G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
G00001786
Gene symbol
ARPC3 (HGNC)
Species
Homo sapiens
Description
actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 3, 21kDa
Orthologue
G00000537 (Mus musculus)

Databases (8)

Curated Gene
OTTHUMG00000134333 (Vega human gene)
Gene
ENSG00000111229 (Ensembl human gene)
10094 (Entrez Gene)
71 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
ARPC3 (GeneCards)
Literature
604225 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:706 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
O15145 (UniProt)

Synonyms (2)

  • ARC21
  • p21-Arc

Diseases (1)

Disease Nervous effect Mutations Found Literature Mutations Type Genetic association?
D00000297: Disseminated superficial actinic porokeratosis N Y (15928614) Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) Y

References

  • Two closely linked variations in actin cytoskeleton pathway in a Chinese pedigree with disseminated superficial actinic porokeratosis.

    Zhang ZH, Huang W, Niu ZM, Liu WD, Xiang LH, Yuan WT, Zhao JJ, Gu CY, Chai B, Jiang FX, Zhang J, Xu SJ and Zheng ZZ

    Department of Dermatology, Hua Shan Hospital, Shanghai Medical College, Fu Dan University, Shanghai, PR China.

    Background: Disseminated superficial actinic porokeratosis (DSAP) is an uncommon autosomal dominant chronic keratinization disorder, characterized by multiple superficial keratotic lesions surrounded by a slightly raised keratotic border. Recently, SSH1 was identified as the DSAP candidate gene.

    Objective: Our purpose was to determine the locus of DSAP and identify the candidate gene(s) of the disease.

    Methods: Genome-wide scanning and linkage analysis were performed in a 6-generation Chinese family with DSAP. The coding exons and promoter region of the candidate genes were screened for the nucleotide variations.

    Results: A missense mutation (p.Ser63Asn) in SSH1 and a variation (dbSNP3759383: G>A) in the promoter region of ARPC3 were closely linked with DSAP in the pedigree.

    Conclusion: Both SSH1 and ARPC3 are involved in the actin cytoskeleton pathway and interacted with adherent junctions in the epidermal cells. We suggested that cytoskeleton disorganization in epidermal cells was likely associated with the pathogenesis of DSAP.

    Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 2005;52;6;972-6

Literature (18)

Pubmed - human_disease

  • Two closely linked variations in actin cytoskeleton pathway in a Chinese pedigree with disseminated superficial actinic porokeratosis.

    Zhang ZH, Huang W, Niu ZM, Liu WD, Xiang LH, Yuan WT, Zhao JJ, Gu CY, Chai B, Jiang FX, Zhang J, Xu SJ and Zheng ZZ

    Department of Dermatology, Hua Shan Hospital, Shanghai Medical College, Fu Dan University, Shanghai, PR China.

    Background: Disseminated superficial actinic porokeratosis (DSAP) is an uncommon autosomal dominant chronic keratinization disorder, characterized by multiple superficial keratotic lesions surrounded by a slightly raised keratotic border. Recently, SSH1 was identified as the DSAP candidate gene.

    Objective: Our purpose was to determine the locus of DSAP and identify the candidate gene(s) of the disease.

    Methods: Genome-wide scanning and linkage analysis were performed in a 6-generation Chinese family with DSAP. The coding exons and promoter region of the candidate genes were screened for the nucleotide variations.

    Results: A missense mutation (p.Ser63Asn) in SSH1 and a variation (dbSNP3759383: G>A) in the promoter region of ARPC3 were closely linked with DSAP in the pedigree.

    Conclusion: Both SSH1 and ARPC3 are involved in the actin cytoskeleton pathway and interacted with adherent junctions in the epidermal cells. We suggested that cytoskeleton disorganization in epidermal cells was likely associated with the pathogenesis of DSAP.

    Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 2005;52;6;972-6

Pubmed - other

  • Large-scale mapping of human protein-protein interactions by mass spectrometry.

    Ewing RM, Chu P, Elisma F, Li H, Taylor P, Climie S, McBroom-Cerajewski L, Robinson MD, O'Connor L, Li M, Taylor R, Dharsee M, Ho Y, Heilbut A, Moore L, Zhang S, Ornatsky O, Bukhman YV, Ethier M, Sheng Y, Vasilescu J, Abu-Farha M, Lambert JP, Duewel HS, Stewart II, Kuehl B, Hogue K, Colwill K, Gladwish K, Muskat B, Kinach R, Adams SL, Moran MF, Morin GB, Topaloglou T and Figeys D

    Protana, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

    Mapping protein-protein interactions is an invaluable tool for understanding protein function. Here, we report the first large-scale study of protein-protein interactions in human cells using a mass spectrometry-based approach. The study maps protein interactions for 338 bait proteins that were selected based on known or suspected disease and functional associations. Large-scale immunoprecipitation of Flag-tagged versions of these proteins followed by LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis resulted in the identification of 24,540 potential protein interactions. False positives and redundant hits were filtered out using empirical criteria and a calculated interaction confidence score, producing a data set of 6463 interactions between 2235 distinct proteins. This data set was further cross-validated using previously published and predicted human protein interactions. In-depth mining of the data set shows that it represents a valuable source of novel protein-protein interactions with relevance to human diseases. In addition, via our preliminary analysis, we report many novel protein interactions and pathway associations.

    Molecular systems biology 2007;3;89

  • A human protein-protein interaction network: a resource for annotating the proteome.

    Stelzl U, Worm U, Lalowski M, Haenig C, Brembeck FH, Goehler H, Stroedicke M, Zenkner M, Schoenherr A, Koeppen S, Timm J, Mintzlaff S, Abraham C, Bock N, Kietzmann S, Goedde A, Toksöz E, Droege A, Krobitsch S, Korn B, Birchmeier W, Lehrach H and Wanker EE

    Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine, 13092 Berlin-Buch, Germany.

    Protein-protein interaction maps provide a valuable framework for a better understanding of the functional organization of the proteome. To detect interacting pairs of human proteins systematically, a protein matrix of 4456 baits and 5632 preys was screened by automated yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) interaction mating. We identified 3186 mostly novel interactions among 1705 proteins, resulting in a large, highly connected network. Independent pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation assays validated the overall quality of the Y2H interactions. Using topological and GO criteria, a scoring system was developed to define 911 high-confidence interactions among 401 proteins. Furthermore, the network was searched for interactions linking uncharacterized gene products and human disease proteins to regulatory cellular pathways. Two novel Axin-1 interactions were validated experimentally, characterizing ANP32A and CRMP1 as modulators of Wnt signaling. Systematic human protein interaction screens can lead to a more comprehensive understanding of protein function and cellular processes.

    Cell 2005;122;6;957-68

  • Golgi-localized GAP for Cdc42 functions downstream of ARF1 to control Arp2/3 complex and F-actin dynamics.

    Dubois T, Paléotti O, Mironov AA, Fraisier V, Stradal TE, De Matteis MA, Franco M and Chavrier P

    Membrane and Cytoskeleton Dynamics Group, Institut Curie, CNRS-UMR144, 75248 Paris, France.

    The small GTP-binding ADP-ribosylation factor 1 (ARF1) acts as a master regulator of Golgi structure and function through the recruitment and activation of various downstream effectors. It has been proposed that members of the Rho family of small GTPases also control Golgi function in coordination with ARF1, possibly through the regulation of Arp2/3 complex and actin polymerization on Golgi membranes. Here, we identify ARHGAP10--a novel Rho GTPase-activating protein (Rho-GAP) that is recruited to Golgi membranes through binding to GTP-ARF1. We show that ARHGAP10 functions preferentially as a GAP for Cdc42 and regulates the Arp2/3 complex and F-actin dynamics at the Golgi through the control of Cdc42 activity. Our results establish a role for ARHGAP10 in Golgi structure and function at the crossroads between ARF1 and Cdc42 signalling pathways.

    Funded by: Telethon: GP0203Y01

    Nature cell biology 2005;7;4;353-64

  • Nucleolar proteome dynamics.

    Andersen JS, Lam YW, Leung AK, Ong SE, Lyon CE, Lamond AI and Mann M

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Campusvej 55, DK-5230 Odense M, Denmark.

    The nucleolus is a key organelle that coordinates the synthesis and assembly of ribosomal subunits and forms in the nucleus around the repeated ribosomal gene clusters. Because the production of ribosomes is a major metabolic activity, the function of the nucleolus is tightly linked to cell growth and proliferation, and recent data suggest that the nucleolus also plays an important role in cell-cycle regulation, senescence and stress responses. Here, using mass-spectrometry-based organellar proteomics and stable isotope labelling, we perform a quantitative analysis of the proteome of human nucleoli. In vivo fluorescent imaging techniques are directly compared to endogenous protein changes measured by proteomics. We characterize the flux of 489 endogenous nucleolar proteins in response to three different metabolic inhibitors that each affect nucleolar morphology. Proteins that are stably associated, such as RNA polymerase I subunits and small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle complexes, exit from or accumulate in the nucleolus with similar kinetics, whereas protein components of the large and small ribosomal subunits leave the nucleolus with markedly different kinetics. The data establish a quantitative proteomic approach for the temporal characterization of protein flux through cellular organelles and demonstrate that the nucleolar proteome changes significantly over time in response to changes in cellular growth conditions.

    Funded by: Wellcome Trust: 073980

    Nature 2005;433;7021;77-83

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • Exploring proteomes and analyzing protein processing by mass spectrometric identification of sorted N-terminal peptides.

    Gevaert K, Goethals M, Martens L, Van Damme J, Staes A, Thomas GR and Vandekerckhove J

    Department of Medical Protein Research, Flanders Interuniversity Institute for Biotechnology, Ghent University, A. Baertsoenkaai 3, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium. kris.gevaert@rug.ac.be

    Current non-gel techniques for analyzing proteomes rely heavily on mass spectrometric analysis of enzymatically digested protein mixtures. Prior to analysis, a highly complex peptide mixture is either separated on a multidimensional chromatographic system or it is first reduced in complexity by isolating sets of representative peptides. Recently, we developed a peptide isolation procedure based on diagonal electrophoresis and diagonal chromatography. We call it combined fractional diagonal chromatography (COFRADIC). In previous experiments, we used COFRADIC to identify more than 800 Escherichia coli proteins by tandem mass spectrometric (MS/MS) analysis of isolated methionine-containing peptides. Here, we describe a diagonal method to isolate N-terminal peptides. This reduces the complexity of the peptide sample, because each protein has one N terminus and is thus represented by only one peptide. In this new procedure, free amino groups in proteins are first blocked by acetylation and then digested with trypsin. After reverse-phase (RP) chromatographic fractionation of the generated peptide mixture, internal peptides are blocked using 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS); they display a strong hydrophobic shift and therefore segregate from the unaltered N-terminal peptides during a second identical separation step. N-terminal peptides can thereby be specifically collected for further liquid chromatography (LC)-MS/MS analysis. Omitting the acetylation step results in the isolation of non-lysine-containing N-terminal peptides from in vivo blocked proteins.

    Nature biotechnology 2003;21;5;566-9

  • Directed proteomic analysis of the human nucleolus.

    Andersen JS, Lyon CE, Fox AH, Leung AK, Lam YW, Steen H, Mann M and Lamond AI

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, DK-5230, Odense M, Denmark.

    Background: The nucleolus is a subnuclear organelle containing the ribosomal RNA gene clusters and ribosome biogenesis factors. Recent studies suggest it may also have roles in RNA transport, RNA modification, and cell cycle regulation. Despite over 150 years of research into nucleoli, many aspects of their structure and function remain uncharacterized.

    Results: We report a proteomic analysis of human nucleoli. Using a combination of mass spectrometry (MS) and sequence database searches, including online analysis of the draft human genome sequence, 271 proteins were identified. Over 30% of the nucleolar proteins were encoded by novel or uncharacterized genes, while the known proteins included several unexpected factors with no previously known nucleolar functions. MS analysis of nucleoli isolated from HeLa cells in which transcription had been inhibited showed that a subset of proteins was enriched. These data highlight the dynamic nature of the nucleolar proteome and show that proteins can either associate with nucleoli transiently or accumulate only under specific metabolic conditions.

    Conclusions: This extensive proteomic analysis shows that nucleoli have a surprisingly large protein complexity. The many novel factors and separate classes of proteins identified support the view that the nucleolus may perform additional functions beyond its known role in ribosome subunit biogenesis. The data also show that the protein composition of nucleoli is not static and can alter significantly in response to the metabolic state of the cell.

    Current biology : CB 2002;12;1;1-11

  • Crystal structure of Arp2/3 complex.

    Robinson RC, Turbedsky K, Kaiser DA, Marchand JB, Higgs HN, Choe S and Pollard TD

    Structural Biology Laboratory, Salk Institute for Biological Studies, 10010 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.

    We determined a crystal structure of bovine Arp2/3 complex, an assembly of seven proteins that initiates actin polymerization in eukaryotic cells, at 2.0 angstrom resolution. Actin-related protein 2 (Arp2) and Arp3 are folded like actin, with distinctive surface features. Subunits ARPC2 p34 and ARPC4 p20 in the core of the complex associate through long carboxyl-terminal alpha helices and have similarly folded amino-terminal alpha/beta domains. ARPC1 p40 is a seven-blade beta propeller with an insertion that may associate with the side of an actin filament. ARPC3 p21 and ARPC5 p16 are globular alpha-helical subunits. We predict that WASp/Scar proteins activate Arp2/3 complex by bringing Arp2 into proximity with Arp3 for nucleation of a branch on the side of a preexisting actin filament.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM-26132, GM-26338, GM-56653

    Science (New York, N.Y.) 2001;294;5547;1679-84

  • Reconstitution of human Arp2/3 complex reveals critical roles of individual subunits in complex structure and activity.

    Gournier H, Goley ED, Niederstrasser H, Trinh T and Welch MD

    Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA.

    The Arp2/3 complex is a seven-protein assembly that is critical for actin nucleation and branching in cells. Here we report the reconstitution of active human Arp2/3 complex after expression of all seven subunits in insect cells. Expression of partial complexes revealed that a heterodimer of the p34 and p20 subunits constitutes a critical structural core of the complex, whereas the remaining subunits are peripherally located. Arp3 is crucial for nucleation, consistent with it being a structural component of the nucleation site. p41, p21, and p16 contribute differently to nucleation and stimulation by ActA and WASP, whereas p34/p20 bind actin filaments and likely function in actin branching. This study reveals that the nucleating and organizing functions of Arp2/3 complex subunits are separable, indicating that these activities may be differentially regulated in cells.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM59609, R01 GM059609, R01 GM059609-03

    Molecular cell 2001;8;5;1041-52

  • Interactions among subunits of human Arp2/3 complex: p20-Arc as the hub.

    Zhao X, Yang Z, Qian M and Zhu X

    Shanghai Research Center of Life Sciences and Open Laboratory of Molecular Cell Biology, Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institute for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 320 Yue Yang Road, Shanghai, 200031, China.

    The Arp2/3 complex is critical for nucleation and crosslinking of actin filaments. To gain insight into its subunit topology and assembly pathway, we systematically examined interactions among subunits of human Arp2/3 complex by yeast two-hybrid assays. It was shown that p20-Arc was able to interact with p21-Arc, p34-Arc, and p16-Arc, respectively. In contrast, p41-Arc only interacted with p20-Arc/p16-Arc heterodimer. In addition, we found that structural integrity was important for association between p20-Arc and p21-Arc, while the N-terminal half of p34-Arc was dispensable for its binding to p20-Arc. Our data suggest a key role of p20-Arc and a multistep pathway for the complex formation.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2001;280;2;513-7

  • Interaction of WASP/Scar proteins with actin and vertebrate Arp2/3 complex.

    Marchand JB, Kaiser DA, Pollard TD and Higgs HN

    Structural Biology Laboratory, Salk Institute for Biological Studies, 10010 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, California 92037, USA.

    The Wiskott-Aldrich-syndrome protein (WASP) regulates polymerization of actin by the Arp2/3 complex. Here we show, using fluorescence anisotropy assays, that the carboxy-terminal WA domain of WASP binds to a single actin monomer with a Kd of 0.6 microM in an equilibrium with rapid exchange rates. Both WH-2 and CA sequences contribute to actin binding. A favourable DeltaH of -10 kcal mol(-1) drives binding. The WA domain binds to the Arp2/3 complex with a Kd of 0.9 microM; both the C and A sequences contribute to binding to the Arp2/3 complex. Wiskott-Aldrich-syndrome mutations in the WA domain that alter nucleation by the Arp2/3 complex over a tenfold range without affecting affinity for actin or the Arp2/3 complex indicate that there may be an activation step in the nucleation pathway. Actin filaments stimulate nucleation by producing a fivefold increase in the affinity of WASP-WA for the Arp2/3 complex.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM-26338

    Nature cell biology 2001;3;1;76-82

  • Cortactin localization to sites of actin assembly in lamellipodia requires interactions with F-actin and the Arp2/3 complex.

    Weed SA, Karginov AV, Schafer DA, Weaver AM, Kinley AW, Cooper JA and Parsons JT

    Department of Microbiology and Cancer Center, University of Virginia Health Sciences Center, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908, USA.

    Cortactin is an actin-binding protein that is enriched within the lamellipodia of motile cells and in neuronal growth cones. Here, we report that cortactin is localized with the actin-related protein (Arp) 2/3 complex at sites of actin polymerization within the lamellipodia. Two distinct sequence motifs of cortactin contribute to its interaction with the cortical actin network: the fourth of six tandem repeats and the amino-terminal acidic region (NTA). Cortactin variants lacking either the fourth tandem repeat or the NTA failed to localize at the cell periphery. Tandem repeat four was necessary for cortactin to stably bind F-actin in vitro. The NTA region interacts directly with the Arp2/3 complex based on affinity chromatography, immunoprecipitation assays, and binding assays using purified components. Cortactin variants containing the NTA region were inefficient at promoting Arp2/3 actin nucleation activity. These data provide strong evidence that cortactin is specifically localized to sites of dynamic cortical actin assembly via simultaneous interaction with F-actin and the Arp2/3 complex. Cortactin interacts via its Src homology 3 (SH3) domain with ZO-1 and the SHANK family of postsynaptic density 95/dlg/ZO-1 homology (PDZ) domain-containing proteins, suggesting that cortactin contributes to the spatial organization of sites of actin polymerization coupled to selected cell surface transmembrane receptor complexes.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA29243, CA40042, F32 CA075695, P01 CA040042, R01 CA029243, R37 CA029243; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM38542, R01 GM038542, R01 GM038542-11S1

    The Journal of cell biology 2000;151;1;29-40

  • Scar1 and the related Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein, WASP, regulate the actin cytoskeleton through the Arp2/3 complex.

    Machesky LM and Insall RH

    MRC-LMCB, Department of Molecular Medicine, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK. machesky@pugh.bip.bham

    Background: The actin-related proteins Arp2 and Arp3 are part of a seven-protein complex which is localized in the lamellipodia of a variety of cell types, and in actin-rich spots of unknown function. The Arp2/3 complex enhances actin nucleation and causes branching and crosslinking of actin filaments in vitro; in vivo it is thought to drive the formation of lamellipodia and to be a control center for actin-based motility. The Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein, WASP, is an adaptor protein implicated in the transmission of signals from tyrosine kinase receptors and small GTPases to the actin cytoskeleton. Scar1 is a member of a new family of proteins related to WASP, and it may also have a role in regulating the actin cytoskeleton. Scar1 is the human homologue of Dictyostelium Scar1, which is thought to connect G-protein-coupled receptors to the actin cytoskeleton. The mammalian Scar family contains at least four members. We have examined the relationships between WASP, Scar1, and the Arp2/3 complex.

    Results: We have identified WASP and its relative Scar1 as proteins that interact with the Arp2/3 complex. We have used deletion analysis to show that both WASP and Scar1 interact with the p21 subunit of the Arp2/3 complex through their carboxyl termini. Overexpression of carboxy-terminal fragments of Scar1 or WASP in cells caused a disruption in the localization of the Arp2/3 complex and, concomitantly, induced a complete loss of lamellipodia and actin spots. The induction of lamellipodia by platelet-derived growth factor was also suppressed by overexpression of the fragment of Scar1 that binds to the Arp2/3 complex.

    Conclusions: We have identified a conserved sequence domain in proteins of the WASP family that binds to the Arp2/3 complex. Overexpression of this domain in cells disrupts the localization of the Arp2/3 complex and inhibits lamellipodia formation. Our data suggest that WASP-related proteins may regulate the actin cytoskeleton through the Arp2/3 complex.

    Current biology : CB 1998;8;25;1347-56

  • Mammalian actin-related protein 2/3 complex localizes to regions of lamellipodial protrusion and is composed of evolutionarily conserved proteins.

    Machesky LM, Reeves E, Wientjes F, Mattheyse FJ, Grogan A, Totty NF, Burlingame AL, Hsuan JJ and Segal AW

    Department of Medicine, University College London, U.K.

    Human neutrophils contain a complex of proteins similar to the actin-related protein 2/3 (Arp2/3) complex of Acanthamoeba. We have obtained peptide sequence information for each member of the putative seven-protein complex previously described for Acanthamoeba and human platelets. From the peptide sequences we have identified cDNA species encoding three novel proteins in this complex. We find that in addition to Arp2 and Arp3, this complex contains a relative of the human (Suppressor of Profilin) SOP2Hs protein and four previously unknown proteins. These proteins localize in the cytoplasm of fibroblasts that lack lamellipodia, but are enriched in lamellipodia on stimulation with serum or platelet-derived growth factor. We propose a conserved and dynamic role for this complex in the organization of the actin cytoskeleton.

    Funded by: Wellcome Trust

    The Biochemical journal 1997;328 ( Pt 1);105-12

  • The human Arp2/3 complex is composed of evolutionarily conserved subunits and is localized to cellular regions of dynamic actin filament assembly.

    Welch MD, DePace AH, Verma S, Iwamatsu A and Mitchison TJ

    Department of Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143-0450, USA. welch@cgl.ucsf.edu

    The Arp2/3 protein complex has been implicated in the control of actin polymerization in cells. The human complex consists of seven subunits which include the actin related proteins Arp2 and Arp3, and five others referred to as p41-Arc, p34-Arc, p21-Arc, p20-Arc, and p16-Arc (p omplex). We have determined the predicted amino acid sequence of all seven subunits. Each has homologues in diverse eukaryotes, implying that the structure and function of the complex has been conserved through evolution. Human Arp2 and Arp3 are very similar to family members from other species. p41-Arc is a new member of the Sop2 family of WD (tryptophan and aspartate) repeat-containing proteins and may be posttranslationally modified, suggesting that it may be involved in regulating the activity and/or localization of the complex. p34-Arc, p21-Arc, p20-Arc, and p16-Arc define novel protein families. We sought to evaluate the function of the Arp2/3 complex in cells by determining its intracellular distribution. Arp3, p34-Arc, and p21-Arc were localized to the lamellipodia of stationary and locomoting fibroblasts, as well to Listeria monocytogenes assembled actin tails. They were not detected in cellular bundles of actin filaments. Taken together with the ability of the Arp2/3 complex to induce actin polymerization, these observations suggest that the complex promotes actin assembly in lamellipodia and may participate in lamellipodial protrusion.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM48027, R01 GM048027

    The Journal of cell biology 1997;138;2;375-84

  • Actin polymerization is induced by Arp2/3 protein complex at the surface of Listeria monocytogenes.

    Welch MD, Iwamatsu A and Mitchison TJ

    Department of Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology, University of California at San Francisco, 94143, USA. welch@cgl.ucsf.edu

    The pathogenic bacterium Listeria monocytogenes is capable of directed movement within the cytoplasm of infected host cells. Propulsion is thought to be driven by actin polymerization at the bacterial cell surface, and moving bacteria leave in their wake a tail of actin filaments. Determining the mechanism by which L. monocytogenes polymerizes actin may aid the understanding of how actin polymerization is controlled in the cell. Actin assembly by L. monocytogenes requires the bacterial surface protein ActA and protein components present in host cell cytoplasm. We have purified an eight-polypeptide complex that possesses the properties of the host-cell actin polymerization factor. The pure complex is sufficient to initiate ActA-dependent actin polymerization at the surface of L. monocytogenes, and is required to mediate actin tail formation and motility. Two subunits of this protein complex are actin-related proteins (ARPs) belonging to the Arp2 and Arp3 subfamilies. The Arp3 subunit localizes to the surface of stationary bacteria and the tails of motile bacteria in tissue culture cells infected with L. monocytogenes; this is consistent with a role for the complex in promoting actin assembly in vivo. The activity and subunit composition of the Arp2/3 complex suggests that it forms a template that nucleates actin polymerization.

    Nature 1997;385;6613;265-9

Gene lists (7)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000015 G2C Homo sapiens Human NRC Human orthologues of mouse NRC adapted from Collins et al (2006) 186
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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