (P=0.03, P=0.04). There was significant relationship between the genotypes of rs4961 and systolic blood pressure and blood sodium concentration. However, there was no significant relationship between the rs4961 genotypes and diastolic blood pressure, body mass index, blood kalium and chlorine concentrations. There was no polymorphism at the rs28933400 locus in the subjects analyzed.

    Conclusion: The rs4961 polymorphism of the ADD1 gene is associated with essential hypertension, but the rs28933400 locus in the ATP1A2 gene may have no association with essential hypertension in the studied population.

    Zhonghua yi xue yi chuan xue za zhi = Zhonghua yixue yichuanxue zazhi = Chinese journal of medical genetics 2009;26;1;91-4

  • Renin-angiotensin system and alpha-adducin gene polymorphisms and their relation to responses to antihypertensive drugs: results from the GENRES study.

    Suonsyrjä T, Hannila-Handelberg T, Fodstad H, Donner K, Kontula K and Hiltunen TP

    Department of Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

    Background: Polymorphisms in genes coding for components of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and alpha-adducin (ADD1) have been reported to be associated with blood pressure (BP) responses to antihypertensive agents. The results, however, have not been consistent and most of the earlier studies have been small and lacked placebo-control. Therefore, the association of common polymorphisms in these genes with BP responses to four different antihypertensive drugs was analyzed in a controlled study.

    Methods: The study included 208 hypertensive Finnish men from the GENRES study. All of them used amlodipine 5 mg, bisoprolol 5 mg, hydrochlorothiazide (HCT) 25 mg, and losartan 50 mg daily, each for 4 weeks as a monotherapy in a double-blind, randomized, study. The treatment periods were separated by 4-week placebo periods. Both 24-h ambulatory (ABP) and office BP (OBP) measurements were carried out. The polymorphisms analyzed were ADD1 Gly460Trp, angiotensinogen (AGT) Met235Thr, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) insertion/deletion (I/D), and angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AGTR1) 1166A/C.

    Results: The presence of 460Trp allele of ADD1, previously suggested to be a marker of thiazide responsiveness, did not predict a better response to HCT. There was no significant association of AGT Met235Thr, ACE I/D, and AGTR1 1166A/C polymorphisms with BP responses to the study drugs. ADD1 460Trp and AGT 235Thr alleles were associated with higher systolic white coat effect (WCE) during the placebo periods (P values 0.03 and 0.01, respectively).

    Conclusions: Common polymorphisms of ADD1, AGT, ACE, and AGTR1 do not markedly predict BP responses to amlodipine, bisoprolol, HCT, and losartan, at least in white hypertensive men.

    American journal of hypertension 2009;22;2;169-75

  • The association between arterial stiffness and the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (A1166C) polymorphism is influenced by the use of cardiovascular medication.

    Plat AW, Stoffers HE, de Leeuw PW, van Schayck CP, Soomers FL, Kester AD, Aretz K and Kroon AA

    Department of General Practice, School for Public Health and Primary Care (CAPHRI), Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

    Objective: To examine in a population with a high prevalence of hypertension, the association between six cardiovascular polymorphisms, arterial stiffness and medication use.

    Methods: In this cross-sectional study (Hypertension: Interaction and Prevalence of POlymorphisms related to Cardiovascular Risk and the Association to Treatment Efficacy Study project), arterial stiffness was assessed by measuring pulse wave velocity (PWV) in 575 patients in one primary care practice. Patients were genotyped for the angiotensin II type 1 receptor [AGTR1 (A1166C)], angiotensinogen (M235T), angiotensin-converting enzyme (4656rpt), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (E298D), G-protein beta3 (C825T), and alpha-adducin (G460W) polymorphisms. Linear regression analyses were performed to assess the association between polymorphisms and PWV.

    Results: Thirty percent of the patients (273 men, 302 women) had a carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity above 12 m/s and more than 60% of the patients had a carotid-femoral/carotid-radial PWV (CF/CR ratio) above 1. The CF/CR ratio was significantly associated with age, sex, dislipidemia, cardiovascular medication use and pulse pressure. After correction for these covariates, multivariate linear regression analyses showed that the C allele of AGTR1 was associated with a lower CF/CR ratio. This association was significantly influenced by cardiovascular medication use (P = 0.011), and showed a dose-allele effect, the CF/CR ratio decreasing with the number of C alleles (P = 0.04).

    Conclusion: In a primary care population, this study showed an independent protective dose-allele effect for the presence of C alleles of the AGTR1 polymorphism on PWV. This association, which was influenced by the use of cardiovascular medication, needs further investigations to identify the underlying mechanisms.

    Journal of hypertension 2009;27;1;69-75

  • Arterial properties in relation to genetic variation in alpha-adducin and the renin-angiotensin system in a White population.

    Seidlerová J, Staessen JA, Nawrot T, Brand E, Brand-Herrmann SM, Casamassima N, Citterio L, Hasenkamp S, Kuznetsova T, Li Y, Manunta P, Richart T, Struijker-Boudier HA, Fagard R and Filipovsk Ygrave J

    Studies Coordinating Centre, Division of Hypertension and Cardiovascular Rehabilitation, Department of Cardiovascular Diseases, University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

    Earlier studies have demonstrated the interaction between ADD1 and ACE in relation to arterial properties. We investigated whether arterial characteristics might also be related to interactions of ADD1 with other renin-angiotensin system genes. Using a family-based sampling frame, we randomly recruited 1064 Flemish subjects (mean age, 43.6 years; 50.4% women). By means of a wall-tracking ultrasound system, we measured the properties of the carotid, femoral and brachial arteries. In multivariate-adjusted analyses, we assessed the multiple gene effects of ADD1 (Gly460Trp), AGT (C-532T and G-6A) and AT1R (A1166C). In ADD1 Trp allele carriers, but not in ADD1 GlyGly homozygotes (P-value for interaction < or =0.014), femoral cross-sectional compliance was significantly higher (0.74 vs 0.65 mm(2) kPa(-1); P=0.020) in carriers of the AT1R C allele than in AT1R AA homozygotes, with a similar trend for femoral distensibility (11.3 vs 10.2 x 10(-3) kPa(-1); P=0.055). These associations were independent of potential confounding factors, including age. Family-based analyses confirmed these results. Brachial diameter (4.35 vs 4.18 mm) and plasma renin activity (PRA) (0.23 vs 0.14 ng ml(-1) h(-1)) were increased (P< or =0.005) in AGT CG haplotype homozygotes compared with non-carriers, whereas the opposite was true for brachial distensibility (12.4 vs 14.4 x 10(-3) kPa(-1); P=0.011). There was no interaction between AGT and any other gene in relation to the measured phenotypes. ADD1 and AT1R interactively determine the elastic properties of the femoral artery. There is a single-gene effect of the AGT promoter haplotypes on brachial properties and PRA.

    Journal of human hypertension 2009;23;1;55-64

  • Arterial properties in relation to genetic variations in the adducin subunits in a white population.

    Seidlerová J, Staessen JA, Bochud M, Nawrot T, Casamassima N, Citterio L, Kuznetsova T, Jin Y, Manunta P, Richart T, Struijker-Boudier HA, Fagard R, Filipovský J and Bianchi G

    Studies Coordinating Centre, Division of Hypertension and Cardiovascular Rehabilitation, Department of Cardiovascular Diseases, University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

    Background: Adducin is a membrane skeleton protein, which consists of either alpha- and beta- or alpha- and gamma-subunits. We investigated whether arterial characteristics might be related to the genes encoding ADD1 (Gly460Trp-rs4961), ADD2 (C1797T-rs4984), and ADD3 (IVS11+386A>G-rs3731566).

    Methods: We randomly recruited 1,126 Flemish subjects (mean age, 43.8 years; 50.3% women). Using a wall-tracking ultrasound system, we measured the properties of the carotid, femoral, and brachial arteries. We studied multivariate-adjusted phenotype-genotype associations, using a population- and family-based approach.

    Results: In single-gene analyses, brachial diameter was 0.15 mm (P = 0.0022) larger, and brachial distensibility and cross-sectional compliance were 1.55 x 10(-3)/kPa (P = 0.013) and 0.017 mm(2)/kPa (P = 0.0029) lower in ADD3 AA than ADD3 GG homozygotes with an additive effect of the G allele. In multiple-gene analyses, the association of brachial diameter and distensibility with the ADD3 G allele occurred only in ADD1 GlyGly homozygotes. Otherwise, the associations between the arterial phenotypes in the three vascular beds and the ADD1 or ADD2 polymorphisms were not significant. In family-based analyses, the multivariate-adjusted heritability was 0.52, 0.38, and 0.30 for brachial diameter, distensibility, and cross-sectional compliance, respectively (P < 0.001). There was no evidence for population stratification (0.07 < or = P < or = 0.96). Transmission of the mutated ADD3 G allele was associated with smaller brachial diameter in 342 informative offspring (-0.12 +/- 0.04 mm; P = 0.0085) and in 209 offspring, who were ADD1 GlyGly homozygotes (-0.14 +/- 0.06 mm; P = 0.018).

    Conclusions: In ADD1 GlyGly homozygotes, the properties of the brachial artery are related to the ADD3 (A386G) polymorphism, but the underlying mechanism needs further clarification.

    American journal of hypertension 2009;22;1;21-6

  • Interaction between the Gly460Trp alpha-adducin gene variant and diuretics on the risk of myocardial infarction.

    van Wieren-de Wijer DB, Maitland-van der Zee AH, de Boer A, Kroon AA, de Leeuw PW, Schiffers P, Janssen RG, Psaty BM, van Duijn CM, Stricker BH and Klungel OH

    Department of Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacotherapy, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

    Introduction: The Gly460Trp variant of the alpha-adducin gene has been associated with the salt-sensitive and diuretic responsive form of hypertension.

    Objective: The aim of the study was to determine whether the alpha-adducin 460Trp variant allele modifies the risk-lowering effect of diuretics on myocardial infarction (MI).

    In a population-based registry of pharmacy records linked to hospital discharge records (PHARMO), we used a nested case-control design. We selected patients hospitalized for MI as cases if they had at least one prescription for antihypertensive drugs in the 3 months prior to their first MI and were registered in PHARMO for at least 1 year. Controls that were matched on age, sex, region and calendar date, met the same eligibility criteria as the patients, but were not hospitalized for MI. Only current users of antihypertensive drugs in whom the Gly460Trp polymorphism was genotyped were included for this study. Logistic regression analysis was used to calculate odds ratio (OR), synergy indices, 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and to adjust for the potential confounding factors high cholesterol, smoking, BMI, diabetes, physical activity, alcohol use, use of loop diuretics, coumarins, antiplatelet drugs, ischemic heart disease and number of antihypertensive drugs.

    Results: The study included 613 patients and 3627 controls. Compared with users of other antihypertensives, the risk of MI was significantly lower among users of thiazide diuretics (OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.55-0.92). Among patients with the adducin variant the risk of MI was similar among thiazide users as compared with users of other antihypertensives (OR 0.88, 95% CI 0.58-1.33), whereas among wild-type carriers this risk was significantly lower (OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.44-0.87). The interaction between current use of diuretics and the alpha-adducin polymorphism was not statistically significantly increased on the multiplicative scale (synergy index 1.41, 95% CI 0.91-2.17). In sensitivity analyses, we found a nonsignificant trend towards a difference between patients who used potassium-sparing diuretics (synergy index 0.98, 95% CI 0.45-2.12) and patients who did not use potassium-sparing diuretics (synergy index 1.60, 95% CI 0.98-2.60) and a statistically significant difference between patients on monotherapy (synergy index 0.69, 95% CI 0.30-1.59) and those on combination therapy (synergy index 1.90, 95% CI 1.04-3.47).

    Conclusion: This study suggests that the alpha-adducin gene does not play an important role in modifying the risk of nonfatal MI associated with the use of thiazide diuretics.

    Journal of hypertension 2009;27;1;61-8

  • Blood pressure-related genes and the progression of IgA nephropathy.

    Kim SM, Chin HJ, Oh YK, Kim YS, Kim S and Lim CS

    Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National Un 9b1 iversity College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

    Hypertension is one of the most significant prognostic factors of immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN). We investigated the role of polymorphisms of hypertension-related genes in the clinical impact of IgAN.

    Methods: A total of 238 IgAN and 300 healthy cohorts were studied. The polymorphisms of angiotensinogen (AGT M235T), the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (A1166C), aldosterone synthase (C-344T), alpha-adducin (G460W) and endothelin-1 (K198N and 3A/4A) were determined.

    Results: The genotype distributions of the polymorphisms were similar between patients and controls. The individual genotypes taken alone were not associated with the development of hypertension or progression of renal dysfunction. Although AGT M235T was not associated with the development of hypertension in either sex, men with M235T TT were found to be at an increased risk of IgAN progression compared to those with the other genotypes (p = 0.019). In the Cox regression model with adjustment for clinical risk factors, including age at diagnosis, hypertension, serum creatinine and urinary protein excretion at renal biopsy, AGT M235T TT variant was an independent risk factor only for male patients (hazard ratio 5.848; p = 0.005).

    Conclusion: Our results suggest that the AGT M235T polymorphism is associated with the progression of IgAN in Korean male patients.

    Nephron. Clinical practice 2009;113;4;c301-8

  • Genetic polymorphisms and the risk of accelerated renal function decline in women.

    Cooper Worobey C, Fisher ND, Cox D, Forman JP and Curhan GC

    Renal Unit, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America.

    Background: Reduced glomerular filtration rate is an important predictor of cardiovascular disease and death. Genetic polymorphisms, particularly in genes involved in the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), may influence the rate of renal function decline.

    We examined the relation between specific single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), including those in the RAS, apolipoprotein E and alpha-adducin, and renal function decline assessed by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) over an 11-year period in 2578 Caucasian participants of the Nurses' Health Study. Logistic regression was used to examine the associations between genotype and risk of eGFR decline of >or=25%.

    Results: After 11 years between creatinine measurements, the eGFR declined by >or=25% in 423 of 2578 (16%) women. The angiotensinogen (AGT) A-20C polymorphism was associated with a higher risk of renal function decline when two risk alleles were present than if one or no alleles were present (CC vs AA and AC) OR 1.83 (95% CI 1.02-3.26; p = 0.04). The angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT(1)R) A1166C polymorphism was marginally associated with a higher risk of renal function decline when two risk alleles were present (CC vs AA, OR = 1.41; 95% CI 0.98-2.01; p = 0.06). The alpha-adducin G460W polymorphism was associated with a lower risk of renal function decline when any number of risk alleles were present (WG vs GG, OR = 0.78, 95% CI 0.61-0.99, p = 0.04; WW vs GG, OR = 0.46; 95% CI 0.20-1.07, p = 0.07). Linear regression analysis with change in eGFR as the outcome showed a larger decline of 3.5 (95% CI 0.5 to 6.4, p = 0.02) ml/min/1.73 m(2) in AGT A-20C CC homozygotes. No other polymorphisms were significantly associated with renal function decline or absolute change in eGFR over the study period.

    Conclusions: Genetic variants in the angiotensinogen, angiotensin II type 1 receptor and alpha-adducin genes may contribute to loss of renal function in the general female Caucasian population.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA87969, P01 CA087969; NIDDK NIH HHS: DK07791, DK66574, R01 DK066574, T32 DK007791

    PloS one 2009;4;3;e4787

  • Host alpha-adducin is redistributed and localized to the inclusion membrane in chlamydia- and chlamydophila-infected cells.

    Chu HG, Weeks SK, Gilligan DM and Rockey DD

    Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331-4804, USA.

    A large-scale analysis of proteins involved in host-cell signalling pathways was performed using chlamydia-infected murine cells in order to identify host proteins that are differentially activated or localized following infection. Two proteins whose distribution was altered in Chlamydia trachomatis-infected cells relative to mock-infected cells were the actin-binding protein adducin and the regulatory kinase Raf-1. Immunoblot analysis with antibodies to both phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated forms of these proteins demonstrated that the abundance of each protein was markedly reduced in the cytosolic fraction of C. trachomatis- and Chlamydophila caviae-infected cells, but the total cellular protein abundance remained unaffected by infection. Fluorescence microscopy of chlamydia-infected cells using anti-alpha-adducin antibodies demonstrated labelling at or near the chlamydial inclusion membrane. Treatment of infected cells with nocodazole or cytochalasin D did not affect alpha-adducin that was localized to the margins of the inclusion. The demonstration of alpha-adducin and Raf-1 redistribution within cells infected by different chlamydiae provides novel opportunities for analysis of host-pathogen interactions in this system.

    Funded by: NIAID NIH HHS: AI031448, AI48769

    Microbiology (Reading, England) 2008;154;Pt 12;3848-55

  • Multiple genetic variants along candidate pathways influence plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations.

    Lu Y, Dollé ME, Imholz S, van 't Slot R, Verschuren WM, Wijmenga C, Feskens EJ and Boer JM

    Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands. kevin.lu@wur.nl

    The known genetic variants determining plasma HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) levels explain only part of its variation. Three hundred eighty-four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across 251 genes based on pathways potentially relevant to HDL-C metabolism were selected and genotyped in 3,575 subjects from the Doetinchem cohort, which was examined thrice over 11 years. Three hundred fifty-three SNPs in 239 genes passed the quality-control criteria. Seven SNPs [rs1800777 and rs5882 in cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP); rs3208305, rs328, and rs268 in LPL; rs1800588 in LIPC; rs2229741 in NRIP1] were associated with plasma HDL-C levels with false discovery rate (FDR) adjusted q values (FDR_q) < 0.05. Five other SNPs (rs17585739 in SC4MOL, rs11066322 in PTPN11, rs4961 in ADD1, rs6060717 near SCAND1, and rs3213451 in MBTPS2 in women) were associated with plasma HDL-C levels with FDR_q between 0.05 and 0.2. Two less well replicated associations (rs3135506 in APOA5 and rs1800961 in HNF4A) known from the literature were also observed, but their significance disappeared after adjustment for multiple testing (P = 0.008, FDR_q = 0.221 for rs3135506; P = 0.018, FDR_q = 0.338 for rs1800961, respectively). In addition to replication of previous results for candidate genes (CETP, LPL, LIPC, HNF4A, and APOA5), we found interesting new candidate SNPs (rs2229741 in NRIP1, rs3213451 in MBTPS2, rs17585739 in SC4MOL, rs11066322 in PTPN11, rs4961 in ADD1, and rs6060717 near SCAND1) for plasma HDL-C levels that should be evaluated further.

    Journal of lipid research 2008;49;12;2582-9

  • Candidate genes and cerebral palsy: a population-based study.

    Gibson CS, Maclennan AH, Dekker GA, Goldwater PN, Sullivan TR, Munroe DJ, Tsang S, Stewart C and Nelson KB

    Schools of aPaediatrics and Reproductive Health, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia.

    Objective: The objective of this study was to examine whether selected genetic polymorphisms in the infant are associated with later-diagnosed cerebral palsy.

    Methods: A population-based case-control study was conducted of 28 single-nucleotide polymorphisms measured in newborn screening blood spots. A total of 413 children with later-diagnosed cerebral palsy were born to white women in South Australia in 1986-1999, and there were 856 control children. Distributions of genotypic frequencies were examined in total cerebral palsy, in gestational age groups, and by types of cerebral palsy and gender. Genotyping was performed by using a TaqMan assay.

    Results: For inducible nitric-oxide synthase, possession of the T allele was more common in all children with cerebral palsy and for heterozygotes who were born at term. For lymphotoxin alpha, homozygous variant status was associated with risk for cerebral palsy and with spastic hemiplegic or quadriplegic cerebral palsy. Among term infants, heterozygosity for the endothelial protein C receptor single-nucleotide polymorphism was more frequent in children with cerebral palsy. In preterm infants, the variant A allele of interleukin 8 and heterozygosity for the beta-2 adrenergic receptor were associated with cerebral palsy risk. Interleukin 8 heterozygote status was associated with spastic diplegia. Variants of several genes were associated with cerebral palsy in girls but not in boys.

    Conclusions: Two of the 28 single-nucleotide polymorphisms examined were associated with all types of spastic cerebral palsy in both gestational age groups and others with cerebral palsy in gestational age or cerebral palsy subgroups. Some of these associations support previous findings. There may be a genetic contribution to cerebral palsy risk, and additional investigation is warranted of genes and gene-environment interactions in cerebral palsy.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: N01-CO-12400

    Pediatrics 2008;122;5;1079-85

  • Gly460Trp alpha-adducin mutation as a possible mechanism leading to endolymphatic hydrops in Ménière's syndrome.

    Teggi R, Lanzani C, Zagato L, Delli Carpini S, Manunta P, Bianchi G and Bussi M

    ENT Department, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Vita-Salute University San Raffaele, Milan, Italy. teggi.roberto@hsr.it

    Objective: Ménière's disease (MD) is an inner ear disorder characterized by recurrent episodic vertigo, hearing loss that is fluctuating in the first stages, aural fullness, and tinnitus. Raised endolymphatic pressure (hydrops) is commonly accepted as a causal condition. Approximately 90% of cases of MD are sporadic, whereas the remaining 10% of cases are linked to genetic factors. The ionic composition of endolymph may also depend on the activity of Na, K-ATPase. Adducin is a heterodimeric cytoskeleton protein consisting of 3 subunits (alpha, beta, and gamma) coded by 3 different genes (ADD1, ADD2, and ADD3). ADD1 Gly460Trp polymorphism is associated with salt-sensitive hypertension and increased Na-K pump activity in transfected cells. This study aims to verify the role of adducin in the development of MD.

    Methods: We genotyped 28 patients affected by definite MD according to American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation criteria. Results were compared with those from 2 different control populations (normotensive control group from San Raffaele Hospital and general population group).

    Results: We have not found any significant difference in the distribution of ADD2 C1797T and ADD3 IVS11+386A/G polymorphism genotypes. On the other hand, the frequency of ADD1 Trp allele is significantly increased in patients with MD compared with controls.

    Conclusion: We present data supporting the possibility that increased Na, K-ATPase activity may be one of the pathologic mechanisms inducing hyperosmolarity in endolymph which, in turn, may lead to hydrops.

    Otology & neurotology : official publication of the American Otological Society, American Neurotology Society [and] European Academy of Otology and Neurotology 2008;29;6;824-8

  • Single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes of circulatory homeostasis in surviving pediatric intensive care patients with meningococcal infection.

    Bunker-Wiersma HE, Koopmans RP, Kuipers TW, Knoester H and Bos AP

    Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, The Emma Children's hospital/Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, Netherlands. h.e.wiersma@amc.uva.nl

    Objective: In the course of a meningococcal infection, invasive and severe disease occurs in a restricted number of individuals. The predominant mechanism of death in case of meningococcal septic shock is circulatory failure. Inotropic requirements between patients vary widely. We investigated whether polymorphisms in genes regulating the hemodynamic response influence the amount of inotropics required or the susceptibility to severe meningococcal disease.

    Design: Retrospective case control study.

    Setting: Single-center pediatric intensive care unit (PICU).

    Patients: Fifty-six cases (all consecutive patients admitted to the PICU between 1993 and 2001 with a proven meningococcal infection) and 136 controls. Patients were divided into two groups according to their inotropic requirements.

    Intervention: DNA analysis was performed to determine the polymorphisms of the beta-adrenergic receptor gene-1, beta-adrenergic receptor gene-2, alpha-adducin, angiotensin converting enzyme, and angiotensin II type-1 receptor-1 genes.

    Results: For the alpha-adducin gene a significant difference of the genotype distribution was found between the cases and controls. The odds ratio for admission to the PICU with meningococcal sepsis with or without meningitis, for carriers of the variant allele (Gly460Trp or Trp460Trp) was 2.1 (95% confidence interval 1.11-4.04; p < 0.02). Cases, homozygote for the wild-type allele of the beta-1 adrenergic receptor at locus 389, were more likely to have a low pediatric risk of mortality score on admission (odds ratio 3.6, 95% confidence interval 1.11-11.76). No difference was found in the distribution of the beta-adrenergic receptor gene-1, beta-adrenergic receptor gene-2, angioten 1f40 sin converting enzyme, and angiotensin II type-1 receptor-1 polymorphisms between the two groups of patients or between cases and controls.

    Conclusions: Among patients admitted to the PICU with a meningococcal infection, the variant allele of the alpha-adducin gene was more prevalent compared with controls. Patients with the variant allele of the beta-adrenergic receptor gene-1 at locus 389 were more likely to have a high pediatric risk of mortality score on admission. The mechanism and clinical relevance of these findings is unclear.

    Pediatric critical care medicine : a journal of the Society of Critical Care Medicine and the World Federation of Pediatric Intensive and Critical Care Societies 2008;9;5;517-23

  • alpha-Adducin mutations increase Na/K pump activity in rena 1f40 l cells by affecting constitutive endocytosis: implications for tubular Na reabsorption.

    Torielli L, Tivodar S, Montella RC, Iacone R, Padoani G, Tarsini P, Russo O, Sarnataro D, Strazzullo P, Ferrari P, Bianchi G and Zurzolo C

    Prassis sigma tau Research Institute, Milan, Italy. lucia.torielli@prassis.it

    Genetic variation in alpha-adducin cytoskeletal protein is implicated in the polymerization and bundling of actin and alteration of the Na/K pump, resulting in abnormal renal sodium transport and hypertension in Milan hypertensive rats and humans. To investigate the molecular involvement of alpha-adducin in controlling Na/K pump activity, wild-type or mutated rat and human alpha-adducin forms were, respectively, transfected into several renal cell lines. Through multiple experimental approaches (microscopy, enzymatic assays, coimmunoprecipitation), we showed that rat and human mutated forms increased Na/K pump activity and the number of pump units; moreover, both variants coimmunoprecipitate with Na/K pump. The increased Na/K pump activity was not due to changes in its basolateral localization, but to an alteration of Na/K pump residential time on the plasma membrane. Indeed, both rat and human mutated variants reduced constitutive Na/K pump endocytosis and similarly affected transferrin receptor trafficking and fluid-phase endocytosis. In fact, alpha-adducin was detected in clathrin-coated vesicles and coimmunoprecipitated with clathrin. These results indicate that adducin, besides its modulatory effects on actin cytoskeleton dynamics, might play a direct role in clathrin-dependent endocytosis. The constitutive reduction of the Na/K pump endocytic rate induced by mutated adducin variants may be relevant in Na-dependent hypertension.

    American journal of physiology. Renal physiology 2008;295;2;F478-87

  • Alpha-adducin polymorphism associated with increased risk of adverse cardiovascular outcomes: results from GENEtic Substudy of the INternational VErapamil SR-trandolapril STudy (INVEST-GENES).

    Gerhard T, Gong Y, Beitelshees AL, Mao X, Lobmeyer MT, Cooper-DeHoff RM, Langaee TY, Schork NJ, Shriver MD, Pepine CJ, Johnson JA and INVEST Investigators

    College of Pharmacy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610-0486, USA.

    Background: The alpha-adducin (ADD1) Gly460Trp polymorphism has been associated with hypertension and response to diuretic therapy, but controversy exists.

    Methods: The present study was conducted to prospectively investigate the relationship among the ADD1 Gly460Trp polymorphism, diuretic use, and adverse cardiovascular outcomes among 5,979 patients with hypertensive coronary artery disease, who participated in the INVEST and provided genomic DNA. The primary outcome was defined as the first occurrence of nonfatal stroke, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or all-cause death. Secondary outcomes were the components of the primary outcome. Ancestry informative markers were used to control for population stratification.

    Results: In blacks, ADD1 variant carriers were at higher risk for a primary outcome event than wild-type homozygotes (adjusted hazard ratio 2.62, 95% CI 1.23-5.58, P = .012), with a similar trend in whites and Hispanics, albeit a smaller magnitude of effect (adjusted hazard ratio 1.43, 0.86-2.39 in Hispanics; 1.24, 0.90-1.71 in whites). Secondary outcome analysis showed that the all-cause death was driving the differences in primary outcomes by genotype. There was no interaction between the ADD1 polymorphism and diuretic use for either primary outcome or secondary outcomes.

    Conclusions: In hypertensive patients with coronary artery disease, black ADD1 variant carriers showed a 2.6-fold excess risk for a primary outcome event and an 8-fold increase risk of death. White and Hispanic ADD1 variant carriers showed an increased but nonsignificant excess risk. However, the effect of diuretic use on risk of cardiovascular outcomes did not vary by ADD1 carrier status.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: R01 HL074730, R01 HL074730-01, R01 HL074730-02, R01 HL074730-03, R01 HL074730-04

    American heart journal 2008;156;2;397-404

  • Physiological interaction between alpha-adducin and WNK1-NEDD4L pathways on sodium-related blood pressure regulation.

    Manunta P, Lavery G, Lanzani C, Braund PS, Simonini M, Bodycote C, Zagato L, Delli Carpini S, Tantardini C, Brioni E, Bianchi G and Samani NJ

    Division of Nephrology, Dialysis, and Hypertension, University "Vita-Salute" San Raffaele Hospital, Via Olgettina 60, 20132 Milan, Italy. manunta.paolo@hsr.it

    The kidney plays an important role in salt and blood pressure (BP) homeostasis. In previous studies, variants in the genes for alpha-adducin (ADD1), WNK1, and NEDD4L, which all regulate renal sodium absorption, have been associated with increased BP. However, findings have been inconsistent. We tested whether this is because of physiological interactions between the effects of variants in these genes. We assessed the single and combined effects of the ADD1 (Gly460Trp), WNK1 (rs880054 A/G), and NEDD4L (rs4149601 G/A) polymorphisms on renal and BP response to an acute Na load (n=344 subjects), BP decrease after 1 month of treatment with 12.5 mg of hydrochlorothiazide (n=193), and ambulatory 24-hour BP (n=690). Individually, the variants showed modest effects on some of the studied phenotypes. We found the ADD1 Trp allele to be permissive for the effects of variants of the other genes. In combination, the same variants (ADD1 Trp/WNK1 GG/Nedd4L GA+AA) showed a consistent effect on renal Na handling (P=0.009) and acute BP response to a saline infusion (P=0.021), BP lowering after thiazide treatment (P=0.008), and nocturnal systolic BP (P=0.044). Physiological interaction between the ADD1 and WNK1-NEDD4L pathways influences the effects of variants in these genes on sodium-related BP regulation. Relatively common alleles in the ADD1, WNK1, and NEDD4L genes when present in combination may have significant effects on renal sodium handling, BP, and antihypertensive response to thiazides.

    Funded by: British Heart Foundation; Wellcome Trust

    Hypertension (Dallas, Tex. : 1979) 2008;52;2;366-72

  • [Study on the association of predisposing genes with essential hypertension among Kazakhs ethnic group in Xinjiang].

    Chen XD, SM, Wang XF, Lu M and Jin L

    Institute of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Shandong University, Jinan 250012, China.

    Objective: To investigate the association between M235T and G-6A polymorphism of AGT gene, insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism of ACE gene, Gly460Trp polymorphism of ADD1 gene, C825T polymorphism of GNB3 gene and essential hypertension in Xinjiang Kazakhs group as well as to identify the interactions of gene-gene and gene-environment.

    Methods: A case-control study (n = 441) was performed in 241 cases and 202 controls. Polymerase chain reaction and restrict fragment length polymorphism (PCR-PFLP) technique were used to detect the genotypes polymorphism.

    Results: Comparing the frequencies of alleles and genotypes, there were no statistical significances except frequency of allele of M235T (P = 0.0483) identified. In logistic regression analysis, there were significant differences in all of the loci. The 4 loci model (AGE/CHO/G-6A/ACE) appeared the best model in MDR analysis.

    Conclusion: Our research data showed that the polymorphisms of all the four genes might be associated with hypertension in the Kazakhs group of Xinjiang while there might be interactions existed in AGT, ACE, AGE and CHO.

    Zhonghua liu xing bing xue za zhi = Zhonghua liuxingbingxue zazhi 2008;29;8;752-6

  • Alpha-adducin Gly460Trp variant increases the risk of stroke in hypertensive Dutch women.

    Zafarmand MH, van der Schouw YT, Grobbee DE, de Leeuw PW and Bots ML

    Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, Str 6.131, 3584 CX Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

    The Gly460Trp variant of the alpha-adducin gene has been associated with renal sodium retention and salt-sensitive hypertension. Independent of blood pressure, salt sensitivity has been related to cerebrovascular events. We studied the risk of stroke, coronary heart disease (CHD), and myocardial infarction (MI) associated with the alpha-adducin variant and examined the extent to which this risk is modified by the presence of hypertension. We performed a case-cohort study in a prospective cohort of 15,236 initially healthy Dutch women. We applied a Cox proportional hazards model with an estimation procedure adapted for case-cohort designs to study the relation of the polymorphism and CHD (n=210), MI (n=71), any stroke (n=74), and ischemic stroke (n=49). Subjects with the Gly460Trp variant had a 2.8 times higher risk of stroke (95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.3 to 5.8) under the dominant genetic model, which did not attenuate after adjustment. The same pattern was found under per-allele comparison. Risk of ischemic stroke in the variant allele carriers was 3.9 times higher than in subjects with the common genotype (95% CI 1.7 to 8.6) using dominant inheritance model. The same patterns were found under per-allele comparison. CHD and MI were not related to the variant. The risk of ischemic stroke was more pronounced among women with systolic hypertension (10.9; 95% CI 3.6 to 31.5). The findings in this prospective study in a population based cohort of Dutch women strongly suggest that presence of the alpha-adducin Gly460Trp polymorphism increases the risk of stroke. This risk is particularly elevated in the presence of systolic hypertension.

    Hypertension (Dallas, Tex. : 1979) 2008;51;6;1665-70

  • Effects of genetic variation in adducin on left ventricular diastolic function as assessed by tissue Doppler imaging in a Flemish population.

    Kuznetsova T, Citterio L, Herbots L, Carpini SD, Thijs L, Casamassima N, Richart T, Fagard RH, Bianchi G and Staessen JA

    Studies Coordinating Centre, Division of Hypertension and Cardiovascular Rehabilitation, Department of Cardiovascular Diseases, University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

    Background: We investigated the possible association between left ventricular diastolic function and the ADD1 Gly460Trp and ADD3 IVS11 +386A>G polymorphisms alone and in combination.

    Methods: In a family-based population study (473 subjects; 50.5% women; mean age 50.5 years), we measured early (Ea) and late (Aa) diastolic peak velocities of the mitral annulus by tissue Doppler imaging. In multivariate-adjusted analyses, we investigated phenotype-genotype associations, while accounting for confounders and family structure.

    Results: Lateral Ea/Aa ratio was higher in ADD1 Trp allele carriers than in GlyGly homozygotes (1.51 vs. 1.40; P = 0.005) and was lower in ADD3 A allele carriers than in GG homozygotes (1.42 vs. 1.55; P = 0.005). The effects of ADD1 on the lateral Ea and Ea/Aa weakened with older age (P < 0.05). The best fitting model for lateral Ea and Ea/Aa included ADD1, ADD3, and the three-way interaction term of both genes with age. Below the age of 50 years, the lateral Ea/Aa ratio was higher in ADD1 Trp allele carriers than in GlyGly homozygotes (1.91 vs. 1.73; P = 0.006), particularly in the presence of ADD3 GG homozygosity (2.46 vs. 1.80; P = 0.0008). In older subjects, these phenotype-genotype associations were not significant (P > 0.20). Transmission of the ADD1 Trp allele to offspring was associated with higher lateral Ea (+0.91; P = 0.026) and Ea/Aa ratio (+0.23; P = 0.0008).

    Conclusion: Our population-based study demonstrated that left ventricular diastolic relaxation is modulated by genetic variation in ADD1 and ADD3. This association was more prominent in younger subjects in whom longstanding environmental factors and ageing are less likely to mask genetic effects.

    Journal of hypertension 2008;26;6;1229-36

  • Gene-load score of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is associated with coronary heart disease in familial hypercholesterolaemia.

    van der Net JB, van Etten J, Yazdanpanah M, Dallinga-Thie GM, Kastelein JJ, Defesche JC, Koopmans RP, Steyerberg EW and Sijbrands EJ

    Department of Internal Medicine-D435, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center, PO Box 2040, 3000 CA Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

    Aims: Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is characterized by premature coronary heart disease (CHD). However, the incidence of CHD varies considerably among FH patients. Genetic variation in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) and the adrenalin/noradrenalin system may be of importance in determining the CHD risk in FH, because of their involvement in CHD. We investigated the association between CHD risk and combined genetic variation in the RAAS and adrenalin/noradrenalin system.

    In 2190 FH patients, we genotyped six RAAS polymorphisms and five adrenalin/noradrenalin polymorphisms. For each patient, we calculated two gene-load scores by counting the number of risk genotypes within each pathway. Four of the six RAAS polymorphisms and none of the polymorphisms in the adrenalin/noradrenalin system were significantly associated with CHD (P < 0.05). The RAAS gene-load score was significantly associated with CHD (P(linear trend) < 0.001): in patients with a gene-load score of 5 or 6, the CHD risk was 2.3 times as high as in patients with a score of 0 or 1. The gene-load score of the adrenalin/noradrenalin system was not associated with CHD.

    Conclusion: Genetic variation in the RAAS contributes gene-dose dependently to CHD risk in patients with FH, whereas genetic variation in the adrenalin/noradrenalin system is not associated with CHD.

    European heart journal 2008;29;11;1370-6

  • New application of intelligent agents in sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis identifies unexpected specific genetic background.

    Penco S, Buscema M, Patrosso MC, Marocchi A and Grossi E

    Medical Genetics, Clinical Chemistry and Clinical Pathology Laboratory, Niguarda Ca' Granda Hospital P.za Ospedale Maggiore 3, 20100 Milan, Italy. silvana.penco@ospedaleniguarda.it

    Background: Few genetic factors predisposing to the sporadic form of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) have been identified, but the pathology itself seems to be a true multifactorial disease in which complex interactions between environmental and genetic susceptibility factors take place. The purpose of this study was to approach genetic data with an innovative statistical method such as artificial neural networks to identify a possible genetic background predisposing to the disease. A DNA multiarray panel was applied to genotype more than 60 polymorphisms within 35 genes selected from pathways of lipid and homocysteine metabolism, regulation of blood pressure, coagulation, inflammation, cellular adhesion and matrix integrity, in 54 sporadic ALS patients and 208 controls. Advanced intelligent systems based on novel coupling of artificial neural networks and evolutionary algorithms have been applied. The results obtained have been compared with those derived from the use of standard neural networks and classical statistical analysis

    Results: Advanced intelligent systems based on novel coupling of artificial neural networks and evolutionary algorithms have been applied. The results obtained have been compared with those derived from the use of standard neural networks and classical statistical analysis. An unexpected discovery of a strong genetic background in sporadic ALS using a DNA multiarray panel and analytical processing of the data with advanced artificial neural networks was found. The predictive accuracy obtained with Linear Discriminant Analysis and Standard Artificial Neural Networks ranged from 70% to 79% (average 75.31%) and from 69.1 to 86.2% (average 76.6%) respectively. The corresponding value obtained with Advanced Intelligent Systems reached an average of 96.0% (range 94.4 to 97.6%). This latter approach allowed the identification of seven genetic variants essential to differentiate cases from controls: apolipoprotein E arg158cys; hepatic lipase -480 C/T; endothelial nitric oxide synthase 690 C/T and glu298asp; vitamin K-dependent coagulation factor seven arg353glu, glycoprotein Ia/IIa 873 G/A and E-selectin ser128arg.

    Conclusion: This study provides an alternative and reliable method to approach complex diseases. Indeed, the application of a novel artificial intelligence-based method offers a new insight into genetic markers of sporadic ALS pointing out the existence of a strong genetic background.

    BMC bioinformatics 2008;9;254

  • Relationships among endogenous ouabain, alpha-adducin polymorphisms and renal sodium handling in primary hypertension.

    Manunta P, Maillard M, Tantardini C, Simonini M, Lanzani C, Citterio L, Stella P, Casamassima N, Burnier M, Hamlyn JM and Bianchi G

    Division of Nephrology, Dialysis and Hypertension, Scientific Institute San Raffaele, University Vita-Salute San Raffaele, Milan, Italy. manunta.paolo@hsr.it

    Objective: The basolateral Na pump drives renotubular reabsorption. In cultured renal cells, mutant adducins, as well as sub-nanomolar ouabain concentrations, stimulate the Na-K pump.

    Methods: To determine whether these factors interact and affect Na handling and blood pressure (BP) in vivo, we studied 155 untreated hypertensive patients subdivided on the basis of their plasma endogenous ouabain or alpha-adducin genotype (ADD1 Gly460Trp-rs4961).

    Results: Under basal conditions, proximal tubular reabsorption and plasma Na were higher in patients with mutated Trp ADD1 or increased endogenous ouabain (P = 0.002 and 0.05, respectively). BPs were higher in the high plasma endogenous ouabain group (P = 0.001). Following volume loading, the increment in BP (7.73 vs. 4.81 mmHg) and the slopes of the relationship between BP and Na excretion were greater [0.017 +/- 0.002 vs. 0.009 +/- 0.003 mmHg/(muEq min)] in ADD1 Trp vs. ADD1 Gly carriers (P < 0.05). BP changes were similar, whereas the slopes of the relationship between BP and Na excretion were lower [0.016 +/- 0.003 vs. 0.008 +/- 0.002 mmHg/(muEq min)] in patients with low vs. high endogenous ouabain (P < 0.05). In patients with high endogenous ouabain, volume loading increased the BP in the ADD1 Trp group but not in the Gly group (P < 0.05). Thus, patients with ADD1 Trp alleles are sensitive to salt and tubular Na reabsorption remains elevated after volume expansion.

    Conclusion: With saline loading, BP changes are similar in high and low endogenous ouabain patients, whereas tubular Na reabsorption increases in the high endogenous ouabain group. Saline loading unmasks differences in renal Na handling in patients with mutant adducin or high endogenous ouabain and exposes an interaction of endogenous ouabain and Trp alleles on BP.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL078870, HL75584, P01 HL078870, R01 HL075584

    Journal of hypertension 2008;26;5;914-20

  • [Association of alpha-adducin and angiotensin converting enzyme gene polymorphisms with salt-sensitive hypertension and early renal injury].

    Lu LH, Chen H and Yu L

    Department of Cardiology, Fujian Provincial Hospital, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, Fujian, 350001 P. R. China. lulihong168@163.com

    Objective: To investigate the association between the alpha-adducin gene G460T, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphisms and salt-sensitive hypertension and early renal injury in Chinese people.

    Methods: The case-control study was performed in 200 essential hypertension (EH) and 200 normal control subjects in China. The 200 EH patients were divided into salt-sensitive(SS= 109) and non-salt-sensitive(NSS= 91) groups according to modified Sullivan's method. The genotypes of alpha-adducin gene were determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). The ACE genotypes were determined by PCR. The urine microalbum (Alb) in 200 EH subjects was measured by radioactive immunoassay.

    Results: (1) A higher frequency of alpha-adducin gene G460T TT in EH patients was observed (P< 0.05). No significant difference of the ACE gene I/D polymorphism was found between the EH patients and normal control (P> 0.05). There were significant differences in the alpha-adducin gene TT genotype and combined genotype of TT+ II between SS and NSS subjects (P< 0.05). (2) The levels of urine Alb/Cr in SS patients were significantly higher than that in NSS patients (P< 0.05); in SS group, the levels of urine Alb/Cr in ACE II and alpha-adducin gene TT genotypes were higher than that in ACE ID, DD genotype and alpha-adducin gene GT and GG genotypes. The levels of urine Alb/Cr in the group of alpha-adducin gene TT+ ACE II combined genotype were higher than that in other combined genotypes (P< 0.05).

    Conclusion: The alpha-adducin gene TT genotype or combined with ACE II are significantly associated with SS hypertension. The alpha-adducin gene TT and ACE II genotypes might be genetic susceptibility factors to hypertension accompanying renal injury.

    Zhonghua yi xue yi chuan xue za zhi = Zhonghua yixue yichuanxue zazhi = Chinese journal of medical genetics 2008;25;2;132-5

  • Adducin promotes micrometer-scale organization of beta2-spectrin in lateral membranes of bronchial epithelial cells.

    Abdi KM and Bennett V

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and the Department of Cell Biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA.

    Adducin promotes assembly of spectrin-actin complexes, and is a target for regulation by calmodulin, protein kinase C, and rho kinase. We demonstrate here that adducin is required to stabilize preformed lateral membranes of human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells through interaction with beta2-spectrin. We use a Tet-on regulated inducible small interfering RNA (siRNA) system to deplete alpha-adducin from confluent HBE cells. Depletion of alpha-adducin resulted in increased detergent solubility of spectrin after normal membrane biogenesis during mitosis. Conversely, depletion of beta2-spectrin resulted in loss of adducin from the lateral membrane. siRNA-resistant alpha-adducin prevented loss of lateral membrane, but only if alpha-adducin retained the MARCKS domain that mediates spectrin-actin interactions. Phospho-mimetic versions of adducin with S/D substitutions at protein kinase C phosphorylation sites in the MARCKS domain were not active in rescue. We find that adducin modulates long-range organization of the lateral membrane based on several criteria. First, the lateral membrane of adducin-depleted cells exhibited reduced height, increased curvature, and expansion into the basal surface. Moreover, E-cadherin-GFP, which normally is restricted in lateral mobility, rapidly diffuses over distances up to 10 microm. We conclude that adducin acting through spectrin provides a novel mechanism to regulate global properties of the lateral membrane of bronchial epithelial cells.

    Funded by: Howard Hughes Medical Institute; NHLBI NIH HHS: 1F31HL08194402

    Molecular biology of the cell 2008;19;2;536-45

  • Association of alpha-adducin Gly460Trp polymorphism with coronary artery disease in a Korean population.

    Cha SH, Kim HT, Jang Y, Park S, Kim JJ, Song MY, Park JH, Ryu HJ, Park HY, Yoon SJ, Kimm K, Lee JK and Oh B

    National Genome Research Institute, National Institute of Health, Seoul, Seoul, Korea.

    Objective: Coronary artery disease is caused by multiple genetic and environmental factors. The disease is also closely associated with cardiovascular conditions such as hypertension. In order to investigate any possible role of hypertension candidate genes in the disease development and progression, we examined the association of the polymorphisms of 31 hypertension candidate genes with coronary artery disease.

    Methods: Genetic polymorphisms of 31 hypertension candidate genes were initially screened by resequencing DNA samples from 24 unrelated individuals in a Korean population. Association analysis was performed using 1284 unrelated Korean men, including 749 coronary artery disease subjects and 535 normal healthy controls.

    Results: We identified a total of 409 single nucleotide polymorphisms including 40 nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms, 32 insertions/deletions and four microsatellites. Among 40 nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms, 29 were examined for an association with coronary artery disease. A significant association with coronary artery disease was observed in a polymorphism of the ADD1 gene (Gly460Trp; +29017G/T) (odds ratio 0.71-0.81; P = 0.01-0.04). The same polymorphism was also associated with the number of arteries with significant coronary artery stenosis in the coronary artery disease patients (P = 0.01) as well as the increase in systolic blood pressure (P = 0.02).

    Conclusions: The ADD1 Gly460Trp polymorphism is significantly associated with an increased risk of coronary artery disease as well as blood pressure, indicating that ADD1 plays a role in the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease as well as hypertension.

    Journal of hypertension 2007;25;12;2413-20

  • Gly460Trp alpha-adducin gene polymorphism and endothelial function in untreated hypertensive patients.

    Perticone F, Sciacqua A, Barlassina C, Del Vecchio L, Signorello MC, Dal Fiume C, Andreozzi F, Sesti G and Cusi D

    Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, University Magna Graecia, Catanzaro, Italy. perticone@unicz.it

    Objectives: Endothelium-dependent vasodilatation is impaired in essential hypertension. Besides traditional and emerging cardiovascular risk factors, genetic factors may also promote deleterious alterations of endothelial physiology. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between the 460Trp allele of ADD1 and endothelium-dependent vasodilation in 110 never-treated hypertensive patients.

    Methods: Forearm blood flow (FBF) was measured during intra-arterial infusion of acetylcholine (ACh) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) at increasing doses. Analysis of endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent vasodilation was tested according to ADD1 genotype.

    Results: The FBF values at the three incremental doses of ACh were 5.22 +/- 0.24 (+76%), 8.64 +/- 0.45 (+193%) and 14.74 +/- 0.71 (+395%) ml/100 ml of tissue per min for Gly460Gly and 4.63 +/- 0.20 (+51%), 6.84 +/- 0.36 (+123%) and 11.22 +/- 3.8 (+269%) ml/100 ml of tissue per min for 460Trp. Thus, ACh-stimulated FBF was significantly reduced in hypertensive subjects carrying the 460Trp allele of ADD1 (P < 0.001). SNP-stimulated FBF was not affected by ADD1.

    Conclusions: The main finding in this study was that in essential hypertensives the 460Trp allele of ADD1 is strongly associated with an impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation, a powerful predictor of cardiovascular risk.

    Journal of hypertension 2007;25;11;2234-9

  • Diuretic-gene interaction and the risk of myocardial infarction and stroke.

    Schelleman H, Klungel OH, Witteman JC, Breteler MM, Hofman A, van Duijn CM, de Boer A and Stricker BH

    Department of Epidemiology & Biostatistics, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

    This study investigates whether the interaction between diuretics and alpha-adducin (ADD1) G460W or G-protein beta3-subunit (GNB3) rs2301339 polymorphism modifies the risk of myocardial infarction (MI) or stroke. Data were used from the Rotterdam Study. The drug-gene interaction was determined with a Cox proportional hazard model with adjustment for each drug class as time-dependent covariates. The risk of MI in current users of low-ceiling diuretics with one or two copies of the ADD1 W-allele (hazard ration (HR)=0.92) was similar compared to the expected joint effect of the W-allele and low-ceiling diuretics on a multiplicative scale (1.04 x 0.90=0.94) (synergy index (SI):0.99; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.43-2.27). No drug-gene interaction was found on the risk of stroke (SI:0.66; 95% CI:0.43-1.27). In addition, a trend towards an interaction was found between current use and the GNB3 rs230119 G/A polymorphism on the risk of MI (SI: 0.51; 95% CI: 0.23-1.15), whereas no interaction on the risk of stroke was found (SI: 0.84; 95% CI: 0.46-1.56).

    The pharmacogenomics journal 2007;7;5;346-52

  • The alpha-adducin Gly460Trp polymorphism and the antihypertensive effects of exercise among men with high blood pressure.

    Pescatello LS, Blanchard BE, Tsongalis GJ, Maresh CM, O'Connell A and Thompson PD

    Department of Kinesiology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, USA. Linda.Pescatello@uconn.edu

    The alpha-adducin Gly460Trp polymorphism alters renal sodium transport and is associated with hypertension. Despite the immediate sodium- and volume-depleting effects of aerobic exercise, the influence of the alpha-adducin Gly460Trp polymorphism on PEH (postexercise hypotension) has not been studied. In the present study we examined the effects of the alpha-adducin Gly460Trp polymorphism on PEH among 48 men (42.6+/-1.6 years; mean+/-S.E.M.) with high BP (blood pressure; 144.0+/-1.7/84.7+/-1.1 mmHg). Subjects completed three experiments: non-exercise control and two cycle exercise sessions at 40% (light exercise) and 60% (moderate exercise) of maximal oxygen consumption. Subjects left the laboratory wearing an ambulatory BP monitor. PCR and restriction enzyme digestion determined the genotypes. No subjects had the Trp460Trp genotype due to the low frequency of 5% in the population. Repeated measure ANCOVA tested whether BP differed over time between experimental conditions and genotypes (Gly460Gly, n=36; Gly460Trp, n=12). Among Gly460Gly genotypes, SBP (systolic BP) was reduced by 5.2+/-1.4 mmHg after moderate exercise compared with non-exercise controls over 9 h (P<0.01). Among Gly460Trp genotypes, SBP was lowered by 7.8+/-2.3 mmHg; after light exercise compared with non-exercise controls over 9 h (P<0.05). The SBP reductions after light exercise (0.6+/-1.3 compared with 7.8+/-2.3 mmHg; P<0.05) but not moderate exercise (5.2+/-1.4 compared with 3.8+/-2.4 mmHg; P> or =0.05) differed between the Gly460Gly and Gly460Trp genotypes respectively. Men with Gly460Gly had a reduced SBP after moderate exercise, whereas men with Gly460Trp had a reduced SBP after light exercise. However, only the SBP reductions after light exercise differed between genotypes. Our findings indicate that the alpha-adducin Gly460Trp genotype may be useful in identifying men who have a reduced BP after lower intensity aerobic exercise.

    Clinical science (London, England : 1979) 2007;113;5;251-8

  • Association between adducin-1 G460W variant and blood pressure in Swedes is dependent on interaction with body mass index and gender.

    Fava C, Montagnana M, Almgren P, Rosberg L, Guidi GC, Berglund G and Melander O

    Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, University Hospital of Malmö, Malmö, Sweden. cristiano.fava@med.lu.se

    Background: The W allele of the G460W polymorphism in the adducin-1 gene has been occasionally associated with increased blood pressure (BP). The aim of this study was to test whether the G460W variant is associated with BP levels and BP progression rate and whether G460W associations with BP are affected by sex, body mass index (BMI), or age.

    Methods: The G460W polymorphism was genotyped in the population-based Malmö Diet and Cancer-cardiovascular arm (MDC-CVA; n = 6103), of whom 53% had also been examined 11 +/- 4.4 years earlier in the Malmö Preventive Project (MPP).

    Results: Among subjects without antihypertensive treatment (AHT) in the MDC-CVA (n = 5009), there was no difference between carriers (38%) and noncarriers (62%) of the W allele in systolic BP (139.2 +/- 18.2 v 139.2 +/- 18.5 mm Hg; P = .99) or diastolic BP (85.9 +/- 9.1 v 86.1 +/- 9.2 mm Hg; P = .49). In subjects free from AHT in the MPP and MDC (n = 2637) there was no difference between carriers (38%) and noncarriers (62%) in progression of systolic BP (2.0 +/- 2.5 v 2.0 +/- 2.7 mm Hg/year; P = .45) or diastolic BP (0.59 +/- 1.6 v 0.56 +/- 1.5 mm Hg/year; P = .66) from MPP to MDC. At MDC-CVA BP was influenced by interaction between the G460W and BMI (P = .02 for systolic BP and P = .002 for diastolic BP) and by interaction between G460W and sex (P = .03 for systolic BP and P = .02 for diastolic BP), a result further confirmed by stratified analysis showing that female carriers of the W allele belonging to the upper tertile of BMI had increased systolic BP (146.1 +/- 18.6 v 141.2 +/- 18.6 mm Hg; P < .001), diastolic BP (88.7 +/- 8.7 v 86.1 +/- 8.7 mm Hg; P < .001), and prevalence of hypertension (72.5% v 61.8 %; P = .001).

    Conclusions: Our data suggest that the G460W polymorphism influences BP when BMI and sex are taken into account.

    American journal of hypertension 2007;20;9;981-9

  • [Association of alpha-adducin gene and G-protein beta3-subunit gene with essential hypertension in Chinese].

    Huang XH, Sun K, Song Y, Zhang HY, Yang Y and Hui RT

    Sino-German Laboratory for Molecular Medicine, Fuwai Hospital and Cardiovascular Institute, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing 100037, China.

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between the alpha-adducin (ADD1) gene G460W and the G-protein beta 3-subunit (GNB3) gene C825T polymorphisms and essential hypertension (EH) in a northern Chinese Han population.

    Methods: Peripheral blood samples were collected from 256 hypertensive patients and 495 normotensive controls. Polymerase chain reaction combined with restriction enzyme digestion was used to detect the polymorphisms of ADD1 and GNB3 genes. Their body mass index, blood lipids, blood glucose and blood uric acid levels were also determined.

    Results: The allele frequencies of the ADD1 gene G460W and the GNB3 gene C825T polymorphisms were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The WW frequency in the EH group was 35.2%, significantly higher than that in the normal group (27.4%, chi(2) = 4.768, P = 0.029, OR = 1.43). Adjusted for the conventional risk factors of hypertension, alpha-adducin polymorphism still played an independent role on systolic blood pressure. The genotypes CC, CT, and TT of the GNB3 gene in the EH group were 20%, 52%, and 28% respectively, not significantly different from those in the control group (21%, 53%, and 26% respectively, P = 0.755). The frequencies of the alleles C and T of the GNB3 gene C825T were 46% and 54% respectively, not significantly different from those of the normotensive controls (47% and 53% respectively, P = 0.561). Body mass index, blood lipids, and glucose level did not differ significantly among the three genotype groups in both EH and normotensive control groups.

    Conclusion: The alpha-adducin gene may be a susceptible gene to EH in northern Chinese Han population, however, the GNB3 gene C825T polymorphism may not play a significant role in EH in the same population.

    Zhonghua yi xue za zhi 2007;87;24;1682-4

  • Angiotensin-converting enzyme I/D and alpha-adducin Gly460Trp polymorphisms: from angiotensin-converting enzyme activity to cardiovascular outcome.

    Li Y, Zagato L, Kuznetsova T, Tripodi G, Zerbini G, Richart T, Thijs L, Manunta P, Wang JG, Bianchi G and Staessen JA

    Studies Coordinating Centre, Division of Hypertension and Cardiovascular Research, Department of Cardiovascular Diseases, University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

    The angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) I/D and the alpha-adducin (ADD1) Gly460Trp polymorphisms are associated with cardiovascular risk factors. In a prospective population study and in cell models, we investigated the combined effects of these 2 polymorphisms. We randomly recruited 1287 white subjects (women: 50.0%; mean age: 55.9 years). We obtained outcomes from registries and repeat examinations (median 3). Over 9.0 years (median), 178 fatal or nonfatal cardiovascular events occurred. In ADD1 Trp allele carriers, the multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios associated with ACE DD versus I were 1.72 (P=0.007) for total mortality, 2.35 (P=0.02) for cardiovascular mortality, 2.02 (P=0.005) for all cardiovascular events, and 2.59 (P=0.03) for heart failure. In contrast, these hazard ratios did not reach significance in ADD1 GlyGly homozygotes (0.08<or=P<or=0.90). The positive predictive value and attributable risk associated with ACE DD homozygosity combined with mutated ADD1 were 36.2% and 10.3%, respectively. To clarify our epidemiological observations, we investigated the effects of mutated human ADD1 on the membrane-bound ACE activity in fibroblasts from 51 volunteers and in transfected human embryonic kidney cells (31 experiments). In fibroblasts (5.10 versus 3.63 nanomoles of generated hippuric acid per milligram of protein per minute; P=0.0021) and human embryonic kidney cells (1.086 versus 0.081 nmol/mg per minute; P=0.017), the membrane-bound ACE activity increased in the presence but not absence of the ADD1 Trp allele. In conclusion, the combination of ACE DD homozygosity and mutated ADD1 worsened cardiovascular prognosis to a similar extent as classic risk factors, possibly because of increased membrane-bound ACE activity in subjects carrying the ADD1 Trp allele.

    Hypertension (Dallas, Tex. : 1979) 2007;49;6;1291-7

  • Intra-erythrocyte cation concentrations in relation to the C1797T beta-adducin polymorphism in a general population.

    Richart T, Thijs L, Kuznetsova T, Tikhonoff V, Zagato L, Lijnen P, Fagard R, Wang J, Bianchi G and Staessen JA

    Division of Hypertension and Cardiovascular Rehabilitation, Department of Cardiovascular Diseases, Studies Coordinating Centre, University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

    Genetic variability in the ADD1 (Gly460Trp) and ADD2 (C1797T) subunits of the cytoskeleton protein adducin plays a role in the pathogenesis of hypertension, possibly via changes in intracellular cation concentrations. ADD2 1797CC homozygous men have decreased erythrocyte count and hematocrit. We investigated possible association between intra-erythrocyte cations and the adducin polymorphisms. In 259 subjects (mean age 47.7 years), we measured intra-erythrocyte Na(+) [iNa], K(+) [iK] and Mg(2+) [iMg], serum cations and adducin genotypes. Genotype frequencies (ADD1: GlyGly 61.5%, Trp 38.5%; ADD2: CC 80.4%, T 19.6%) complied with Hardy-Weinberg proportions. In men, ADD2 CC homozygotes (n=100) compared to T-carriers (n=23) had slightly lower iK (85.8 versus 87.5 mmol/l cells; P=0.107), higher iMg (1.92 versus 1.80 mmol/l cells; P=0.012), but similar iNa (6.86 versus 6.88 mmol/l cells; P=0.93). In men, iK, iMg and iNa did not differ according to ADD1 genotypes. In men, iK (R(2)=0.128) increased with age and serum Na(+), but decreased with serum total calcium and the daily intake of alcohol. iMg (R(2)=0.087) decreased with age, but increased with serum total calcium. After adjustment for these covariates (P<or=0.04 for all), findings in men for iK (CC versus T: 85.8 versus 87.3 mmol/l; P=0.14) and iMg (1.91 versus 1.82 mmol/l; P=0.03) remained consistent. In 136 women, none of the phenotype-genotype relations reached significance. Changes in intra-erythrocyte cations in ADD2 1797CC homozygous men might lead to osmotic fragility of erythrocytes, but to what extent they reflect systemic changes or are possibly involved in blood pressure regulation remains unknown.

    Journal of human hypertension 2007;21;5;387-92

  • Antihypertensive therapy, the alpha-adducin polymorphism, and cardiovascular disease in high-risk hypertensive persons: the Genetics of Hypertension-Associated Treatment Study.

    Davis BR, Arnett DK, Boerwinkle E, Ford CE, Leiendecker-Foster C, Miller MB, Black H and Eckfeldt JH

    School of Public Health, University of Texas-Houston, Houston, TX 77030, USA. barry.r.davis@uth.tmc.edu

    In a double-blind, outcome trial conducted in hypertensive patients randomized to chlorthalidone (C), amlodipine (A), lisinopril (L), or doxazosin (D), the alpha-adducin Gly460Trp polymorphism was typed (n=36 913). Mean follow-up was 4.9 years. Relative risks (RRs) of chlorthalidone versus other treatments were compared between genotypes (Gly/Gly+Gly/Trp versus Trp/Trp). Primary outcome was coronary heart disease (CHD). Coronary heart disease incidence did not differ among treatments or genotypes nor was there any interaction between treatment and genotype (P=0.660). Subgroup analyses indicated that Trp allele carriers had greater CHD risk with C versus A+L in women (RR=1.31) but not men (RR=0.91) with no RR gender differences for non-carriers (gender-gene-treatment interaction, P=0.002). The alpha-adducin gene is not an important modifier of antihypertensive treatment on cardiovascular risk, but women Trp allele carriers may have increased CHD risk if treated with C versus A or L. This must be confirmed to have implications for hypertension treatment.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: R01 HL083498

    The pharmacogenomics journal 2007;7;2;112-22

  • Both angiotensinogen M235T and alpha-adducin G460W polymorphisms are associated with hypertension in the Japanese population.

    Nakamura Y, Tabara Y, Miki T, Tamaki S, Kita Y, Okamura T and Ueshima H

    Journal of human hypertension 2007;21;3;253-5

  • Genetic polymorphisms and spontaneous preterm birth.

    Gibson CS, MacLennan AH, Dekker GA, Goldwater PN, Dambrosia JM, Munroe DJ, Tsang S, Stewart C and Nelson KB

    School of Paediatrics and Reproductive Health, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia.

    Objective: To examine whether selected genetic polymorphisms in the infant are associated with spontaneous preterm birth (less than 37 weeks) among children with or without later-diagnosed cerebral palsy.

    Methods: Exploratory case-control study investigating the relationship of gestational age at delivery to 31 single nucleotide polymorphisms measured in newborn screening bloodspots. Among all 443 children with later-diagnosed cerebral palsy born to white women in South Australia in 1986-1999, 234 were born after spontaneous onset of labor, and 108 of these were preterm (gestational age less than 37 weeks). The comparison group was 549 infants born after spontaneous onset of labor, of whom 147 were preterm. Distributions of genotypic frequencies were examined in preterm compared with term infants with and without cerebral palsy. Genotyping was performed using a Taqman assay.

    Results: In children without cerebral palsy, preterm birth after spontaneous onset of labor was more frequent in association with a variant of the beta2 adrenergic receptor gene (ADRB2 Q27E, P=.003), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS or NOS2A, P=.042), or thrombomodulin (G127A, P=.006). Among children with cerebral palsy, preterm birth was associated with polymorphisms in genes for endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS -922, P=.012), plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 (P=.015 and .019), and alpha adducin (ADD1, P=.047).

    Conclusion: We confirm previous observations that variants of the beta adrenergic receptor and of nitric oxide synthase are associated with prematurity, and suggest that genetic variants of the placental antifibrinolytic plasminogen activator inhibitor-2, and 3e9 thrombomodulin and alpha adducin may be contributors to risk of spontaneous preterm birth.


    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: N01 CO 12400

    Obstetrics and gynecology 2007;109;2 Pt 1;384-91

  • Alpha-adducin polymorphism, atherosclerosis, and cardiovascular and cerebrovascular risk.

    van Rijn MJ, Bos MJ, Yazdanpanah M, Isaacs A, Arias-Vásquez A, Koudstaal PJ, Hofman A, Witteman JC, van Duijn CM and Breteler MM

    Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Erasmus Medical Center, PO Box 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

    Carriers of the 460Trp allele of the alpha-adducin gene (ADD1) show higher rates of sodium reabsorption compared with homozygous carriers of the Gly460 allele and were found to have an increased risk of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. We studied the association between the Gly460Trp polymorphism and atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, and cerebrovascular disease.

    Methods: Intima-media thickness of the common carotid artery, as well as incident stroke and myocardial infarction, were studied within 6471 subjects of the Rotterdam Study. Within 1018 subjects of the Rotterdam Scan Study, prevalent silent brain infarcts and cerebral white matter lesions were studied. Subjects were grouped into 460Trp carriers (variant carriers) and homozygous carriers of the Gly460 allele (reference).

    Results: Intima-media thickness of the common carotid artery was 0.80 mm in variant carriers compared with 0.79 mm in the reference group (P=0.04). Variant carriers had an increased risk of any stroke (hazard ratio [HR], 1.22; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.45), ischemic stroke (HR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.63), hemorrhagic stroke (HR, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.59 to 1.92), and of myocardial infarction (HR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.05 to 1.69). For any ischemic stroke, there was a significant interaction between the Gly460Trp polymorphism and hypertension. Variant carriers more often had a silent brain infarct (odds ratio, 1.36; 95% CI, 0.98 to 1.88) and had more subcortical white matter lesions than the reference group (1.45 vs1.24 mL; P=0.22).

    Conclusions: The Gly460Trp polymorphism is associated with atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, and cerebrovascular disease, especially in hypertensive subjects.

    Stroke 2006;37;12;2930-4

  • Global, in vivo, and site-specific phosphorylation dynamics in signaling networks.

    Olsen JV, Blagoev B, Gnad F, Macek B, Kumar C, Mortensen P and Mann M

    Center for Experimental BioInformatics, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5230 Odense, Denmark.

    Cell signaling mechanisms often transmit information via posttranslational protein modifications, most importantly reversible protein phosphorylation. Here we develop and apply a general mass spectrometric technology for identification and quantitation of phosphorylation sites as a function of stimulus, time, and subcellular location. We have detected 6,600 phosphorylation sites on 2,244 proteins and have determined their temporal dynamics after stimulating HeLa cells with epidermal growth factor (EGF) and recorded them in the Phosida database. Fourteen percent of phosphorylation sites are modulated at least 2-fold by EGF, and these were classified by their temporal profiles. Surprisingly, a majority of proteins contain multiple phosphorylation sites showing different kinetics, suggesting that they serve as platforms for integrating signals. In addition to protein kinase cascades, the targets of reversible phosphorylation include ubiquitin ligases, guanine nucleotide exchange factors, and at least 46 different transcriptional regulators. The dynamic phosphoproteome provides a missing link in a global, integrative view of cellular regulation.

    Cell 2006;127;3;635-48

  • The alpha-adducin gene is associated with macrovascular complications and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Yazdanpanah M, Sayed-Tabatabaei FA, Hofman A, Aulchenko YS, Oostra BA, Stricker BH, Pols HA, Lamberts SW, Witteman JC, Janssen JA and van Duijn CM

    Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, P.O. Box 2040, 3000 CA Rotterdam, Netherlands.

    We examined the association between alpha-adducin 1 (ADD1) gene polymorphism (Gly460Trp) with macrovascular complications and mortality in type 2 diabetes in a Caucasian population aged >or=55 years. The study was part of the Rotterdam Study, a prospective population-based cohort study. ADD1 polymorphism was determined in 6,471 participants, including 599 patients with type 2 diabetes at baseline. The prevalence of hypertension in type 2 diabetic patients was 2.57 times higher in ADD1 TT carriers compared with GG carriers (95% CI 1.05-6.32, P = 0.03). Homozygous T carriers also had a higher mean common carotid intima media thickness (IMT) compared with GG carriers (mean difference 0.05 mm, P for trend = 0.03). In diabetic patients with hypertension, the risk of mortality was 1.83 times higher in homozygous T carriers compared with the GG genotype group (95% CI 1.07-3.16, P = 0.03). The increased risk was only present among TT carriers who did not use antidiabetes medication (hazard ratio 2.18 [95% CI 1.12-4.24], P = 0.02). The results of this population-based cohort study suggest that the ADD1 gene contributes to the risk of hypertension and increases mean common carotid IMT in patients with type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, the study indicates that the ADD1 polymorphism could be useful in identifying hypertensive type 2 diabetic patients with a high risk of mortality.

    Diabetes 2006;55;10;2922-7

  • Selected gene polymorphisms and their interaction with maternal smoking, as risk factors for gastroschisis.

    Torfs CP, Christianson RE, Iovannisci DM, Shaw GM and Lammer EJ

    Public Health Institute, Oakland, California, USA. ctorfs@aul.org

    Background: Gastroschisis is a severe birth defect in which the infant is born with a portion of the intestines extruding through a small tear in the abdominal wall, usually to the right of the umbilical cord. Its etiology is unknown, but the prevailing hypothesis is that it results from a vascular accident at the time of involution of the right umbilical vein or of the development of the superior mesenteric artery.

    Methods: In a case-control study of 57 cases of gastroschisis and 506 controls, we tested DNA for polymorphisms of 32 genes representing enzymes involved in angiogenesis, blood vessel integrity, inflammation, wound repair, and dermal or epidermal strength.

    Results: In logistic regression, controlling for maternal ethnicity, and using the homozygote wild-type as referent, the following gene polymorphisms were associated with an increased risk for a gastroschisis for heterozygotes: ICAM1 gly241arg (odds ratio [OR], 1.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1 -3.4); NOS3 glu298asp (OR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.1-3.4); NPPA 2238T > C (OR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.0-3.4); and ADD1 gly460trp (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 0.8-2.8). Additionally, for the NPPA and ADD1 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), the homozygote variants had a significantly higher risk than the heterozygotes (OR, 7.5; 95% CI, 1.7-33.5 and OR, 4.9; 95% CI, 1.9-12.9, respectively). Three SNPs showed a strong interaction with maternal smoking. The risk for smokers with 1 or 2 variant alleles compared to nonsmokers with the wild-type allele were: NOS3 (OR, 5.2; 95% CI, 2.4-11.4); ICAM1 (OR, 5.2; 95% CI, 2.1-12.7); and NPPA (OR, 6.4; 95% CI, 2.8-14.6).

    Conclusions: These results support the hypothesis of a vascular compromise as part of a multifactorial etiology of gastroschisis involving both genes and environmental factors.

    Birth defects research. Part A, Clinical and molecular teratology 2006;76;10;723-30

  • [Relationship between the polymorphism of alpha-adducin gene and the two phenotypes of constitutions in patients with essential hypertension classified by TCM].

    Qian YS, Zhang Y and Zhang WZ

    Shanghai Institute of Hypertension, Ruijin Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200025. qys2500@yahoo.com.cn

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between the polymorphism of alpha-adducin (ADD1) gene and the two phenotypes of constitution in patients with essential hypertension, the Yang-hyperactive (YH) type and phlegm-dampness (PD) type, classified by traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) approach.

    Methods: Two hundred and seven patients differentiated by TCM approach as YH type (113 cases) or PD type (94 cases) were observed, with the systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), body mass index (BMI), fasting blood glucose (FBG), serum creatinine (Cr), uric acid (UA), total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides (TG) as the criteria of observation. Gly460Trp polymorphism of the ADD1 gene was detected by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Results The levels of BMI, DBP, FBG and UA, etc. in the PD group were significantly higher than those in the YH group respectively. The rate of GG, GT and TT type of ADD1 gene was 29.2%, 41.6% and 29.2% in the YH group, 28.7%, 48.9% and 22.3% in the PD group, showing no significant difference in ADD1 genotype distribution between the two groups, while there was also no difference in the hypertension phenotype distribution among different genotypes (both P > 0.05). For the patients with TT genotype, there were significant differences between the YH group and the PD group in BMI (24.11 +/- 3.04 kg/m2 vs 26.20 +/- 2.30 kg/m2), DBP (96.79 +/- 4.05 mmHg vs 99.56 +/- 3.90 mmHg), FBG (5.01 +/- 0.53 mmol/L vs 5.51 +/- 1.07 mmol/L) and UA level (302.22 +/- 71.95 micromol/L vs 358.25 +/- 88.75 micromol/L, all P < 0.05).

    Conclusion: There was no relation between ADD1 gene polymorphism and the TCM genotype of constitution in patients with essential hypertension. However, it is likely that for hypertension patients with TT genotype, those of PD type are more susceptible to cardiovascular disease and have worse prognosis than those of YH type.

    Zhongguo Zhong xi yi jie he za zhi Zhongguo Zhongxiyi jiehe zazhi = Chinese journal of integrated traditional and Western medicine 2006;26;8;698-701

  • The influence of the alpha-adducin G460W polymorphism and angiotensinogen M235T polymorphism on antihypertensive medication and blood pressure.

    Schelleman H, Klungel OH, Witteman JC, Hofman A, van Duijn CM, de Boer A and Stricker BH

    Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistic 1f40 s, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

    Despite the availability of a variety of effective antihypertensive drugs, inadequate control of blood pressure is common in hypertensive patients. The aim of this study was investigate whether the alpha-adducin G460W polymorphism or angiotensinogen M235T polymorphism has an effect on the mean difference in blood pressure in subjects using antihypertensive drugs. Data from the Rotterdam Study, a population-based prospective cohort study in the Netherlands, was used. This study started in 1990 and included 7983 subjects of 55 years and older. Data from three examination rounds were used. Subjects were included when their blood pressure was elevated at 1 or more examinations and/or a diuretic, beta-blocker, calcium antagonist, or ACE inhibitor was used. A marginal generalized linear model was used to assess the drug-gene interaction. In total, 3025 hypertensives were included. No drug-gene interaction on blood pressure levels was found. The mean difference in systolic blood pressure (SBP) between subjects with the W-allele and GG genotype of the alpha-adducin gene was for diuretic users 1.25 mmHg (95% CI:-2.86 to 5.35), for beta-blockers 0.02 mmHg (95% CI:-3.39 to 3.42), for calcium antagonists -0.70 mmHg (95% CI:-5.61 to 4.21), and for ACE inhibitors -3.50 mmHg (95% CI:-9.02 to 2.02). The mean difference in SBP between subjects with the TT and MM genotype was for diuretic users -2.33 mmHg (95% CI:-8.32 to 3.66), for beta-blocker -0.06 mmHg (95% CI:-4.91 to 4.79), for calcium antagonist 0.59 mmHg (95% CI:-5.95 to 7.13), and for ACE inhibitor -2.33 mmHg (95% CI:-9.66 to 5.01). The G460W polymorphism and the M235T polymorphism did not modify the difference in blood pressure levels among subjects who used diuretics, beta-blockers, calcium antagonists, or ACE inhibitors.

    European journal of human genetics : EJHG 2006;14;7;860-6

  • Alpha-adducin and angiotensin-converting enzyme polymorphisms in hypertension: evidence for a joint influence on albuminuria.

    Pedrinelli R, Dell'Omo G, Penno G, Di Bello V, Pucci L, Fotino C, Lucchesi D, Del Prato S, Dal Fiume C, Barlassina C and Cusi D

    Dipartimento Cardio Toracico, Università di Pisa, Pisa, Italy. r.pedrinelli@med.unipi.it

    Background: A single-nucleotide polymorphism (Gly460Trp) within the alpha-adducin gene (ADD1) may influence several renal phenotypes, including salt sensitivity, susceptibility to renal failure, the renal haemodynamics and confer a worse cardiovascular risks profile. However, its relationship with microalbuminuria, a marker of early renal and cardiovascular damage and an independent predictor of morbid events in hypertension, is unknown. For this reason, we related the ADD1 genetic polymorphism to urine albumin levels and other clinical variables in essential hypertensive men. The angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) insertion/deletion (ID) polymorphism was also evaluated because of its interactive potential with the ADD1 genotype.

    Methods: Albuminuria (three overnight collections), echocardiographic left ventricular mass index, blood pressure, body mass index, renal function, glucose and lipids were measured in 238 genetically unrelated, never treated, uncomplicated Caucasian essential hypertensive men. Polymerase chain reaction or a 5' nuclease assay were used to characterize the ACE ID and ADD1 Gly460Trp variants, respectively.

    Results: Microalbuminuria (albuminuria >or= 15 microg/min) was more frequent in patients with the ACE DD variant, but only in those with a ADD1 Gly460Gly background. In contrast, urine albumin did not differ by ACE ID genotype in the presence of mutated ADD1 Trp alleles. ADD1 polymorphisms per se were not associated with albuminuria. Cardiovascular, renal, metabolic parameters were homogeneo 3f5 usly distributed among different genetic backgrounds.

    Conclusions: ACE DD and ADD1 Gly460Gly polymorphisms may jointly influence albuminuria in hypertensive men, 460Gly homozygosis facilitating or, possibly, the 460Trp allele mitigating the noxious renal impact of the ACE DD genotype. The data highlight further the complex pathophysiological implications of microalbuminuria in hypertension.

    Journal of hypertension 2006;24;5;931-7

  • The 460Trp allele of alpha-adducin increases carotid intima-media thickness in young adult males.

    Sarzani R, Cusi D, Salvi F, Barlassina C, Macciardi F, Pietrucci F, Cola G, Catalini R, Dal Fiume C, Dessì-Fulgheri P and Rappelli A

    Department. of Internal Medicine, University of Ancona Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona, Italy. sarzani@univpm.it

    Background: The 460Trp allele of the alpha-adducin gene (ADD1), which is involved in a form of salt-sensitive hypertension, has been associated with patterns of target organ damage.

    Objectives: As carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) largely depends upon unknown genetic factors, besides being associated to conventional risk factors, we tested the association of the 460Trp allele of ADD1 with IMT in a well-characterized sample of young healthy normotensive subjects, to assess the role of ADD1 polymorphism without overlapping effects of age or already elevated blood pressure.

    Methods: Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure (BP), and carotid artery wall IMT (high-resolution sonography and digitalized morphometry) were obtained in 420 healthy normotensive Caucasian university student 1f40 s. Genotypes for ADD1 were detected by automated genomic polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

    Results: ADD1 genotypes were evenly distributed between genders. IMT was significantly larger in carriers of the 460Trp allele of ADD1, while a significant gender x ADD1 interaction (P = 0.02) demonstrated that IMT was increased only in males carrying the 460Trp allele (P < 0.001). No significant association was found in females.

    Conclusions: The 460Trp allele of ADD1 contributes substantially to increase carotid IMT, in a male hormonal milieu only, at least in the young age range.

    Journal of hypertension 2006;24;4;697-703

  • [Association analysis of the essential hypertension susceptibility genes in adolescents: Kangwha study].

    Suh I, Nam CM, Kim SJ, Shin DJ, Hur NW and Kang DR

    Department of Preventive Medicine, College of Medicine, Yonsei University.

    Objectives: In this study we examined the association between the genetic markers ACE (A-240T, C-93T, I/D, A2350G), AGT (M235T), AT1R (A1166C), CYP11B2 (T-344C, V386A), REN (G2646A), ADRB2 (G46A, C79G, T-47C, T164I), GNB3 (C825T) and ADD1 (G460W) and the presence of essential hypertension in adolescents.

    Methods: The Kangwha Study is an 18-year prospective study that is aimed at elucidating the determinants of the blood pressure level from childhood to early adulthood. For this study, we constructed a case-control dataset of size of 277 and 40 family trios data from the Kangwha Study. For this purpose, we perform a single locus-based case-control association study and a single locus-based TDT (transmission/disequilibrium test) study.

    Results: In the case-control study, the single locus-based association study indicated that the ADD1 (G460W) (p = 0.0403), AGT (M235T) (p = 0.0002), and REN (G2646A) (p = 0.0101) markers were significantly associated with the risk of hypertension. These results were not confirmed on the TDT study. This study showed that genetic polymorphisms of the ADD1, AGT and REN genes might be related to the hypertension in Korean adolescents.

    Conclusions: This study provided useful information on genetics markers related to blood pres 1f40 sure. Further study will be needed to confirm the effect of the alpha adducin gene, the angiotensinogen gene and the renin gene on essential hypertension.

    Journal of preventive medicine and public health = Yebang Uihakhoe chi 2006;39;2;177-83

  • Hydrochlorothiazide efficacy and polymorphisms in ACE, ADD1 and GNB3 in healthy, male volunteers.

    Vormfelde SV, Sehrt D, Bolte D, Pahl S, Tzvetkov M and Brockmöller J

    Department of Clinical Pharmacology University Medical Center, Georg-August-University, Robert-Koch-Str. 40, 37075 Göttingen, Germany. svormfe@gwdg.de

    Objective: The antihypertensive effect of thiazide diuretics has recently been associated with genetic variation in the angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE), alpha-adducin (ADD1) and the G protein subunit beta3 (GNB3). Analysis of short-term diuretic effects may provide insight into the mechanisms behind these findings.

    Methods: A total of 103 male volunteers took 25 and 100 mg hydrochlorothiazide (HCT) after a placebo day, each. We measured volume, sodium, chloride, potassium, calcium excretion, blood pressure and heart rate.

    Results: Excretion and cardiovascular parameters were highly constant between the 2 placebo days. The resting heart rate was 2-3 beats/minute (bpm) higher per ACE insertion allele on all 4 study days. The HCT-induced excretion of sodium, chloride and volume was independent of the genotypes. The additional potassium excretion induced by 100 mg HCT was 44+/-21, 33+/-27 and 16+/-26 mmol (mean+/-SD, p<0.001) in ACE II, ID and DD carriers and the same trend was observed after 25 mg HCT. As a second finding, the 100 mg HCT-induced calcium retention was 0.2+/-1.2, 0.7+/-0.8 and 1.7+/-2.1 mmol in ADD1 Gly/Gly, Gly/Trp and Trp/Trp carriers (p=0.002) and the same trend existed after 25 mg HCT.

    Conclusion: The effects of genetic polymorphisms were stronger with the higher diuretic dose. ACE insertion allele carriers appeared to be more prone to hypokalaemia than deletion allele carriers. ADD1 Trp460 carriers may especially benefit from the calcium-sparing effect of thiazides. Both associations should be further studied in long-term treatment with thiazide diuretics.

    European journal of clinical pharmacology 2006;62;3;195-201

  • Polymorphisms in four candidate genes in young patients with essential hypertension.

    Marcun Varda N, Zagradisnik B, Herodez SS, Kokalj Vokac N and Gregoric A

    Department of Paediatrics, Maribor Teaching Hospital, Maribor, Slovenia. natasa.marcunvarda@amis.net

    Aim: To determine whether four potential genetic factors (polymorphisms in genes for alpha-adducin, beta-adducin, the G-protein beta-3 subunit and nitric oxide synthase) are important for the development of essential hypertension (EH) in Slovenian children and young adults with EH.

    Methods: Both a nuclear families approach and case-control study have been performed. Genotyping of common polymorphisms in these genes using polymerase chain reaction was carried out in 104 nuclear families (an affected child, both parents) and in 200 control patients.

    Results: Using the transmission disequilibrium test, no statistically significant differences were found between the frequencies of transmitted and non-transmitted alleles in nuclear families for all four investigated polymorphisms. In addition, the distributions of genotypes and alleles for the four polymorphisms did not differ significantly between our children and 200 healthy control patients. The allele frequencies of all polymorphisms were concordant with those observed in some other Caucasian populations.

    Conclusion: We found no association between the investigated gene variants and EH, so we conclude that they do not confer a significantly increased risk of the development of EH in the Slovenian population of hypertensive children.

    Acta paediatrica (Oslo, Norway : 1992) 2006;95;3;353-8

  • Renal haemodynamics are not related to genotypes in offspring of parents with essential hypertension.

    Skov K, Madsen JK, Hansen HE, Zagato L, Frandsen E, Bianchi G and Mulvany MJ

    Department of Nephrology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark.

    Unlabelled: INTRODUCTION. The pathogenesis of essential hypertension (EH) has a major genetic component and is associated with renal abnormalities. Normotensive offspring of hypertensive parents are likely to develop EH and are a suitable population for identifying possible relations between genetic and renal abnormalities.

    Methods: We investigated if renin-angiotensinaldosterone system associated genotypes (angiotensinogen [M235T] and ACE [I/D]) are related to blood pressure (BP), renal haemodynamics and sodium excretion in sex and age-matched (1835 years) healthy Caucasian offspring of either two parents with EH (n=101, EH-offspring) or two normotensive parents (n=50, controls). The alpha-adducin polymorphism (G460W) was also investigated.

    Results: Compared to controls, BP, heart rate, renal vascular resistance (RVR) and urinary sodium excretion were, respectively, 5%, 7%, 1f3c 15% and 20% higher in EHoffspring. In controls, the TT-genotype of the M235T angiotensinogen polymorphism was associated with higher BP and higher plasma angiotensinogen. By contrast, in EHoffspring the TT-genotype was associated with lower BP and unchanged plasma angiotensinogen. Plasma angiotensinogen correlated positively with BP in EH-offspring, with a similar tendency (p=0.08) in controls. The distributions of the three candidate polymorphisms were similar in EH-offspring and controls. There were no associations between any of the polymorphisms and any of the renal parameters measured.

    Conclusion: The markedly greater RVR, proportionally larger than the greater BP, supports a role for RVR in the pathogenesis of EH. The lack of association between the candidate polymorphisms and the investigated parameters, even in this homogenous and for hypertension strongly predisposed group, suggests that the polymorphisms investigated do not play important roles in the pathogenesis of hypertension.

    Journal of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system : JRAAS 2006;7;1;47-55

  • Multi-locus candidate gene polymorphisms and risk of myocardial infarction: a population-based, prospective genetic analysis.

    Zee RY, Cook NR, Cheng S, Erlich HA, Lindpaintner K and Ridker PM

    Center for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA. rzee@rics.bwh.harvard.edu

    Background: Polymorphisms in candidate genes related to lipid metabolism, thrombosis, hemostasis, cell-matrix adhesion, and inflammation have been suggested clinically useful in risk assessment of cardiovascular disease.

    Methods: We evaluated a panel of 92 candidate gene polymorphisms, using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction-immobilized probe assay amongst 523 individuals who subsequently deve 1f40 loped myocardial infarction (MI), and amongst 2092 individuals who remained free of reported cardiovascular disease over a mean follow-up period of 13.2 years.

    Results: Of the 92 polymorphisms tested, three that we previously reported on were associated with risk of MI, [pro12ala in the peroxisome proliferator activated-receptor gamma gene (odds ratio, OR = 0.75, P = 0.02); thr164ile in the beta-2 adrenergic receptor gene (OR = 0.14, P = 0.007); and ala23thr polymorphism in the eotaxin gene (OR = 1.87, P = 0.01)]. However, when adjusted for the other 89 polymorphisms evaluated, these findings were no longer statistically significant. Further, in contrast to reports from other investigators, we found little evidence for association of a C677T polymorphism in the 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene, the angiotensin-I-converting enzyme 1 insertion/deletion polymorphism, a 4G/5G polymorphism in the serine/cysteine proteinase inhibitor-clade E-member 1 gene, the factor V Leiden mutation, the G20210A factor II mutation, a -455G>A polymorphism in the beta-fibrinogen gene, the cys112arg/arg158cys apolipoprotein E gene polymorphism, a gly460trp polymorphism in the alpha-adducin gene, and a -629C>A polymorphism in the cholesteryl ester transfer protein gene with risk of MI.

    Conclusions: After correction for multiple comparisons, the addition of genetic information observed in the present study had little impact on risk prediction models for MI. The present investigation highlights the importance of replication and validation of findings from genetic association studies.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL-58755, HL-63293

    Journal of thrombosis and haemostasis : JTH 2006;4;2;341-8

  • Interactions between five candidate genes and antihypertensive drug therapy on blood pressure.

    Schelleman H, Stricker BH, Verschuren WM, de Boer A, Kroon AA, de Leeuw PW, Kromhout D and Klungel OH

    Department of Epidemiology & Biostatistics, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

    Despite the availability of effective antihypertensive drugs, there is a large variation in response to these drugs. This study investigates whether polymorphisms in the angiotensin converting enzyme (I/D), angiotensinogen (M235T), alpha-adducin (G460W), angiotensin II type 1 receptor (1166A/C), or G protein beta(3)-subunit (825C/T) gene modify the mean difference in blood pressure levels among diuretics, beta-blockers, or ACE-inhibitors users. Data were used from the Doetinchem Cohort Study, and blood pressure data were collected from GPs (1987-1997). A marginal generalized linear model (GEE) was used to assess the gene-drug interaction on the mean difference in systolic/diastolic blood pressure. In total, 625 hypertensive individuals were included with a total of 5262 measurements of blood pressure. Only the interaction between diuretic use and the GNB3 825C/T polymorphism was significant (C allele versus TT systolic blood pressure (SBP): 4.33 mmHg [95% CI: 0.14-8.54]). Thus, the mean SBP level among diuretic users may be modified by the GNB3 825C/T polymorphism.

    The pharmacogenomics journal 2006;6;1;22-6

  • RFX-1, a putative alpha Adducin interacting protein in a human kidney library.

    Boito R, Menniti M, Amato R, Palmieri C, Marinaro C, Iuliano R, Tripodi G, Cusi D, Fuiano G and Perrotti N

    Dipartimento di Medicina Sperimentale e Clinica "G. Salvatore", Università Magna Graecia, Catanzaro, Campus di Germaneto, Viale Europa, 88100 Catanzaro, Italy; Unit of Nephrology, Policlinico Universitario "Mater Domini", Catanzaro, Italy.

    Adducin regulates tubular absorption of sodium by modulating the expression levels of the sodium-potassium-ATPase in renal tubular cells. Adducin is a candidate gene in the pathogenesis of hypertension. Yeast two hybrid screen showed a specific interaction between human alpha Adducin and the regulatory factor for X box (RFX-1), a nuclear protein that down regulates the expression of several proteins in non neuronal cells. The interaction was confirmed in cells through co-immunoprecipitation and colocalization experiments. The binding of alpha Adducin to RFX-I and their nuclear co-localization suggests that Adducin can have a role in modulating the transcriptional regulating activity of RFX-I.

    FEBS letters 2005;579;28;6439-43

  • Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network.

    Rual JF, Venkatesan K, Hao T, Hirozane-Kishikawa T, Dricot A, Li N, Berriz GF, Gibbons FD, Dreze M, Ayivi-Guedehoussou N, Klitgord N, Simon C, Boxem M, Milstein S, Rosenberg J, Goldberg DS, Zhang LV, Wong SL, Franklin G, Li S, Albala JS, Lim J, Fraughton C, Llamosas E, Cevik S, Bex C, Lamesch P, Sikorski RS, Vandenhaute J, Zoghbi HY, Smolyar A, Bosak S, Sequerra R, Doucette-Stamm L, Cusick ME, Hill DE, Roth FP and Vidal M

    Center for Cancer Systems Biology and Department of Cancer Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, 44 Binney Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    Systematic mapping of protein-protein interactions, or 'interactome' mapping, was initiated in model organisms, starting with defined biological processes and then expanding to the scale of the proteome. Although far from complete, such maps have revealed global topological and dynamic features of interactome networks that relate to known biological properties, suggesting that a human interactome map will provide insight into development and disease mechanisms at a systems level. Here we describe an initial version of a proteome-scale map of human binary protein-protein interactions. Using a stringent, high-throughput yeast two-hybrid system, we tested pairwise interactions among the products of approximately 8,100 currently available Gateway-cloned open reading frames and detected approximately 2,800 interactions. This data set, called CCSB-HI1, has a verification rate of approximately 78% as revealed by an independent co-affinity purification assay, and correlates significantly with other biological attributes. The CCSB-HI1 data set increases by approximately 70% the set of available binary interactions within the tested space and reveals more than 300 new connections to over 100 disease-associated proteins. This work represents an important step towards a systematic and comprehensive human interactome project.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R33 CA132073; NHGRI NIH HHS: P50 HG004233, R01 HG001715, RC4 HG006066, U01 HG001715; NHLBI NIH HHS: U01 HL098166

    Nature 2005;437;7062;1173-8

  • [Association of polymorphism in alpha-adducin gene with antihypertensive effect of Hydrochlorothiazide].

    Wu SL, Li DQ, Li HF, Yu Q, Li Y and Zhao HY

    Affiliated Kailuan Hosptial of North Coal Medical College, Tangshan 063000, China. ldq661126@sina.com.cn

    Objective: To explore the association between G614T single nuclear polymorphism (SNP) of the alpha-adducin gene and the antihypertensive effect of hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) in essential hypertensive (EH) patients.

    Methods: Eight hundred twenty nine EH patients were given 12.5 mg HCTZ/d for six weeks. Alpha-adducin gene G614T SNP in the tenth exon was determined by PCR-RFLP in 754 patients with complete records. All the patients were grouped according to TT, GT and GG genotypes.

    Results: After 6 weeks of HCTZ treatment, the decreases in DBP and MAP of patients carrying 614T allele of alpha-adducin were significantly greater than that of those carrying GG homozygotes (P < 0.05). The decreases in SBP and MAP were significantly greater in patients with the TT genotype as compared with GT or GG genotype (P < 0.05). The effective rate of BP fall by HCTZ was higher in patients with TT genotype than those with GT or GG genotype (P < 0.05). Multivariate stepwise regression analysis showed that the TT genotype and the baseline SBP were the two major predictors affecting the decrease in SBP.

    Conclusion: The present study suggests that the alpha-adducin G614T polymorphism is associated with the antihypertensive effect of HCTZ, which is more effective in patients with TT genotype.

    Zhonghua xin xue guan bing za zhi 2005;33;10;880-4

  • Risks of human conotruncal heart defects associated with 32 single nucleotide polymorphisms of selected cardiovascular disease-related genes.

    Shaw GM, Iovannisci DM, Yang W, Finnell RH, Carmichael SL, Cheng S and Lammer EJ

    March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation, California Birth Defects Monitoring Program, Berkeley 94710, USA. gsh@cbdmp.org

    Investigating possible genetic polymorphisms and gene-environment interactions in the etiology of human conotruncal defects is a prudent research approach. In this study we explore gene-only and gene-environment effects of 32 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on conotruncal defect risks. The genes bearing these SNPs participate in one of five pathogenetic processes, homocysteine metabolism, coagulation, cell-cell interaction, inflammatory response, and blood pressure regulation. We used DNA samples and data from a California population-based case-control interview study (1987-1988 birth cohort). We employed a multilocus allele-specific hybridization assay. Allelic variants were determined by genotyping 155 infants with conotruncal defects (cases) and 437 infants without malformations (controls). Among the 32 SNPs, four were associated with odds ratios of 2 or more, and two with odds ratios of 0.5 or less. The four SNPs were F2 G20210A (prothrombin) with an odds ratio of 2.5 (95% confidence interval; 0.9-7.0), F7 promoter (-323) 10-bp del/ins with an odds ratio of 2.3 (0.8-6.8), ITGB3 leu33pro (platelet glycoprotein IIIa) with an odds ratio of 2.2 (0.9-5.7), and NPPA T2238C (atrial natriuretic precursor peptide) with an odds ratio of 2.9 (0.8-10.1). Two SNPs were associated with decreased risks: TNF (tumor necrosis factor, G (-376A)) and ADD1 gly460trp (alpha adducin) with odds ratios of 0.5 (0.1-2.3) and 0.5 (0.2-1.9), respectively. Analyses that investigated a potential gene-nutrient interaction between maternal periconceptional vitamin use and MTHFR genotypes did not indicate that the CT or TT genotype contributed to conotruncal defect risk in infants even in the absence of maternal use of multivitamin supplements with folic acid. Analyses that investigated a potential interaction on risk between NOS3 genes and maternal cigarette smoking, revealed some evidence for higher risk of conotruncal defects in infants whose mothers smoked cigarettes periconceptionally and who had one of the variant alleles for NOS3 A(-922G) or NOS3 glu298asp compared to those infants whose mothers did not smoke and whose genotypes were wild-type. Our results provide some support for involvement of genetic variation of biologically relevant candidate genes for some birth defects whose pathogenesis may be related to altered vascular tone or integrity. In particular, NPPA appears to be a good candidate gene for conotruncal defects and warrants further investigation.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: P30 HL66398; ODCDC CDC HHS: U50/CCU913241

    American journal of medical genetics. Part A 2005;138;1;21-6

  • Cardiovascular risk in relation to alpha-adducin Gly460Trp polymorphism and systolic pressure: a prospective population study.

    Li Y, Thijs, Kuznetsova T, Zagato L, Struijker-Boudier H, Bianchi G and Staessen JA

    Study Coordinating Centre, Department of Molecular and Cardiovascular Research, University of Leuven, Belgium.

    Preliminary evidence from 1 case-control study suggested that in hypertensive patients, the alpha-adducin 460Trp allele might be associated with a 2-fold higher risk of coronary heart disease. In a prospective population study, we investigated whether the alpha-adducin Gly460Trp polymorphism predicted mortality and morbidity. From August 1985 until July 2003, we randomly recruited 2235 Belgian residents. We obtained information on vital status (until July 1, 2004) and the incidence of events via registries and repeat examinations (median 3). In Cox regression, before and after adjustment for other risk factors, we found strong interaction between systolic blood pressure at baseline, analyzed as a continuous variable, and the alpha-adducin polymorphism in relation to total (P=0.01) and cardiovascular mortality (P=0.007) and all cardiovascular (P=0.003), cardiac (P=0.001), and coronary events (P=0.03). The hazard ratio for total mortality associated with the Trp allele relative to GlyGly homozygosity was 2.30 (95% confidence interval, 1.12 to 4.72; P=0.02) in patients with stage-2 systolic hypertension (> or =160 mm Hg) and 0.88 (0.61 to 1.26; P=0.48) in the other participants. For all cardiovascular complications, these estimates were 2.94 (1.28 to 6.74; P=0.01) and 0.83 (0.58 to 1.20; P=0.32), respectively. For all cardiovascular events, the positive predictive value and the attributable risk associated with the Trp allele in patients with stage-2 systolic hypertension were 76.9% and 44.3%, respectively. In conclusion, the alpha-adducin Gly460Trp polymorphism, in combination with systolic blood pressure, is a strong predictor of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity.

    Hypertension (Dallas, Tex. : 1979) 2005;46;3;527-32

  • Combined analysis of polymorphisms in angiotensinogen and adducin genes and their effects on hypertension in a Japanese sample: The Shigaraki Study.

    Tamaki S, Nakamura Y, Tabara Y, Okamura T, Kita Y, Kadowaki T, Tsujita Y, Horie M and Miki T

    Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Kohka Public Hospital, Kohka, Japan.

    We examined the interactions between lifestyle and polymorphisms of salt-sensitive genes and their effects on hypertension in a general Japanese sample (The Shigaraki Study). The study group consisted of 2,902 subjects who underwent a medical examination in 1999 in Shigaraki, a suburban area in Shiga. Among 1,647 subjects not receiving antihypertensive medication, in a combined analysis of angiotensinogen (AGT) and adducin (ADD1) polymorphisms, double homozygosity of 235Thr or 460Trp was not found to be associated with hypertension. A multiple logistic regression analysis showed that age (odds ratio [OR]: 1.07, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 1.06-1.08), body mass index (BMI) (OR: 1.18, 95% CI: 1.13-1.23), alcohol consumption (OR: 1.39, 95% CI: 1.16-1.66), family history of hypertension (OR: 1.57, 95% CI: 1.18-2.07), and combined AGT M235T Thr/Thr and ADD1 Trp/Trp polymorphisms (OR: 1.37, 95% CI: 1.03-1.82) were associated with hypertension. However, there was no interaction between eating salty food and combined AGT and ADD1 polymorphisms. Furthermore, eating salty food was not associated with hypertension in a multivariate analysis. Therefore, a combination of the AGT and ADD1 polymorphisms appears to be associated with hypertension. However, a simple questionnaire regarding salt intake was not sufficient to confirm the relationship between salt intake and hypertension and/or salt-sensitive genes.

    Hypertension research : official journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension 2005;28;8;645-50

  • Rho-kinase induces association of adducin with the cytoskeleton in platelet activation.

    Tamaru S, Fukuta T, Kaibuchi K, Matsuoka Y, Shiku H and Nishikawa M

    The 2nd Department of Internal Medicine, Mie University School of Medicine, Mie 514-8507, Japan.

    We examined whether adducin function is regulated through Rho-kinase after agonist stimulation in platelets. A variety of stimuli such as thrombin, STA(2) (a stable analog of TXA(2)), Ca(2+) ionophore, phorbol diester, and shear stress induced phosphorylation of alpha-adducin at Thr445. Preincubation with the Rho-kinase inhibitor Y-27632 in platelets inhibited agonist-induced phosphorylation of alpha-adducin. STA(2) stimulation led to a redistribution of adducin from Triton-insoluble (high speed) fraction (membrane skeleton) to Triton-insoluble (low speed) fraction (cytoskeleton) and detergent-soluble fraction. Phosphoadducin at Thr445 was selectively isolated in the cytoskeletal fraction, whereas phosphoadducin at Ser726 was mainly present in the Triton-soluble fraction. Y-27632 inhibition of STA(2)-induced alpha-adducin phosphorylation at Thr445 inhibited incorporation of alpha-adducin and spectrin into the platelet cytoskeleton, although Y-27632 did not affect phosphorylation of alpha-adducin at Ser726. These results suggest that Rho-kinase regulates the association of alpha-adducin and spectrin with the actin cytoskeleton in platelet activation.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2005;332;2;347-51

  • [Association of peripheral and central blood pressure with the alpha-adducin Gly460Trp polymorphism in a Chinese population].

    Guo HF, Li Y, Wang GL, Lu YG, Zhou HF, Gao PJ, Zhu DL and Wang JG

    Centre for Epidemiological Studies and Clinical Trials, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Institute of Hypertension, Shanghai Second Medical University, Shanghai 200025, China.

    Objective: To investigate the association of peripheral and central blood pressure with the alpha-adducin Gly460Trp polymorphism in Chinese.

    Methods: We randomly selected 6 villages from JingNing County, ZheJiang Province. We invited nuclear families to take part in our study. We measured each participant's blood pressure at the non-dominant arm by means of a standard mercury sphygmomanometer at subjects' homes. Five consecutive readings were averaged for analysis. Central blood pressures were obtained by use of SphigmoCor pulse wave analysis system. The observers administered a standardized questionnaire to collect information on smoking habits, alcohol consumption and use of antihypertensive drugs. Venous blood was sampled and the adducin genotype was determined by restrictive fragment length polymorphism (RFLP).

    Results: Four hundred and forty-two subjects included 230 (52.0%) women, and 116 (26.2%) hypertensive patients, of whom 49 (11.1%) took antihypertensive drugs. The frequencies of alpha -adducin GlyGly, GlyTrp and TrpTrp genotypes were 21.3%, 54.5% and 24.2%, respectively. There was no association between the alpha-adducin Gly460Trp polymorphism and peripheral systolic and diastolic blood pressure and pulse pressure. However, both before and after adjustment for sex, age, age(2), body-mass index, current smoking, alcohol intake, and antihypertensive treatment, the alpha-adducin polymorphism was significantly (P < 0.02) associated with central systolic blood pressure and central pulse pressure. After adjustment, central systolic blood pressure (+/- SE) averaged 122.5 +/- 3.5, 114.1 +/- 1.5 and 109.1 +/- 1.8 mm Hg (P = 0.01) in the GlyGly, GlyTrp and TrpTrp subjects, respectively. The corresponding values for central pulse pressure were 39.4 +/- 1.3, 36.4 +/- 1.0 and 32.9 +/- 0.9 mm Hg (P = 0.002), respectively.

    Conclusions: In the JingNing population, the adducin 460Trp allele was associated with lower levels of central systolic pressure and pulse pressure.

    Zhonghua xin xue guan bing za zhi 2005;33;7;608-12

  • Epistatic interaction between alpha- and gamma-adducin influences peripheral and central pulse pressures in white Europeans.

    Cwynar M, Staessen JA, Tichá M, Nawrot T, Citterio L, Kuznetsova T, Wojciechowska W, Stolarz K, Filipovský J, Kawecka-Jaszcz K, Grodzicki T, Struijker-Boudier HA, Thijs L, Van Bortel LM, Bianchi G and European Project On Genes in Hypertension (EPOGH) Investigators

    Department of Internal Medicine and Gerontology, Medical College, Jagiellonian University, Cracow, Poland.

    Background: Adducin is a membrane skeleton protein consisting of alpha- and beta- or alpha- and gamma-subunits. Mutations in alpha- and beta-adducin are associated with hypertension. In the European Project on Genes in Hypertension, we investigated whether polymorphisms in the genes encoding alpha-adducin (Gly460Trp), beta-adducin (C1797T) and gamma-adducin (A386G), alone or in combination, affected pulse pressure (PP), an index of vascular stiffness.

    Methods: We measured peripheral and central PP by conventional sphygmomanometry and applanation tonometry, respectively. We randomly recruited 642 subjects (162 nuclear families and 70 unrelated individuals) from three European populations. In multivariate analyses, we used generalized estimating equations and the quantitative transmission disequilibrium test.

    Results: Peripheral and central PP averaged 46.1 and 32.6 mmHg, respectively. Among carriers of the alpha-adducin Trp allele, peripheral and central PP were 5.8 and 4.7 mmHg higher in gamma-adducin GG homozygotes than in their AA counterparts, due to an increase in systolic pressure. gamma-Adducin GG homozygosity was associated with lower urinary Na/K ratio among alpha-adducin Trp allele carriers and with higher urinary aldosterone excretion among alpha-adducin GlyGly homozygotes. Sensitivity analyses in founders and offspring separately, and tests based on the transmission of the gamma-adducin G allele across families, confirmed the interaction between the alpha- and gamma-adducin genes.

    Conclusions: In alpha-adducin Trp allele carriers, peripheral and central PP increased with the gamma-adducin G allele. This epistatic interaction is physiologically consistent with the heterodimeric structure of the protein and its influence on transmembranous sodium transport.

    Journal of hypertension 2005;23;5;961-9

  • Generation and annotation of the DNA sequences of human chromosomes 2 and 4.

    Hillier LW, Graves TA, Fulton RS, Fulton LA, Pepin KH, Minx P, Wagner-McPherson C, Layman D, Wylie K, Sekhon M, Becker MC, Fewell GA, Delehaunty KD, Miner TL, Nash WE, Kremitzki C, Oddy L, Du H, Sun H, Bradshaw-Cordum H, Ali J, Carter J, Cordes M, Harris A, Isak A, van Brunt A, Nguyen C, Du F, Courtney L, Kalicki J, Ozersky P, Abbott S, Armstrong J, Belter EA, Caruso L, Cedroni M, Cotton M, Davidson T, Desai A, Elliott G, Erb T, Fronick C, Gaige T, Haakenson W, Haglund K, Holmes A, Harkins R, Kim K, Kruchowski SS, Strong CM, Grewal N, Goyea E, Hou S, Levy A, Martinka S, Mead K, McLellan MD, Meyer R, Randall-Maher J, Tomlinson C, Dauphin-Kohlberg S, Kozlowicz-Reilly A, Shah N, Swearengen-Shahid S, Snider J, Strong JT, Thompson J, Yoakum M, Leonard S, Pearman C, Trani L, Radionenko M, Waligorski JE, Wang C, Rock SM, Tin-Wollam AM, Maupin R, Latreille P, Wendl MC, Yang SP, Pohl C, Wallis JW, Spieth J, Bieri TA, Berkowicz N, Nelson JO, Osborne J, Ding L, Meyer R, Sabo A, Shotland Y, Sinha P, Wohldmann PE, Cook LL, Hickenbotham MT, Eldred J, Williams D, Jones TA, She X, Ciccarelli FD, Izaurralde E, Taylor J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Cox DR, Huang X, McPherson JD, Mardis ER, Clifton SW, Warren WC, Chinwalla AT, Eddy SR, Marra MA, Ovcharenko I, Furey TS, Miller W, Eichler EE, Bork P, Suyama M, Torrents D, Waterston RH and Wilson RK

    Genome Sequencing Center, Washington University School of Medicine, Campus Box 8501, 4444 Forest Park Avenue, St. Louis, Missouri 63108, USA.

    Human chromosome 2 is unique to the human lineage in being the product of a head-to-head fusion of two intermediate-sized ancestral chromosomes. Chromosome 4 has received attention primarily related to the search for the Huntington's disease gene, but also for genes associated with Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome, polycystic kidney disease and a form of muscular dystrophy. Here we present approximately 237 million base pairs of sequence for chromosome 2, and 186 million base pairs for chromosome 4, representing more than 99.6% of their euchromatic sequences. Our initial analyses have identified 1,346 protein-coding genes and 1,239 pseudogenes on chromosome 2, and 796 protein-coding genes and 778 pseudogenes on chromosome 4. Extensive analyses confirm the underlying construction of the sequence, and expand our understanding of the structure and evolution of mammalian chromosomes, including gene deserts, segmental duplications and highly variant regions.

    Nature 2005;434;7034;724-31

  • Phosphoproteomic analysis of synaptosomes from human cerebral cortex.

    DeGiorgis JA, Jaffe H, Moreira JE, Carlotti CG, Leite JP, Pant HC and Dosemeci A

    Laboratory of Neurobiology, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.

    Protein phosphorylation is a crucial post-translational modification mechanism in the regulation of synaptic organization and function. Here, we analyzed synaptosome fractions from human cerebral cortex obtained during therapeutic surgery. To minimize changes in the phosphorylation state of proteins, the tissue was homogenized within two minutes of excision. Synaptosomal proteins were digested with trypsin and phosphopeptides were isolated by immobilized metal affinity chromatography and analyzed by liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. The method allowed the detection of residues on synaptic proteins that were presumably phosphorylated in the intact cell, including synapsin 1, syntaxin 1, and SNIP, PSD-93, NCAM, GABA-B receptor, chaperone molecules, and protein kinases. Some of the residues identified are the same or homologous to sites that had been previously described to be phosphorylated in mammals whereas others appear to be novel sites which, to our knowledge, have not been reported previously. The study shows that new phosphoproteomic strategies can be used to analyze subcellular fractions from small amounts of tissue for the identification of phosphorylated residues for research and potentially for diagnostic purposes.

    Journal of proteome research 2005;4;2;306-15

  • Role of the adducin family genes in human essential hypertension.

    Lanzani C, Citterio L, Jankaricova M, Sciarrone MT, Barlassina C, Fattori S, Messaggio E, Serio CD, Zagato L, Cusi D, Hamlyn JM, Stella A, Bianchi G and Manunta P

    Division of Nephrology, Dialysis and Hypertension University Vita-Salute, IRCCS San Raffaele Hospital, Milano, Italy. lanzani.chiara@hsr.it

    Objective: In both humans and rats, polymorphisms of the alpha adducin (ADD1) gene are involved in renal sodium handling, essential hypertension and some of its organ complications. Adducin functions within cells as a heterodimer composed of various combinations of three subunits that are coded by three genes (ADD1, 2, 3) each located on a different chromosome.

    Design: These characteristics provide the biochemical basis for investigating epistatic interactions among these loci.

    Methods: We examined the three adducin gene polymorphisms and their association with ambulatory blood pressure (ABPM) and with plasma levels of renin activity (PRA), endogenous ouabain (EO), in 512 newly discovered and never-treated hypertensive patients.

    Results: Relative to carriers of the wild type (Gly/Gly) ADD1 gene, patients carrying the mutated Trp ADD1 allele had higher blood pressure (systolic blood pressure (SBP) 143.2 +/- 1.0 versus 140.6 +/- 0.6 mmHg P = 0.027 and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) 94.2 +/- 0.77 versus 92.3 +/- 0.5 mmHg, P = 0.03), lower PRA and EO, consistent with the hypothesis of the renal sodium retaining effect of the Trp allele. Polymorphisms in the ADD2 and ADD3 genes taken alone were not associated with these variables. However, the differences in SBP and DBP between the two ADD1 genotypes were greatest in carriers of the ADD3 G allele (around + 8 mmHg). The significance of the interaction between ADD1 and ADD3 ranged between P = 0.020 to P = 0.006 according to the genetic model applied.

    Conclusions: The interaction of ADD1 and ADD3 gene variants in humans is statistically associated with variation in blood pressure, suggesting the presence of epistatic effects among these loci.

    Journal of hypertension 2005;23;3;543-9

  • Sodium-lithium countertransport and the Gly460-->Trp alpha-adducin polymorphism in essential hypertension.

    Mead PA, Harvey JN, Rutherford PA, Leitch H and Thomas TH

    Department of Nephrology, Cumberland Infirmary, Carlisle CA2 7HY, UK.

    A polymorphism of the alpha-subunit of adducin, Gly460-->Trp, may affect membrane ion transport and be associated with human EH (essential hypertension). The alpha-adducin Gly460-->Trp polymorphism was determined in 242 NC (normal controls) and 73 patients with EH and was related to the membrane ion transport marker in EH, erythrocyte Na/LiCT (sodium-lithium countertransport), in a subgroup of these subjects. The Km for external sodium was lower in patients with EH than NC. The Km of the Trp allele was lower than with the Gly/Gly genotype [NC, 105+/-6 compared with 88+/-5 mmol Na/l respectively (P=0.05); patients with EH, 76+/-5 compared with 64+/-4 mmol Na/l respectively (P=0.06)]. The Km was lower in patients with EH than NC for any adducin genotype. Thiol alkylation with NEM (N-ethylmaleimide) caused a decrease in Km in NC, but not in patients with EH. With a Trp allele, NEM lowered Km less in NC (-20 compared with -35) and increased it in patients with EH (+24 compared with +3; P=0.007 for genotype effect). Thiol alkylation with NEM caused an increase in Vmax in patients with EH but not in NC. With a Trp allele, NEM increased Vmax substantially in patients with EH (+0.12 compared with +0.03) but did not cause a decrease in NC 14a1 (+0.02 compared with -0.06; P=0.007 for genotype effect). In conclusion, the Gly460-->Trp polymorphism of alpha-adducin modifies the kinetics of Na/LiCT. The effect of this genotype is different in patients with EH compared with NC and it does not explain the abnormal kinetics in patients with EH. The Trp allele was not associated with disease in the population studied. Several cytoskeletal proteins may interact with adducin in the overall phenotype of EH.

    Clinical science (London, England : 1979) 2005;108;3;231-6

  • Associations of baseline blood pressure levels and efficacy of Benazepril treatment with interaction of alpha-adducin and ACE gene polymorphisms in hypertensives.

    Yu Y, Niu T, Venners SA, Zhang Y, Chen C, Huang A, Feng Y, Li D, Xing H, Wu D, Peng S and Xu X

    School of Life Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, China.

    The molecular mechanisms underlying essential hypertension are not fully elucidated. Although Benazepril is being widely used in antihypertensive medication, the agent is efficacious in only a portion of hypertensive patients. To evaluate the interaction of alpha-adducin gene Gly460Trp and angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) gene I/D polymorphisms in regard to baseline blood pressure (BP) levels and the reductions of blood pressures after Benazepril treatment, we conducted an investigation of 954 Chinese hypertensive patients in Anhui province, China. We found that compared with the baseline systolic BP (SBP) of subjects with one ACE I allele and one alpha-adducin Trp allele, the baseline SBP of those with ACE DD and alpha-adducin Gly/Gly genotypes was significantly higher [Crude: beta(SE) = 7.83(3.09), p = .01; Adjusted: beta(SE) = 5.83(2.83), p = .04]. However, no associations were found between the interaction of ACE I/D and alpha-adducin Gly460Trp polymorphisms and the baseline diastolic BP or the BP response to Benazepril treatment. Our results suggested that the interaction effect of alpha-adducin Gly460Trp and ACE I/D polymorphisms might play a significant role in regulating baseline BP but not BP response to Benazepril.

    Clinical and experimental hypertension (New York, N.Y. : 1993) 2005;27;1;83-94

  • Alpha-adducin Gly460Trp polymorphism and essential hypertension in Korea.

    Shin MH, Chung EK, Kim HN, Park KS, Nam HS, Kweon SS and Choi JS

    Department of Preventive Medicine, College of Medicine, Seonam University, Gwangju, Korea.

    Previous studies have suggested that the Gly460Trp polymorphism of the alpha-adducin gene (ADD-1) is associated with salt sensitivity and primary hypertension. The results of linkage or association studies of ADD-1 of different populations are controversial. This study investigated the relationship between the Gly460Trp polymorphism of ADD-1 and essential hypertension in a Korean population. The subjects (n=903) were participants in a population-based study in Jangseong County, Korea. The Gly460Trp polymorphism of ADD-1 was determined using a polymerase chain reaction method. The frequency of the 460Trp allele was 59.4% in normotensives and 61.1% in hypertensives (p=0.523). The frequencies of the genotypes did not differ significantly between the hypertensive and normotensive groups (16.3% Gly/Gly, 45.8% Gly/Trp, and 38.0% Trp/Trp in normotensives; 16.2% Gly/Gly, 45.8% Gly/Trp, and 38.0% Trp/Trp in hypertensives; p=0.928). After adjusting for other risk factors, Gly/Trp and Trp/Trp were not associated with hypertension (OR 1.00, 95% CI 0.65-1.53, Gly/Trp vs. Gly/Gly; OR 1.22, 95% CI 0.79-1.90, Trp/Trp vs. Gly/Gly). These findings suggest that the Gly460Trp polymorphism of ADD-1 is not associated with hypertension.

    Journal of Korean medical science 2004;19;6;812-4

  • The thiazide-sensitive Na(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter gene, C1784T, and adrenergic receptor-beta3 gene, T727C, may be gene polymorphisms susceptible to the antihypertensive effect of thiazide diuretics.

    Matayoshi T, Kamide K, Takiuchi S, Yoshii M, Miwa Y, Takami Y, Tanaka C, Banno M, Horio T, Nakamura S, Nakahama H, Yoshihara F, Inenaga T, Miyata T and Kawano Y

    Division of Hypertension and Nephrology, National Cardiovascular Center, Suita, Japan.

    The response of blood pressure to thiazide diuretics (TZDs) differs among individuals. The prediction of the antihypertensive effect of TZDs is important for realizing individualized therapy in the management of hypertension. The aim of this study was to identify the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) susceptible to the antihypertensive effect of TZDs, particularly focusing on genes related to water-electrolyte absorption in the kidney. Seventy-six outpatients (mean age, 65.4+/-9.0 years) with essential hypertension (EHT) taking TZDs were retrospectively assessed. We defined as responders (R) those whose mean blood pressure was lowered by more than 5 mmHg after the use of TZDs. Forty-eight SNPs in 17 genes (ADD1, GNB3, TSC [SLC12A3], MLR [NR3C2], NCX1 [SLC8A1], WNK1, WNK4, AGT, ACE, AT1 [AGTR1], CYP11B2, ADRB1, ADRB2, ADRB3, ADRA1A, ADRA1B, ADRA2A) were genotyped in the 76 patients. The SNPs in TSC, MLR, NCX1, WNK1, and WNK4 were identified by direct sequencing and those with minor frequencies of greater than 5% were genotyped in this study. The comparison of polymorphism prevalence between R and non-responders (NR) showed significant differences in TSC C1784T (C allele vs. T allele, odds ratio (OR)=3.81, p =0.016, confidence interval (CI): 1.25-11.63) and ADRB3 T727C (Trp64Arg) (T allele vs. C allele, OR=4.59, p =0.005, CI: 1.54-13.68). The blood pressure (BP) in patients homozygous for the major alleles of both TSC C1784T and ADRB3 T727C were significantly reduced by TZD treatment; however, the BP in those homozygous for the minor allele and heterozygous (TSC C1784T: TT+CT; ADRB3 T727C: CC+CT) for both SNPs were not significantly changed after TZD treatment. Both newly detected TSC C1784T and ADRB3 T727C are gene polymorphisms susceptible to the antihypertensive effect of TZDs in patients with EHT. Thus, the prediction of BP reduction by TZDs may be possible by evaluating these two SNPs.

    Hypertension research : official journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension 2004;27;11;821-33

  • Alpha-adducin Gly460Trp polymorphism and renal hemodynamics in essential hypertension.

    Beeks E, van der Klauw MM, Kroon AA, Spiering W, Fuss-Lejeune MJ and de Leeuw PW

    Department of Medicine, Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht (CARIM), University Hospital Maastricht, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

    Previous studies have shown an association between the alpha-adducin Gly460Trp polymorphism and salt-sensitive hypertension. Not much is known about the effects of the variants of this polymorphism on renal hemodynamics and function. Therefore, we performed the present study to investigate the effect of the 460Trp allele of the alpha-adducin gene on renal hemodynamics in one hundred and seventeen essential hypertensive patients who were put on a low and high sodium diet (randomized order). On the last day of each one-week dietary period, blood pressure, effective renal plasma flow (ERPF), glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and neurohormones were measured. Effective renal blood flow (ERBF), renal vascular resistance, and filtration fraction were calculated. ERPF, ERBF, and GFR were lower in patients homozygous for the 460Trp allele compared with patients with the Gly460Gly genotype on low sodium diet but no differences were found at the higher sodium intake. On the other hand, levels of atrial natriuretic peptide were significantly higher in patients with the Trp460Trp genotype as compared with patients with the Gly460Gly genotype on both diets. In multivariate analysis, Trp460Trp genotype, age, and mean arterial pressure were predictors of ERPF, whereas Trp460Trp genotype and age were predictors of GFR during the phase of low sodium diet. The present study shows that the Trp460Trp genotype is significantly associated with reduced renal plasma flow and glomerular filtration rate as compared with the wild-type variant.

    Hypertension (Dallas, Tex. : 1979) 2004;44;4;419-23

  • Renal function in relation to three candidate genes in a Chinese population.

    Wang JG, Liu L, Zagato L, Xie J, Fagard R, Jin K, Wang J, Li Y, Bianchi G, Staessen JA and Liu L

    Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Institute of Hypertension, Shanghai Second Medical University, Ruijin 2nd Road 197, 200025 Shanghai, China. jiguangwang@netscape.net

    We recently found in a white population that the genes encoding angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE, I/D polymorphism), alpha-adducin (Gly460Trp), and aldosterone synthase (-344C/T) jointly influence renal function. We therefore investigated in a Chinese population the associations between the serum concentrations of creatinine and uric acid and these three genetic polymorphisms. We genotyped 471 ethnic Han Chinese subjects from 125 nuclear families recruited in northern China via random population sampling (75%) and at specialized hypertension clinics (25%). We performed population-based and family-based association analyses using generalized estimating equations (GEE) and quantitative transmission disequilibrium test (QTDT), respectively, while controlling for covariables. The participants were 39.7 years old and included 235 women (49.9%). The blood pressure measured at the subjects' homes averaged 126/80 mmHg. Mean values were 71 micromol/l for serum creatinine, 111 ml min(-1) 1.73 m(-2) for calculated creatinine clearance, and 236 micromol/l for serum uric acid. With adjustment for covariables, GEE analyses of single genes demonstrated that serum uric acid, but not serum creatinine, was positively associated with the ACE D allele. Serum uric acid concentrations were 15.8 micromol/l (95% confidence interval 3.3-28.2) and 25.7 micromol/l (11.1-40.2) higher in DD homozygotes than in ID and II subjects, respectively. Further GEE analyses of the three genes combined showed that the association between serum uric acid and the ACE polymorphism was confined to carriers of the alpha-adducin Gly and/or aldosterone synthase C alleles. Sensitivity analyses in parents and offspring separately as well as QTDT analyses were confirmatory. Among 114 informative offspring carrying the alpha-adducin Gly allele serum uric acid was significantly and positively associated with the transmission of the ACE D allele (beta=20.7 micromol/l). In conclusion, the present study extends our previous findings on the combined effects of the three candidate genes and supports the concept that these genetic polymorphisms jointly influence renal function.

    Journal of molecular medicine (Berlin, Germany) 2004;82;10

  • Significant associations of the alpha-adducin gene Gly460Trp polymorphism with serum bilirubin concentrations in Chinese essential hypertension patients.

    Yu YX, Venners SA, Niu TH, Chen CZ, Huang AQ, Zhang Y, Feng Y, Li D, Xing HX, Wu D, Peng SJ and Xu XP

    School of Life Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230027, China.

    We investigated associations of the Gly460Trp polymorphism of the alpha-adducin gene and concentrations of serum total bilirubin, serum direct bilirubin and serum unconjugated bilirubin in patients with essential hypertension from Anhui, China from September 2000 to January 2001. Compared to women with the Gly/Gly genotype and after adjustment for important covariates, women with the Trp/Trp genotype had lower mean concentrations of serum total bilirubin (beta = -1.2 micromol/L; P = 0.01), serum direct bilirubin (beta = - 0.4 micromol/L; P = 0.02) and serum unconjugated bilirubin (P = -0.8 micromol/L; P = 0.03). Among women in either the upper or lower quartiles of serum total bilirubin, serum direct bilirubin and serum unconjugated bilirubin and compared to those with the Gly/Gly genotype, women with the Trp/Trp genotype had higher odds of being in the lower quartile of concentrations of serum total bilirubin (odds ratio = 4.0; 95 percent confidence interval: 1.6 - 10.2; P < 0.01), serum direct bilirubin (odds ratio = 4.0; 95 percent confidence: 1.6 - 9.7; P < 0.01) and serum unconjugated bilirubin (odds ratio = 2.7; 95 percent confidence interval: 1.1 - 6.7; P = 0.03) after adjustment for important covariates. We did not observe any significant associations in these models for men. We concluded that the Trp/Trp genotype of alpha-adducin Gly460Trp was associated with lower serum bilirubin concentrations in this group of Chinese women with essential hypertension. Women with the Trp/Trp genotype of alpha-adducin Gly460Trp might have increased risk for cardiovascular diseases due to lower concentrations of serum bilirubin.

    Yi chuan xue bao = Acta genetica Sinica 2004;31;9;941-9

  • Large-scale characterization of HeLa cell nuclear phosphoproteins.

    Beausoleil SA, Jedrychowski M, Schwartz D, Elias JE, Villén J, Li J, Cohn MA, Cantley LC and Gygi SP

    Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

    Determining the site of a regulatory phosphorylation event is often essential for elucidating specific kinase-substrate relationships, providing a handle for understanding essential signaling pathways and ultimately allowing insights into numerous disease pathologies. Despite intense research efforts to elucidate mechanisms of protein phosphorylation regulation, efficient, large-scale identification and characterization of phosphorylation sites remains an unsolved problem. In this report we describe an application of existing technology for the isolation and identification of phosphorylation sites. By using a strategy based on strong cation exchange chromatography, phosphopeptides were enriched from the nuclear fraction of HeLa cell lysate. From 967 proteins, 2,002 phosphorylation sites were determined by tandem MS. This unprecedented large collection of sites permitted a detailed accounting of known and unknown kinase motifs and substrates.

    Funded by: NHGRI NIH HHS: HG00041, K22 HG000041, T32 HG000041; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM67945, GMS6203, R01 GM056203, R01 GM067945

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2004;101;33;12130-5

  • Role of alpha-adducin DNA polymorphisms in the genetic predisposition to diabetic nephropathy.

    Conway BR, Martin R, McKnight AJ, Savage DA, Brady HR and Maxwell AP

    Nephrology Research Group, Queen's University of Belfast, Northern Ireland. BryanConway@ntlworld.com

    Background: There is substantial evidence for genetic susceptibility to diabetic nephropathy. In particular, genes that predispose to hypertension in the general population may confer susceptibility to nephropathy in patients with diabetes. A Gly460Trp variant in the alpha-adducin gene has been associated with essential hypertension. Our aim was to screen the alpha-adducin gene for polymorphisms and to determine if any variants predisposed patients with diabetes to nephropathy. A secondary objective was to assess for association between the Gly460Trp variant and hypertension.

    Methods: The exons of the alpha-adducin gene were resequenced in 30 individuals. Selected variants were then genotyped in 155 patients with type 1 diabetes and nephropathy (cases) and 216 persons with type 1 diabetes but no evidence of nephropathy (controls) from Northern Ireland and in 95 cases and 118 controls from the Irish Republic.

    Results: Eleven polymorphisms were detected, of which six were novel and three caused amino-acid substitutions. The Gly460Trp and a novel Ser617Cys polymorphism were in strong linkage disequilibrium (D' = 0.98). Neither the genotype nor allele frequencies for the Gly460Trp polymorphism (P = 0.89 and 0.93 respectively) or the Ser617Cys polymorphism (P = 0.46 and 0.76) were significantly different between cases and controls when the Northern Ireland and Irish Republic sample groups were combined. Carriage of the 460Trp allele was not significantly associated with systolic or diastolic blood pressure in either the cases (P = 0.48 and 0.06, respectively) or in the controls (P = 0.50 and 0.94, respectively).

    Conclusions: Variation in the alpha-adducin gene does not play a major role in the development of nephropathy in persons with type 1 diabetes in the Irish population. Furthermore, the Gly460Trp variant was not associated with hypertension in thi 1f40 s population.

    Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation : official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association 2004;19;8;2019-24

  • Alpha-adducin G460W polymorphism, urinary sodium excretion, and blood pressure in community-based samples.

    Yamagishi K, Iso H, Tanigawa T, Cui R, Kudo M and Shimamoto T

    Department of Public Health Medicine, Institute of Community Medicine, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki-ken 305-8575, Japan.

    Background: There is limited evidence on the gene-environmental interaction among alpha-adducin G460W gene polymorphism, sodium intake, and blood pressure (BP) levels in a gen 1f40 eral population. One hypothesis is that the association between G460W polymorphism and BP is more evident among persons with higher sodium intake than those with lower sodium intake.

    Methods: We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study of 2823 men and women aged 30 to 74 years in a Japanese rural community to examine the association of the alpha-adducin G460W polymorphism with BP levels stratified by salt intake, as estimated by 24-h urine collection and dietary questionnaire.

    Results: There was no difference in systolic or diastolic BP levels among the GG, GW, and WW groups for women, but for men, mean systolic BP tended to be higher in the WW group than in the GG group. When we stratified men according to sodium excretion/intake, mean systolic BP was significantly higher in the WW group than in the GG group among men with higher urinary sodium excretion (138.8 v 133.6 mm Hg, P =.02) and tended to be higher among men with higher previous sodium intake. No genetic association was found among women or among men with lower urinary sodium excretion or lower sodium intake.

    Conclusions: The alpha-adducin WW genotype was associated with higher systolic BP among men with a higher sodium intake.

    American journal of hypertension 2004;17;5 Pt 1;385-90

  • Blood pressure in relation to three candidate genes in a Chinese population.

    Wang JG, Liu L, Zagato L, Xie J, Fagard R, Jin K, Wang J, Li Y, Bianchi G, Staessen JA and Liu L

    Hypertension Division, Cardiovascular Institute and Fuwai Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China. jiguang.wang@med.kuleuven.ac.be

    Objective: In a prospective analysis of a Caucasian population, we recently found that the genes encoding angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE, I/D polymorphism), alpha-adducin (Gly460Trp) and aldosterone synthase (-344C/T) jointly influence the incidence of hypertension. We therefore investigated the association between blood pressure and these three genes in a Chinese population.

    Methods: We genotyped 479 Han Chinese from 125 nuclear families recruited in northern China via random sampling (approximately 75%) and at specialized hypertension clinics (approximately 25%). We performed population-based and family-based association analyses using generalized estimating equations (GEE) and the quantitative transmission disequilibrium test (QTDT), respectively, while controlling for covariables.

    Results: The participants included 239 (49.9%) women and 132 (27.6%) hypertensive patients, of whom 77 took antihypertensive drugs. The blood pressure, measured at the subjects' homes, averaged 126/80 mmHg. Mean values of urinary sodium, potassium and Na/K ratio were 226 mmol/day, 37 mmol/day and 6.31, respectively. In adjusted GEE analyses, systolic blood pressure was 9.3 mmHg (95% confidence interval 3.6-15.0 mmHg; P = 0.001) and 14.6 mmHg (95% confidence interval 3.4-25.8 mmHg; P = 0.01) higher in the ACE DD than II subjects among the alpha-adducin TrpTrp (n = 141) and aldosterone synthase CC (n = 33) homozygotes, respectively (P < or =0.05 for interactions of the ACE genotype with the alpha-adducin and aldosterone synthase polymorphisms). Among 40 informative offspring homozygous for the alpha-adducin Trp allele, systolic blood pressure was significantly associated with transmission of the ACE D allele (beta = 5.5 mmHg; P = 0.046).

    Conclusions: The ACE I/D, alpha-adducin Gly460Trp and aldosterone synthase -344C/T polymorphisms interact to influence systolic blood pressure in Chinese, suggesting that these genes might indeed predispose to hypertension, especially in an ecogenetic context characterized by a high salt intake.

    Journal of hypertension 2004;22;5;937-44

  • Genotypes and haplotypes predisposing to myocardial infarction: a multilocus case-control study.

    Tobin MD, Braund PS, Burton PR, Thompson JR, Steeds R, Channer K, Cheng S, Lindpaintner K and Samani NJ

    Centre for Biostatistics and Genetic Epidemiology, Department of Health Sciences, University of Leicester, 22-28 Princess Road West, Leicester LE1 6TP, UK. mt47@leicester.ac.uk

    Aim: To identify polymorphisms and haplotypes in candidate genes that predispose to myocardial infarction (MI) using a multilocus approach.

    1052 subjects, comprising 547 acute MI cases and 505 controls were studied. The association between MI and 58 SNPs in 35 candidate genes (generating 61 016 individual genotypes), and between MI and estimated haplotypes at 14 loci encompassing 16 genes was investigated. Two individual gene variants and haplotypes at two loci showed statistical association with MI. The alpha-adducin 460trp variant (OR 0.73, 95% CI 0.59-0.91, P=0.006) and the cholesteryl ester transfer protein -629A variant (OR 0.82, 95% CI 0.68-0.97, P=0.025) were both associated with a s 281 ignificant protective effect on MI, as was the paraoxonase 1/paraoxonase 2 haplotype comprising met55 and gln192 in paraoxonase 1 and cys311 in paraoxonase 2 (OR 0.52, 95% CI 0.39-0.77, P=0.001). The apolipoprotein C III haplotypes CCTTCG and ATCCCG at positions -641*-482*-455*1100*3175*3206 were associated with an increased risk of MI, odds ratios 1.41 (95% CI 1.06-1.76, P=0.023) and 1.71 (95% CI 1.28-2.14, P=0.038), respectively.

    Conclusions: We report associations of two polymorphisms and haplotypes at two loci with risk of MI that warrants testing in fu fd7 ture studies. Furthermore, we demonstrate the application of a multilocus assay in the setting of a large association study and the additional benefit gained from the study of haplotypes to identify variants influencing risk of coronary heart disease.

    European heart journal 2004;25;6;459-67

  • Screening of Hsp105alpha-binding proteins using yeast and bacterial two-hybrid systems.

    Saito Y, Doi K, Yamagishi N, Ishihara K and Hatayama T

    Department of Biochemistry, Kyoto Pharmaceutical University, 607-8414 Kyoto, Japan.

    Hsp105alpha is a 105-kDa stress protein, which is expressed constitutively at especially high levels in the brain compared with other tissues in mammals, and is also induced by a variety of stressors. Recently, we have shown that Hsp105alpha binds to alpha-tubulin and prevents the heat-induced disaggregation of microtubules. To further elucidate the function of Hsp105alpha, we searched for Hsp105alpha-binding proteins by screening a mouse FM3A cell library and human and mouse brain cDNA libraries using the yeast and bacterial two-hybrid systems. We showed here that Hsp105alpha interacted with several cellular proteins, such as cofilin, dynein light chain 2A, alpha-adducin, ubiquitin activating enzyme E1, phosphoglycerate kinase 1, and platelet-activating factor acethylhydrolase alpha1-subunit. The interaction was validated by the results of a pull-down assay and indirect immunofluorescence analysis. The significance of Hsp105alpha and Hsp105alpha-binding proteins in cells was discussed.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2004;314;2;396-402

  • [Alpha-adducin gene G/W460 polymorphism is associated with intracerebral hemorrhage in Chinese].

    Dou XF, Zhang HY, Huang XH, Liu XN, Ju ZY, Sun K, Wang DW, Liao YH, Ma AQ, Zhu ZM, Zhao BR, Zhao JZ, Song Y, Zhang L and Hui RT

    Sino-German Lab for Molecular Medicine, Fuwai Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Science, Beijing 100037, China.

    Objective: To explore the association between alpha-adducin (ADD1) G/W460 and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in Chinese.

    Methods: Samples of peripheral blood were collected from 456 patients with ICH diagnosed by CT or MRI from 7 clinical centers in China and 454 age, sex, and geographically matched subjects as controls. The ADD1 G/W460 polymorphism was detected by PCR. Information about prior exposure to various potential risk factors was collected by questionnaire survey.

    Results: The distribution of ADD1gene G460W polymorphisms in the ICH patients and controls were in agreement with the Hardy-Weinberg proportion. The prevalence of 460W allele among ICH cases was 82.2%, higher than that in the controls (76.0%, crude odds ratio, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.05 to 2.05). The ADD1 460W allele was still significantly associated with ICH after adjustment for hypertension and other ICH putative risk factors (adjusted odds ratio, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.88).

    Conclusion: Alpha-adducin gene G/W 460 polymorphism is significantly associated with the risk of ICH. This association does not appear to be mediated by established ICH risk factors, specifically hypertension status.

    Zhonghua yi xue za zhi 2004;84;3;186-8

  • Association between hypertension and the alpha-adducin, beta1-adrenoreceptor, and G-protein beta3 subunit genes in the Japanese population; the Suita study.

    Shioji K, Kokubo Y, Mannami T, Inamoto N, Morisaki H, Mino Y, Tagoi N, Yasui N and Iwaii N

    Department of Epidemiology, Research Institute, National Cardiovascular Center, Suita, Japan.

    This study focused on 3 genetic polymorphisms that have previously been implicated in hypertension: the alpha-adducin (ADD1/Gly460Trp), beta1-adrenoreceptor (ADRB1/Arg389Gly), and G-protein beta3 subunit (GNB3/C825T) gene polymorphisms. We determined genetic variants using the TaqMan system in a large cohort representing the general population in Japan (867 males, 1,013 females). Logistic analysis indicated that the ADD1/ G460W polymorphism was associated with hypertension in female subjects. The odds ratio of the WW genotype for hypertension was 1.53 (95%Cl, 1.12-2.08) over the WG+GG genotype (p=0.0070, p corrected (p(c)) =0.0420 corrected by the Bonferroni method). The ADRB1/R389G polymorphism tended to be associated with hypertensive status in male subjects (p=0.0117, p(c)=0.0702). The odds ratio of the GG genotype for hypertension was 0.38 (95%CI, 0.167-0.780) over the RR+RG genotype. The GNB3/C825T polymorphism was not associated with hypertensive status in either male or female subjects. The present results do not agree with those in previous reports. Almost all common variants may have only a modest effect on common diseases, and a single study even employing 1,880 subjects may lack the statistical power to detect a real association. Accordingly, it will be necessary to verify the association between these three genes and hypertension using a larger number of subjects from the Suita cohort or another population.

    Hypertension research : official journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension 2004;27;1;31-7

  • Alpha-adducin polymorphism, salt sensitivity, nitric oxide excretion, and cardiovascular risk factors in normotensive Hispanics.

    Castejon AM, Alfieri AB, Hoffmann IS, Rathinavelu A and Cubeddu LX

    Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Health Professions Division, NOVA Southeastern University, Fort Lauderdale, Florida 33328, USA.

    Background: Genetic and environmental factors determine the blood pressure (BP) response to changes in salt intake. Mutations in the alpha-adducin gene may be associated with hypertension and salt-sensitive hypertension. We investigated whether one alpha-adducin polymorphism, the Gly460Trp (G/T) variant, was associated with salt sensitivity, nitric oxide (NO) production; and cardiovascular risk factors in healthy adult normotensive Venezuelans.

    Subjects (n = 126) were screened for salt sensitivity. The alpha-Adducin polymorphism was tested in salt-sensitive (SS) and salt-resistant (SR) subjects. The G/T and G/G (wild gene) groups had similar BP levels. The G/T subjects had higher LDL-cholesterol (P =.01) and postload glucose AUC (P =.03) than G/G individuals. Genotype frequencies were not associated with BP or salt sensitivity (G/G, 38.1% SS and 61.9% SR vs G/T, 40.7% SS and 59.3% SR). Shifting from high salt to low salt diet produced comparable reductions in systolic BP and diastolic BP in G/T and G/G groups. The G/G and G/T groups excreted similar amounts of sodium on high and low salt diets. The SR subjects carrying the wild or the mutated gene showed no changes in NO metabolite excretion at different levels of salt intake. In SS subjects, the level of NO metabolite excretion was highly dependent on salt intake. A combination of SS and 460Trp mutation enhanced the sodium-dependent modulation of NO production.

    Conclusions: In normotensive Venezuelans, the alpha-adducin G/T polymorphism was not associated with BP, salt sensitivity, or with sodium excretion during sodium loading or restriction. G/T was associated with increased LDL-cholesterol and postload glucose levels. In SS, G/T was associated with greater salt-dependent modulation of NO excretion. However, this larger increase in NO excretion was not associated with a larger decrease in BP.

    American journal of hypertension 2003;16;12;1018-24

  • Genetic determinants of nonmodulating hypertension.

    Kosachunhanun N, Hunt SC, Hopkins PN, Williams RR, Jeunemaitre X, Corvol P, Ferri C, Mortensen RM, Hollenberg NK and Williams GH

    Endocrine-Hypertension Division, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass 02115, USA.

    We sought to determine whether genes of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system can predict the nonmodulating intermediate phenotype in essential hypertension. Aldosterone responses to angiotensin II were assessed in 298 subjects with hypertension. Subjects were genotyped at the angiotensinogen M235T, angiotensin-converting enzyme I/D, aldosterone synthase C-344 T, renin, angiotensin II type 1 receptor, and adducin loci. The data were analyzed by Student t test, ANOVA, stepwise linear regression and general linear model or GENMOD regression techniques, and chi2 analysis odds ratios (ORs). Aldosterone response varied by genotype for angiotensin and aldosterone synthase but not for the other loci. The combination of angiotensinogen 235 TT and angiotensin-converting enzyme DD showed further reduction (P=0.0377) when compared with angiotensinogen 235 TT alone, an example of genetic epistasis. When the subject was required also to possess the CYP11B2 -344 TT genotype, there was a further substantial reduction. Of these 3 loci, only angiotensinogen 235 TT significantly increased the OR of predicting the nonmodulating hypertensive phenotype (OR, 2.00; 95% confidence interval, 1.152 to 3.51). However, when angiotensin-converting enzyme DD was combined with angiotensinogen 235 TT, the OR nearly doubled to 3.74, with a further increase to 5.36-fold when the subject possessed all 3 genotypes. Thus, the angiotensinogen, angiotensin-converting enzyme, and aldosterone synthase genotypes identified individuals with the nonmodulating phenotype with an increasing degree of fidelity. For this subclass of essential hypertension, it is likely that genotyping can be substituted for complex phenotyping for therapeutic and preventive decision making.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: M01 RR 00064, M01 RR 02635; NHLBI NIH HHS: HL 55000, HL47651, HL59424

    Hypertension (Dallas, Tex. : 1979) 2003;42;5;901-8

  • Alpha-adducin gene polymorphism is associated with essential hypertension in Chinese: a case-control and family-based study.

    Ju Z, Zhang H, Sun K, Song Y, Lu H, Hui R and Huang X

    Sino-German Laboratory for Molecular Medicine, Fu Wai Hospital and Cardiovascular Institute, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, China.

    Objective: A polymorphism at position 460(G <-- W) of the alpha-adducin gene was found to be associated with essential hypertension in some but not all studies. The aim of the present study was to further investigate the association of the alpha-adducin 460W allele with essential hypertension in Chinese population.

    Methods: Individuals from a population-based sample (n = 748) and 95 nuclear families and 47 discordant sibships were studied by questionnaire as well as by physical examination and biochemical analyses. The alpha-adducin gene G460W polymorphism was determined by polymerase chain reaction and restriction enzyme digestion. Chi-square test, one-way analysis of variance, logistic regression, linear regression, haplotype-based haplotype relative risk and transmission/disequilibrium test analyses were used to determine the association between the alpha-adducin G460W polymorphism and essential hypertension.

    Results: In the case-control study, the prevalence of hypertension was higher in individuals with the WW genotype (40.0%) as compared with those with the GW and GG genotype (31.7%) (chi2 = 4.768, P = 0.029, odds ratio = 1.43). Adjusted for the conventional risk factors of hypertension, alpha-adducin polymorphism still plays an independent role on systolic blood pressure. We confirmed the results of our case-control study by observing a significant preferential transmission of the 460W allele of the alpha-adducin to the affected subjects in another northern Chinese population (for haplotype-based haplotype relative risk, chi2 = 6.24, P = 0.01; and for the transmission/disequilibrium test, chi2 = 4.69, P = 0.03).

    Conclusions: The present findings show a positive association between the alpha-adducin G460W polymorphism and essential hypertension in a northern Chinese population. This evidence indicates that the alpha-adducin gene may be a susceptible gene to essential hypertension.

    Journal of hypertension 2003;21;10;1861-8

  • Effects of endothelial nitric oxide synthase, alpha-adducin, and other candidate gene polymorphisms on blood pressure response to hydrochlorothiazide.

    Turner ST, Chapman AB, Schwartz GL and Boerwinkle E

    Division of Hypertension, Department of Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic and Foundation, Rochester, Minnesota 55905, USA. turner.stephen@mayo.edu

    Background: Pharmacogenetic discoveries may enable greater individualization of antihypertensive drug therapy. We investigated polymorphisms in the genes encoding endothelial nitric oxide synthase (Glu298-->Asp), alpha-adducin (Gly460-->Trp), the beta(1)-adrenoceptor (Arg389-->Gly), beta2-adrenoceptor (Arg16-->Gly), and lipoprotein lipase (Ser447-->Stop) for their potential influences on blood pressure (BP) response to a thiazide diuretic.

    Methods: The sample consisted of 291 unrelated non-Hispanic African American adults (150 women and 141 men) and 294 unrelated non-Hispanic white adults (126 women and 168 men) who were between 30 and 59.9 years of age and who had essential hypertension. Previous antihypertensive drug therapy was withdrawn for at least 4 weeks, and subjects were then treated with hydrochlorothiazide (25 mg daily) for 4 weeks to determine BP response.

    Results: The covariates of ethnicity, gender, age, and waist-to-hip ratio accounted for 26% of interindividual variation in systolic BP response and 11% of interindividual variation in diastolic BP response. After adjustment for covariates, the endothelial nitric oxide synthase Glu298-->Asp polymorphism made an additional statistically significant contribution to predicting diastolic BP response to hydrochlorothiazide, accounting for another 1% of interindividual variation in response (P =.034). In contrast, the other polymorphisms, including the alpha-adducin Gly460-->Trp polymorphism, made no statistically significant contributions to prediction of BP response.

    Conclusions: Although we reject the null hypothesis of no genetic effects on BP response to hydrochlorothiazide, the influence of variation at single sites is likely to be small. More extensive characterization of genetic variation is required for pharmacogenetic approaches to become clinically useful in tailoring antihypertensive drug therapy for individual patients.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: M01-RR00039, M01-RR00585; NHLBI NIH HHS: R01-HL53330

    American journal of hypertension 2003;16;10;834-9

  • Influence of ACE (I/D) and G460W polymorphism of alpha-adducin in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    Persu A, El-Khattabi O, Messiaen T, Pirson Y, Chauveau D and Devuyst O

    Division of Nephrology, Université Catholique de Louvain Medical School, 1200 Brussels, Belgium.

    Background: The deleterious effect of the DD genotype of ACE in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) remains controversial. Small sample size, population admixture and lack of consideration of parameters modulating the effects of ACE genotype, such as gender or alpha-adducin (ADD) genotype, might explain the discrepancy.

    Methods: We investigated the effect of ACE (I/D) polymorphism on the age at end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in a homogeneous population of 191 ADPKD patients, according to gender and genotype for the G460W polymorphism of ADD. Cumulative renal survival was assessed in 276 patients from the same families.

    Results: Though no effect was detected in the whole population, analysis of the male subset (n = 97) showed that patients harbouring the DD genotype of ACE had a 5-year lower mean age at ESRD than DI + II patients [47.8 +/- 1.8 (n = 31) vs 52.8 +/- 1.1 (n = 66), respectively] (P = 0.02). Furthermore, cumulative renal survival was lower in the corresponding pedigrees [47 +/- 1 years, 95% confidence interval (CI) 45-49, vs 51 +/- 1 years, 95% CI 48-54]. The G460W polymorphism of ADD had no effect on the age at ESRD and cumulative renal survival, either alone or in combination with the ACE (I/D) polymorphism.

    Conclusions: In this large series of ADPKD patients, we found no effect of the ACE (I/D) polymorphism on the age at ESRD, either alone or in combination with the G460W polymorphism of ADD. However, a deleterious effect of the DD genotype of ACE on renal disease progression was observed in ADPKD males.

    Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation : official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association 2003;18;10;2032-8

  • Narita I, Goto S, Saito N, Song J, Ajiro J, Sato F, Saga D, Kondo D, Akazawa K, Sakatsume M and Gejyo F

    Division of Clinical Nephrology and Rheumatology, Niigata University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 757, Asahimachi-dori, Niigata, 951-8510, Japan. naritai@med.niigata-u.ac.jp

    An interaction effect between the angiotensin-converting enzyme insertion/deletion (ACE I/D) and alpha-adducin (ADD1) Gly460Trp polymorphisms (G460W) on blood pressure regulation has recently been suggested, although its significance in the prognosis of renal function in IgA nephropathy (IgAN) has not been fully investigated. Therefore, we evaluated the clinical manifestations and renal prognosis in 276 Japanese patients with histologically proven IgAN with respect to their ACE I/D and ADD1 G460W polymorphisms. The prognosis of renal function was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier survival curves and multivariate Cox proportional-hazards regression models. Baseline data, including blood pressures, proteinuria, renal function, and incidence of hypertension, were similar for the different genotypes of ACE and ADD1. The individual genotypes taken alone were not associated with the progression of renal dysfunction. However, renal survival of patients with the 460WW polymorphism of ADD1 was significantly worse within the group with the II genotype of ACE (Kaplan-Meier, log rank test; chi2=6.062, P=0.0138) but not for those with other ACE genotypes. In the Cox proportional-hazards regression model with adjustment for clinical risk factors, including hypertension, proteinuria, and no administration of an angiotensin-converting en 18e1 zyme inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers, the 460WW variant of ADD1 was a highly significant and independent risk factor only for patients with the ACE II genotype, with a hazard ratio of 3.65 (P=0.0016), but not for those with other ACE genotypes (hazard ratio=0.65, P=0.2902). These findings suggest an interaction between ACE and ADD1 polymorphisms not only on blood pressure regulation but also on the progression of renal dysfunction in patients with IgAN.

    Hypertension (Dallas, Tex. : 1979) 2003;42;3;304-9

  • ACE and alpha-adducin polymorphism as markers of individual response to diuretic therapy.

    Sciarrone MT, Stella P, Barlassina C, Manunta P, Lanzani C, Bianchi G and Cusi D

    Department of Nephrology and Graduate School of Nephrology Universita' Vita e Salute, Milan, Italy. sciarronealibrandi.mariateresa@hsr.it

    Renin-angiotensin system reactivity and the constitutive capacity of the renal tubule to reabsorb sodium play a role in the individual response to diuretic therapy; therefore we evaluated the blood pressure (BP) response to hydrochlorothiazide in 87 never-treated individuals with mild essential hypertension, according to ACE gene I/D and alpha-adducin Gly460Trp polymorphism. These genotypes where chosen because previous data showed their interaction in determining the BP response to salt probably was the result of their involvement in the activation of the renin-angiotensin system (ACE) and in the constitutive capacity of the kidney to reabsorb sodium (alpha-adducin) (treatment for 2 months). BP was measured after 3 run-in visits and after the first and second months of treatment by means of a standardized procedure. Data were analyzed by ANOVA, t test, and multivariate ANOVA for repeated measures (covarying for gender, age, and body mass index). Although basal mean BP (MBP) was similar in the different ACE and alpha-adducin genotypes, patients carrying at least one I allele of ACE and one 460Trp allele of alpha-adducin had the largest MBP decrease with treatment (12.7+/-1.9 mm Hg), the effect of the combination of genotypes being additive but not epistatic. These patients had an odds ratio of 15.75 of being a responder to hydrochlorothiazide compared with patients with Gly460Gly+DD, with the least MBP decrease (3.4+/-1.7 mm Hg). Alpha-adducin and ACE I/D polymorphism may be useful to predict the interindividual degree of response to hydrochlorothiazide; the analysis of the combination of the 2 genotypes increases the accuracy of the prediction of response to the drug.

    Hypertension (Dallas, Tex. : 1979) 2003;41;3;398-403

  • Influence of the alpha-adducin and ACE gene polymorphism on the progression of autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    Merta M, Reiterová J, Stekrová J, Rysava R, Rihová Z, Tesar V, Viklický O and Kmentova D

    1st Internal Department, 1st Medical Faculty, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic. Merta@mbox.cesnet.cz

    Background: A significant phenotypical variability is observed in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). The variability can not be fully explained by the genetic heterogeneity of the disease. We examined the influence of the ACE I/D polymorphism, adducin Trp460Gly polymorphism and the association of both polymorphisms on the progression of ADPKD towards end-stage renal failure (ESRF).

    Methods: 320 ADPKD patients (pts) were analyzed, 220 pts (113 males, 107 females) with ESRF before 63 years of age, with a subgroup (rapid progressors) of 20 pts (12 males, 8 females) with ESRF before 40 years of age, 52 pts (23 males, 29 females) with ESRF later than 63 years of age (slow progressors), 48 ADPKD pts (18 males, 30 females) with mean age +/-50 years with serum creatinine <110 micromol/l (slow progressors) and 200 genetically unrelated healthy Czech subjects. DNA samples from collected blood were genotyped for the ACE I/D polymorphism and the Trp460Gly of alpha-adducin gene polymorphism.

    Results: The alpha-adducin genotypes showed no differences among the groups of slow progressors (74% Gly/Gly, 22.9% Gly/Trp and 3.1% Trp/Trp), pts with ESRF before 63 years of age (67.7% Gly/Gly, 30.5% Gly/Trp and 1.8% Trp/Trp) and rapid progressors (75% Gly/Gly, 25% Gly/Trp). The ACE genotypes did not differ among the groups of slow progressors (27.1% I/I, 44.8% I/D and 28.1% D/D), pts with ESRF before 63 years of age (23.6% I/I, 51.4% I/D and 25% D/D) and rapid progressors (20% I/I, 55% I/D and 25% D/D). The distribution did not differ from the control group. The ages of ESRF according to different genotypes did not significantly differ. We observed a significant tendency to better prognosis in Trp allele carriers for I/I genotype in comparison with Gly/Gly homozygous subjects.

    Conclusion: The ACE and alpha-adducin polymorphisms do not play a significant role in the progression of ADPKD to ESRF.

    Kidney & blood pressure research 2003;26;1;42-9

  • Association between hypertension and variation in the alpha- and beta-adducin genes in a white population.

    Wang JG, Staessen JA, Barlassina C, Fagard R, Kuznetsova T, Struijker-Boudier HA, Zagato L, Citterio L, Messaggio E and Bianchi G

    Studiecoördinatiecentrum, Hypertensie en Cardiovasculaire Revalidatie Eenheid, Departement voor Moleculair en Cardiovasculair Onderzoek, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

    Background: The substitution of tryptophan for glycine at amino acid 460 (Gly460Trp polymorphism) of the alpha-subunit of the heterodimeric cytoskeleton protein adducin increases renal sodium reabsorption and may be involved in the pathophysiology of essential hypertension. In the present study, we investigated in multivariate analyses whether the risk of hypertension was associated with the C1797T polymorphism of the beta-adducin gene.

    Methods: A total of 1848 subjects randomly selected from a white population were genotyped. Study nurses measured blood pressure at the participants' homes.

    Results: The frequencies of the alpha-adducin Trp and beta-adducin T alleles were 0.23 and 0.11, respectively. In men (N = 904), the beta-adducin T allele was not associated with hypertension [adjusted relative risk (RR) vs. CC homozygotes 0.94, P = 0.77], but T allele carriers had lower plasma renin activity (PRA) and 24-hour urinary aldosterone excretion (P < 0.04). In all women (N = 944), beta-adducin T allele carriers had a higher risk of hypertension than CC homozygotes (RR 1.81, CI 1.18-2.77, P = 0.007), but similar PRA and 24-hour urinary aldosterone excretion (P> 0.29). In 345 post-menopausal women and 190 users of oral contraceptives, the RRs of hypertension were 2.47 (CI 1.34-4.64, P = 0.003) and 2.56 (CI 0.83-7.86, P = 0.10), respectively. For systolic pressure in women, there was a significant interaction (P = 0.02) between the alpha- and beta-adducin polymorphisms. Only in female carriers of the mutated alpha-adducin Trp allele was the systolic pressure significantly higher in beta-adducin T allele carriers compared with CC homozygotes (+3.8 mm Hg, P = 0.02). Furthermore, in the presence of the mutated alpha-adducin Trp allele, the RRs associated with the beta-adducin T allele were 2.35 (P = 0.01) in all women, 2.92 (P = 0.03) in post-menopausal subjects, and 3.79 (P = 0.09) in users of oral contraceptives.

    Conclusions: The 1797T allele of the beta-adducin gene is associated with increased risk of hypertension in post-menopausal women and in users of oral contraceptives, particularly in the presence of the mutated alpha-adducin Trp allele. We hypothesize that inhibition of the renin-aldosterone system in men and absence of such a compensatory mechanism in women may explain, at least to some extent, the sexual dimorphism of the blood pressure phenotype in relation to the C1797T beta-adducin polymorphism.

    Kidney international 2002;62;6;2152-9

  • Angiotensin converting enzyme DD genotype is associated with hypertensive crisis.

    Sunder-Plassmann G, Kittler H, Eberle C, Hirschl MM, Woisetschläger C, Derhaschnig U, Laggner AN, Hörl WH and Födinger M

    Department of Medicine III, University of Vienna, Austria.

    Objective: The genetic background of hypertensive crisis is unknown. We examined the association of polymorphisms in genes involved in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system with hypertensive crisis.

    Design: Population-based case-control study.

    Setting: Emergency department at a tertiary care university hospital.

    Patients: A total of 182 patients with essential hypertension who were admitted to an emergency department for treatment of hypertensive crisis and 182 age- and sex-matched healthy individuals.

    Interventions: None.

    Measurements: Analysis of polymorphisms in genes coding for angiotensinogen (AJT 704T-->C), angiotensin II receptor 1 (AGTR1 1166A-->C), renin (REN 2646G-->A), renin-binding protein (RENBP 61T-->C), alpha-adducin (ADD1 1378G-->T), beta-2-adrenergic receptor (ADRB2 46A-->G, 79C-->G), and angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE I/D) was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. MAIN RESULTS Among patients, the ACE I/D polymorphism showed a deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (p =.01). In controls, all polymorphisms were in the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The frequency of the DD genotype was increased in patients (n = 70, 38.5%) vs. controls (n = 51; 28.0%;p =.03; odds ratio, 1.61; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-2.50), which was due to the DD genotype in 40 male patients (44%) vs. 23 in male controls (25.3%;p =.004; odds ratio, 3.48; 95% confidence interval, 1.47-8.30). There were no differences in genotype distributions among other polymorphisms.

    Conclusion: We demonstrate a possible association of the DD genotype with hypertensive crisis in men.

    Critical care medicine 2002;30;10;2236-41

  • alpha-Adducin Gly460Trp polymorphism is associated with low renin hypertension in younger subjects in the Ohasama study.

    Sugimoto K, Hozawa A, Katsuya T, Matsubara M, Ohkubo T, Tsuji I, Motone M, Higaki J, Hisamachi S, Imai Y and Ogihara T

    Department of Geriatric Medicine, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Japan.

    Background: The Gly460Trp polymorphism of the alpha-adducin gene (ADD-1 ) has been examined as a candidate gene for essential hypertension with salt sensitivity in the Caucasian population. However, we failed to detect a positive association between the Gly460Trp polymorphism of ADD-1 and hypertension in a small series of Japanese subjects.

    Objective: To examine the precise association between the Gly460Trp polymorphism of ADD-1 and blood pressure (BP), we carried out an association study using a Japanese population: the Ohasama Study.

    Design: Subjects (n = 1490) were recruited from participants in the Ohasama Study, which is a cohort in a rural community of northern Japan.

    Methods: DNA was extracted from the buffy coat of the participants who gave informed consent for genetic analysis, and the Gly460Trp polymorphism of ADD-1 was determined by the TaqMan polymerase chain reaction method. Various BP values (casual BP, ambulatory BP and home BP) were measured in the Ohasama study. We used the mean values of these BP measurements for analysis.

    Results: The frequencies of genotypes in the Ohasama population were 23% Gly/Gly, 49% Gly/Trp, and 28% Trp/Trp. In the baseline characteristics, age, sex, body mass index, frequency of diabetes and hyperlipidemia were significantly different between hypertensive or normotensive subjects. In total subjects, all BP values were not different among genotypes. In the younger subjects ( 60 years old) with low plasma renin activity (< 1.0 ng/ml per h), however, ambulatory BP and home BP were significantly higher in the subjects with the Gly/Trp or Trp/Trp genotypes of ADD-1 polymorphism than in those with the Gly/Gly genotype. In the same population, the frequency of the Gly/Trp or Trp/Trp genotypes of was significantly higher in hypertensives than in normotensives (83 versus 72%, chi1(2) = 4.04, P<0.05; odds ratio, 2.12; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-4.68).

    Conclusions: These findings suggest the possibility that the Gly460Trp polymorphism of ADD-1 is associated with low renin hypertension.

    Journal of hypertension 2002;20;9;1779-84

  • alpha-Adducin Gly460Trp polymorphism, left ventricular mass and plasma renin activity.

    Winnicki M, Somers VK, Accurso V, Hoffmann M, Pawlowski R, Frigo G, Visentin P, Palatini P and HARVEST Study Group

    Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA.

    Objective: Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Epidemiological studies suggest that LVH may be influenced by genetic factors. However, the evidence associating individual genes with left ventricular (LV) mass is inconsistent and contradictory.

    Methods: We investigated the association between angiotensin-converting enzyme insertion/deletion, angiotensinogen and alpha-adducin polymorphisms with LV mass and plasma renin activity (PRA) in 162 men with mild, never-treated hypertension who were recruited for the Hypertension and Ambulatory Recording Venetia Study. The effect of each polymorphism on LV mass and PRA was tested in one-way analysis of covariance using LV mass index or PRA as the dependent variable after adjusting for covariates.

    Results: The alpha-adducin polymorphism was the only individual polymorphism independently associated with LV mass index (F = 7.78, P= 0.006). Patients homozygous for the allele of that polymorphism had a LV mass index (123.4 +/- 10.5 g/m(2) ) significantly higher compared with heterozygotes (90.8 +/- 2.5 g/m(2) , P<0.01) or homozygotes (94.7 +/- 1.7 g/m(2) , P<0.05). These subjects also have significantly lower PRA (F = 4.2, P= 0.017). Albeit uncommon, 40% of homozygotes of the alpha-adducin polymorphism had LVH (odds ratio, 15.1; 95% confidence interval, 3.0-82.1).

    Conclusions: The homozygotic state of the allele of alpha-adducin polymorphism is independently associated with increased LV mass and low PRA. These data suggest that genetic considerations may contribute importantly to risk stratification, and perhaps therapeutic interventions targeted at LVH and the renin-angiotensin system in hypertensive patients.

    Funded by: FIC NIH HHS: TW05399; NCRR NIH HHS: M01-RR0585; NHLBI NIH HHS: HL 61560, HL 65176

    Journal of hypertension 2002;20;9;1771-7

  • Carotid and femoral intima-media thickness in relation to three candidate genes in a Caucasian population.

    Balkestein EJ, Wang JG, Struijker-Boudier HA, Barlassina C, Bianchi G, Birkenhäger WH, Brand E, Den Hond E, Fagard R, Herrmann SM, Van Bortel LM and Staessen JA

    Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht, Capaciteitsgroep Farmakologie en Toxicologie, Universiteit Maastricht, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

    Background: In a Caucasian population, the prevalence and incidence of hypertension, renal function and large artery stiffness were significantly correlated with polymorphisms in the genes encoding the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE I/D), aldosterone synthase (-C344T) and the cytoskeleton protein alpha-adducin (Gly460Trp).

    Objective: This study investigated intima-media thickening, a precursor of atherosclerosis, in relation to these genetic polymorphisms.

    Methods: Carotid and femoral intima-media thickness were assessed with a wall-track system in 380 subjects enrolled in a population study. Subjects were genotyped for the presence of the ACE D, aldosterone synthase -344T and alpha-adducin 460Trp alleles. The statistical analysis allowed for confounders, interactions among genes, and the non-independence of the phenotypes within families.

    Results: The sample included 188 men (49.5%). Mean age was 39.8 years. Intima-media thickness of the carotid and femoral arteries averaged 575 and 719 microm, respectively. Intima-media thickness of the femora 1f40 l-but not carotid-artery increased with the number of ACE D alleles. The effect of ACE genotype on femoral intima-media thickness was confined to carriers of the 460Trp allele and the -344T allele. Expressed as a percentage of the population mean, the mean differences between II and DD homozygotes averaged 13.4% (95% CI 5.6-21.2%) in all subjects, 21.2% (8.0-34.5%) in carriers of the 460Trp allele, 15.4% (4.1-26.8%) in carriers of the -344T allele, and 25.2% (10.7-39.7%) if the 460Trp and -344T alleles were both present.

    Conclusion: This study shows that a relationship exists between the intima-media thickness of the large muscular femoral artery and the ACE gene. This relationship is only apparent in the presence of either the alpha-adducin 460Trp or the aldosterone synthase -344T allele. These findings may have clinical implications for the assessment of genetic cardiovascular risk.

    Journal of hypertension 2002;20;8;1551-61

  • Blood pressure in patients with primary aldosteronism is influenced by bradykinin B(2) receptor and alpha-adducin gene polymorphisms.

    Mulatero P, Williams TA, Milan A, Paglieri C, Rabbia F, Fallo F and Veglio F

    Department of Medicine and Experimental Oncology, Hypertension Unit, San Vito Hospital, University of Turin, Strada San Vito 34, 10133 Turin, Italy. paolo.mulatero@libero.it

    Primary aldosteronism (PA) is the most common cause of endocrine hypertension. PA is most frequently presented as moderate to severe hypertension, but the clinical and biochemical features vary widely. The aim of our study was to identify genetic variants that influence the phenotype of patients with PA. We hypothesized that genetic variants potentially affecting aldosterone production (aldosterone synthase, CYP11B2), renal proximal tubule reabsorption (alpha-adducin), or the mechanisms of counterbalance leading to vasodilatation and sodium excretion (bradykinin B(2)-receptor, B(2)R) could influence the clinical and biochemical characteristics of patients with PA. We studied three polymorphisms of these genes (C-344T of CYP11B2, G460W of alpha-adducin, and C-58T of B(2)R) in 167 primary aldosteronism patients (56 with aldosterone-producing adenoma and 111 with idiopathic hyperaldosteronism). B(2)R and alpha-adducin genotypes were strong independent predictors of both systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels; plasma renin activity and aldosterone also play a marginal role on BP levels. Body mass index, age, sex, and CYP11B2 genotype displayed no significant effect on the clinical parameters of our population. In particular, alpha-adducin and B(2)R polymorphisms accounted for 13.2% and 11.0% of the systolic and diastolic blood pressure variance, respectively. These data suggest that genetic variants of alpha-adducin and the bradykinin B(2)-R influence the blood pressure levels in patients with primary aldosteronism.

    The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism 2002;87;7;3337-43

  • ADD1 460W allele associated with cardiovascular disease in hypertensive individuals.

    Morrison AC, Bray MS, Folsom AR and Boerwinkle E

    Human Genetics Center, University of Texas-Houston Health Science Center, Houston, Tex 77030, USA.

    High blood pressure is a predictor of cardiovascular disease. Hence, genes contributing to essential hypertension may play a role in the etiology of cardiovascular disease. For this reason, we examined the association between the alpha-adducin (ADD1) G460W and G-protein beta3 subunit (GNB3) 825C>T polymorphisms and the prevalence of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD) in non-Hispanic whites from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. PAD prevalence was defined by an ankle-brachial index, ie, the ratio of ankle systolic blood pressure to brachial artery systolic blood pressure, of </=0.90 for men and </=0.85 for women. CHD incidence was determined by following the ARIC cohort for a median of 5.3 years for potential coronary events. Stratified random samples of the ARIC cohort (n=703 and n=684) were used, respectively, as the comparison groups for the PAD (n=144) and incident CHD (n=408) cases. The GNB3 825T allele and the ADD1 460W allele were not significantly associated with prevalence of PAD or incidence of CHD. However, a test of the interaction between hypertension status and the ADD1 G460W polymorphism indicated that further evaluation of the ADD1 polymorphism in only hypertensive individuals was warranted. The ADD1 460W allele was significantly associated with PAD (odds ratio [OR]: 2.61, 95% CI, 1.27-5.37, P=0.01) and CHD (hazard rate ratio [HRR]: 2.30, 95% CI, 1.20-4.42, P=0.01) in hypertensive individuals after adjustment for multiple cardiovascular disease risk factors. An interaction with hypertension in the association between the ADD1 G460W polymorphism and cardiovascular disease merits further testing in additional populations.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: N01-HC-55015, N01-HC-55016, N01-HC-55018, N01-HC-55019, N01-HC-55020, N01-HC-55022; Unspecified: N01-HC-55021

    Hypertension (Dallas, Tex. : 1979) 2002;39;6;1053-7

  • Diuretic therapy, the alpha-adducin gene variant, and the risk of myocardial infarction or stroke in persons with treated hypertension.

    Psaty BM, Smith NL, Heckbert SR, Vos HL, Lemaitre RN, Reiner AP, Siscovick DS, Bis J, Lumley T, Longstreth WT and Rosendaal FR

    Cardiovascular Health Research Unit, 1730 Minor Ave, Suite 1360, Seattle, WA 98101, USA. psaty@u.washington.edu

    Context: A genetic variant in alpha-adducin has been associated with renal sodium reabsorption and salt-sensitive hypertension. Whether this genetic variant modifies the effect of diuretic therapy on the incidence of myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke is unknown.

    Objectives: To estimate the interaction between alpha-adducin and diuretic therapy on the risk of MI or stroke. Specifically, we hypothesized that in participants with treated hypertension, the risk of MI or stroke associated with diuretic use would be lower in carriers of the adducin variant than in carriers of the adducin wild-type genotype.

    Population-based case-control study of patients enrolled in a health maintenance organization, treated pharmacologically for hypertension, and genotyped as homozygous carriers of the adducin wild-type genotype or carriers of 1 or 2 copies of the Trp460 variant allele. Cases had a first nonfatal MI (n = 206) or stroke (n = 117) between January 1995 and December 1998. Controls (n = 715) were a stratified random sample of pharmacologically treated hypertensive patients who were matched to MI cases by age, sex, and calendar year.

    Risk of the combined outcome of first nonfatal MI or stroke.</AbstractT 1f40 ext> <AbstractText Label="RESULTS" NlmCategory="RESULTS">The adducin variant was present in more than one third of the participants. Among the 653 carriers of the adducin wild-type genotype, diuretic therapy was not associated with the risk of MI or stroke (odds ratio [OR], 1.09; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.78-1.52). Among the 385 carriers of the adducin variant allele, diuretic therapy was associated with a lower risk of the combined outcome of MI and stroke than other antihypertensive therapies (OR, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.32-0.77). The OR in carriers of the adducin variant was less than half of the OR in carriers of the wild-type genotype (P =.005). The case-control synergy index (SI) was 0.45 (95% CI, 0.26-0.79) for the combined outcome of MI and stroke. The point estimates of the diuretic-adducin interaction were similar in separate analyses of MI (SI, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.21-0.80) and stroke (SI, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.24-1.19). The diuretic-adducin interaction was not confounded by traditional cardiovascular risk factors, was specific to diuretic therapy but not present for other major antihypertensive drug classes, and did not differ substantially between subgroups defined by age, sex, race, diabetes, and history of cardiovascular disease.

    Conclusions: In carriers of the adducin variant, diuretic therapy was associated with a lower risk of combined MI or stroke than other antihypertensive therapies. If these findings are confirmed in other studies, this large subgroup of the hypertensive population may be especially likely to benefit from low-dose diuretic therapy.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL40628, HL43201, HL60739; NIA NIH HHS: AG09556

    JAMA 2002;287;13;1680-9

  • Role of the alpha-adducin genotype on renal disease progression.

    Nicod J, Frey BM, Frey FJ and Ferrari P

    Division of Nephrolo 1e2d gy and Hypertension, Inselspital, University of Berne, Berne, Switzerland.

    Background: A genetic susceptibility to hypertension may predispose to the development of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and promote a more rapid loss of renal function in patients with renal diseases. The alpha-adducin (ADD) gene, alone or in combination with the angiotensinogen (AGT) and the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), is a candidate for abnormal blood pressure regulation and thus for increased susceptibility or faster progression to ESRD.

    Methods: Genotyping for the G460W-ADD, M235T-AGT and the insertion/deletion (I/D)-ACE gene polymorphisms was performed in 260 control subjects and 260 ESRD patients using polymerase chain reaction, gel analysis and appropriate restriction digest.

    Results: The frequencies of the ADD, AGT and ACE genotypes in ESRD patients did not differ from observed frequencies in control subjects. The average (+/-SE) time from diagnosis to the onset of ESRD tended to be shorter in the presence of the ADD-460WW (5.1 +/- 1.1 years, N = 10) than with the GW (9.9 +/- 0.7 years, N = 81) and GG (11.3 +/- 1.0 years, N = 164) genotypes (F-ratio=2.71, P = 0.068; WW vs. GW P < 0.06 and vs. GG <0.03). In the 167 patients homozygous for the ADD-G allele, a more rapid progression with the ACE-DD genotype as compared to ACE-DI and II was found (P < 0.02).

    Conclusions: The ADD genotype is predictive of the course of renal function loss in an unselected renal population and influences the effect of the ACE genotype to modulate the rate of progression to ESRD. Thus, the ADD genotype may play a role for the understanding of interindividual differences in the course of renal diseases.

    Kidney international 2002;61;4;1270-5

  • D(2) dopamine receptor (DRD2) polymorphism is associated with severity of alcohol dependence.

    Connor JP, Young RM, Lawford BR, Ritchie TL and Noble EP

    Department of Psychiatry, University of Queensland, Australia.

    The A(1) allele of the D(2) dopamine receptor (DRD2) gene has been associated with alcohol dependence. However, the expression of this allele risk on the severity of drinking behavior in patients with alcohol dependence has not been systematically explored. The present study examines the association between DRD2 A(1)(+) (A(1)/A(1) and A(1)/A(2) genotypes) and A(1)- (A(2)/A(2) genotype) allele status and key drinking parameters in alcohol-dependent patients. A sample of Caucasian adults was recruited from an alcohol detoxification unit. A clinical interview and the Alcohol Dependence Scale (ADS) questionnaire provided data on consumption, dependence, chronology of drinking and prior detoxification. A(1)(+) allele compared to A(1)- allele patients consumed higher quantities of alcohol, commenced problem drinking at an earlier age, experienced a shorter latency between first introduction to alcohol to the onset of problem drinking and had higher ADS scores. Moreover, A(1)(+) allele patients had more detoxification attempts than their A(1)- allele counterparts. In sum, alcohol-dependent patients with the DRD2 A(1) allele compared to patients without this allele are characterized by greater severity of their disorder across a range of problem drinking indices. The implications of these findings are discussed.

    European psychiatry : the journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists 2002;17;1;17-23

  • alpha-Adducin 460Trp allele is associated with erythrocyte Na transport rate in North Sardinian primary hypertensives.

    Glorioso N, Filigheddu F, Cusi D, Troffa C, Conti M, Natalizio M, Argiolas G, Barlassina C and Bianchi G

    Hypertension Center, University of Sassari Medical School, Sassari, Italy. glorioso@ssmain.uniss.it

    Erythrocyte membrane alterations mirror those of vascular smooth muscle and renal tubular cell membrane. The interaction between adducin and Na-K pump is the most likely biochemical mechanism responsible for the increased tubular Na reabsorption and hypertension in Milan hypertensive strain (MHS) rats. To substantiate this hypothesis in humans, we tested to see if alpha-adducin Gly460Trp genotype is associated with erythrocyte sodium transport rate in a new cohort of n=268 never-treated North Sardinian primary hypertensives. Plasma renin activity and blood pressure response to hydrochlorothiazide were also measured to evaluate the relationship between sodium transport rate and two intermediate phenotypes with a higher degree of genetic complexity. Na-K pump, Na-K-Cl cotransport, and Li-Na countertransport at V(max) were faster (P<0.0001), whereas intracellular Na concentration was lower (P<0.0001) in patients carrying one or two 460Trp alleles. Such behavior was mirrored by opposite changes of intracellular Na concentration. Plasma renin activity and blood pressure response to diuretic treatment, on the other hand, showed a weaker association with the sodium transport rate. In conclusion, our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the Gly460Trp alpha-adducin polymorphism may affect renal Na handling through an alteration in ion transport across the cell membrane mirrored by erythrocytes. These results may also have clinical relevance because the Gly460Trp alpha-adducin polymorphism may explain, at least in part, the variability of blood pressure response to diuretics in primary hypertensive patients.

    Hypertension (Dallas, Tex. : 1979) 2002;39;2 Pt 2;357-62

  • Low-renin hypertension, altered sodium homeostasis, and an alpha-adducin polymorphism.

    Grant FD, Romero JR, Jeunemaitre X, Hunt SC, Hopkins PN, Hollenberg NH and Williams GH

    Endocrinology-Hypertension Division, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. frederick.grant@tch.harvard.edu

    Defining the genetic basis of common forms of human essential hypertension is most informative when correlated with physiological mechanisms that underlie blood pressure regulation. A polymorphism of the alpha-adducin gene as been associated with elevated blood pressure in the rat, but previous studies of the 460Trp polymorphism of the human alpha-adducin gene have not clearly identified an association with hypertension. In this study, the frequency of the 460Trp allele was 19% and 9 of 279 subjects (3.2%) were homozygous for the 460Trp allele. The systolic blood pressure response to changes in dietary sodium was significantly greater in subjects homozygous for the 460Trp allele (25 +/- 4 mm Hg) compared with subjects heterozygous for 460Trp (12 +/- 2 mm Hg) or homozygous for the 460Gly allele (14 +/- 1 mm Hg). Intracellular erythrocyte sodium content, sodium-lithium countertransport, and renal fractional excretion of sodium were significantly decreased in subjects homozygous for the 460Trp polymorphism (P<0.05). There was a significant association between homozygosity for the 460Trp allele and low-renin hypertension. Subjects heterozygous for the 460Trp allele did not have increased salt-sensitivity or an increased frequency of low-renin hypertension. Therefore, this study demonstrates a common genetic basis for altered cellular sodium homeostasis, impaired renal sodium handling, and salt-sensitivity of systolic blood pressure in individuals homozygous for the 460Trp polymorphism of the alpha-adducin gene. Homozygosity for this alpha-adducin allele may be an important determinant for approximately 10% of individuals with low-renin hypertension.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL47651, HL55000; NIDDK NIH HHS: DK53538

    Hypertension (Dallas, Tex. : 1979) 2002;39;2;191-6

  • Multi-locus interactions predict risk for post-PTCA restenosis: an approach to the genetic analysis of common complex disease.

    Zee RY, Hoh J, Cheng S, Reynolds R, Grow MA, Silbergleit A, Walker K, Steiner L, Zangenberg G, Fernandez-Ortiz A, Macaya C, Pintor E, Fernandez-Cruz A, Ott J and Lindpainter K

    Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

    The complexity of recognizing the potential contribution of a number of possible predictors of complex disorders is increasingly challenging with the application of large-scale single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) typing. In the search for putative genetic factors predisposing to coronary artery restenosis following balloon angioplasty, we determined genotypes for 94 SNPs representing 62 candidate genes, in a prospectively assembled cohort of 342 cases and 437 controls. Using a customized coupled-logistic regression procedure accounting for both additive and interactive effects, we identified seven SNPs in seven genes that, together, showed a statistically significant association with restenosis incidence (P <0.0001), accounting for 11.6% of overall variance observed. Among them are candidate genes for cardiovascular pathophysiology (apolipoprotein-species and NOS), inflammatory response (TNF receptor and CD14), and cell-cycle control (p53 and p53-associated protein). Our results emphasize the need to account for complex multi-gene influences and interactions when assessing the molecular pathology of multifactorial medical entities.

    Funded by: NHGRI NIH HHS: HG00008; NHLBI NIH HHS: K04-HL-03138-01

    The pharmacogenomics journal 2002;2;3;197-201

  • Association between the alpha-adducin Gly460Trp polymorphism and systolic blood pressure in familial combined hyperlipidemia.

    Beeks E, Janssen RG, Kroon AA, Keulen ET, Geurts JM, de Leeuw PW and de Bruin TW

    Department of Internal Medicine, Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht, The Netherlands.

    Background: In a genome scan for familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCHL), a locus contributing to systolic blood pressure (SBP) has been identified on chromosome 4, containing the a-adducin gene (ADD1). In previous studies, an association has been found between the alpha-adducin Gly460Trp polymorphism and salt-sensitive hypertension. In this study, we investigated the association between the a-adducin Gly460Trp polymorphism and blood pressure in FCHL patients.

    Methods: A total of 79 unrelated patients with FCHL and 121 unrelated controls (spouses) were recruited for the study. Blood pressure was measured in a standardized fashion, with the subject in sitting position after 10 min of rest. The alpha-adducin Gly460Trp polymorphism was detected by mutagenically separated polymerase chain reaction.

    Results: The genotype frequencies of both FCHL patients and controls were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The alpha-adducin Gly460Trp polymorphism showed a significant association with FCHL, the number of subjects carrying a 460Trp allele was significantly higher in patients compared with controls (53% v 33%, chi2 = 8.0, P = .018). In FCHL patients carrying at least one 460Trp allele, SBP was significantly higher compared with patients homozygous for the 460Gly allele (140 mm Hg and 130 mm Hg respectively, P = .015).

    Conclusions: This study shows that the 460Trp allele is associated with FCHL. Furthermore, SBP is increased in patients carrying the 460Trp allele.

    American journal of hypertension 2001;14;12;1185-90

  • Renal function in relation to three candidate genes.

    Wang JG, Staessen JA, Tizzoni L, Brand E, Birkenhäger WH, Fagard R, Herrmann SM and Bianchi G

    Hypertensie en Cardiovasculaire Revalidatie Eenheid, Departement Moleculair en Cardiovasculair Onderzoek, Katholieke Univsiteit Leuven, Belgium.

    We recently found that femoral intima media thickness, as well as the incidence of hypertension, is influenced by genes encoding the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE; insertion/deletion [I/D]) polymorphism, alpha-adducin (Gly460Trp), and aldosterone synthase (-344C/T). By interfering with blood pressure or sodium homeostasis, these genetic polymorphisms also may change renal function. We therefore investigated serum creatinine level, calculated and measured creatinine clearances, and 24-hour urinary protein excretion in subjects previously genotyped for these three polymorphisms. The 1,454 participants drawn at random from the population (64.3% of those invited) were aged 43.4 years and included 744 women (51.2%). Blood pressure, measured by study nurses at subjects' homes, averaged 123/76 mm Hg. Mean values were 90 micromol/L for serum creatinine; 84 and 88 mL/min/1.73 m(2) for calculated and measured (n = 855) creatinine clearances, respectively; and 90 mg/d of protein for proteinuria (n = 556). The prevalence of mild renal dysfunction (creatinine clearance </= 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2)) was nearly 11%. In single-gene analyses with adjustment for significant covariables, the risk for mild renal dysfunction was positively associated with the ACE D allele. However, multiple-gene analyses showed that these associations were restricted to carriers of the mutated alpha-adducin Trp allele (40.1% of all subjects). Findings remained similar after hypertensive patients and women on hormonal therapy were excluded. In this phenotypically more homogeneous subgroup, serum creatinine level was 3.6 micromol/L (P = 0.02) and relative risks for mild renal dysfunction and proteinuria were 1.7-fold (P < 0.001) and 26% (P = 0.02) greater in ACE D subjects than ACE II homozygotes, respectively. The aldosterone synthase T allele did not strengthen genetic associations with the ACE D allele considered alone or in combination with the alpha-adducin Trp allele. Thus, in the present cross-sectional analysis, renal function was slightly but consistently impaired when both the ACE D and alpha-adducin Trp alleles were present. These findings, together with experimental studies and our previous reports on femoral intima media thickness and the incidence of hypertension, constitute a growing body of evidence delineating a clinical entity genetically determined by the risk-carrying ACE D and alpha-adducin Trp alleles.

    American journal of kidney diseases : the official journal of the National Kidney Foundation 2001;38;6;1158-68

  • Carotid and femoral artery stiffness in relation to three candidate genes in a white population.

    Balkestein EJ, Staessen JA, Wang JG, van Der Heijden-Spek JJ, Van Bortel LM, Barlassina C, Bianchi G, Brand E, Herrmann SM and Struijker-Boudier HA

    Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht, Department of Pharmacology, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands. e.balkestein@farmaco.unimaas.nl

    Different genetic polymorphisms influence cardiovascular disease. We recently discovered a relationship between the intima-media thickness of the muscular femoral artery, but not the elastic common carotid artery, and the combined ACE (ACE, I/D), alpha-adducin (Gly460Trp),and aldosterone synthase (AS, C-344T) gene polymorphisms. To investigate the relationship between these polymorphisms and functional properties of the carotid artery and femoral artery, a sample of 756 subjects enrolled in a population study were genotyped for the presence of the ACE D, alpha-adducin 460Trp, and aldosterone synthase -344T alleles. Vessel wall properties were assessed using a vessel wall movement detector system in combination with applanation tonometry. Statistical analysis allowed for confounders and interaction among genes. Cross-sectional compliance of the common carotid artery was negatively associated with the ACE D allele. ACE II versus ACE DD homozygotes differed, expressed as a percentage of the population mean (7.0%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6% to 12.4%; P=0.02). In multigene analysis, ACE DD subjects also deviated significantly from the population mean for the distensibility coefficient of the common carotid artery when carrying the AS/T allele (-5.5%; 95% CI, -9.3% to -1.7%; P<0.01), without a change in cross-sectional compliance. ACE DD subjects, when homozygote for alpha-adducin Gly460, had a lower femoral cross-sectional compliance (-10.4%; 95% CI, -1.9% to -18.9%; P<0.03) and a lower distensibility (-9.7%; 95% CI, -2.1% to -17.3%; P<0.02) compared with the population mean. These data show that functional large artery properties are influenced by the ACE I/D polymorphism. Cross-sectional compliance and distensibility coefficients are influenced by the ACE I/D genotype, but this influence depends on the vascular territory and genetic background.

    Hypertension (Dallas, Tex. : 1979) 2001;38;5;1190-7

  • Effects of three candidate genes on prevalence and incidence of hypertension in a Caucasian population.

    Staessen JA, Wang JG, Brand E, Barlassina C, Birkenhäger WH, Herrmann SM, Fagard R, Tizzoni L and Bianchi G

    Departement Moleculair en Cardiovasculair Onderzoek, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium. jan.staessen@med.kuleuven.ac.be

    Background: The genes encoding angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE, I/D), alpha-adducin (ADD, Gly460Trp) and aldosterone synthase (AS, -344C/T) share the potential of influencing blood pressure (BP) via sodium homeostasis. However, most studies in humans focused on single-gene effects and disregarded epistasis, the suppression or potentiation of a gene by other non-allelic genes.

    Methods: We studied the singular and combined effects of the aforementioned candidate genes: (1) in relation to BP, plasma renin activity (PRA) and urinary aldosterone in 1461 subjects randomly selected from a Caucasian population; and (2) in relation to the incidence of hypertension in a subgroup of 678 initially normotensive subjects followed up for 9.1 years (median).

    Results: In cross-sectional analyses, AS/CC homozygosity was associated with slightly lower systolic BP (-1.32 mmHg; P = 0.08). AS/TT homozygotes showed both lower PRA and higher urinary aldosterone excretion (P < or = 0.05). In multiple-gene analyses, compared with the whole study population, ADD/Trp subjects had a higher relative risk of hypertension in the presence of the AS/T allele (1.29; P = 0.05), whereas in combination with AS/CC homozygosity ADD/Trp subjects had the smallest relative risk (0.48; P = 0.003). Hypertension developed in 229 subjects (36.6 cases per 1000 person-years). ACE/DD homozygosity, in comparison with the other ACE genotypes, was associated with increases in the incidence of hypertension, which amounted to 31% (P = 0.005) in single-gene analyses, to 59% (P = 0.004) in carriers of the ADD/Trp allele and to 122% (P = 0.0007) in AS/CC subjects. Among subjects who had both the ADD/Trp allele and the AS/CC genotype, ACE/DD homozygotes manifested a 252% (P = 0.001) higher incidence of hypertension.

    Conclusions: Epistatic interactions between the ACE, ADD and AS genes contribute to the prevalence and incidence of hypertension in Caucasians. The clinical relevance of the risk-conferring haplotypes identified in our prospective study was underscored by their positive predictive values, which under the assumption of a 20% life-time risk of hypertension, ranged from 29.8-40.1%.

    Journal of hypertension 2001;19;8;1349-58

  • Association study of eight candidate genes with renin status in mild-to-moderate hypertension in patients of African ancestry.

    Tiago AD, Nkeh B, Candy GP, Badenhorst D, Defterios D, Brooksbank R, Nejthardt M, Luker F, Milne J, Woodiwiss AJ and Norton GR

    Cardiovascular Genomics Research Unit, Departments of Physiology and Medicine, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.

    Aim: We evaluated whether any one variant of genes that encode for substances that could modulate renin-angiotensin-aldosterone (RAA) system activity can account for a substantial proportion of the variability of plasma RAA system profiles in black South African hypertensives (HTs).

    Methods: Plasma renin activity (PRA) and aldosterone concentrations (ALD) were determined in 59 black subjects with mild-to-moderate HT off therapy on an ad libitum diet. Patients were genotyped for the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene insertion/deletion, angiotensinogen (AGT) gene M235T, A-20C and G-6A, aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) gene C-344T, G protein beta3-subunit (GNB3) gene C825T, G(s) protein gene C131T, atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) gene exon 3 stop condon and intron 2, alpha-adducin gene Gly460Trp, and epithelial Na(+) channel (eNa(+) (c)) gene T594M polymorphisms.

    Results: Risk genotype frequencies for the G(s) (7%), ANP intron 2 (0%), and eNa(+)(c)(7%) variants were too low for each to account for a substantial portion of the variability of plasma RAA profiles in the group studied. Moreover, assuming either recessive or dominant inheritance models, neither ACE, AGT, GNB3, CYP11B2, ANP exon 3 nor alpha-adducin polymorphisms were significantly associated with the variance of PRA, ALD or ALD/PRA.

    Conclusions: These results do not support a substantial individual role for the gene candidates studied in contributing to plasma RAA system profiles in black South African HTs. However, a potential small role for some loci may exist, and epistasis or genotype-phenotype interactions as well as alternative inheritance models and variants still need to be evaluated.

    Cardiovascular journal of South Africa : official journal for Southern Africa Cardiac Society [and] South African Society of Cardiac Practitioners 2001;12;2;75-80

  • G-protein beta3 subunit and alpha-adducin polymorphisms and risk of subclinical and clinical stroke.

    Morrison AC, Doris PA, Folsom AR, Nieto FJ, Boerwinkle E and Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study

    Human Genetics Center, University of Texas-Houston Health Science Center, Institute of Molecular Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA.

    Essential hypertension is a significant risk factor for stroke. Genes contributing to interindividual variation in blood pressure levels and essential hypertension status may play a role in the etiology of stroke either through their effects on blood pressure levels or through separate pathways. For this reason, we sought to examine the association between the alpha-adducin (ADD1) G/W460 and G-protein beta3 subunit (GNbeta3) 825C/T polymorphisms and subclinical and clinical stroke in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study.

    Methods: Subclinical stroke was determined by cerebral MRI. Subclinical cerebral infarct cases (n=202) were compared with a stratified random sample (MRI-CRS) identified from individuals participating in the MRI examination (n=211). Incidence of clinical ischemic stroke was determined by following the ARIC cohort for an average of 7.2 years for potential cerebrovascular events; 231 validated clinical ischemic strokes were identified. A stratified random sample of the ARIC cohort (CRS) (n=984) was used as the comparison group for the clinical cases.

    Results: The frequency of the ADD1 W460 allele was determined for the subclinical cases (0.12), MRI-CRS (0.16), clinical cases (0.14), and CRS (0.17). The frequency of the GNbeta3 825T allele was determined in whites and blacks, respectively, for the subclinical cases (0.26, 0.73), MRI-CRS (0.31, 0.75), clinical cases (0.36, 0.72), and CRS (0.30, 0.72). The ADD1 W460 and GNbeta3 825T alleles were not significantly associated with subclinical stroke. The ADD1 W460 allele was also not a significant predictor of clinical stroke. The GNbeta3 825T allele was significantly associated with clinical stroke in whites after adjustment for age and sex (hazard rate ratio, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.05 to 2.00) and after further adjustment for multiple stroke risk factors (hazard rate ratio, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.18 to 2.41). The GNbeta3 825T allele was not significantly associated with clinical stroke in blacks for either adjustment model.

    Conclusions: The GNbeta3 gene 825C/T polymorphism is significantly associated with incident clinical ischemic stroke in a white middle-aged American population, but not in blacks. This association does not appear to be mediated by established stroke risk factors, specifically blood pressure levels or hypertension status.

    Stroke 2001;32;4;822-9

  • Lack of association between Gly460Trp polymorphism of alpha-adducin gene and salt sensitivity of blood pressure in Polish hypertensives.

    Ciechanowicz A, Widecka K, Drozd R, Adler G, Cyryłowski L and Czekalski S

    Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Pomeranian Academy of Medicine, Szczecin, Poland. aciech@rl.pam.szczecin.pl

    Background: Previous studies have suggested that alpha-adducin (alpha-ADD) polymorphism may identify patients with a salt-sensitive form of hypertension.

    Aim: To investigate the association between Gly460Trp polymorphism of alpha-ADD and the pattern of blood pressure response to subacute (1 week) salt loading and depletion in young adult thin Polish hypertensives.

    Methods: The study group consisted of 44 subjects with salt-sensitive hypertension (SS) and 24 subjects with non-salt-sensitive hypertension (SR). Genomic DNA isolated from peripheral blood leukocytes was amplified by PCR method with primers flanking the polymorphic region. The mismatch near to 3'-end of the upstream primer was introduced to create a Nla III restriction site in Trp 460 allele. In addition, excreted fraction of filtered sodium (FENa), plasma renin activity (PRA) and plasma concentrations of aldosterone (ALDO) were determined on normal, low and high salt diets.

    Results: FENa on normal or high salt diets were significantly lower in the SS hypertensives as compared with the SR patients. PRA in SS group was also significantly lower as compared with results in SR group, but only on high salt diet. No significant difference was detected in frequencies of genotypes and alleles of alpha-ADD gene between SS and SR subjects. An additional analysis with regard to genotype (Gly/Gly vs. Gly/Trp+Trp/Trp) showed no significant difference in changes of blood pressure as well as in results of laboratory investigations.

    Conclusion: Our results suggest lack of association between Gly460Trp polymorphism of alpha-adducin gene and salt sensitivity of blood pressure in Polish hypertensives.

    Kidney & blood pressure research 2001;24;3;201-6

  • alpha-adducin and angiotensin I-converting enzyme polymorphisms in essential hypertension.

    Clark CJ, Davies E, Anderson NH, Farmer R, Friel EC, Fraser R and Connell JM

    MRC Blood Pressure Group, Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Western Infirmary, Glasgow, Scotland.

    This study focused on two genes that have previously been implicated in hypertension and may influence renal sodium handling, adducin, and angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE). We compared their polymorphic frequencies and interaction in patients with essential hypertension (n=128) and individually age- and gender-matched normotensive control subjects. The alpha-adducin G460W polymorphism was genotyped by DNA amplification and restriction digestion. The ACE I/D polymorphism was assayed by a triple-primer method, with a "nested" polymerase chain reaction primer situated completely within the insertion sequence of the I: allele. The distributions of genotypes and alleles for the two polymorphisms were not significantly different between the case and control populations, and the cross-classification of cases by alpha-adducin and ACE genotype gave a distribution similar to that of control subjects. We have previously reported that the distributions of genotypes for two linked polymorphisms in the aldosterone synthase gene (one in the steroidogenic factor-1 [SF-1] binding site and the other an intronic conversion [IC]) were significantly different between this cohort of essential hypertensives and matched control subjects. The cross-classification of cases by alpha-adducin and SF-1, alpha-adducin and IC, ACE and SF-1, and ACE and IC genotype gave a distribution similar to that of control subjects. Hence, no evidence was found to suggest an association between either the alpha-adducin G460W or the ACE I/D polymorphism and hypertension in a careful case-control study. Furthermore, the alpha-adducin G460W, ACE I/D, and aldosterone synthase SF-1 and IC polymorphisms do not appear to interact in our hypertensive population.

    Hypertension (Dallas, Tex. : 1979) 2000;36;6;990-4

  • [Is Gly460Trp variant of alpha-adducin associated with essential hypertension in the Hans of Chinese population].

    Hou R, Liu Z, Xue M, Wang Y, Ye T, Sun C, Wang Z and Liu Y

    Department of Cardiology, the First Affiliated Hospital, Xi n an Medical University, Xi n an, Shaanxi, 710061 P.R.China.

    Objective: To determine whether the variant of adducin alpha subunit (alpha-adducin) is in association with essential hypertension in the Hans of Chinese population.

    Methods: One hundred and eighty-three patients with essential hypertension and 129 normotensive subjects were included in this study. Genomic DNA was isolated from 3 ml of whole blood. Polymerase chain reaction, single-strand conformational polymorphism and DNA sequencing analysis techniques were used to detect the variant in the exon 10 of alpha-adducin gene. The clinical data of height, weight and blood pressure were also measured in all subjects.

    Results: A G-->T substitution at nucleotide 614 in exon 10 of alpha-adducin gene which resulted in the Gly460Trp variant was found in the Hans. The distribution of Gly/Gly, Gly/Trp and Trp/Trp genotypes was coincident with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and there were no statistical differences in the three genotypes and Trp allele frequencies between hypertensive and normotensive subjects (P>0.05). The variant of alpha-adducin genotypes was not associated with any significant differences in age, body mass index and blood pressure.

    Conclusion: A G-->T substitution at nucleotide 614 in exon 10 of alpha-adducin gene is found, but there is lack of the association between the variant of alpha-adducin gene and essential hypertension in the Hans of Chinese population.

    Zhonghua yi xue yi chuan xue za zhi = Zhonghua yixue yichuanxue zazhi = Chinese journal of medical genetics 2000;17;6;413-6

  • Cleavage of the actin-capping protein alpha -adducin at Asp-Asp-Ser-Asp633-Ala by caspase-3 is preceded by its phosphorylation on serine 726 in cisplatin-induced apoptosis of renal epithelial cells.

    van de Water B, Tijdens IB, Verbrugge A, Huigsloot M, Dihal AA, Stevens JL, Jaken S and Mulder GJ

    Division of Toxicology, Leiden Amsterdam Center for Drug Research, Leiden University, The Netherlands. b.water@lacdr.leidenuniv.nl

    Decreased phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase and paxillin is associated with loss of focal adhesions and stress fibers and precedes the onset of apoptosis (van de Water, B., Nagelkerke, J. F., and Stevens, J. L. (1999) J. Biol. Chem. 274, 13328-13337). The cortical actin cytoskeletal network is also lost during apoptosis, yet little is known about the temporal relationship between altered phosphorylation of proteins that are critical in the regulation of this network and their potential cleavage by caspases during apoptosis. Adducins are central in the cortical actin network organization. Cisplatin caused apoptosis of renal proximal tubular epithelial cells, which was associated with the cleavage of alpha-adducin into a 74-kDa fragment; this was blocked by a general caspase inhibitor benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethyl ketone (z-VAD-fmk). Hemagglutinin-tagged human alpha-adducin was cleaved into a similar 74-kDa fragment by caspase-3 in vitro but not by caspase-6 or -7. Asp-Arg-Val-Asp(29)-Glu, Asp-Ile-Val-Asp(208)-Arg, and Asp-Asp-Ser-Asp(633)-Ala were identified as the principal caspase-3 cleavage sites; Asp-Asp-Ser-Asp(633)-Ala was key in the formation of the 74-kDa fragment. Cisplatin also caused an increased phosphorylation of alpha-adducin and gamma-adducin in the MARCKS domain that preceded alpha-adducin cleavage and was associated with loss of adducins from adherens junctions; this was not affected by z-VAD-fmk. In conclusion, the data support a model in which increased phosphorylation of alpha-adducin due to cisplatin leads to dissociation from the cytoskeleton, a situation rendered irreversible by caspase-3-mediated cleavage of alpha-adducin at Asp-Asp-Ser-Asp(633)-Ala.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA71607; NIDDK NIH HHS: DK47267; NIEHS NIH HHS: ES07847

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2000;275;33;25805-13

  • Adducin: structure, function and regulation.

    Matsuoka Y, Li X and Bennett V

    Experimental Pathology and Chemotherapy Division, National Cancer Center Research Institute, Tokyo, Japan. yomatsuo@gan2.res.ncc.go.jp

    Adducin is a ubiquitously expressed membrane-skeletal protein localized at spectrin-actin junctions that binds calmodulin and is an in vivo substrate for protein kinase C (PKC) and Rho-associated kinase. Adducin is a tetramer comprised of either alpha/beta or alpha/gamma heterodimers. Adducin subunits are related in sequence and all contain an N-terminal globular head domain, a neck domain and a C-terminal protease-sensitive tail domain. The tail domains of all adducin subunits end with a highly conserved 22-residue myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate (MARCKS)-related domain that has homology to MARCKS protein. Adducin caps the fast-growing ends of actin filaments and also preferentially recruits spectrin to the ends of filaments. Both the neck and the MARCKS-related domains are required for these activities. The neck domain self-associates to form oligomers. The MARCKS-related domain binds calmodulin and contains the major phosphorylation site for PKC. Calmodulin, gelsolin and phosphorylation by the kinase inhibit in vitro activities of adducin involving actin and spectrin. Recent observations suggest a role for adducin in cell motility, and as a target for regulation by Rho-dependent and Ca2+-dependent pathways. Prominent physiological sites of regulation of adducin include dendritic spines of hippocampal neurons, platelets and growth cones of axons.

    Cellular and molecular life sciences : CMLS 2000;57;6;884-95

  • Functional antagonism between inhibitor of DNA binding (Id) and adipocyte determination and differentiation factor 1/sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (ADD1/SREBP-1c) trans-factors for the regulation of fatty acid synthase promoter in adipocytes.

    Moldes M, Boizard M, Liepvre XL, Fève B, Dugail I and Pairault J

    Université Pierre et Marie Curie, UPRES-A 7079 CNRS, Paris, France.

    We show that Id (inhibitor of DNA binding) 2 and Id3, dominant negative members of the helix-loop-helix (HLH) family, interact with the adipocyte determination and differentiation factor 1 (ADD1)/sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) 1c, a transcription factor of the basic HLH-leucine zipper family that controls the expression of several key genes of adipose metabolism. Gel mobility-shift assays performed with in vitro-translated ADD1, Id2 or Id3 proteins and a fatty acid synthase (FAS) promoter oligonucleotide showed evidence for a marked inhibition of the formation of DNA-ADD1 complexes by Id2 or Id3 proteins. Co-immunoprecipitation studies using in vitro-translated proteins demonstrated further the physical interaction of Id and ADD1/SREBP-1c proteins in the absence of DNA. Using the FAS gene as a model of an ADD1-regulated promoter in transiently transfected isolated rat adipocytes or mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes, a potent inhibition of the activity of the FAS-chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter gene was observed by overexpression of Id2 or Id3. Reciprocally, co-transfection of Id3 antisense and ADD1 expression vectors in preadipocytes potentiated the ADD1/SREBP-1c effect on the FAS promoter activity. Finally, in the non adipogenic NIH-3T3 cell line, most of the ADD1-mediated trans-activation of the FAS promoter was counteracted by co-transfection of Id2 or Id3 expression vectors. Previous studies have indicated Id gene expression to be down-regulated during adipogenesis [Moldes, Lasnier, Fève, Pairault and Djian (1997) Mol. Cell. Biol. 17, 1796-1804]. We here demonstrated that there was a dramatic rise of Id2 and Id3 mRNA levels when 3T3-L1 adipocytes or isolated rat fat cells were exposed to lipolytic and anti-lipogenic agents, forskolin and isoproterenol. Taken together, our data show that Id products are functionally involved in modulating ADD1/SREBP-1c transcriptional activity, and thus lipogenesis in adipocytes.

    The Biochemical journal 1999;344 Pt 3;873-80

  • Evidence for an interaction between adducin and Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase: relation to genetic hypertension.

    Ferrandi M, Salardi S, Tripodi G, Barassi P, Rivera R, Manunta P, Goldshleger R, Ferrari P, Bianchi G and Karlish SJ

    Prassis Research Institute Sigma-Tau, 20019 Settimo Milanese, Italy.

    Adducin point mutations are associated with genetic hypertension in Milan hypertensive strain (MHS) rats and in humans. In transfected cells, adducin affects actin cytoskeleton organization and increases the Na(+)-K(+)-pump rate. The present study has investigated whether rat and human adducin polymorphisms differently modulate rat renal Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase in vitro. We report the following. 1) Both rat and human adducins stimulate Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity, with apparent affinity in tens of nanomolar concentrations. 2) MHS and Milan normotensive strain (MNS) adducins raise the apparent ATP affinity for Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase. 3) The mechanism of action of adducin appears to involve a selective acceleration of the rate of the conformational change E(2) (K) --> E(1) (Na) or E(2)(K). ATP --> E(1)Na. ATP. 4) Apparent affinities for mutant rat and human adducins are significantly higher than those for wild types. 5) Recombinant human alpha- and beta-adducins stimulate Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity, as do the COOH-terminal tails, and the mutant proteins display higher affinities than the wild types. 6) The cytoskeletal protein ankyrin, which is known to bind to Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase, also stimulates enzyme activity, whereas BSA is without effect; the effects of adducin and ankyrin when acting together are not additive. 7) Pig kidney medulla microsomes appear to contain endogenous adducin; in contrast with purified pig kidney Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase, which does not contain adducin, added adducin stimulates the Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity of microsomes only about one-half as much as that of purified Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase. Our findings strongly imply the existence of a direct and specific interaction between adducin and Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase in vitro and also suggest the possibility of such an interaction in intact renal membranes.

    The American journal of physiology 1999;277;4 Pt 2;H1338-49

  • Patterns of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in candidate genes for blood-pressure homeostasis.

    Halushka MK, Fan JB, Bentley K, Hsie L, Shen N, Weder A, Cooper R, Lipshutz R and Chakravarti A

    Department of Genetics and Center for Human Genetics, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine and University Hospitals of Cleveland, Ohio 44106, USA.

    Sequence variation in human genes is largely confined to single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and is valuable in tests of association with common diseases and pharmacogenetic traits. We performed a systematic and comprehensive survey of molecular variation to assess the nature, pattern and frequency of SNPs in 75 candidate human genes for blood-pressure homeostasis and hypertension. We assayed 28 Mb (190 kb in 148 alleles) of genomic sequence, comprising the 5' and 3' untranslated regions (UTRs), introns and coding sequence of these genes, for sequence differences in individuals of African and Northern European descent using high-density variant detection arrays (VDAs). We identified 874 candidate human SNPs, of which 22% were confirmed by DNA sequencing to reveal a discordancy rate of 21% for VDA detection. The SNPs detected have an average minor allele frequency of 11%, and 387 are within the coding sequence (cSNPs). Of all cSNPs, 54% lead to a predicted change in the protein sequence, implying a high level of human protein diversity. These protein-altering SNPs are 38% of the total number of such SNPs expected, are more likely to be population-specific and are rarer in the human population, directly demonstrating the effects of natural selection on human genes. Overall, the degree of nucleotide polymorphism across these human genes, and orthologous great ape sequences, is highly variable and is correlated with the effects of functional conservation on gene sequences.

    Funded by: NHGRI NIH HHS: R01 HG01847; NHLBI NIH HHS: U10 HL54466

    Nature genetics 1999;22;3;239-47

  • Phosphorylation of adducin by Rho-kinase plays a crucial role in cell motility.

    Fukata Y, Oshiro N, Kinoshita N, Kawano Y, Matsuoka Y, Bennett V, Matsuura Y and Kaibuchi K

    Division of Signal Transduction, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, Ikoma 630-0101, Japan.

    Adducin is a membrane skeletal protein that binds to actin filaments (F-actin) and thereby promotes the association of spectrin with F-actin to form a spectrin-actin meshwork beneath plasma membranes such as ruffling membranes. Rho-associated kinase (Rho- kinase), which is activated by the small guanosine triphosphatase Rho, phosphorylates alpha-adducin and thereby enhances the F-actin-binding activity of alpha-adducin in vitro. Here we identified the sites of phosphorylation of alpha-adducin by Rho-kinase as Thr445 and Thr480. We prepared antibody that specifically recognized alpha-adducin phosphorylated at Thr445, and found by use of this antibody that Rho-kinase phosphorylated alpha-adducin at Thr445 in COS7 cells in a Rho-dependent manner. Phosphorylated alpha-adducin accumulated in the membrane ruffling area of Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) epithelial cells and the leading edge of scattering cells during the action of tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) or hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). The microinjection of Botulinum C3 ADP-ribosyl-transferase, dominant negative Rho-kinase, or alpha-adducinT445A,T480A (substitution of Thr445 and Thr480 by Ala) inhibited the TPA-induced membrane ruffling in MDCK cells and wound-induced migration in NRK49F cells. alpha-AdducinT445D,T480D (substitution of Thr445 and Thr480 by Asp), but not alpha-adducinT445A,T480A, counteracted the inhibitory effect of the dominant negative Rho-kinase on the TPA-induced membrane ruffling in MDCK cells. Taken together, these results indicate that Rho-kinase phosphorylates alpha-adducin downstream of Rho in vivo, and that the phosphorylation of adducin by Rho-kinase plays a crucial role in the regulation of membrane ruffling and cell motility.

    The Journal of cell biology 1999;145;2;347-61

  • Adducin is an in vivo substrate for protein kinase C: phosphorylation in the MARCKS-related domain inhibits activity in promoting spectrin-actin complexes and occurs in many cells, including dendritic spines of neurons.

    Matsuoka Y, Li X and Bennett V

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Departments of Cell Biology and Biochemistry, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA.

    Adducin is a heteromeric protein with subunits containing a COOH-terminal myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate (MARCKS)-related domain that caps and preferentially recruits spectrin to the fast-growing ends of actin filaments. The basic MARCKS-related domain, present in alpha, beta, and gamma adducin subunits, binds calmodulin and contains the major phosphorylation site for protein kinase C (PKC). This report presents the first evidence that phosphorylation of the MARCKS-related domain modifies in vitro and in vivo activities of adducin involving actin and spectrin, and we demonstrate that adducin is a prominent in vivo substrate for PKC or other phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-activated kinases in multiple cell types, including neurons. PKC phosphorylation of native and recombinant adducin inhibited actin capping measured using pyrene-actin polymerization and abolished activity of adducin in recruiting spectrin to ends and sides of actin filaments. A polyclonal antibody specific to the phosphorylated state of the RTPS-serine, which is the major PKC phosphorylation site in the MARCKS-related domain, was used to evaluate phosphorylation of adducin in cells. Reactivity with phosphoadducin antibody in immunoblots increased twofold in rat hippocampal slices, eight- to ninefold in human embryonal kidney (HEK 293) cells, threefold in MDCK cells, and greater than 10-fold in human erythrocytes after treatments with PMA, but not with forskolin. Thus, the RTPS-serine of adducin is an in vivo phosphorylation site for PKC or other PMA-activated kinases but not for cAMP-dependent protein kinase in a variety of cell types. Physiological consequences of the two PKC phosphorylation sites in the MARCKS-related domain were investigated by stably transfecting MDCK cells with either wild-type or PKC-unphosphorylatable S716A/S726A mutant alpha adducin. The mutant alpha adducin was no longer concentrated at the cell membrane at sites of cell-cell contact, and instead it was distributed as a cytoplasmic punctate pattern. Moreover, the cells expressing the mutant alpha adducin exhibited increased levels of cytoplasmic spectrin, which was colocalized with the mutant alpha adducin in a punctate pattern. Immunofluorescence with the phosphoadducin-specific antibody revealed the RTPS-serine phosphorylation of adducin in postsynaptic areas in the developing rat hippocampus. High levels of the phosphoadducin were detected in the dendritic spines of cultured hippocampal neurons. Spectrin also was a component of dendritic spines, although at distinct sites from the ones containing phosphoadducin. These data demonstrate that adducin is a significant in vivo substrate for PKC or other PMA-activated kinases in a variety of cells, and that phosphorylation of adducin occurs in dendritic spines that are believed to respond to external signals by changes in morphology and reorganization of cytoskeletal structures.

    The Journal of cell biology 1998;142;2;485-97

  • Human alpha-adducin gene, blood pressure, and sodium metabolism.

    Kamitani A, Wong ZY, Fraser R, Davies DL, Connor JM, Foy CJ, Watt GC and Harrap SB

    Department of Physiology, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia.

    The adducin genes contribute significantly to population variation in rat blood pressure and cell membrane sodium transport. The 460Trp mutation of the human alpha-adducin gene has been associated with hypertension, in particular hypertension sensitive to sodium restriction. We studied the relationship between the 460Trp mutation and population variation in blood pressure and sodium metabolism. From 603 Scottish families, we selected 151 offspring and 224 parents with blood pressures in either the upper (high) or bottom (low) 30% of the population distribution and measured the 460Trp mutation using allele-specific hybridization. In offspring, we also measured exchangeable sodium, plasma volume, and total body water. Plasma levels of components of the renin-angiotensin system, atrial natriuretic peptide, and cellular sodium and transmembrane sodium efflux were also estimated. The overall frequency of the 460Trp mutation was 27.1%. In offspring and parent groups, we found no difference in the genotype or allele frequencies of the 460Trp mutation between subjects with high or low blood pressure. There was no overall association between the alpha-adducin genotypes and blood pressure variation. In offspring, the 460Trp mutation was not associated with any significant differences in body fluid volumes or exchangeable sodium; levels of plasma renin, angiotensin II, aldosterone, or atrial natriuretic peptide; intracellular sodium; or ouabain-sensitive transmembrane sodium efflux. These findings suggest that in our Scottish population, the alpha-adducin 460Trp polymorphism is not related to blood pressure and does not affect whole body or cellular sodium metabolism.

    Hypertension (Dallas, Tex. : 1979) 1998;32;1;138-43

  • Polymorphisms of alpha-adducin and salt sensitivity in patients with essential hypertension.

    Cusi D, Barlassina C, Azzani T, Casari G, Citterio L, Devoto M, Glorioso N, Lanzani C, Manunta P, Righetti M, Rivera R, Stella P, Troffa C, Zagato L and Bianchi G

    Postgraduate School of Nephrology, University of Milan, Italy.

    Background: Abnormalities in renal sodium transport may be involved in hypertension. Adducin, an alpha/beta heterodimeric protein found in the renal tubule is thought to regulate ion transport through changes in the actin cytoskeleton. We investigated whether an alpha-adducin polymorphism (Gly 460 Trp) is involved in essential hypertension in two separate populations.

    Methods: Linkage analysis of three DNA markers at different distances from the alpha-adducin locus (20-2500 kb) was done in 137 hypertensive sibling-pairs. 477 hypertensive and 322 normotensive individuals were genotyped for the alpha-adducin polymorphism. The blood-pressure response to acute and chronic changes in sodium balance was studied in hypertensive individuals with and without the 460 Trp alpha-adducin allele.

    Findings: Significant linkage was found for all three markers in the sibling-pair study. The extra shared alleles (9.1%, 6.5%, and 4.7%) and the significance level for linkage (p = 0.0006, p = 0.0119, and p = 0.0211) both decreased with increasing distance from the alpha-adducin locus. There was a significant association between the 460 Trp mutation and hypertension (p = 0.0003). In the salt-sensitivity test, to assess the acute blood-pressure response to changes in body sodium in 86 hypertensive patients, the decrease in mean arterial pressure was greater in 65 patients who were heterozygous for the mutant allele (Gly/Trp) than in 21 wild-type homozygotes (Gly/Gly) (mean decrease 15.9 [SE 2.0] vs 7.4 [1.3] mm Hg; p = 0.001). Similarly, 21 heterozygous hypertensive patients showed a greater fall in mean arterial pressure in response to 2 months' treatment with hydrochlorothiazide than did 37 wild-type homozygous hypertensive patients (mean decrease 14.7 [2.2] vs 6.8 [1.4] mm Hg; p = 0.002).

    Interpretation: Our findings of significant linkage of the alpha-adducin locus to essential hypertension and greater sensitivity to changes in sodium balance among patients with the mutant allele suggest that alpha-adducin is associated with a salt-sensitive form of essential hypertension. We suggest the alpha-adducin polymorphism may identify hypertensive patients who will benefit from diuretic treatment or manoeuvres to reduce total body sodium.

    Funded by: NHGRI NIH HHS: HG00008; Telethon: TGM06S01

    Lancet (London, England) 1997;349;9062;1353-7

  • Adducin regulation. Definition of the calmodulin-binding domain and sites of phosphorylation by protein kinases A and C.

    Matsuoka Y, Hughes CA and Bennett V

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA.

    Adducin promotes association of spectrin with actin and caps the fast growing end of actin filaments. Adducin contains N-terminal core, neck, and C-terminal tail domains, is a substrate for protein kinases A (PKA) and C (PKC), and binds to Ca2+/calmodulin. Ser-726 and Ser-713 in the C-terminal MARCKS-related domains of alpha- and beta-adducin, respectively, were identified as the major phosphorylation sites common for PKA and PKC. PKA, in addition, phosphorylated alpha-adducin at Ser-408, -436, and -481 in the neck domain. Phosphorylation by PKA, but not PKC, reduced the affinity of adducin for spectrin-F-actin complexes as well as the activity of adducin in promoting binding of spectrin to F-actin. The myristoylated alanine-rich protein kinase C substrate-related domain of beta-adducin was identified as the dominant Ca2+-dependent calmodulin-binding site. Calmodulin-binding was inhibited by phosphorylation of beta-adducin and of a MARCKS-related domain peptide by PKA and PKC. Calmodulin in turn inhibited the rate, but not the extent, of phosphorylation of beta-adducin, but not alpha-adducin, by PKA and that of each subunit by PKC. These findings suggest a complex reciprocal relationship between regulation of adducin function by calmodulin binding and phosphorylation by PKA and PKC.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1996;271;41;25157-66

  • Identification of the spectrin subunit and domains required for formation of spectrin/adducin/actin complexes.

    Li X and Bennett V

    Department of Cell Biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA.

    Adducin is an actin-binding protein that has been proposed to function as a regulated assembly factor for the spectrin/actin network. This study has addressed the question of the subunit and domains of spectrin required for formation of spectrin/adducin/actin complexes in in vitro assays. Quantitative evidence is presented that the beta-spectrin N-terminal domain plus the first two alpha-helical domains are required for optimal participation of spectrin in spectrin/adducin/actin complexes. The alpha subunit exhibited no detectable activity either alone or following association with beta-spectrin. The critical domains of beta-spectrin involved in complex formation were determined using recombinant proteins expressed in bacteria. The N-terminal domain (residues 1-313) of beta-spectrin associated with F-actin with a Kd of 26 microM, and promoted adducin binding to F-actin with half-maximal activation at 110 nM. Addition of the first alpha-helical domain (residues 1-422) lowered the Kdfor F-actin by 4-fold to 6 microM, but also reduced the capacity by 3-fold and had no effect on interaction with adducin. Further addition of the second alpha-helical domain (residues 1-528) did not alter binding to F-actin but resulted in a 2-fold increased activity in promoting adducin binding with half-maximal activation at 50 nM. Addition of up to eight additional alpha-helical domains (residues 1-1388) resulted in no further change in F-actin binding or association with adducin. These results demonstrate an unanticipated role of the first repeat of beta-spectrin in actin binding activity and of the second repeat in association with adducin/actin, and imply the possibility of an extended contact between adducin, spectrin, and actin involving several actin subunits.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1996;271;26;15695-702

  • A new function for adducin. Calcium/calmodulin-regulated capping of the barbed ends of actin filaments.

    Kuhlman PA, Hughes CA, Bennett V and Fowler VM

    Department of Cell Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA.

    Adducin is a membrane skeleton protein originally described in human erythrocytes that promotes the binding of spectrin to actin and also binds directly to actin and bundles actin filaments. Adducin is associated with regions of cell-cell contact in nonerythroid cells, where it is believed to play a role in regulating the assembly of the spectrin-actin membrane skeleton. In this study we demonstrate a novel function for adducin; it completely blocks elongation and depolymerization at the barbed (fast growing) ends of actin filaments, thus functioning as a barbed end capping protein (Kcap approximately 100 nM). This barbed end capping activity requires the intact adducin molecule and is not provided by the NH2-terminal globular head domains alone nor by the COOH-terminal extended tail domains, which were previously shown to contain the spectrin-actin binding, calmodulin binding, and phosphorylation sites. A novel difference between adducin and other previously described capping proteins is that it is down-regulated by calmodulin in the presence of calcium. The association of stoichiometric amounts of adducin with the short erythrocyte actin filaments in the membrane skeleton indicates that adducin could be the functional barbed end capper in erythrocytes and play a role in restricting actin filament length. Our experiments also suggest novel possibilities for calcium regulation of actin filament assembly by adducin in erythrocytes and at cell-cell contact sites in nonerythroid cells.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK29808; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM34225

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1996;271;14;7986-91

  • Transcript map of the human chromosome 4p16.3 consisting of 627 cDNA clones derived from 1 Mb of the Huntington's disease locus.

    Hadano S, Ishida Y, Tomiyasu H, Yamamoto K, Bates GP and Ikeda JE

    NeuroGenes, International Research Exchange Project, Research Development Corporation of Japan (JRDC), Tokai University School of Medicine, Kanagawa, Japan.

    Six hundred and twenty-seven cDNA clones from human brain cDNA libraries were characterized and integrated into a transcript map of the 1-Mb region on human chromosome 4p16.3 containing the Huntington's disease (HD) gene. Six hundred and seventy-two cDNA clones were obtained by a direct screening of the cDNA libraries, probing with pools of single copy microclones generated from the HD region specific yeast artificial chromosome (YAC)-DNA. So far, 93% of the obtained clones (627 cDNA clones) have been mapped onto the 1-Mb HD gene region by hybridization with HD region-specific cosmid, P1 and YAC clones. DNA sequence and expression analyses revealed that several cDNA clones might encode novel genes, some of which are situated within or close to the IT15, IT11, and alpha-adducin (ADD1) gene region, suggesting the presence of the overlapping genes in this region. This collection of cDNA clones will greatly facilitate the construction of the complete map of the transcripts in the HD region.

    DNA research : an international journal for rapid publication of reports on genes and genomes 1996;3;4;239-55

  • Adducin: a physical model with implications for function in assembly of spectrin-actin complexes.

    Hughes CA and Bennett V

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA.

    Adducin binds to spectrin-actin complexes, promotes association of spectrin with actin, and is subject to regulation by calmodulin as well as protein kinases A and C. Adducin is a heteromer comprised of homologous alpha and beta-subunits with an NH2-terminal protease-resistant head domain, connected by a neck region to a COOH-terminal hydrophilic, protease-sensitive region. This study provides evidence that adducin in solution is a mixture of heterodimers and tetramers. CD spectroscopy of COOH-terminal domains of alpha- and beta-adducin bacterial recombinants provides direct evidence for an unstructured random coil configuration. Cross-linking, proteolysis, and blot-binding experiments suggest a model for the adducin tetramer in which four head domains contact one another to form a globular core with extended interacting alpha- and beta-adducin tails. The site for binding to spectrin-actin complexes on adducin was identified as the COOH-terminal tail of both the alpha- and beta-adducin subunits. The capacity of native adducin to recruit spectrin to actin filaments is similar to that of adducin tail domains. Thus, adducin tail domains alone are sufficient to interact with F-actin and a single spectrin and to recruit additional spectrin molecules to the ternary complex.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1995;270;32;18990-6

  • Assignment of the human beta-adducin gene (ADD2) to 2p13-p14 by in situ hybridization.

    Gilligan DM, Lieman J and Bennett V

    Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06512, USA.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: K08

    Genomics 1995;28;3;610-2

  • Genomic organization of the human alpha-adducin gene and its alternately spliced isoforms.

    Lin B, Nasir J, McDonald H, Graham R, Rommens JM, Goldberg YP and Hayden MR

    Department of Medical Genetics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.

    The cDNA for the human alpha-adducin gene has been cloned, and different alternately spliced forms have been identified. We report the complete genomic organization of the human alpha-adducin gene and these alternately spliced forms. The human alpha-adducin gene, spanning approximately 85 kb, consists of 16 exons ranging in size from 34 to 1892 bp. One of the spliced forms of the human alpha-adducin gene results from alternate use of the 5' splice donor site for exon 10, while another results in a truncated protein following insertion of 34 bp comprising exon 15, followed by a premature stop codon. This alternate spliced form of alpha-adducin is predicted to result in an altered carboxyl terminus that would eliminate a protein kinase and calmodulin binding site. Seven nucleotide substitutions and 4 insertion/deletions were also identified. The 5' region of the human alpha-adducin gene contains one Sp1 site, two AP2 sites, and two CAAT boxes. No TATA box was apparent, consistent with features of a housekeeping gene. We have mapped another cDNA within the first intron of the human alpha-adducin gene, suggesting overlapping genes in this 4p16.3 genomic region.

    Genomics 1995;25;1;93-9

  • The murine homologues of the Huntington disease gene (Hdh) and the alpha-adducin gene (Add1) map to mouse chromosome 5 within a region of conserved synteny with human chromosome 4p16.3.

    Nasir J, Lin B, Bucan M, Koizumi T, Nadeau JH and Hayden MR

    Department of Medical Genetics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.

    Huntington disease (HD) is a severe autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder associated with a novel gene (IT15). Recently, we reported the cloning of Hdh, the murine homologue of IT15. Here, using an interspecific backcross, we have mapped both Hdh and the mouse homologue of human alpha-adducin (Add1), a membrane-associated cytoskeletal protein gene. Both of these genes map in the same position on mouse chromosome 5 in a region associated with ancestral chromosomal rearrangements and show no recombination with D5H4S43, D5H4S115, and D5H4S62, the murine homologues of D4S43, D4S115, and D4S62, respectively. Further mapping studies of humans, mice, and other mammalian species should reveal the nature of the rearrangements affecting this chromosomal segment during mammalian evolution.

    Funded by: NHGRI NIH HHS: HG00189; NICHD NIH HHS: HD28410

    Genomics 1994;22;1;198-201

  • Cloning and mapping of the alpha-adducin gene close to D4S95 and assessment of its relationship to Huntington disease.

    Goldberg YP, Lin BY, Andrew SE, Nasir J, Graham R, Glaves ML, Hutchinson G, Theilmann J, Ginzinger DG, Schappert K et al.

    Department of Medical Genetics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.

    The genetic defect underlying Huntington's disease (HD) has been mapped to 4p16.3. Refined localization using recombinant HD chromosome analysis and allelic association analyses have identified two distinct candidate regions. Using a cDNA hybrid selection procedure we have cloned the gene for alpha-adducin, a subunit of a cytoskeletal protein crucial for spectrin-actin membrane plasticity. This gene maps to the proximal 2.2 Mb candidate region within 20 kb of D4S95. Alleles of markers at this locus have been shown to exhibit significant linkage disequilibrium with HD. A 4 kb alpha-adducin transcript was identified which is abundantly expressed in the caudate nucleus, the site of major neuronal loss in HD. Sequencing of the brain alpha-adducin cDNA from two HD patients and an age-matched control did not detect any sequence alterations specific to HD. However, we identified in brain cDNA of both patients and control samples, two alternately spliced brain exons, not previously described in the erythrocyte cDNA. A 93 bp exon is inserted in frame between codon 471 and 472 while a 34 bp exon inserted within codon 621 disrupts the frame and introduces a stop codon after 11 novel amino acids. The mapping of the adducin gene adjacent to D4S95 and its pattern of expression, as well as its potential for distinct alternately spliced variants, reinforces the necessity to accurately assess the role of the expression of this gene in the pathogenesis of HD.

    Human molecular genetics 1992;1;9;669-75

  • Cloning of the alpha-adducin gene from the Huntington's disease candidate region of chromosome 4 by exon amplification.

    Taylor SA, Snell RG, Buckler A, Ambrose C, Duyao M, Church D, Lin CS, Altherr M, Bates GP, Groot N et al.

    Molecular Neurogenetics Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston.

    We have applied the technique of exon amplification to the isolation of ge 10b nes from the chromosome 4p16.3 Huntington's disease (HD) candidate region. Exons recovered from cosmid Y24 identified cDNA clones corresponding to the alpha-subunit of adducin, a calmodulin-binding protein that is thought to promote assembly of spectrin-actin complex 1f40 es in the formation of the membrane cytoskeleton, alpha-adducin is widely expressed and, at least in brain, is encoded by alternatively spliced mRNAs. The alpha-adducin gene maps immediately telomeric to D4S95, in a region likely to contain the HD defect, and must be scrutinized to establish whether it is the site of the HD mutation.

    Nature genetics 1992;2;3;223-7

  • Primary structure and domain organization of human alpha and beta adducin.

    Joshi R, Gilligan DM, Otto E, McLaughlin T and Bennett V

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710.

    Adducin is a membrane-skeletal protein which is a candidate to promote assembly of a spectrin-actin network in erythrocytes and at sites of cell-cell contact in epithelial tissues. The complete sequence of both subunits of human adducin, alpha (737 amino acids), and beta (726 amino acids) has been deduced by analysis of the cDNAs. The two subunits have strikingly conserved amino acid sequences with 49% identity and 66% similarity, suggesting evolution by gene duplication. Each adducin subunit has three distinct domains: a 39-kD NH2-terminal globular protease-resistant domain, connected by a 9-kD domain to a 33-kD COOH-terminal protease-sensitive tail comprised almost entirely of hydrophilic amino acids. The tail is responsible for the high frictional ratio of adducin noted previously, and was visualized by EM. The head domains of both adducin subunits exhibit a limited sequence similarity with the NH2-terminal actin-binding motif present in members of the spectrin superfamily and actin gelation proteins. The COOH-termini of both subunits contain an identical, highly basic stretch of 22 amino acids with sequence similarity to the MARCKS protein. Predicted sites of phosphorylation by protein kinase C include the COOH-terminus and sites at the junction of the head and tail. Northern blot analysis of mRNA from rat tissues, K562 erythroleukemia cells and reticulocytes has shown that alpha adducin is expressed in all the tissues tested as a single message size of 4 kb. In contrast, beta adducin shows tissue specific variability in size of mRNA and level of expression. A striking divergence between alpha and beta mRNAs was noted in reticulocytes, where alpha adducin mRNA is present in at least 20-fold higher levels than that of beta adducin. The beta subunit thus is a candidate to perform a limiting role in assembly of functional adducin molecules.

    The Journal of cell biology 1991;115;3;665-75

  • Interaction of biological membranes with the cytoskeletal framework of living cells.

    Mangeat PH

    Centre CNRS-INSERM de Pharmacologie-Endocrinologie, Montpellier, France.

    The review is focused on the molecular structure and function of the proteins composing the actin-based cytoskeletal cortex, located at the cytoplasmic face of plasma membranes of eucaryotic cells, which stabilizes integral membrane proteins in separate domains of cell membranes. It includes a survey of the molecular properties of the proteins of the erythrocyte membrane skeleton such as spectrin, ankyrin, protein 4.1, and adducin. The properties of the immunological counterparts of erythroid cortical proteins found 1f40 in nonerythroid tissues and cells are compared. The structural organization and function of the newly discovered class of calcium-binding proteins, nonerythroid peripheral membrane proteins, calpactins, are also described. Finally, the discussion of some experimental models illustrates that the membrane skeleton of living cells is actively involved in a wide variety of essential biological functions ranging from differentiation, to maintenance of cell polarity and cell shape, and regulation of exocytotic processes.

    Biology of the cell 1988;64;3;261-81

  • Erythrocyte adducin: a calmodulin-regulated actin-bundling protein that stimulates spectrin-actin binding.

    Mische SM, Mooseker MS and Morrow JS

    Department of Pathology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06510.

    Adducin is an erythrocyte membrane skeletal phosphoprotein comprised of two related subunits of 105,000 and 100,000 Mr. These peptides form a functional heterodimer, and the smaller of the two binds calmodulin in a calcium-dependent fashion. Although this protein has been physicochemically characterized, its function remains unknown. We have examined the interaction of human adducin with actin and with human erythrocyte spectrin using sedimentation, electrophoretic, and morphologic techniques. Purified adducin binds actin at physiologic ionic strength and bundles it into arrays of laterally arranged filaments, the adducin forming cross-bridges between the filaments at 35.2 /- 3.8 (2 SD) nm intervals. The stoichiometry of high affinity adducin binding to actin at saturation is 1:7, corresponding to a dimer of adducin for every actin helical unit. Adducin also promotes the binding of spectrin to actin independently of protein 4.1. At saturation, each adducin promotes the association of one spectrin heterodimer. The formation of this ternary spectrin-actin-adducin complex is independent of the assembly path, and the complex exists in a readily reversible equilibrium with the free components. The binding of adducin to actin and its ability to stimulate spectrin-actin binding is down-regulated by calmodulin in a calcium-dependent fashion. These results thus identify a putative role for adducin, and define a calcium- and calmodulin-dependent mechanism whereby higher states of actin association and its interaction with spectrin in the erythrocyte may be controlled.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL28560; NIADDK NIH HHS: AM25387

    The Journal of cell biology 1987;105;6 Pt 1;2837-45

  • Modulation of spectrin-actin assembly by erythrocyte adducin.

    Gardner K and Bennett V

    The spectrin-based membrane skeleton, an assembly of proteins tightly associated with the plasma membrane, determines the shape and mechanical properties of erythrocytes. Spectrin, the most abundant component of this assembly, is an elongated and flexible molecule that, with potentiation by protein 4.1, is cross-linked at its ends by short actin filaments to form a lattice beneath the membrane. These and other proteins stabilize the plasma membrane, organize integral membrane proteins and maintain specialized regions of the cell surface. A membrane-skeleton-associated calmodulin-binding protein of erythrocytes is a major substrate for Ca2+- and phospholipid-dependent protein kinase C (ref. 5), and thus is a target for Ca2+ by two regulatory pathways. Here we demonstrate that this protein, called adducin: (1) binds tightly in vitro to spectrin-actin complexes but with much less affinity either to spectrin or to actin alone; (2) promotes assembly of additional spectrin molecules onto actin filaments; and (3) is inhibited in its ability to induce the binding of additional spectrin molecules to actin by micromolar concentrations of calmodulin and Ca2+. Adducin may be involved in the action of Ca2+ on erythrocyte membrane skeleton and in the assembly of spectrin-actin complexes.

    Nature 1987;328;6128;359-62

Gene lists (7)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000013 G2C Homo sapiens Human mGluR5 Human orthologues of mouse mGluR5 complex adapted from Collins et al (2006) 52
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

Cookies Policy | Terms and Conditions. This site is hosted by Edinburgh University and the Genes to Cognition Programme.