G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
G00001811
Gene symbol
TNR (HGNC)
Species
Homo sapiens
Description
tenascin R (restrictin, janusin)
Orthologue
G00000562 (Mus musculus)

Databases (7)

Gene
ENSG00000116147 (Ensembl human gene)
7143 (Entrez Gene)
336 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
TNR (GeneCards)
Literature
601995 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:11953 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
Q92752 (UniProt)

Literature (22)

Pubmed - other

  • Parallel genotyping of 10,204 single nucleotide polymorphisms to screen for susceptible genes for IgA nephropathy.

    Woo KT, Lau YK, Wong KS, Zhao Y and Chan CM

    Renal Medicine Department, Singapore General Hospital, Singapore. woo.keng.thye@sgh.com.sg

    Introduction: IgA nephritis (IgAN) is the most common glomerulonephritis worldwide. We aim to genotype SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) genomewide in patients with IgAN to search for genetic clues to its aetiology.

    Genotyping for 10,204 SNPs genomewide was done with the Gene Chip Human Mapping 10K Microarray (Affymetrix). Twenty-eight patients with IgAN and 30 normal subjects were screened and analysed for differences in genotype frequency, allele frequency and heterozygosity reduction.

    Results: Among the most significantly associated SNPs, 48 SNPs were found mapping directly to the intron of 42 genes that localised in 13 somatic chromosomes and chromosome X. Genotype distribution of these SNPs did not deviate from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in normal subjects. The most significantly associated gene, glial cells missing homolog 1 (GCM, 2 =13.05, P = 0.000) is a transcription factor mapped to 6p12.2. GCM1 reported decreased in placenta of patients with pre-eclampsia. The second gene, Tenascin-R (TNR, 2 = 9.85, P = 0.002) is a glycoprotein and extra-cellular matrix component mapped to 1q25.1. Tenascin-R was associated with motor coordination impairment and enhanced anxiety profile in deficient mice. Interestingly, Triadin (TRDN, 2 = 9.16, P = 0.01) is an integral membrane protein mapped to 6q22.31 within the IgAN1 locus. Triadin was shown to participate in cardiac myocyte arrhythemia. However, there is no published study of these genes in IgAN.

    Conclusion: Forty-two associated genes (particularly GCM1, TNR and TRDN) are identified as possible susceptibility or marker genes for IgAN. Knowledge of their mesangial expression and binding capacity for IgA-containing complexes may help elucidate the pathogenesis of IgAN.

    Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore 2009;38;10;894-9

  • Association of the NPAS3 gene and five other loci with response to the antipsychotic iloperidone identified in a whole genome association study.

    Lavedan C, Licamele L, Volpi S, Hamilton J, Heaton C, Mack K, Lannan R, Thompson A, Wolfgang CD and Polymeropoulos MH

    Vanda Pharmaceuticals Inc., Rockville, MD 20850, USA. Christian.Lavedan@vandapharma.com

    A whole genome association study was performed in a phase 3 clinical trial conducted to evaluate a novel antipsychotic, iloperidone, administered to treat patients with schizophrenia. Genotypes of 407 patients were analyzed for 334,563 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). SNPs associated with iloperidone efficacy were identified within the neuronal PAS domain protein 3 gene (NPAS3), close to a translocation breakpoint site previously observed in a family with schizophrenia. Five other loci were identified that include the XK, Kell blood group complex subunit-related family, member 4 gene (XKR4), the tenascin-R gene (TNR), the glutamate receptor, inotropic, AMPA 4 gene (GRIA4), the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor receptor-alpha2 gene (GFRA2), and the NUDT9P1 pseudogene located in the chromosomal region of the serotonin receptor 7 gene (HTR7). The study of these polymorphisms and genes may lead to a better understanding of the etiology of schizophrenia and of its treatment. These results provide new insight into response to iloperidone, developed with the ultimate goal of directing therapy to patients with the highest benefit-to-risk ratio.

    Molecular psychiatry 2009;14;8;804-19

  • Applicability of a genetic signature for enhanced iloperidone efficacy in the treatment of schizophrenia.

    Volpi S, Potkin SG, Malhotra AK, Licamele L and Lavedan C

    Vanda Pharmaceuticals Inc, Rockville, MD 20850, USA.

    Objective: To demonstrate how several polymorphisms previously associated with the efficacy of the novel antipsychotic iloperidone could be used together to predict clinical response and provide practical information for individualized treatment.

    Method: This inpatient randomized, double-blind, placebo- and ziprasidone-controlled, 28-day study of the efficacy of iloperidone was conducted from November 2005 to September 2006. Likelihood ratios, predicted probabilities of response, and number needed to treat were calculated for patients with schizophrenia (DSM-IV criteria) using 6 genetic markers of iloperidone response as measured by change in the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale-Total (PANSS-T) score. Data analysis was performed on 409 patients of various ethnic origins.

    Results: The 6-marker genotype combinations defined 4 groups of patients with distinct probabilities of response. More than 75% of iloperidone-treated patients in the group with the optimal genotype combinations showed a 20% or greater improvement, compared with 37% for patients with other genotypes. These patients had a significant response by the first week of treatment, which was earlier than for patients with other genotype combinations. The odds of responding to iloperidone treatment with at least 20% improvement ranged from 2.4 to 3.6 for patients with 1 of the 6 favorable single-marker genotypes. The odds increased to 9.5 or greater for patients with the most favorable 6-marker combinations. The difference in PANSS-T score improvement observed between the genotype groups was also seen for the positive, negative, and general psychopathology PANSS subscales. The relationship between treatment efficacy and genotype combinations was not observed for patients treated with ziprasidone.

    Conclusion: These results illustrate the combined use of genetic markers to predict enhanced response to iloperidone and support the application of pharmacogenetics to differentiate medication options and improve individualized treatments for schizophrenia.

    (ClinicalTrials.gov) Identifier: NCT00254202.

    The Journal of clinical psychiatry 2009;70;6;801-9

  • Genetic contribution to all cancers: the first demonstration using the model of breast cancers from Poland stratified by age at diagnosis and tumour pathology.

    Lubiński J, Korzeń M, Górski B, Cybulski C, Debniak T, Jakubowska A, Jaworska K, Wokołorczyk D, Medrek K, Matyjasik J, Huzarski T, Byrski T, Gronwald J, Masojć B, Lener M, Szymańska A, Szymańska-Pasternak J, Serrano-Fernàndez P, Piegat A, Uciński R, Domagała P, Domagała W, Chosia M, Kładny J, Górecka B, Narod S and Scott R

    Department of Genetics and Pathology, International Hereditary Cancer Center, Pomeranian Medical University, Polabska 4, 70-115, Szczecin, Poland. lubinski@sci.pam.szczecin.pl

    The aim of the study is to verify the hypothesis that genetic polymorphisms are associated with the predisposition to all malignancies. Using as a model breast cancers from the homogenous Polish population (West Pomeranian region) after stratification of 977 patients by age at diagnosis (under 51 years and above 50 years) and by tumour pathology (ductal cancers--low and high grade, lobular cancers, ER-positive/negative) we tested this hypothesis. Altogether 20 different groups of breast cancer cases have been analyzed. The results were compared to a group of unaffected controls that were matched by age, sex, ethnicity and geographical location and originated from families without cancers of any site among relatives. Molecular alterations selected for analyses included those which have been previously recognized as being associated with breast cancer predisposition. Statistically significant differences between the breast cancer cases and controls were observed in 19 of the 20 analyzed groups. Genetic changes were present in more than 90% of the breast cancer patients in 18 of 20 groups. The highest proportion of cases with constitutional changes-99.3% (139/140) was observed for lobular cancers. The number and type of genetic marker and/or the level of their association with the specific cancer predisposition was different between groups. Markers associated with majority of groups included: BRCA1, CHEK2, p53, TNRnTT, FGFRnAA, XPD CC/AA and XPD GG. Some markers appeared to be group specific and included polymorphisms in CDKN2A, CYP1B1, M3K nAA, and RS67.

    Breast cancer research and treatment 2009;114;1;121-6

  • Framingham Heart Study 100K Project: genome-wide associations for blood pressure and arterial stiffness.

    Levy D, Larson MG, Benjamin EJ, Newton-Cheh C, Wang TJ, Hwang SJ, Vasan RS and Mitchell GF

    The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's Framingham Heart Study, Framingham, MA, USA. Levyd@nih.gov

    Background: About one quarter of adults are hypertensive and high blood pressure carries increased risk for heart disease, stroke, kidney disease and death. Increased arterial stiffness is a key factor in the pathogenesis of systolic hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Substantial heritability of blood-pressure (BP) and arterial-stiffness suggests important genetic contributions.

    Methods: In Framingham Heart Study families, we analyzed genome-wide SNP (Affymetrix 100K GeneChip) associations with systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) BP at a single examination in 1971-1975 (n = 1260), at a recent examination in 1998-2001 (n = 1233), and long-term averaged SBP and DBP from 1971-2001 (n = 1327, mean age 52 years, 54% women) and with arterial stiffness measured by arterial tonometry (carotid-femoral and carotid-brachial pulse wave velocity, forward and reflected pressure wave amplitude, and mean arterial pressure; 1998-2001, n = 644). In primary analyses we used generalized estimating equations in models for an additive genetic effect to test associations between SNPs and phenotypes of interest using multivariable-adjusted residuals. A total of 70,987 autosomal SNPs with minor allele frequency > or = 0.10, genotype call rate > or = 0.80, and Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium p > or = 0.001 were analyzed. We also tested for association of 69 SNPs in six renin-angiotensin-aldosterone pathway genes with BP and arterial stiffness phenotypes as part of a candidate gene search.

    Results: In the primary analyses, none of the associations attained genome-wide significance. For the six BP phenotypes, seven SNPs yielded p values < 10(-5). The lowest p-values for SBP and DBP respectively were rs10493340 (p = 1.7 x 10(-6)) and rs1963982 (p = 3.3 x 10(-6)). For the five tonometry phenotypes, five SNPs had p values < 10(-5); lowest p-values were for reflected wave (rs6063312, p = 2.1 x 10(-6)) and carotid-brachial pulse wave velocity (rs770189, p = 2.5 x 10(-6)) in MEF2C, a regulator of cardiac morphogenesis. We found only weak association of SNPs in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone pathway with BP or arterial stiffness.

    Conclusion: These results of genome-wide association testing for blood pressure and arterial stiffness phenotypes in an unselected community-based sample of adults may aid in the identification of the genetic basis of hypertension and arterial disease, help identify high risk individuals, and guide novel therapies for hypertension. Additional studies are needed to replicate any associations identified in these analyses.

    Funded by: NCRR NIH HHS: 1S10RR163736-01A1; NHLBI NIH HHS: K24 HL004334, K24-HL04334, N01-HC 25195, N01HC25195, R01 HL060040, R01 HL070100, R01-HL60040, R01-HL70100

    BMC medical genetics 2007;8 Suppl 1;S3

  • Hippocampal metaplasticity induced by deficiency in the extracellular matrix glycoprotein tenascin-R.

    Bukalo O, Schachner M and Dityatev A

    Zentrum für Molekulare Neurobiologie, Universitätsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, D-20251 Hamburg, Germany.

    Predisposition of synapses to undergo plastic changes can be dynamically adjusted according to the history of synaptic activity (i.e., synapses are metaplastic). In search of a molecular mechanism underlying metaplasticity, we investigated mice deficient in the glycoprotein tenascin-R (TNR), based on the observations that this mutant exhibits elevated basal excitatory synaptic transmission and reduced perisomatic GABAergic inhibition. TNR is a major extracellular matrix glycoprotein of the CNS and carries the HNK-1 carbohydrate (human natural killer cell glycan), which has been identified as the functional epitope mediating regulation of GABAergic transmission via GABA(B) receptors. Here, we used patch-clamp recordings in hippocampal slices to determine the critical levels of postsynaptic neuron depolarization necessary for induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) at CA3-CA1 synapses and found that deficiency in TNR leads to a metaplastic increase in the threshold for induction of LTP. Reconstitution of slices from TNR-deficient mice with an HNK-1 glycomimetic or pharmacological treatment with either a GABA(A) receptor agonist, a GABA(B) receptor antagonist, an L-type voltage-dependent Ca2+ channel blocker, or an inhibitor of protein serine/threonine phosphatases restored LTP to the levels seen in wild-type mice. We propose that a chain of events initiated by reduced GABAergic transmission and proceeding via Ca2+ entry into cells and elevated activity of phosphatases mediates homeostatic adjustment of hippocampal plasticity in the absence of TNR. These data uncover a novel mechanism by which an extracellular matrix molecule and its associated carbohydrate provide conditions beneficial for induction of LTP in the CA1 region of the hippocampus.

    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 2007;27;22;6019-28

  • The DNA sequence and biological annotation of human chromosome 1.

    Gregory SG, Barlow KF, McLay KE, Kaul R, Swarbreck D, Dunham A, Scott CE, Howe KL, Woodfine K, Spencer CC, Jones MC, Gillson C, Searle S, Zhou Y, Kokocinski F, McDonald L, Evans R, Phillips K, Atkinson A, Cooper R, Jones C, Hall RE, Andrews TD, Lloyd C, Ainscough R, Almeida JP, Ambrose KD, Anderson F, Andrew RW, Ashwell RI, Aubin K, Babbage AK, Bagguley CL, Bailey J, Beasley H, Bethel G, Bird CP, Bray-Allen S, Brown JY, Brown AJ, Buckley D, Burton J, Bye J, Carder C, Chapman JC, Clark SY, Clarke G, Clee C, Cobley V, Collier RE, Corby N, Coville GJ, Davies J, Deadman R, Dunn M, Earthrowl M, Ellington AG, Errington H, Frankish A, Frankland J, French L, Garner P, Garnett J, Gay L, Ghori MR, Gibson R, Gilby LM, Gillett W, Glithero RJ, Grafham DV, Griffiths C, Griffiths-Jones S, Grocock R, Hammond S, Harrison ES, Hart E, Haugen E, Heath PD, Holmes S, Holt K, Howden PJ, Hunt AR, Hunt SE, Hunter G, Isherwood J, James R, Johnson C, Johnson D, Joy A, Kay M, Kershaw JK, Kibukawa M, Kimberley AM, King A, Knights AJ, Lad H, Laird G, Lawlor S, Leongamornlert DA, Lloyd DM, Loveland J, Lovell J, Lush MJ, Lyne R, Martin S, Mashreghi-Mohammadi M, Matthews L, Matthews NS, McLaren S, Milne S, Mistry S, Moore MJ, Nickerson T, O'Dell CN, Oliver K, Palmeiri A, Palmer SA, Parker A, Patel D, Pearce AV, Peck AI, Pelan S, Phelps K, Phillimore BJ, Plumb R, Rajan J, Raymond C, Rouse G, Saenphimmachak C, Sehra HK, Sheridan E, Shownkeen R, Sims S, Skuce CD, Smith M, Steward C, Subramanian S, Sycamore N, Tracey A, Tromans A, Van Helmond Z, Wall M, Wallis JM, White S, Whitehead SL, Wilkinson JE, Willey DL, Williams H, Wilming L, Wray PW, Wu Z, Coulson A, Vaudin M, Sulston JE, Durbin R, Hubbard T, Wooster R, Dunham I, Carter NP, McVean G, Ross MT, Harrow J, Olson MV, Beck S, Rogers J, Bentley DR, Banerjee R, Bryant SP, Burford DC, Burrill WD, Clegg SM, Dhami P, Dovey O, Faulkner LM, Gribble SM, Langford CF, Pandian RD, Porter KM and Prigmore E

    The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, The Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridgeshire CB10 1SA, UK. sgregory@chg.duhs.duke.edu

    The reference sequence for each human chromosome provides the framework for understanding genome function, variation and evolution. Here we report the finished sequence and biological annotation of human chromosome 1. Chromosome 1 is gene-dense, with 3,141 genes and 991 pseudogenes, and many coding sequences overlap. Rearrangements and mutations of chromosome 1 are prevalent in cancer and many other diseases. Patterns of sequence variation reveal signals of recent selection in specific genes that may contribute to human fitness, and also in regions where no function is evident. Fine-scale recombination occurs in hotspots of varying intensity along the sequence, and is enriched near genes. These and other studies of human biology and disease encoded within chromosome 1 are made possible with the highly accurate annotated sequence, as part of the completed set of chromosome sequences that comprise the reference human genome.

    Funded by: Medical Research Council: G0000107; Wellcome Trust

    Nature 2006;441;7091;315-21

  • Diversification of transcriptional modulation: large-scale identification and characterization of putative alternative promoters of human genes.

    Kimura K, Wakamatsu A, Suzuki Y, Ota T, Nishikawa T, Yamashita R, Yamamoto J, Sekine M, Tsuritani K, Wakaguri H, Ishii S, Sugiyama T, Saito K, Isono Y, Irie R, Kushida N, Yoneyama T, Otsuka R, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Kondo H, Wagatsuma M, Murakawa K, Ishida S, Ishibashi T, Takahashi-Fujii A, Tanase T, Nagai K, Kikuchi H, Nakai K, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Life Science Research Laboratory, Central Research Laboratory, Hitachi, Ltd., Kokubunji, Tokyo, 185-8601, Japan.

    By analyzing 1,780,295 5'-end sequences of human full-length cDNAs derived from 164 kinds of oligo-cap cDNA libraries, we identified 269,774 independent positions of transcriptional start sites (TSSs) for 14,628 human RefSeq genes. These TSSs were clustered into 30,964 clusters that were separated from each other by more than 500 bp and thus are very likely to constitute mutually distinct alternative promoters. To our surprise, at least 7674 (52%) human RefSeq genes were subject to regulation by putative alternative promoters (PAPs). On average, there were 3.1 PAPs per gene, with the composition of one CpG-island-containing promoter per 2.6 CpG-less promoters. In 17% of the PAP-containing loci, tissue-specific use of the PAPs was observed. The richest tissue sources of the tissue-specific PAPs were testis and brain. It was also intriguing that the PAP-containing promoters were enriched in the genes encoding signal transduction-related proteins and were rarer in the genes encoding extracellular proteins, possibly reflecting the varied functional requirement for and the restricted expression of those categories of genes, respectively. The patterns of the first exons were highly diverse as well. On average, there were 7.7 different splicing types of first exons per locus partly produced by the PAPs, suggesting that a wide variety of transcripts can be achieved by this mechanism. Our findings suggest that use of alternate promoters and consequent alternative use of first exons should play a pivotal role in generating the complexity required for the highly elaborated molecular systems in humans.

    Genome research 2006;16;1;55-65

  • Neuronal-specific synthesis and glycosylation of tenascin-R.

    Woodworth A, Pesheva P, Fiete D and Baenziger JU

    Department of Pathology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, USA.

    Tenascin-R (TN-R) is a member of the tenascin family of multidomain matrix glycoproteins that is expressed exclusively in the central nervous system by oligodendrocytes and small neurons during postnatal development and in the adult. TN-R contributes to the regulation of axon extension and regeneration, neurite formation and synaptogenesis, and neuronal growth and migration. TN-R can be modified with three distinct sulfated oligosaccharide structures: HNK-1 (SO(4)-3-GlcUAbeta1,3Galbeta1,4GlcNAc), GalNAc-4-SO(4), and chondroitin sulfate. We have determined that TN-R expressed in dendrite-rich regions of the rat cerebellum, hippocampus, and cerebral cortex is one of the major matrix glycoproteins that bears N-linked carbohydrates terminating with beta1,4-linked GalNAc-4-SO(4). The syntheses of these unique sulfated structures on TN-R are differentially regulated. Levels of HNK-1 on TN-R rise and fall in parallel to the levels of TN-R during postnatal development of the cerebellum. In contrast, levels of GalNAc-4-SO(4) are regulated independently from those of TN-R, rising late in cerebellar development and continuing into adulthood. As a result, the pattern of TN-R modification with distinct sulfated carbohydrate structures changes dramatically over the course of postnatal cerebellar development in the rat. Because TN-R interacts with a number of different matrix components and, depending on the circumstances, can either activate or inhibit neurite outgrowth, the highly regulated addition of these unique sulfated structures may modulate the adhesive properties of TN-R over the course of development and during synapse maintenance. In addition, the 160-kDa form of TN-R is particularly enriched for terminal GalNAc-4-SO(4) later in development and in the adult, suggesting additional levels of regulation.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R37-CA21923; NIDDK NIH HHS: R01-DK41738

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2004;279;11;10413-21

  • Insight into hepatocellular carcinogenesis at transcriptome level by comparing gene expression profiles of hepatocellular carcinoma with those of corresponding noncancerous liver.

    Xu XR, Huang J, Xu ZG, Qian BZ, Zhu ZD, Yan Q, Cai T, Zhang X, Xiao HS, Qu J, Liu F, Huang QH, Cheng ZH, Li NG, Du JJ, Hu W, Shen KT, Lu G, Fu G, Zhong M, Xu SH, Gu WY, Huang W, Zhao XT, Hu GX, Gu JR, Chen Z and Han ZG

    Chinese National Human Genome Center at Shanghai, 351 Guo Shou-Jing Road, Shanghai 201203, China.

    Human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide. In this work, we report on a comprehensive characterization of gene expression profiles of hepatitis B virus-positive HCC through the generation of a large set of 5'-read expressed sequence tag (EST) clusters (11,065 in total) from HCC and noncancerous liver samples, which then were applied to a cDNA microarray system containing 12,393 genes/ESTs and to comparison with a public database. The commercial cDNA microarray, which contains 1,176 known genes related to oncogenesis, was used also for profiling gene expression. Integrated data from the above approaches identified 2,253 genes/ESTs as candidates with differential expression. A number of genes related to oncogenesis and hepatic function/differentiation were selected for further semiquantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis in 29 paired HCC/noncancerous liver samples. Many genes involved in cell cycle regulation such as cyclins, cyclin-dependent kinases, and cell cycle negative regulators were deregulated in most patients with HCC. Aberrant expression of the Wnt-beta-catenin pathway and enzymes for DNA replication also could contribute to the pathogenesis of HCC. The alteration of transcription levels was noted in a large number of genes implicated in metabolism, whereas a profile change of others might represent a status of dedifferentiation of the malignant hepatocytes, both considered as potential markers of diagnostic value. Notably, the altered transcriptome profiles in HCC could be correlated to a number of chromosome regions with amplification or loss of heterozygosity, providing one of the underlying causes of the transcription anomaly of HCC.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2001;98;26;15089-94

  • The proteoglycans aggrecan and Versican form networks with fibulin-2 through their lectin domain binding.

    Olin AI, Mörgelin M, Sasaki T, Timpl R, Heinegård D and Aspberg A

    Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Section for Connective Tissue Biology, Lund University, BMC Plan C12, SE-221 84 Lund, Sweden.

    Aggrecan, versican, neurocan, and brevican are important components of the extracellular matrix in various tissues. Their amino-terminal globular domains bind to hyaluronan, but the function of their carboxyl-terminal globular domains has long remained elusive. A picture is now emerging where the C-type lectin motif of this domain mediates binding to other extracellular matrix proteins. We here demonstrate that aggrecan, versican, and brevican lectin domains bind fibulin-2, whereas neurocan does not. As expected for a C-type lectin, the interactions are calcium-dependent, with K(D) values in the nanomolar range as measured by surface plasmon resonance. Solid phase competition assays with previously identified ligands demonstrated that fibulin-2 and tenascin-R bind the same site on the proteoglycan lectin domains. Fibulin-1 has affinity for the common site on versican but may bind to a different site on the aggrecan lectin domain. By using deletion mutants, the interaction sites for aggrecan and versican lectin domains were mapped to epidermal growth factor-like repeats in domain II of fibulin-2. Affinity chromatography and solid phase assays confirmed that also native full-length aggrecan and versican bind the lectin domain ligands. Electron microscopy confirmed the mapping and demonstrated that hyaluronan-aggrecan complexes can be cross-linked by the fibulins.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2001;276;2;1253-61

  • Glycosylation of a CNS-specific extracellular matrix glycoprotein, tenascin-R, is dominated by O-linked sialylated glycans and "brain-type" neutral N-glycans.

    Zamze S, Harvey DJ, Pesheva P, Mattu TS, Schachner M, Dwek RA and Wing DR

    Glycobiology Institute, Department of Biochemistry, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QU, UK.

    As a member of the tenascin family of extracellular matrix glycoproteins, tenascin-R is located exclusively in the CNS. It is believed to play a role in myelination and axonal stabilization and, through repulsive properties, may contribute to the lack of regeneration of CNS axons following damage. The contrary functions of the tenascins have been localized to the different structural domains of the protein. However, little is known concerning the influence of the carbohydrate conjugated to the many potential sites for N - and O -glycosylation (10-20% by weight). As a first analytical requirement, we show that >80% of the N -glycans in tenascin-R are neutral and dominated by complex biantennary structures. These display the "brain-type" characteristics of outer-arm- and core-fucosylation, a bisecting N -acetylglucosamine and, significantly, an abundance of antennae truncation. In some structures, truncation resulted in only a single mannose residue remaining on the 3-arm, a particularly unusual consequence of the N -glycan processing pathway. In contrast to brain tissue, hybrid and oligomannosidic N -glycans were either absent or in low abundance. A high relative abundance of O -linked sialylated glycans was found. This was associated with a significant potential for O -linked glycosylation sites and multivalent display of the sialic acid residues. These O -glycans were dominated by the disialylated structure, NeuAcalpha2-3Galbeta1-3(NeuAcalpha2-6)GalNAc. The possibility that these O -glycans enable tenascin-R to interact in the CNS either with the myelin associated glycoprotein or with sialoadhesin on activated microglia is discussed.

    Funded by: Wellcome Trust

    Glycobiology 1999;9;8;823-31

  • Dissection of complex molecular interactions of neurofascin with axonin-1, F11, and tenascin-R, which promote attachment and neurite formation of tectal cells.

    Volkmer H, Zacharias U, Nörenberg U and Rathjen FG

    Max-Delbrück-Centrum für Molekulare Medizin, D-13122 Berlin, Germany.

    Neurofascin is a member of the L1 subgroup of the Ig superfamily that promotes axon outgrowth by interactions with neuronal NgCAM-related cell adhesion molecule (NrCAM). We used a combination of cellular binding assays and neurite outgrowth experiments to investigate mechanisms that might modulate the interactions of neurofascin. In addition to NrCAM, we here demonstrate that neurofascin also binds to the extracellular matrix glycoprotein tenascin-R (TN-R) and to the Ig superfamily members axonin-1 and F11. Isoforms of neurofascin that are generated by alternative splicing show different preferences in ligand binding. While interactions of neurofascin with F11 are only slightly modulated, binding to axonin-1 and TN-R is strongly regulated by alternatively spliced stretches located in the NH2-terminal half, and by the proline-alanine-threonine-rich segment. In vitro neurite outgrowth and cell attachment assays on a neurofascin-Fc substrate reveal a shift of cellular receptor usage from NrCAM to axonin-1, F11, and at least one additional protein in the presence of TN-R, presumably due to competition of the neurofascin- NrCAM interaction. Thereby, F11 binds to TN-R of the neurofascin/TN-R complex, but not to neurofascin, whereas axonin-1 is not able to bind directly to the neurofascin/TN-R complex as shown by competition binding assays. In conclusion, these investigations indicate that the molecular interactions of neurofascin are regulated at different levels, including alternative splicing and by the presence of interacting proteins.

    The Journal of cell biology 1998;142;4;1083-93

  • High affinity binding and overlapping localization of neurocan and phosphacan/protein-tyrosine phosphatase-zeta/beta with tenascin-R, amphoterin, and the heparin-binding growth-associated molecule.

    Milev P, Chiba A, Häring M, Rauvala H, Schachner M, Ranscht B, Margolis RK and Margolis RU

    Department of Pharmacology, New York University Medical Center, New York, New York 10016, USA.

    We have studied the interactions of the nervous tissue-specific chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans neurocan and phosphacan with the extracellular matrix protein tenascin-R and two heparin-binding proteins, amphoterin and the heparin-binding growth-associated molecule (HB-GAM), using a radioligand binding assay. Both proteoglycans show saturable, high affinity binding to tenascin-R with apparent dissociation constants in the 2-7 nM range. Binding is reversible, inhibited in the presence of unlabeled proteoglycan, and increased by approximately 60% following chondroitinase treatment of the proteoglycans, indicating that the interactions are mediated via the core (glyco)proteins rather than by the glycosaminoglycan chains, which may in fact partially shield the binding sites. In contrast to their interactions with tenascin-C, in which binding was decreased by approximately 75% in the absence of calcium, binding of phosphacan to tenascin-R was not affected by the absence of divalent cations in the binding buffer, although there was a small but significant decrease in the binding of neurocan. Neurocan and phosphacan are also high affinity ligands of amphoterin and HB-GAM (Kd = 0.3-8 nM), two heparin-binding proteins that are developmentally regulated in brain and functionally involved in neurite outgrowth. The chondroitin sulfate chains on neurocan and phosphacan account for at least 80% of their binding to amphoterin and HB-GAM. The presence of amphoterin also produces a 5-fold increase in phosphacan binding to the neural cell adhesion molecule contactin. Immunocytochemical studies showed an overlapping localization of the proteoglycans and their ligands in the embryonic and postnatal brain, retina, and spinal cord. These studies have therefore revealed differences in the interactions of neurocan and phosphacan with the two major members of the tenascin family of extracellular matrix proteins, and also suggest that chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans play an important role in the binding and/or presentation of differentiation factors in the developing central nervous system.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1998;273;12;6998-7005

  • The C-type lectin domains of lecticans, a family of aggregating chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans, bind tenascin-R by protein-protein interactions independent of carbohydrate moiety.

    Aspberg A, Miura R, Bourdoulous S, Shimonaka M, Heinegârd D, Schachner M, Ruoslahti E and Yamaguchi Y

    The Burnham Institute, 10901 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.

    The lecticans are a family of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans including aggrecan, versican, neurocan, and brevican. The C-terminal globular domains of lecticans are structurally related to selectins, consisting of a C-type lectin domain flanked by epidermal growth factor and complement regulatory protein domains. The C-type lectin domain of versican has been shown to bind tenascin-R, an extracellular matrix protein specifically expressed in the nervous system, and the interaction was presumed to be mediated by a carbohydrate-protein interaction. In this paper, we show that the C-type lectin domain of brevican, another lectican that is specifically expressed in the nervous system, also binds tenascin-R. Surprisingly, this interaction is mediated by a protein-protein interaction through the fibronectin type III domains 3-5 of tenascin-R, independent of any carbohydrates or sulfated amino acids. The lectin domains of versican and other lecticans also bind the same domain of tenascin-R by protein-protein interactions. Surface plasmon resonance analysis revealed that brevican lectin has at least a 10-fold higher affinity than the other lectican lectins. Tenascin-R is coprecipitated with brevican from adult rat brain extracts, suggesting that tenascin-R and brevican form complexes in vivo. These results demonstrate that the C-type lectin domain can interact with fibronectin type III domains through protein-protein interactions, and suggest that brevican is a physiological tenascin-R ligand in the adult brain.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA28896, CA30199, P30 CA030199; NINDS NIH HHS: NS32717

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1997;94;19;10116-21

  • Signaling events following the interaction of the neuronal adhesion molecule F3 with the N-terminal domain of tenascin-R.

    Xiao ZC, Hillenbrand R, Schachner M, Thermes S, Rougon G and Gomez S

    Department of Neurobiology, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Hönggerberg, Zürich.

    Interaction between the extracellular matrix protein tenascin-R and the neuronal adhesion molecule F3 might be involved in the formation of neuronal networks. In this study, the fragment of tenascin-R comprising epithelial growth factor (EGF)-like repeats and the cysteine-rich NH2 terminal stretch (EGF-L), known to be inhibitory for growing neurites and repellent for growth cones, was used to investigate the signaling events following the F3/EGF-L interaction. We addressed this question using an in vitro test with F3-transfected Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells that allowed us to measure the kinetics, magnitude and specificity of the repellent effect resulting from the specific F3/EGF-L interaction. We showed that the repellent effect was counteracted by addition of the serine/threonine kinase and -phosphatase modulators (staurosporine, okadaic acid and H7) but not by modulators of tyrosine kinase or -phosphatases. This result indicates that the intracellular signals activated by the repellent effect involve a serine/threonine kinase pathway. Furthermore, the repellent effect of the EGF-L fragment for growth cones of cultured cerebellar neurons was also abolished by the identical modulators of serine/threonine kinase and -phosphatases. The inhibition of neurite outgrowth from hippocampal neurons by EGF-L was abolished in the presence of the serine threonine-kinase inhibitor H7. These results strongly suggest that the F3/tenascin-R interaction through EGF-L involves an intracellular activation of serine/ threonine kinase(s) in all F3-expressing cells tested.

    Journal of neuroscience research 1997;49;6;698-709

  • Assignment of the tenascin-R gene (Tnr) to mouse chromosome 4 band E2 by fluorescence in situ hybridization; refinement of the human TNR location to chromosome 1q24.

    Arrigo G, Gherzi R, Bonaglia MC, Leprini A, Zuffardi O and Zardi L

    Laboratorio Citogenetica-Ospedale San Raffaele, Milano, Italy.

    Cytogenetics and cell genetics 1997;78;2;145-6

  • The human tenascin-R gene.

    Leprini A, Gherzi R, Siri A, Querzé G, Viti F and Zardi L

    Laboratory of Cell Biology, Istituto Nazionale per la Ricerca sul Cancro, Largo R. Benzi, 10, 16132 Genova, Italy. lzardi@cisi.unige.it

    The human tenascin-R gene encodes a multidomain protein belonging to the tenascin family, until now detected only in the central nervous system. During embryo development, tenascin-R is presumed to play a pivotal role in axonal path finding through its adhesive and repulsive properties. Recently, the primary structure of human tenascin-R has been elucidated (Carnemolla, B., Leprini, A., Borsi, L., Querzé, G., Urbini, S., and Zardi, L. (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271, 8157-8160). As a further step to investigate the role of human tenascin-R, we defined the structure of its gene. The gene, which spans a region of chromosome 1 approximately 85 kilobases in length, consists of 21 exons, ranging in size from 90 to >670 base pairs. The sequence analysis of intron splice donor and acceptor sites revealed that the position of introns in human tenascin-R are precisely conserved in the other two tenascin family members, tenascin-C and tenascin-X. The determination of intronic sequences flanking the exon boundaries will allow investigation of whether mutations may be responsible for altered function of the gene product(s) leading to central nervous system development defects.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1996;271;49;31251-4

  • Human tenascin-R. Complete primary structure, pre-mRNA alternative splicing and gene localization on chromosome 1q23-q24.

    Carnemolla B, Leprini A, Borsi L, Querzé G, Urbini S and Zardi L

    Laboratory of Cell Biology, Istituto Nazionale per la Ricerca sul Cancro, Largo Rosanna Benzi, 10, 16132 Genoa, Italy.

    We have established the primary structure of human tenascin-R (TN-R), a component of the extracellular matrix of the central nervous system, by sequencing cDNA clones which cover its complete coding region. The deduced amino acid sequence of human TN-R (1358 amino acids) showed a homology to chicken and rat TN-R of 75 and 93%, respectively. By reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction we have studied the existence of TN-R isoforms generated by pre-mRNA alternative splicing in various human astrocytomas and meningiomas. Our findings demonstrate the existence of a human isoform in which one fibronectin-like repeat is omitted. Northern blot analysis of the poly(A)-rich RNA from different tissues showed two mRNAs having sizes of about 10 and 11 kilobases. Using DNA from a panel of human-hamster and human-mouse somatic cell hybrids and by fluorescence in situ hybridization, we have assigned the gene for human TN-R to the region 1q23-q24. The mouse mutation loop-tail (Lp), which has been proposed as a model for human neural tube defects, maps to region of mouse chromosome 1 syntenic with human 1q23-q24.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1996;271;14;8157-60

  • Distinct effects of recombinant tenascin-R domains in neuronal cell functions and identification of the domain interacting with the neuronal recognition molecule F3/11.

    Xiao ZC, Taylor J, Montag D, Rougon G and Schachner M

    Department of Neurobiology, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Hönggerberg, Zurich, Switerland.

    We have identified distinct domains of the rat extracellular matrix glycoprotein tenascin-R using recombinant fragments of the molecule that confer neuronal cell functions. In short-term adhesion assays (0.5 h), cerebellar neurons adhered best to the fragment representing the fibrinogen knob (FG), but also the fibronectin type III (FN) repeats 1-2 and 6-8. FG, FN1-2 and FN3-5 were the most repellent fragments for neuronal cell bodies. Neurites and growth cones were strongly repelled from areas coated with fragments containing the cysteine-rich stretch and the EGF-like domains (EGF-L), FN1-2, FN3-5 and FG. Polarization of morphology of hippocampal neurons was exclusively associated with FG, while EGF-L prevented neurite outgrowth altogether. The binding site of the neuronal receptor for tenascin-R, the immunoglobulin superfamily adhesion molecule F3/11, was localized to EGF-L. The combined observations show distinct, but also overlapping functions for the different tenascin-R domains. They further suggest the existence of multiple neuronal tenascin-R receptors which influence the response of neurons to their extracellular matrix environment.

    The European journal of neuroscience 1996;8;4;766-82

  • Tenascin-C, tenascin-R and tenascin-X: a family of talented proteins in search of functions.

    Erickson HP

    Department of Cell Biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710.

    "Mice develop normally without tenascin", was a shock to biologists studying the extracellular matrix. Could tenascin be a useless protein? This seems most improbable, as it is conserved in every vertebrate species. Moreover, two new proteins have been discovered in the last year that are closely related to the original tenascin, providing evidence for a tenascin family. Speculations on functions are ripe for re-evaluation.

    Current opinion in cell biology 1993;5;5;869-76

Gene lists (6)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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