G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
G00001810
Gene symbol
NFASC (HGNC)
Species
Homo sapiens
Description
neurofascin
Orthologue
G00000561 (Mus musculus)

Databases (7)

Gene
ENSG00000163531 (Ensembl human gene)
23114 (Entrez Gene)
978 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
NFASC (GeneCards)
Literature
609145 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:29866 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
O94856 (UniProt)

Synonyms (4)

  • FLJ46866
  • KIAA0756
  • NF
  • NRCAML

Literature (32)

Pubmed - other

  • Novel forms of neurofascin 155 in the central nervous system: alterations in paranodal disruption models and multiple sclerosis.

    Pomicter AD, Shroff SM, Fuss B, Sato-Bigbee C, Brophy PJ, Rasband MN, Bhat MA and Dupree JL

    Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Virginia Commonwealth University, School of Medicine, Richmond, VA, USA.

    Stability of the myelin-axon unit is achieved, at least in part, by specialized paranodal junctions comprised of the neuronal heterocomplex of contactin and contactin-associated protein and the myelin protein neurofascin 155. In multiple sclerosis, normal distribution of these proteins is altered, resulting in the loss of the insulating myelin and consequently causing axonal dysfunction. Previously, this laboratory reported that mice lacking the myelin-enriched lipid sulphatide are characterized by a progressive deterioration of the paranodal structure. Here, it is shown that this deterioration is preceded by significant loss of neurofascin 155 clustering at the myelin paranode. Interestingly, prolonged electrophoretic separation revealed the existence of two neurofascin 155 bands, neurofascin 155 high and neurofascin 155 low, which are readily observed following N-linked deglycosylation. Neurofascin 155 high is observed at 7 days of age and reaches peak expression at one month of age, while neurofascin 155 low is first observed at 14 days of age and constantly increases until 5 months of age. Studies using conditional neurofascin knockout mice indicated that neurofascin 155 high and neurofascin 155 low are products of the neurofascin gene and are exclusively expressed by oligodendrocytes within the central nervous system. Neurofascin 155 high is a myelin paranodal protein while the distribution of neurofascin 155 low remains to be determined. While neurofascin 155 high levels are significantly reduced in the sulphatide null mice at 15 days, 30 days and 4 months of age, neurofascin 155 low levels remain unaltered. Although maintained at normal levels, neurofascin 155 low is incapable of preserving paranodal structure, thus indicating that neurofascin 155 high is required for paranodal stability. Additionally, comparisons between neurofascin 155 high and neurofascin 155 low in human samples revealed a significant alteration, specifically in multiple sclerosis plaques.

    Funded by: Medical Research Council: G0301172; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM063074; NINDS NIH HHS: NS066186

    Brain : a journal of neurology 2010;133;Pt 2;389-405

  • Analysis of non-canonical fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) interaction reveals regulatory and activating domains of neurofascin.

    Kirschbaum K, Kriebel M, Kranz EU, Pötz O and Volkmer H

    Department of Molecular Biology, Naturwissenschaftliches und Medizinisches Institut an der Universität Tübingen, Markwiesenstrasse 55, 72770 Reutlingen, Germany

    Fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) are important for many different mechanisms, including cell migration, proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Here, we show a new link between FGFR1 and the cell adhesion molecule neurofascin, which is important for neurite outgrowth. After overexpression in HEK293 cells, embryonal neurofascin isoform NF166 was able to associate with FGFR1, whereas the adult isoform NF186, differing from NF166 in additional extracellular sequences, was deficient. Pharmacological inhibitors and overexpression of dominant negative components of the FGFR signaling pathway pointed to the activation of FGFR1 after association with neurofascin in neurite outgrowth assays in chick tectal neurons and rat PC12-E2 cells. Both extra- and intracellular domains of embryonal neurofascin isoform NF166 were able to form complexes with FGFR1 independently. However, the cytosolic domain was both necessary and sufficient for the activation of FGFR1. Cytosolic serine residues 56 and 100 were shown to be essential for the neurite outgrowth-promoting activity of neurofascin, whereas both amino acid residues were dispensable for FGFR1 association. In conclusion, the data suggest a neurofascin intracellular domain, which activates FGFR1 for neurite outgrowth, whereas the extracellular domain functions as an additional, regulatory FGFR1 interaction domain in the course of development.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2009;284;42;28533-42

  • Neurofascin as a novel target for autoantibody-mediated axonal injury.

    Mathey EK, Derfuss T, Storch MK, Williams KR, Hales K, Woolley DR, Al-Hayani A, Davies SN, Rasband MN, Olsson T, Moldenhauer A, Velhin S, Hohlfeld R, Meinl E and Linington C

    Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB25 2ZD, Scotland, UK.

    Axonal injury is considered the major cause of disability in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), but the underlying effector mechanisms are poorly understood. Starting with a proteomics-based approach, we identified neurofascin-specific autoantibodies in patients with MS. These autoantibodies recognize the native form of the extracellular domains of both neurofascin 186 (NF186), a neuronal protein concentrated in myelinated fibers at nodes of Ranvier, and NF155, the oligodendrocyte-specific isoform of neurofascin. Our in vitro studies with hippocampal slice cultures indicate that neurofascin antibodies inhibit axonal conduction in a complement-dependent manner. To evaluate whether circulating antineurofascin antibodies mediate a pathogenic effect in vivo, we cotransferred these antibodies with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-specific encephalitogenic T cells to mimic the inflammatory pathology of MS and breach the blood-brain barrier. In this animal model, antibodies to neurofascin selectively targeted nodes of Ranvier, resulting in deposition of complement, axonal injury, and disease exacerbation. Collectively, these results identify a novel mechanism of immune-mediated axonal injury that can contribute to axonal pathology in MS.

    Funded by: Multiple Sclerosis Society: 560, 780, 836, 837

    The Journal of experimental medicine 2007;204;10;2363-72

  • Reduced raft-association of NF155 in active MS-lesions is accompanied by the disruption of the paranodal junction.

    Maier O, Baron W and Hoekstra D

    Department of Cell Biology/Section Membrane Cell Biology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Antonius Deusinglaan 1, 9713 AV Groningen, The Netherlands. o.maier@med.umcg.nl

    Neurofascin155 (NF155) is required for the establishment of the paranodal axo-glial junction, the predominant interaction site between myelin and axon. It has been shown that the distribution of NF155 is altered in demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS). However, little is known about the biochemical mechanisms underlying these changes. We therefore compared NF155 in postmortem tissue of active and chronic inactive MS lesions with white matter from healthy controls. Although NF155 showed a very similar expression in all control white matter samples, a strong individual variation was observed in MS-lesions with NF155-levels reduced in most samples. At the same time an NF155-fragment was increased in MS-lesions, suggesting that NF155 is subject to protein degradation in lesion sites. Interestingly, the association of NF155 to membrane microdomains (rafts) was reduced in all lesions, irrespective of the amount of NF155, indicating that membrane association of NF155 was generally affected. Therefore, myelin fractionation experiments were performed to analyze the fate of paranodal proteins during demyelination. Although NF155 was enriched in heavy myelin from both control white matter and active MS-lesions, association of Caspr1/paranodin with heavy myelin was abolished in MS-lesions, demonstrating that paranodal junctions are disrupted. In conclusion, the data support the hypothesis that efficient raft-association of NF155 is essential for the assembly of the paranodal junction and demonstrate that reduced association of NF155 to lipid rafts is accompanied by the disassembly of the paranodal junction and thus contributes to the demyelination process in MS.

    Glia 2007;55;8;885-95

  • Systematic identification of SH3 domain-mediated human protein-protein interactions by peptide array target screening.

    Wu C, Ma MH, Brown KR, Geisler M, Li L, Tzeng E, Jia CY, Jurisica I and Li SS

    Department of Biochemistry and the Siebens-Drake Research Institute, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada.

    Systematic identification of direct protein-protein interactions is often hampered by difficulties in expressing and purifying the corresponding full-length proteins. By taking advantage of the modular nature of many regulatory proteins, we attempted to simplify protein-protein interactions to the corresponding domain-ligand recognition and employed peptide arrays to identify such binding events. A group of 12 Src homology (SH) 3 domains from eight human proteins (Swiss-Prot ID: SRC, PLCG1, P85A, NCK1, GRB2, FYN, CRK) were used to screen a peptide target array composed of 1536 potential ligands, which led to the identification of 921 binary interactions between these proteins and 284 targets. To assess the efficiency of the peptide array target screening (PATS) method in identifying authentic protein-protein interactions, we examined a set of interactions mediated by the PLCgamma1 SH3 domain by coimmunoprecipitation and/or affinity pull-downs using full-length proteins and achieved a 75% success rate. Furthermore, we characterized a novel interaction between PLCgamma1 and hematopoietic progenitor kinase 1 (HPK1) identified by PATS and demonstrated that the PLCgamma1 SH3 domain negatively regulated HPK1 kinase activity. Compared to protein interactions listed in the online predicted human interaction protein database (OPHID), the majority of interactions identified by PATS are novel, suggesting that, when extended to the large number of peptide interaction domains encoded by the human genome, PATS should aid in the mapping of the human interactome.

    Proteomics 2007;7;11;1775-85

  • The DNA sequence and biological annotation of human chromosome 1.

    Gregory SG, Barlow KF, McLay KE, Kaul R, Swarbreck D, Dunham A, Scott CE, Howe KL, Woodfine K, Spencer CC, Jones MC, Gillson C, Searle S, Zhou Y, Kokocinski F, McDonald L, Evans R, Phillips K, Atkinson A, Cooper R, Jones C, Hall RE, Andrews TD, Lloyd C, Ainscough R, Almeida JP, Ambrose KD, Anderson F, Andrew RW, Ashwell RI, Aubin K, Babbage AK, Bagguley CL, Bailey J, Beasley H, Bethel G, Bird CP, Bray-Allen S, Brown JY, Brown AJ, Buckley D, Burton J, Bye J, Carder C, Chapman JC, Clark SY, Clarke G, Clee C, Cobley V, Collier RE, Corby N, Coville GJ, Davies J, Deadman R, Dunn M, Earthrowl M, Ellington AG, Errington H, Frankish A, Frankland J, French L, Garner P, Garnett J, Gay L, Ghori MR, Gibson R, Gilby LM, Gillett W, Glithero RJ, Grafham DV, Griffiths C, Griffiths-Jones S, Grocock R, Hammond S, Harrison ES, Hart E, Haugen E, Heath PD, Holmes S, Holt K, Howden PJ, Hunt AR, Hunt SE, Hunter G, Isherwood J, James R, Johnson C, Johnson D, Joy A, Kay M, Kershaw JK, Kibukawa M, Kimberley AM, King A, Knights AJ, Lad H, Laird G, Lawlor S, Leongamornlert DA, Lloyd DM, Loveland J, Lovell J, Lush MJ, Lyne R, Martin S, Mashreghi-Mohammadi M, Matthews L, Matthews NS, McLaren S, Milne S, Mistry S, Moore MJ, Nickerson T, O'Dell CN, Oliver K, Palmeiri A, Palmer SA, Parker A, Patel D, Pearce AV, Peck AI, Pelan S, Phelps K, Phillimore BJ, Plumb R, Rajan J, Raymond C, Rouse G, Saenphimmachak C, Sehra HK, Sheridan E, Shownkeen R, Sims S, Skuce CD, Smith M, Steward C, Subramanian S, Sycamore N, Tracey A, Tromans A, Van Helmond Z, Wall M, Wallis JM, White S, Whitehead SL, Wilkinson JE, Willey DL, Williams H, Wilming L, Wray PW, Wu Z, Coulson A, Vaudin M, Sulston JE, Durbin R, Hubbard T, Wooster R, Dunham I, Carter NP, McVean G, Ross MT, Harrow J, Olson MV, Beck S, Rogers J, Bentley DR, Banerjee R, Bryant SP, Burford DC, Burrill WD, Clegg SM, Dhami P, Dovey O, Faulkner LM, Gribble SM, Langford CF, Pandian RD, Porter KM and Prigmore E

    The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, The Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridgeshire CB10 1SA, UK. sgregory@chg.duhs.duke.edu

    The reference sequence for each human chromosome provides the framework for understanding genome function, variation and evolution. Here we report the finished sequence and biological annotation of human chromosome 1. Chromosome 1 is gene-dense, with 3,141 genes and 991 pseudogenes, and many coding sequences overlap. Rearrangements and mutations of chromosome 1 are prevalent in cancer and many other diseases. Patterns of sequence variation reveal signals of recent selection in specific genes that may contribute to human fitness, and also in regions where no function is evident. Fine-scale recombination occurs in hotspots of varying intensity along the sequence, and is enriched near genes. These and other studies of human biology and disease encoded within chromosome 1 are made possible with the highly accurate annotated sequence, as part of the completed set of chromosome sequences that comprise the reference human genome.

    Funded by: Medical Research Council: G0000107; Wellcome Trust

    Nature 2006;441;7091;315-21

  • Early events in node of Ranvier formation during myelination and remyelination in the PNS.

    Schafer DP, Custer AW, Shrager P and Rasband MN

    Department of Neuroscience, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, Connecticut 06032, USA.

    Action potential conduction velocity increases dramatically during early development as axons become myelinated. Integral to this process is the clustering of voltage-gated Na(+) (Nav) channels at regularly spaced gaps in the myelin sheath called nodes of Ranvier. We show here that some aspects of peripheral node of Ranvier formation are distinct from node formation in the CNS. For example, at CNS nodes, Nav1.2 channels are detected first, but are then replaced by Nav1.6. Similarly, during remyelination in the CNS, Nav1.2 channels are detected at newly forming nodes. By contrast, the earliest Nav-channel clusters detected during developmental myelination in the PNS have Nav1.6. Further, during PNS remyelination, Nav1.6 is detected at new nodes. Finally, we show that accumulation of the cell adhesion molecule neurofascin always precedes Nav channel clustering in the PNS. In most cases axonal neurofascin (NF-186) accumulates first, but occasionally paranodal neurofascin is detected first. We suggest there is heterogeneity in the events leading to Nav channel clustering, indicating that multiple mechanisms might contribute to node of Ranvier formation in the PNS.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: R01 NS017965, R01 NS044916, R01 NS044916-04, R37 NS044916, T32 NS041224

    Neuron glia biology 2006;2;2;69-79

  • Cell adhesion and neurite outgrowth are promoted by neurofascin NF155 and inhibited by NF186.

    Koticha D, Babiarz J, Kane-Goldsmith N, Jacob J, Raju K and Grumet M

    W. M. Keck Center for Collaborative Neuroscience, Rutgers, State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8082, USA.

    Neurofascin (NF) is a neural cell adhesion molecule in the L1-family containing six Ig domains and multiple fibronectin type III (FnIII) repeats in its extracellular region. NF has many splicing variants and two of these are exemplars that have different cellular patterns of expression during development. NF186, which is expressed on neurons, contains an unusual mucin-like region and NF155, which is expressed on glia, contains a unique FnIII repeat with an RGD motif. Analysis of Fc fusion proteins representing different extracellular regions of NF indicate that NF186 inhibits cell adhesion and neurite outgrowth, and the inhibition is associated with the region containing the mucin-like domain. NF155 promotes neural cell adhesion and neurite outgrowth, and the RGD motif in its third FnIII repeat is critical for cell spreading and neurite outgrowth. The results suggest that different splicing variants of NF expressed on neurons and glia play distinct roles during neural development.

    Molecular and cellular neurosciences 2005;30;1;137-48

  • Alternative splice variants encoding unstable protein domains exist in the human brain.

    Homma K, Kikuno RF, Nagase T, Ohara O and Nishikawa K

    Laboratory of Gene-Product Informatics, Center for Information Biology-DNA Data Bank of Japan, National Institute of Genetics, Research Organization of Information and Systems, Shizuoka 411-8540, Japan.

    Alternative splicing has been recognized as a major mechanism by which protein diversity is increased without significantly increasing genome size in animals and has crucial medical implications, as many alternative splice variants are known to cause diseases. Despite the importance of knowing what structural changes alternative splicing introduces to the encoded proteins for the consideration of its significance, the problem has not been adequately explored. Therefore, we systematically examined the structures of the proteins encoded by the alternative splice variants in the HUGE protein database derived from long (>4 kb) human brain cDNAs. Limiting our analyses to reliable alternative splice junctions, we found alternative splice junctions to have a slight tendency to avoid the interior of SCOP domains and a strong statistically significant tendency to coincide with SCOP domain boundaries. These findings reflect the occurrence of some alternative splicing events that utilize protein structural units as a cassette. However, 50 cases were identified in which SCOP domains are disrupted in the middle by alternative splicing. In six of the cases, insertions are introduced at the molecular surface, presumably affecting protein functions, while in 11 of the cases alternatively spliced variants were found to encode pairs of stable and unstable proteins. The mRNAs encoding such unstable proteins are much less abundant than those encoding stable proteins and tend not to have corresponding mRNAs in non-primate species. We propose that most unstable proteins encoded by alternative splice variants lack normal functions and are an evolutionary dead-end.

    Journal of molecular biology 2004;343;5;1207-20

  • Ankyrin-based subcellular gradient of neurofascin, an immunoglobulin family protein, directs GABAergic innervation at purkinje axon initial segment.

    Ango F, di Cristo G, Higashiyama H, Bennett V, Wu P and Huang ZJ

    Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, NY 11724, USA.

    Distinct classes of GABAergic synapses are segregated into subcellular domains (i.e., dendrite, soma, and axon initial segment-AIS), thereby differentially regulating the input, integration, and output of principal neurons. In cerebellum, for example, basket interneurons make exquisitely precise "pinceau synapses" on AIS of Purkinje neurons, but the underlying mechanism is unknown. Using BAC transgenic reporter mice, we found that basket axons always contacted Purkinje soma before innervating AIS. This synapse targeting process followed the establishment of a subcellular gradient of neurofascin186 (NF186), an L1 family immunoglobulin cell adhesion molecule (L1CAM), along the Purkinje AIS-soma axis. This gradient was dependent on ankyrinG, an AIS-restricted membrane adaptor protein that recruits NF186. In the absence of neurofascin gradient, basket axons lost directional growth along Purkinje neurons and precisely followed NF186 to ectopic locations. Disruption of NF186-ankyrinG interactions at AIS reduced pinceau synapse formation. These results implicate ankyrin-based localization of L1CAMs in subcellular organization of GABAergic synapses.

    Cell 2004;119;2;257-72

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.

    Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, Otsuki T, Sugiyama T, Irie R, Wakamatsu A, Hayashi K, Sato H, Nagai K, Kimura K, Makita H, Sekine M, Obayashi M, Nishi T, Shibahara T, Tanaka T, Ishii S, Yamamoto J, Saito K, Kawai Y, Isono Y, Nakamura Y, Nagahari K, Murakami K, Yasuda T, Iwayanagi T, Wagatsuma M, Shiratori A, Sudo H, Hosoiri T, Kaku Y, Kodaira H, Kondo H, Sugawara M, Takahashi M, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Furuya T, Kikkawa E, Omura Y, Abe K, Kamihara K, Katsuta N, Sato K, Tanikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ninomiya K, Ishibashi T, Yamashita H, Murakawa K, Fujimori K, Tanai H, Kimata M, Watanabe M, Hiraoka S, Chiba Y, Ishida S, Ono Y, Takiguchi S, Watanabe S, Yosida M, Hotuta T, Kusano J, Kanehori K, Takahashi-Fujii A, Hara H, Tanase TO, Nomura Y, Togiya S, Komai F, Hara R, Takeuchi K, Arita M, Imose N, Musashino K, Yuuki H, Oshima A, Sasaki N, Aotsuka S, Yoshikawa Y, Matsunawa H, Ichihara T, Shiohata N, Sano S, Moriya S, Momiyama H, Satoh N, Takami S, Terashima Y, Suzuki O, Nakagawa S, Senoh A, Mizoguchi H, Goto Y, Shimizu F, Wakebe H, Hishigaki H, Watanabe T, Sugiyama A, Takemoto M, Kawakami B, Yamazaki M, Watanabe K, Kumagai A, Itakura S, Fukuzumi Y, Fujimori Y, Komiyama M, Tashiro H, Tanigami A, Fujiwara T, Ono T, Yamada K, Fujii Y, Ozaki K, Hirao M, Ohmori Y, Kawabata A, Hikiji T, Kobatake N, Inagaki H, Ikema Y, Okamoto S, Okitani R, Kawakami T, Noguchi S, Itoh T, Shigeta K, Senba T, Matsumura K, Nakajima Y, Mizuno T, Morinaga M, Sasaki M, Togashi T, Oyama M, Hata H, Watanabe M, Komatsu T, Mizushima-Sugano J, Satoh T, Shirai Y, Takahashi Y, Nakagawa K, Okumura K, Nagase T, Nomura N, Kikuchi H, Masuho Y, Yamashita R, Nakai K, Yada T, Nakamura Y, Ohara O, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Helix Research Institute, 1532-3 Yana, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0812, Japan.

    As a base for human transcriptome and functional genomics, we created the "full-length long Japan" (FLJ) collection of sequenced human cDNAs. We determined the entire sequence of 21,243 selected clones and found that 14,490 cDNAs (10,897 clusters) were unique to the FLJ collection. About half of them (5,416) seemed to be protein-coding. Of those, 1,999 clusters had not been predicted by computational methods. The distribution of GC content of nonpredicted cDNAs had a peak at approximately 58% compared with a peak at approximately 42%for predicted cDNAs. Thus, there seems to be a slight bias against GC-rich transcripts in current gene prediction procedures. The rest of the cDNAs unique to the FLJ collection (5,481) contained no obvious open reading frames (ORFs) and thus are candidate noncoding RNAs. About one-fourth of them (1,378) showed a clear pattern of splicing. The distribution of GC content of noncoding cDNAs was narrow and had a peak at approximately 42%, relatively low compared with that of protein-coding cDNAs.

    Nature genetics 2004;36;1;40-5

  • Caspr regulates the processing of contactin and inhibits its binding to neurofascin.

    Gollan L, Salomon D, Salzer JL and Peles E

    Department of Molecular Cell Biology, The Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 Israel.

    Three cell adhesion molecules are present at the axoglial junctions that form between the axon and myelinating glia on either side of nodes of Ranvier. These include an axonal complex of contacin-associated protein (Caspr) and contactin, which was proposed to bind NF155, an isoform of neurofascin located on the glial paranodal loops. Here, we show that NF155 binds directly to contactin and that surprisingly, coexpression of Caspr inhibits this interaction. This inhibition reflects the association of Caspr with contactin during biosynthesis and the resulting expression of a low molecular weight (LMw), endoglycosidase H-sensitive isoform of contactin at the cell membrane, which remains associated with Caspr but is unable to bind NF155. Accordingly, deletion of Caspr in mice by gene targeting results in a shift from the LMw- to a HMw-contactin glycoform. These results demonstrate that Caspr regulates the intracellular processing and transport of contactin to the cell surface, thereby affecting its ability to interact with other cell adhesion molecules.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: NS43474, R01 NS043474

    The Journal of cell biology 2003;163;6;1213-8

  • A new activity of doublecortin in recognition of the phospho-FIGQY tyrosine in the cytoplasmic domain of neurofascin.

    Kizhatil K, Wu YX, Sen A and Bennett V

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Cell Biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA. k.kizhatil@cellbio.duke.edu

    Doublecortin is a cytoplasmic protein mutated in the neuronal migration disorder X-linked lissencephaly. This study describes a novel activity of doublecortin in recognition of the FIGQY-phosphotyrosine motif present in the cytoplasmic domain of the L1 cell adhesion molecule neurofascin. Phospho-FIGQY-neurofascin (186 kDa) coimmunoprecipitated with doublecortin from detergent extracts of embryonic brain membranes, and this doublecortin-phospho-FIGQY neurofascin complex was disassociated by a synthetic phospho-FIGQY neurofascin peptide but not by a dephospho-FIGQY peptide. Doublecortin specifically recognized the phospho-FIGQY tyrosine in the context of a synthetic phospho-FIGQY neurofascin peptide and in phospho-FIGQY neurofascin isolated from cells treated with pervanadate. Mutations of doublecortin causing lissencephaly (R59H, D62N, and G253D) abolished binding to the phospho-FIGQY peptide and to phospho-FIGQY neurofascin. Finally, phospho-FIGQY neurofascin and doublecortin colocalize in developing axon tracts and in zones enriched in migrating neurons in the embryonic cerebral cortex. In the adult rostral migratory stream, doublecortin colocalizes in migrating neurons with a phospho-FIGQY bearing L1 CAM different from neurofascin. The finding that doublecortin associates with FIGQY-phosphorylated neurofascin provides the first connection of doublecortin with the plasma membrane and could be important for a function of doublecortin in directing neuronal migration.

    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience 2002;22;18;7948-58

  • Construction of expression-ready cDNA clones for KIAA genes: manual curation of 330 KIAA cDNA clones.

    Nakajima D, Okazaki N, Yamakawa H, Kikuno R, Ohara O and Nagase T

    Kazusa DNA Research Institute, Kisarazu, Chiba, Japan.

    We have accumulated information on protein-coding sequences of uncharacterized human genes, which are known as KIAA genes, through cDNA sequencing. For comprehensive functional analysis of the KIAA genes, it is necessary to prepare a set of cDNA clones which direct the synthesis of functional KIAA gene products. However, since the KIAA cDNAs were derived from long mRNAs (> 4 kb), it was not expected that all of them were full-length. Thus, as the first step toward preparing these clones, we evaluated the integrity of protein-coding sequences of KIAA cDNA clones through comparison with homologous protein entries in the public database. As a result, 1141 KIAA cDNAs had at least one homologous entry in the database, and 619 of them (54%) were found to be truncated at the 5' and/or 3' ends. In this study, 290 KIAA cDNA clones were tailored to be full-length or have considerably longer sequences than the original clones by isolating additional cDNA clones and/or connected parts of additional cDNAs or PCR products of the missing portion to the original cDNA clone. Consequently, 265, 8, and 17 predicted CDSs of KIAA cDNA clones were increased in the amino-, carboxy-, and both terminal sequences, respectively. In addition, 40 cDNA clones were modified to remove spurious interruption of protein-coding sequences. The total length of the resultant extensions at amino- and carboxy-terminals of KIAA gene products reached 97,000 and 7,216 amino acid residues, respectively, and various protein domains were found in these extended portions.

    DNA research : an international journal for rapid publication of reports on genes and genomes 2002;9;3;99-106

  • Neurofascin is a glial receptor for the paranodin/Caspr-contactin axonal complex at the axoglial junction.

    Charles P, Tait S, Faivre-Sarrailh C, Barbin G, Gunn-Moore F, Denisenko-Nehrbass N, Guennoc AM, Girault JA, Brophy PJ and Lubetzki C

    INSERM U-495, Biologie des Interactions Neurones/Glie, UPMC, Hôpital de la Salpêtrière, 75651 Paris Cedex 13, France.

    In myelinated fibers of the vertebrate nervous system, glial-ensheathing cells interact with axons at specialized adhesive junctions, the paranodal septate-like junctions. The axonal proteins paranodin/Caspr and contactin form a cis complex in the axolemma at the axoglial adhesion zone, and both are required to stabilize the junction. There has been intense speculation that an oligodendroglial isoform of the cell adhesion molecule neurofascin, NF155, expressed at the paranodal loop might be the glial receptor for the paranodin/Caspr-contactin complex, particularly since paranodin/Caspr and NF155 colocalize to ectopic sites in the CNS of the dysmyelinated mouse Shiverer mutant. We report that the extracellular domain of NF155 binds specifically to transfected cells expressing the paranodin/Caspr-contactin complex at the cell surface. This region of NF155 also binds the paranodin/Caspr-contactin complex from brain lysates in vitro. In support of the functional significance of this interaction, NF155 antibodies and the extracellular domain of NF155 inhibit myelination in myelinating cocultures, presumably by blocking the adhesive relationship between the axon and glial cell. These results demonstrate that the paranodin/Caspr-contactin complex interacts biochemically with NF155 and that this interaction is likely to be biologically relevant at the axoglial junction.

    Funded by: Medical Research Council: G0000221

    Current biology : CB 2002;12;3;217-20

  • Ankyrin-G coordinates assembly of the spectrin-based membrane skeleton, voltage-gated sodium channels, and L1 CAMs at Purkinje neuron initial segments.

    Jenkins SM and Bennett V

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Biochemistry, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA. s.jenkins@cellbio.duke.edu

    The axon initial segment is an excitable membrane highly enriched in voltage-gated sodium channels that integrates neuronal inputs and initiates action potentials. This study identifies Nav1.6 as the voltage-gated sodium channel isoform at mature Purkinje neuron initial segments and reports an essential role for ankyrin-G in coordinating the physiological assembly of Nav1.6, betaIV spectrin, and the L1 cell adhesion molecules (L1 CAMs) neurofascin and NrCAM at initial segments of cerebellar Purkinje neurons. Ankyrin-G and betaIV spectrin appear at axon initial segments by postnatal day 2, whereas L1 CAMs and Nav1.6 are not fully assembled at continuous high density along axon initial segments until postnatal day 9. L1 CAMs and Nav1.6 therefore do not initiate protein assembly at initial segments. betaIV spectrin, Nav1.6, and L1 CAMs are not clustered in adult Purkinje neuron initial segments of mice lacking cerebellar ankyrin-G. These results support the conclusion that ankyrin-G coordinates the physiological assembly of a protein complex containing transmembrane adhesion molecules, voltage-gated sodium channels, and the spectrin membrane skeleton at axon initial segments.

    The Journal of cell biology 2001;155;5;739-46

  • FIGQY phosphorylation defines discrete populations of L1 cell adhesion molecules at sites of cell-cell contact and in migrating neurons.

    Jenkins SM, Kizhatil K, Kramarcy NR, Sen A, Sealock R and Bennett V

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA. s.jenkins@cellbio.duke.edu

    Phosphorylation of neurofascin, a member of the L1 family of cell adhesion molecules (L1 CAMs), at the conserved FIGQY-tyrosine abolishes the ankyrin-neurofascin interaction. This study provides the first evidence, in Drosophila melanogaster and vertebrates, for the physiological occurrence of FIGQY phosphorylation in L1 family members. FIGQY tyrosine phosphorylation is localized at specialized cell junctions, including paranodes of sciatic nerve, neuromuscular junctions of adult rats and Drosophila embryos, epidermal muscle attachment sites of Drosophila, and adherens junctions of developing epithelial cells of rat and Drosophila. In addition, FIGQY-phosphorylated L1 CAMs are abundantly expressed in regions of neuronal migration and axon extension, including the embryonic cortex, the neonatal cerebellum and the rostral migratory stream, a region of continued neurogenesis and migration throughout adulthood in the rat. Based on our results, physiological FIGQY-tyrosine phosphorylation of the L1 family likely regulates adhesion molecule-ankyrin interactions establishing ankyrin-free and ankyrin-containing microdomains and participates in an ankyrin-independent intracellular signaling pathway at specialized sites of intercellular contact in epithelial and nervous tissue.

    Journal of cell science 2001;114;Pt 21;3823-35

  • Sodium channel beta1 and beta3 subunits associate with neurofascin through their extracellular immunoglobulin-like domain.

    Ratcliffe CF, Westenbroek RE, Curtis R and Catterall WA

    Department of Pharmacology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA.

    Sequence homology predicts that the extracellular domain of the sodium channel beta1 subunit forms an immunoglobulin (Ig) fold and functions as a cell adhesion molecule. We show here that beta1 subunits associate with neurofascin, a neuronal cell adhesion molecule that plays a key role in the assembly of nodes of Ranvier. The first Ig-like domain and second fibronectin type III-like domain of neurofascin mediate the interaction with the extracellular Ig-like domain of beta1, confirming the proposed function of this domain as a cell adhesion molecule. beta1 subunits localize to nodes of Ranvier with neurofascin in sciatic nerve axons, and beta1 and neurofascin are associated as early as postnatal day 5, during the period that nodes of Ranvier are forming. This association of beta1 subunit extracellular domains with neurofascin in developing axons may facilitate recruitment and concentration of sodium channel complexes at nodes of Ranvier.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: NS25704, R01 NS025704

    The Journal of cell biology 2001;154;2;427-34

  • The neural cell recognition molecule neurofascin interacts with syntenin-1 but not with syntenin-2, both of which reveal self-associating activity.

    Koroll M, Rathjen FG and Volkmer H

    Max-Delbrück-Centrum für Molekulare Medizin, Robert-Rössle-Strasse 10, Berlin D-13092, Germany.

    Neurofascin belongs to the L1 subgroup of the immunoglobulin superfamily of cell adhesion molecules and is implicated in axonal growth and fasciculation. We used yeast two-hybrid screening to identify proteins that interact with neurofascin intracellularly and therefore might link it to trafficking, spatial targeting, or signaling pathways. Here, we demonstrate that rat syntenin-1, previously published as syntenin, mda-9, or TACIP18 in human, is a neurofascin-binding protein that exhibits a wide-spread tissue expression pattern with a relative maximum in brain. Syntenin-1 was found not to interact with other vertebrate members of the L1 subgroup such as L1 itself or NrCAM. We confirmed the specificity of the neurofascin-syntenin-1 interaction by ligand-overlay assay, surface plasmon resonance analysis, and colocalization of both proteins in heterologous cells. The COOH terminus of neurofascin was mapped to interact with the second PDZ domain of syntenin-1. Furthermore, we isolated syntenin-2 that may be expressed in two isoforms. Despite their high sequence similarity to syntenin-1, syntenin-2alpha, which interacts with neurexin I, and syntenin-2beta do not bind to neurofascin or several other transmembrane proteins that are binding partners of syntenin-1. Finally, we report that syntenin-1 and -2 both form homodimers and can interact with each other.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2001;276;14;10646-54

  • Structural requirements for association of neurofascin with ankyrin.

    Zhang X, Davis JQ, Carpenter S and Bennett V

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Departments of Cell Biology and Biochemistry, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA.

    This paper presents the first structural analysis of the cytoplasmic domain of neurofascin, which is highly conserved among the L1CAM family of cell adhesion molecules, and describes sequence requirements for neurofascin-ankyrin interactions in living cells. The cytoplasmic domain of neurofascin dimerizes in solution, has an asymmetric shape, and exhibits a reversible temperature-dependent beta-structure. Residues Ser56-Tyr81 are necessary for ankyrin binding but do not contribute to either dimerization or formation of structure. Transfected neurofascin recruits GFP-tagged 270-kDa ankyrinG to the plasma membrane of human embryo kidney 293 cells. Deletion mutants demonstrate that the sequence Ser56-Tyr81 contains the major ankyrin-recruiting activity of neurofascin. Mutations of the FIGQY tyrosine (Y81H/A/E) greatly impair neurofascin-ankyrin interactions. Mutation of human L1 at the equivalent tyrosine (Y1229H) is responsible for certain cases of mental retardation (Van Camp, G., Fransen, E., Vits, L., Raes, G., and Willems, P. J. (1996) Hum. Mutat. 8, 391). Mutations F77A and E73Q greatly impair ankyrin binding activity, whereas mutation D74N and a triple mutation of D57N/D58N/D62N result in less loss of ankyrin binding activity. These results provide evidence for a highly specific interaction between ankyrin and neurofascin and suggest that ankyrin association with L1 is required for L1 function in humans.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1998;273;46;30785-94

  • Prediction of the coding sequences of unidentified human genes. XI. The complete sequences of 100 new cDNA clones from brain which code for large proteins in vitro.

    Nagase T, Ishikawa K, Suyama M, Kikuno R, Miyajima N, Tanaka A, Kotani H, Nomura N and Ohara O

    Kazusa DNA Research Institute, Kisarazu, Chiba, Japan.

    In our series of projects for accumulating sequence information on the coding sequences of unidentified human genes, we have newly determined the sequences of 100 cDNA clones from a set of size-fractionated human brain cDNA libraries, and predicted the coding sequences of the corresponding genes, named KIAA0711 to KIAA0810. These cDNA clones were selected according to their coding potentials of large proteins (50 kDa and more) in vitro. The average sizes of the inserts and corresponding open reading frames were 4.3 kb and 2.6 kb (869 amino acid residues), respectively. Sequence analyses against the public databases indicated that the predicted coding sequences of 78 genes were similar to those of known genes, 64% of which (50 genes) were categorized as proteins functionally related to cell signaling/communication, cell structure/motility and nucleic acid management. As additional information concerning genes characterized in this study, the chromosomal locations of the clones were determined by using human-rodent hybrid panels and the expression profiles among 10 human tissues were examined by reverse transcription-coupled polymerase chain reaction which was substantially improved by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    DNA research : an international journal for rapid publication of reports on genes and genomes 1998;5;5;277-86

  • Dissection of complex molecular interactions of neurofascin with axonin-1, F11, and tenascin-R, which promote attachment and neurite formation of tectal cells.

    Volkmer H, Zacharias U, Nörenberg U and Rathjen FG

    Max-Delbrück-Centrum für Molekulare Medizin, D-13122 Berlin, Germany.

    Neurofascin is a member of the L1 subgroup of the Ig superfamily that promotes axon outgrowth by interactions with neuronal NgCAM-related cell adhesion molecule (NrCAM). We used a combination of cellular binding assays and neurite outgrowth experiments to investigate mechanisms that might modulate the interactions of neurofascin. In addition to NrCAM, we here demonstrate that neurofascin also binds to the extracellular matrix glycoprotein tenascin-R (TN-R) and to the Ig superfamily members axonin-1 and F11. Isoforms of neurofascin that are generated by alternative splicing show different preferences in ligand binding. While interactions of neurofascin with F11 are only slightly modulated, binding to axonin-1 and TN-R is strongly regulated by alternatively spliced stretches located in the NH2-terminal half, and by the proline-alanine-threonine-rich segment. In vitro neurite outgrowth and cell attachment assays on a neurofascin-Fc substrate reveal a shift of cellular receptor usage from NrCAM to axonin-1, F11, and at least one additional protein in the presence of TN-R, presumably due to competition of the neurofascin- NrCAM interaction. Thereby, F11 binds to TN-R of the neurofascin/TN-R complex, but not to neurofascin, whereas axonin-1 is not able to bind directly to the neurofascin/TN-R complex as shown by competition binding assays. In conclusion, these investigations indicate that the molecular interactions of neurofascin are regulated at different levels, including alternative splicing and by the presence of interacting proteins.

    The Journal of cell biology 1998;142;4;1083-93

  • Palmitoylation of neurofascin at a site in the membrane-spanning domain highly conserved among the L1 family of cell adhesion molecules.

    Ren Q and Bennett V

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Cell Biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA.

    This report presents the first evidence that a member of the L1 family of nervous system cell-adhesion molecules is covalently modified by thioesterification with palmitate, and identifies a highly conserved cysteine in the predicted membrane-spanning domain as the site of modification. Neurofascin is constitutively palmitoylated at cysteine-1213 at close to a 1:1 molar stoichiometry. Kinetics of palmitate incorporation into neurofascin expressed in resting neuroblastoma cells indicate that the palmitate modification has the same turnover rate as the polypeptide chain and does not affect the protein stability of neurofascin. Palmitoylation of neurofascin expressed in dorsal root ganglion neurons is not required for delivery of neurofascin to the plasma membrane or targeting to axons. Palmitoylation also has no effect on ankyrin-binding activity of neurofascin, on the oligomeric state of neurofascin in solution, or on cell-adhesion activity of neurofascin expressed in neuroblastoma cells. A significant difference between native and C1213L neurofascin is that these proteins were localized in distinct fractions within a low-density membrane population enriched in signaling molecules. These results indicate a palmitate-dependent targeting of neurofascin to a specialized membrane microdomain.

    Journal of neurochemistry 1998;70;5;1839-49

  • The phosphorylation state of the FIGQY tyrosine of neurofascin determines ankyrin-binding activity and patterns of cell segregation.

    Tuvia S, Garver TD and Bennett V

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Cell Biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA.

    Cell-cell recognition and patterning of cell contacts have a critical role in mediating reversible assembly of a variety of transcellular complexes in the nervous system. This study provides evidence for regulation of cell interactions through modulation of ankyrin binding to neurofascin, a member of the L1CAM family of nervous system cell adhesion molecules. The phosphorylation state of the conserved FIGQY tyrosine in the cytoplasmic domain of neurofascin regulates ankyrin binding and governs neurofascin-dependent cell aggregation as well as cell sorting when neurofascin is expressed in neuroblastoma cells. These findings suggest a general mechanism for the patterning of cell contact based on external signals that regulate tyrosine phosphorylation of L1CAM members and modulate their binding to ankyrin.

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1997;94;24;12957-62

  • Large-scale concatenation cDNA sequencing.

    Yu W, Andersson B, Worley KC, Muzny DM, Ding Y, Liu W, Ricafrente JY, Wentland MA, Lennon G and Gibbs RA

    A total of 100 kb of DNA derived from 69 individual human brain cDNA clones of 0.7-2.0 kb were sequenced by concatenated cDNA sequencing (CCS), whereby multiple individual DNA fragments are sequenced simultaneously in a single shotgun library. The method yielded accurate sequences and a similar efficiency compared with other shotgun libraries constructed from single DNA fragments (> 20 kb). Computer analyses were carried out on 65 cDNA clone sequences and their corresponding end sequences to examine both nucleic acid and amino acid sequence similarities in the databases. Thirty-seven clones revealed no DNA database matches, 12 clones generated exact matches (> or = 98% identity), and 16 clones generated nonexact matches (57%-97% identity) to either known human or other species genes. Of those 28 matched clones, 8 had corresponding end sequences that failed to identify similarities. In a protein similarity search, 27 clone sequences displayed significant matches, whereas only 20 of the end sequences had matches to known protein sequences. Our data indicate that full-length cDNA insert sequences provide significantly more nucleic acid and protein sequence similarity matches than expressed sequence tags (ESTs) for database searching.

    Funded by: NHGRI NIH HHS: 1F32 HG00169-01, F32 HG000169, F33 HG000210, P30 HG00210-05, R01 HG00823, U54 HG003273

    Genome research 1997;7;4;353-8

  • Molecular composition of the node of Ranvier: identification of ankyrin-binding cell adhesion molecules neurofascin (mucin+/third FNIII domain-) and NrCAM at nodal axon segments.

    Davis JQ, Lambert S and Bennett V

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Cell Biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA.

    Neurofascin, NrCAM, L1, and NgCAM are a family of Ig/FNIII cell adhesion molecules that share ankyrin-binding activity in their cytoplasmic domains, and are candidates to form membrane-spanning complexes with members of the ankyrin family of spectrin-binding proteins in a variety of cellular contexts in the nervous system. Specialized forms of ankyrin, 270 kD and/or 480 kD ankyrinG are components of the membrane undercoat of axons at the node of Ranvier. This paper focuses on definition of the isoforms of ankyrin-binding cell adhesion molecules localized with ankyrinG at the nodal axon segment. The exon usage of two major forms of neurofascin was determined by isolation of full-length cDNAs and used to prepare isoform-specific antibodies. An isoform of neurofascin containing a mucin-like domain and lacking the third FNIII domain was concentrated at axon initial segments and colocalized at nodes of Ranvier with ankyrinG and the voltage-dependent sodium channel. An alternative form of neurofascin lacking the mucin-like domain and containing the third FNIII domain was present in unmyelinated axons. The antibody initially raised against neurofascin was used to screen a rat brain cDNA expression library. In addition to neurofascin, this screen yielded a clone with 80% sequence identity to NrCAM from chicken. The sequences of two full-length cDNAs are presented. NrCAM is most closely related to neurofascin among the other members of the L1/neurofascin/NgCAM family, with over 70% identity between cytoplasmic domains. NrCAM, visualized with antibodies specific for the ecto-domain, also was found to be coexpressed with neurofascin at nodes of Ranvier and at axon initial segments. This is the first characterization of defined neuronal cell adhesion molecules localized to axonal membranes at the node of Ranvier of myelinated axons.

    The Journal of cell biology 1996;135;5;1355-67

  • The L1 family of neural cell adhesion molecules: old proteins performing new tricks.

    Hortsch M

    Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor 48109-0616, USA.

    Funded by: NICHD NIH HHS: HD29388

    Neuron 1996;17;4;587-93

  • Genes for the neuronal immunoglobulin domain cell adhesion molecules neurofascin and Nr-CAM map to mouse chromosomes 1 and 12 and homologous human chromosomes.

    Burmeister M, Ren Q, Makris GJ, Samson D and Bennett V

    Mental Health Research Institute, 205 Zina Pitcher Place, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 48109-0720, USA.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: NS32130

    Mammalian genome : official journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society 1996;7;7;558-9

  • A "double adaptor" method for improved shotgun library construction.

    Andersson B, Wentland MA, Ricafrente JY, Liu W and Gibbs RA

    Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, Texas, 77030, USA.

    The efficiency of shotgun DNA sequencing depends to a great extent on the quality of the random-subclone libraries used. We here describe a novel "double adaptor" strategy for efficient construction of high-quality shotgun libraries. In this method, randomly sheared and end-repaired fragments are ligated to oligonucleotide adaptors creating 12-base overhangs. Nonphosphorylated oligonucleotides are used, which prevents formation of adaptor dimers and ensures efficient ligation of insert to adaptor. The vector is prepared from a modified M13 vector, by KpnI/PstI digestion followed by ligation to oligonucleotides with ends complementary to the overhangs created in the digest. These adaptors create 5'-overhangs complementary to those on the inserts. Following annealing of insert to vector, the DNA is directly used for transformation without a ligation step. This protocol is robust and shows three- to fivefold higher yield of clones compared to previous protocols. No chimeric clones can be detected and the background of clones without an insert is <1%. The procedure is rapid and shows potential for automation.

    Funded by: NHGRI NIH HHS: R01 HG00823

    Analytical biochemistry 1996;236;1;107-13

  • Structure of the axonal surface recognition molecule neurofascin and its relationship to a neural subgroup of the immunoglobulin superfamily.

    Volkmer H, Hassel B, Wolff JM, Frank R and Rathjen FG

    Zentrum für Molekulare Neurobiologie, Hamburg, Germany.

    The chick axon-associated surface glycoprotein neurofascin is implicated in axonal growth and fasciculation as revealed by antibody perturbation experiments. Here we report the complete cDNA sequence of neurofascin. It is composed of four structural elements: At the NH2 terminus neurofascin contains six Ig-like motifs of the C2 subcategory followed by four fibronectin type III (FNIII)-related repeats. Between the FNIII-like repeats and the plasma membrane spanning region neurofascin contains a domain 75-amino acid residues-long rich in proline, alanine and threonine which might be the target of extensive O-linked glycosylation. A transmembrane segment is followed by a 113-amino acid residues-long cytoplasmic domain. Sequence comparisons indicate that neurofascin is most closely related to chick Nr-CAM and forms with L1 (Ng-CAM) and Nr-CAM a subgroup within the vertebrate Ig superfamily. Sequencing of several overlapping cDNA probes reveals interesting heterogeneities throughout the neurofascin polypeptide. Genomic Southern blots analyzed with neurofascin cDNA clones suggest that neurofascin is encoded by a single gene and its pre-mRNA might be therefore alternatively spliced. Northern blot analysis with domain specific probes showed that neurofascin mRNAs of about 8.5 kb are expressed throughout development in embryonic brain but not in liver. Isolation of neurofascin by immunoaffinity chromatography results in several molecular mass components. To analyze their origin the amino-terminal sequences of several neurofascin components were determined. The NH2-terminal sequences of the 185, 160, and 110-135 kD components are all the same as the NH2 termini predicted by the cDNA sequence, whereas the other neurofascin components start with a sequence found in a putative alternatively spliced segment between the Ig- and FNIII-like part indicating that they are derived by proteolytic cleavage. A combination of enzymatic and chemical deglycosylation procedures and the analysis of peanut lectin binding reveals O- and N-linked carbohydrates on neurofascin components which might generate additional heterogeneity.

    The Journal of cell biology 1992;118;1;149-61

Gene lists (6)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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