G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
ribosomal protein S14
G00000533 (Mus musculus)

Databases (7)

ENSG00000164587 (Ensembl human gene)
6208 (Entrez Gene)
946 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
RPS14 (GeneCards)
130620 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:10387 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
P62263 (UniProt)

Synonyms (2)

  • EMTB
  • S14

Literature (25)

Pubmed - other

  • Diamond-Blackfan anemia: genotype-phenotype correlations in Italian patients with RPL5 and RPL11 mutations.

    Quarello P, Garelli E, Carando A, Brusco A, Calabrese R, Dufour C, Longoni D, Misuraca A, Vinti L, Aspesi A, Biondini L, Loreni F, Dianzani I and Ramenghi U

    Hematology Unit, Pediatric Department, University of Torino Piazza Polonia 94, 10126 Torino, Italy.

    Background: Diamond-Blackfan anemia is a rare, pure red blood cell aplasia of childhood due to an intrinsic defect in erythropoietic progenitors. About 40% of patients display various malformations. Anemia is corrected by steroid treatment in more than 50% of cases; non-responders need chronic transfusions or stem cell transplantation. Defects in the RPS19 gene, encoding the ribosomal protein S19, are the main known cause of Diamond-Blackfan anemia and account for more than 25% of cases. Mutations in RPS24, RPS17, and RPL35A described in a minority of patients show that Diamond-Blackfan anemia is a disorder of ribosome biogenesis. Two new genes (RPL5, RPL11), encoding for ribosomal proteins of the large subunit, have been reported to be involved in a considerable percentage of patients.

    In this genotype-phenotype analysis we screened the coding sequence and intron-exon boundaries of RPS14, RPS16, RPS24, RPL5, RPL11, and RPL35A in 92 Italian patients with Diamond-Blackfan anemia who were negative for RPS19 mutations.

    Results: About 20% of the patients screened had mutations in RPL5 or RPL11, and only 1.6% in RPS24. All but three mutations that we report here are new mutations. No mutations were found in RPS14, RPS16, or RPL35A. Remarkably, we observed a higher percentage of somatic malformations in patients with RPL5 and RPL11 mutations. A close association was evident between RPL5 mutations and craniofacial malformations, and between hand malformations and RPL11 mutations.

    Conclusions: Mutations in four ribosomal proteins account for around 50% of all cases of Diamond-Blackfan anemia in Italian patients. Genotype-phenotype data suggest that mutation screening should begin with RPL5 and RPL11 in patients with Diamond-Blackfan anemia with malformations.

    Funded by: Telethon: GGP07242

    Haematologica 2010;95;2;206-13

  • RBBP6 interacts with multifunctional protein YB-1 through its RING finger domain, leading to ubiquitination and proteosomal degradation of YB-1.

    Chibi M, Meyer M, Skepu A, G Rees DJ, Moolman-Smook JC and Pugh DJ

    Biotechnology Department, University of the Western Cape, Bellville, South Africa.

    RBBP6 (retinoblastoma binding protein 6) is a 250-kDa multifunctional protein that interacts with both p53 and pRb and has been implicated in mRNA processing. It has also been identified as a putative E3 ubiquitin ligase due to the presence of a RING finger domain, although no substrate has been identified up to now. Using the RING finger domain as bait in a yeast two-hybrid screen, we identified YB-1 (Y-box binding protein 1) as a binding partner of RBBP6, localising the interaction to the last 62 residues of YB-1. We showed, furthermore, that both full-length RBBP6 and the isolated RING finger domain were able to ubiquitinate YB-1, resulting in its degradation in the proteosome. As a result, RBBP6 was able to suppress the levels of YB-1 in vivo and to reduce its transactivational ability. In the light of the important role that YB-1 appears to play in tumourigenesis, our results suggest that RBBP6 may be a relevant target for therapeutic drugs aimed at modifying the activity of YB-1.

    Journal of molecular biology 2008;384;4;908-16

  • Lack of RPS14 promoter aberrant methylation supports the haploinsufficiency model for the 5q- syndrome.

    Valencia A, Cervera J, Such E, Sanz MA and Sanz GF

    Blood 2008;112;3;918

  • Identification of RPS14 as a 5q- syndrome gene by RNA interference screen.

    Ebert BL, Pretz J, Bosco J, Chang CY, Tamayo P, Galili N, Raza A, Root DE, Attar E, Ellis SR and Golub TR

    Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA.

    Somatic chromosomal deletions in cancer are thought to indicate the location of tumour suppressor genes, by which a complete loss of gene function occurs through biallelic deletion, point mutation or epigenetic silencing, thus fulfilling Knudson's two-hit hypothesis. In many recurrent deletions, however, such biallelic inactivation has not been found. One prominent example is the 5q- syndrome, a subtype of myelodysplastic syndrome characterized by a defect in erythroid differentiation. Here we describe an RNA-mediated interference (RNAi)-based approach to discovery of the 5q- disease gene. We found that partial loss of function of the ribosomal subunit protein RPS14 phenocopies the disease in normal haematopoietic progenitor cells, and also that forced expression of RPS14 rescues the disease phenotype in patient-derived bone marrow cells. In addition, we identified a block in the processing of pre-ribosomal RNA in RPS14-deficient cells that is functionally equivalent to the defect in Diamond-Blackfan anaemia, linking the molecular pathophysiology of the 5q- syndrome to a congenital syndrome causing bone marrow failure. These results indicate that the 5q- syndrome is caused by a defect in ribosomal protein function and suggest that RNAi screening is an effective strategy for identifying causal haploinsufficiency disease genes.

    Funded by: Howard Hughes Medical Institute; NCI NIH HHS: T32 CA009172; NHLBI NIH HHS: K08 HL078818, R01 HL079583, R01 HL082945

    Nature 2008;451;7176;335-9

  • Systematic analysis of the protein interaction network for the human transcription machinery reveals the identity of the 7SK capping enzyme.

    Jeronimo C, Forget D, Bouchard A, Li Q, Chua G, Poitras C, Thérien C, Bergeron D, Bourassa S, Greenblatt J, Chabot B, Poirier GG, Hughes TR, Blanchette M, Price DH and Coulombe B

    Laboratory of Gene Transcription and Proteomics Discovery Platform, Institut de Recherches Cliniques de Montréal, Montréal, QC, Canada.

    We have performed a survey of soluble human protein complexes containing components of the transcription and RNA processing machineries using protein affinity purification coupled to mass spectrometry. Thirty-two tagged polypeptides yielded a network of 805 high-confidence interactions. Remarkably, the network is significantly enriched in proteins that regulate the formation of protein complexes, including a number of previously uncharacterized proteins for which we have inferred functions. The RNA polymerase II (RNAP II)-associated proteins (RPAPs) are physically and functionally associated with RNAP II, forming an interface between the enzyme and chaperone/scaffolding proteins. BCDIN3 is the 7SK snRNA methylphosphate capping enzyme (MePCE) present in an snRNP complex containing both RNA processing and transcription factors, including the elongation factor P-TEFb. Our results define a high-density protein interaction network for the mammalian transcription machinery and uncover multiple regulatory factors that target the transcription machinery.

    Funded by: Canadian Institutes of Health Research: 14309-3, 82851-1

    Molecular cell 2007;27;2;262-74

  • Large-scale mapping of human protein-protein interactions by mass spectrometry.

    Ewing RM, Chu P, Elisma F, Li H, Taylor P, Climie S, McBroom-Cerajewski L, Robinson MD, O'Connor L, Li M, Taylor R, Dharsee M, Ho Y, Heilbut A, Moore L, Zhang S, Ornatsky O, Bukhman YV, Ethier M, Sheng Y, Vasilescu J, Abu-Farha M, Lambert JP, Duewel HS, Stewart II, Kuehl B, Hogue K, Colwill K, Gladwish K, Muskat B, Kinach R, Adams SL, Moran MF, Morin GB, Topaloglou T and Figeys D

    Protana, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

    Mapping protein-protein interactions is an invaluable tool for understanding protein function. Here, we report the first large-scale study of protein-protein interactions in human cells using a mass spectrometry-based approach. The study maps protein interactions for 338 bait proteins that were selected based on known or suspected disease and functional associations. Large-scale immunoprecipitation of Flag-tagged versions of these proteins followed by LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis resulted in the identification of 24,540 potential protein interactions. False positives and redundant hits were filtered out using empirical criteria and a calculated interaction confidence score, producing a data set of 6463 interactions between 2235 distinct proteins. This data set was further cross-validated using previously published and predicted human protein interactions. In-depth mining of the data set shows that it represents a valuable source of novel protein-protein interactions with relevance to human diseases. In addition, via our preliminary analysis, we report many novel protein interactions and pathway associations.

    Molecular systems biology 2007;3;89

  • A protein-protein interaction network for human inherited ataxias and disorders of Purkinje cell degeneration.

    Lim J, Hao T, Shaw C, Patel AJ, Szabó G, Rual JF, Fisk CJ, Li N, Smolyar A, Hill DE, Barabási AL, Vidal M and Zoghbi HY

    Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

    Many human inherited neurodegenerative disorders are characterized by loss of balance due to cerebellar Purkinje cell (PC) degeneration. Although the disease-causing mutations have been identified for a number of these disorders, the normal functions of the proteins involved remain, in many cases, unknown. To gain insight into the function of proteins involved in PC degeneration, we developed an interaction network for 54 proteins involved in 23 inherited ataxias and expanded the network by incorporating literature-curated and evolutionarily conserved interactions. We identified 770 mostly novel protein-protein interactions using a stringent yeast two-hybrid screen; of 75 pairs tested, 83% of the interactions were verified in mammalian cells. Many ataxia-causing proteins share interacting partners, a subset of which have been found to modify neurodegeneration in animal models. This interactome thus provides a tool for understanding pathogenic mechanisms common for this class of neurodegenerative disorders and for identifying candidate genes for inherited ataxias.

    Funded by: NICHD NIH HHS: HD24064; NINDS NIH HHS: NS27699

    Cell 2006;125;4;801-14

  • Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network.

    Rual JF, Venkatesan K, Hao T, Hirozane-Kishikawa T, Dricot A, Li N, Berriz GF, Gibbons FD, Dreze M, Ayivi-Guedehoussou N, Klitgord N, Simon C, Boxem M, Milstein S, Rosenberg J, Goldberg DS, Zhang LV, Wong SL, Franklin G, Li S, Albala JS, Lim J, Fraughton C, Llamosas E, Cevik S, Bex C, Lamesch P, Sikorski RS, Vandenhaute J, Zoghbi HY, Smolyar A, Bosak S, Sequerra R, Doucette-Stamm L, Cusick ME, Hill DE, Roth FP and Vidal M

    Center for Cancer Systems Biology and Department of Cancer Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, 44 Binney Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    Systematic mapping of protein-protein interactions, or 'interactome' mapping, was initiated in model organisms, starting with defined biological processes and then expanding to the scale of the proteome. Although far from complete, such maps have revealed global topological and dynamic features of interactome networks that relate to known biological properties, suggesting that a human interactome map will provide insight into development and disease mechanisms at a systems level. Here we describe an initial version of a proteome-scale map of human binary protein-protein interactions. Using a stringent, high-throughput yeast two-hybrid system, we tested pairwise interactions among the products of approximately 8,100 currently available Gateway-cloned open reading frames and detected approximately 2,800 interactions. This data set, called CCSB-HI1, has a verification rate of approximately 78% as revealed by an independent co-affinity purification assay, and correlates significantly with other biological attributes. The CCSB-HI1 data set increases by approximately 70% the set of available binary interactions within the tested space and reveals more than 300 new connections to over 100 disease-associated proteins. This work represents an important step towards a systematic and comprehensive human interactome project.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R33 CA132073; NHGRI NIH HHS: P50 HG004233, R01 HG001715, RC4 HG006066, U01 HG001715; NHLBI NIH HHS: U01 HL098166

    Nature 2005;437;7062;1173-8

  • Mass spectrometric analysis of the human 40S ribosomal subunit: native and HCV IRES-bound complexes.

    Yu Y, Ji H, Doudna JA and Leary JA

    Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley 94720, USA.

    Hepatitis C virus uses an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) in the viral RNA to directly recruit human 40S ribosome subunits during cap-independent translation initiation. Although IRES-mediated translation initiation is not subject to many of the regulatory mechanisms that control cap-dependent translation initiation, it is unknown whether other noncanonical protein factors are involved in this process. Thus, a global protein composition analysis of native and IRES-bound 40S ribosomal complexes has been conducted to facilitate an understanding of the IRES ribosome recruitment mechanism. A combined top-down and bottom-up mass spectrometry approach was used to identify both the proteins and their posttranslational modifications (PTMs) in the native 40S subunit and the IRES recruited translation initiation complex. Thirty-one out of a possible 32 ribosomal proteins were identified by combining top-down and bottom-up mass spectrometry techniques. Proteins were found to contain PTMs, including loss of methionine, acetylation, methylation, and disulfide bond formation. In addition to the 40S ribosomal proteins, RACK1 was consistently identified in the 40S fraction, indicating that this protein is associated with the 40S subunit. Similar methodology was then applied to the hepatitis C virus IRES-bound 40S complex. Two 40S ribosomal proteins, RS25 and RS29, were found to contain different PTMs than those in the native 40S subunit. In addition, RACK1, eukaryotic initiation factor 3 proteins and nucleolin were identified in the IRES-mediated translation initiation complex.

    Protein science : a publication of the Protein Society 2005;14;6;1438-46

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • Functional proteomics mapping of a human signaling pathway.

    Colland F, Jacq X, Trouplin V, Mougin C, Groizeleau C, Hamburger A, Meil A, Wojcik J, Legrain P and Gauthier JM

    Hybrigenics SA, 75014 Paris, France. fcolland@hybrigenics.fr

    Access to the human genome facilitates extensive functional proteomics studies. Here, we present an integrated approach combining large-scale protein interaction mapping, exploration of the interaction network, and cellular functional assays performed on newly identified proteins involved in a human signaling pathway. As a proof of principle, we studied the Smad signaling system, which is regulated by members of the transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) superfamily. We used two-hybrid screening to map Smad signaling protein-protein interactions and to establish a network of 755 interactions, involving 591 proteins, 179 of which were poorly or not annotated. The exploration of such complex interaction databases is improved by the use of PIMRider, a dedicated navigation tool accessible through the Web. The biological meaning of this network is illustrated by the presence of 18 known Smad-associated proteins. Functional assays performed in mammalian cells including siRNA knock-down experiments identified eight novel proteins involved in Smad signaling, thus validating this integrated functional proteomics approach.

    Genome research 2004;14;7;1324-32

  • The molecular mechanics of eukaryotic translation.

    Kapp LD and Lorsch JR

    Department of Biophysics and Biophysical Chemistry, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 725 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, Maryland 21205-2185, USA. lkapp@jhmi.edu

    Great advances have been made in the past three decades in understanding the molecular mechanics underlying protein synthesis in bacteria, but our understanding of the corresponding events in eukaryotic organisms is only beginning to catch up. In this review we describe the current state of our knowledge and ignorance of the molecular mechanics underlying eukaryotic translation. We discuss the mechanisms conserved across the three kingdoms of life as well as the important divergences that have taken place in the pathway.

    Annual review of biochemistry 2004;73;657-704

  • Transcript-selective translational silencing by gamma interferon is directed by a novel structural element in the ceruloplasmin mRNA 3' untranslated region.

    Sampath P, Mazumder B, Seshadri V and Fox PL

    Department of Cell Biology, The Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio 44195, USA.

    Transcript-selective translational control of eukaryotic gene expression is often directed by a structural element in the 3' untranslated region (3'-UTR) of the mRNA. In the case of ceruloplasmin (Cp), induced synthesis of the protein by gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) in U937 monocytic cells is halted by a delayed translational silencing mechanism requiring the binding of a cytosolic inhibitor to the Cp 3'-UTR. Silencing requires the essential elements of mRNA circularization, i.e., eukaryotic initiation factor 4G, poly(A)-binding protein, and poly(A) tail. We here determined the minimal silencing element in the Cp 3'-UTR by progressive deletions from both termini. A minimal, 29-nucleotide (nt) element was determined by gel shift assay to be sufficient for maximal binding of the IFN-gamma-activated inhibitor of translation (GAIT), an as-yet-unidentified protein or complex. The interaction was shown to be functional by an in vitro translation assay in which the GAIT element was used as a decoy to overcome translational silencing. Mutation analysis showed that the GAIT element contained a 5-nt terminal loop, a weak 3-bp helix, an asymmetric internal bulge, and a proximal 6-bp helical stem. Two invariant loop residues essential for binding activity were identified. Ligation of the GAIT element immediately downstream of a luciferase reporter conferred the translational silencing response to the heterologous transcript in vitro and in vivo; a construct containing a nonbinding, mutated GAIT element was ineffective. Translational silencing of Cp, and possibly other transcripts, mediated by the GAIT element may contribute to the resolution of the local inflammatory response following cytokine activation of macrophages.

    Funded by: NHLBI NIH HHS: HL29582, HL67725, P01 HL029582, R01 HL067725

    Molecular and cellular biology 2003;23;5;1509-19

  • A map of 75 human ribosomal protein genes.

    Kenmochi N, Kawaguchi T, Rozen S, Davis E, Goodman N, Hudson TJ, Tanaka T and Page DC

    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Whitehead Institute and Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. kenmochi@med.u-ryuku.ac.jp

    We mapped 75 genes that collectively encode >90% of the proteins found in human ribosomes. Because localization of ribosomal protein genes (rp genes) is complicated by the existence of processed pseudogenes, multiple strategies were devised to identify PCR-detectable sequence-tagged sites (STSs) at introns. In some cases we exploited specific, pre-existing information about the intron/exon structure of a given human rp gene or its homolog in another vertebrate. When such information was unavailable, selection of PCR primer pairs was guided by general insights gleaned from analysis of all mammalian rp genes whose intron/exon structures have been published. For many genes, PCR amplification of introns was facilitated by use of YAC pool DNAs rather than total human genomic DNA as templates. We then assigned the rp gene STSs to individual human chromosomes by typing human-rodent hybrid cell lines. The genes were placed more precisely on the physical map of the human genome by typing of radiation hybrids or screening YAC libraries. Fifty-one previously unmapped rp genes were localized, and 24 previously reported rp gene localizations were confirmed, refined, or corrected. Though functionally related and coordinately expressed, the 75 mapped genes are widely dispersed: Both sex chromosomes and at least 20 of the 22 autosomes carry one or more rp genes. Chromosome 19, known to have a high gene density, contains an unusually large number of rp genes (12). This map provides a foundation for the study of the possible roles of ribosomal protein deficiencies in chromosomal and Mendelian disorders.

    Genome research 1998;8;5;509-23

  • Functional analysis of human RPS14 null alleles.

    Martin-Nieto J and Roufa DJ

    Division of Biology and Center for Basic Cancer Research, Kansas State University, Manhattan 66506, USA.

    Previously we described a large collection of cloned human DNAs that encode chemically defined missense mutations within the ribosomal protein S14 sequence. We determined that biologically inactive (i.e. null) alleles resulted primarily from point mutations targeted to two internal segments of the S14-coding sequence and designated these functionally critical regions as domains B and D. Further, we inferred that structural determinants within domains B and D are required for proper incorporation of the S14 protein into nascent 40 S ribosomal particles and/or for the normal function of mature cytoplasmic ribosomes. In this study we have used immunofluorescence to monitor the intracellular trafficking of epitopically labeled human S14 protein isoforms transiently expressed by cultured Chinese hamster cells. Data obtained distinguish null alleles of RPS14 which encode proteins that are not incorporated into pre-ribosomal subunit particles from null alleles whose products are compatible with normal ribosome assembly processes but result in functionally inactive cytoplasmic 40 S ribosomal subunits. Mutations assigned to the first allele class involve amino acid replacements located within S14 domains B and D; whereas mutations assigned to the second class are distributed throughout the S14 protein-coding sequence.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM23013, GM38932

    Journal of cell science 1997;110 ( Pt 8);955-63

  • Characterization of the human small-ribosomal-subunit proteins by N-terminal and internal sequencing, and mass spectrometry.

    Vladimirov SN, Ivanov AV, Karpova GG, Musolyamov AK, Egorov TA, Thiede B, Wittmann-Liebold B and Otto A

    Novosibirsk Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Siberian Division, Russian Academy of Sciences, Russian Federation.

    Reverse-phase HPLC was used to fractionate 40S ribosomal proteins from human placenta. Application of a C4 reverse-phase column allowed us to obtain 27 well-resolved peaks. The protein composition of each chromatographic fraction was established by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and N-terminal sequencing. N-terminally blocked proteins were cleaved with endoproteinase Lys-C, and suitable peptides were sequenced. All sequences were compared with those of ribosomal proteins available from data bases. This allowed us to identify all proteins from the 40S human ribosomal subunit in the HPLC elution profile. By matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization mass spectrometry the masses of the 40S proteins were determined and checked for the presence of post-translational modifications. For several proteins differences to the deduced sequences and the calculated masses were found to be due to post-translational modifications.

    European journal of biochemistry 1996;239;1;144-9

  • Structure and evolution of mammalian ribosomal proteins.

    Wool IG, Chan YL and Glück A

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Chicago, IL 60637, USA.

    Mammalian (rat) ribosomes have 80 proteins; the sequence of amino acids in 75 have been determined. What has been learned of the structure of the rat ribosomal proteins is reviewed with particular attention to their evolution and to amino acid sequence motifs. The latter include: clusters of basic or acidic residues; sequence repeats or shared sequences; zinc finger domains; bZIP elements; and nuclear localization signals. The occurrence and the possible significance of phosphorylated residues and of ubiquitin extensions is noted. The characteristics of the mRNAs that encode the proteins are summarized. The relationship of the rat ribosomal proteins to the proteins in ribosomes from humans, yeast, archaebacteria, and Escherichia coli is collated.

    Biochemistry and cell biology = Biochimie et biologie cellulaire 1995;73;11-12;933-47

  • Regulation of human RPS14 transcription by intronic antisense RNAs and ribosomal protein S14.

    Tasheva ES and Roufa DJ

    Division of Biology, Kansas State University, Manhattan 66506-4901.

    RNase protection studies reveal two stable RNAs (250 and 280 nucleotides) transcribed from the antisense strand of the human ribosomal protein gene RPS14's first intron. These transcripts, designated alpha-250 and alpha-280, map to overlapping segments of the intron's 5' sequence. Neither RNA encodes a polypeptide sequence, and both are expressed in all human cells and tissues examined. Although alpha-280 is detected among both the cells' nuclear and cytoplasmic RNAs, the great majority of alpha-250 is found in the cytoplasmic subcellular compartment. As judged by its resistance to high concentrations of alpha-amanitin, cell-free transcription of alpha-250 and alpha-280 appears to involve RNA polymerase I. Tissue culture transfection and cell-free transcription experiments demonstrate that alpha-250 and alpha-280 stimulate S14 mRNA transcription, whereas free ribosomal protein S14 inhibits it. Electrophoretic mobility shift experiments indicate specific binary molecular interactions between r-protein S14, its message and the antisense RNAs. In light of these data, we propose a model for fine regulation of human RPS14 transcription that involves RPS14 intron 1 antisense RNAs as positive effectors and S14 protein as a negative effector.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM23013

    Genes & development 1995;9;3;304-16

  • The addition of 5'-coding information to a 3'-directed cDNA library improves analysis of gene expression.

    Matoba R, Okubo K, Hori N, Fukushima A and Matsubara K

    Institute for Molecular and Cellular Biology, Osaka University, Japan.

    Large-scale sequencing of a 3'-cDNA library permits one to analyse gene expression profiles in various tissues. However, many such sequences lack enough information about the encoded proteins. To overcome this problem, we tested a new library, consisting of a 3'-directed cDNA sequence fused to a to a 5' sequence of about 300 bp. Such 'joint molecules' of about 600 bp were amplified by PCR and directly sequenced. About 40% of these joint molecules included the 5' and 3' terminal portions of the mRNA, and most of the remaining clones contained the middle portion and 3' end of the mRNA. The upstream sequences contained sufficient information with which to search for similarity, ORFs, motifs and hydropathy, thus allowing the mRNAs to be categorized and their functions predicted. The rapid categorization of the cDNAs will help to sort those clones that merit further analysis.

    Gene 1994;146;2;199-207

  • Fine-structure map of the human ribosomal protein gene RPS14.

    Diaz JJ and Roufa DJ

    Division of Biology, Kansas State University, Manhattan 66506.

    We have used polymerase chain reaction-mediated chemical mutagenesis (J.-J. Diaz, D. D. Rhoads, and D. J. Roufa, BioTechniques 11:204-211, 1991) to analyze the genetic fine structure of a human ribosomal protein gene, RPS14. Eighty-three DNA clones containing 158 random single-base substitution mutations were isolated. Mutant RPS14 alleles were tested for biological activity by transfection into cultured Chinese hamster cells. The resulting data permitted us to construct a map of the S14-coding sequence that is comparable to available fine-structure genetic maps of many prokaryotic and lower eukaryotic gene loci. As predicted from the multiplicity of protein-protein and protein-RNA interactions required for ribosomal protein transport and assembly into functional ribosomal subunits, the distribution of null mutations indicated that S14 is composed of multiple, functionally distinct polypeptide domains. Two of the protein's internal domains, designated domains B and D, were essential for S14 biological activity. In contrast, mutations which altered or deleted S14's amino-terminal 20 amino acid residues (domain A) had no observable effect on the protein's assembly and function in mammalian ribosomes. Interestingly, S14 structural domains deduced by in vitro mutagenesis correlate well with the RPS14 gene's exon boundaries.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM23013, GM38932

    Molecular and cellular biology 1992;12;4;1680-6

  • A cloned human ribosomal protein gene functions in rodent cells.

    Rhoads DD and Roufa DJ

    Division of Biology, Kansas State University, Manhattan 66506.

    Cloned fragments of human ribosomal protein S14 DNA (RPS14) were transfected into cultured Chinese hamster (CHO) cells. Transient expression assays indicated that DNA with as little as 31 base pairs of upstream flanking sequence was transcribed into a polyadenylated, 650-base mRNA that is largely bound to the polyribosomes. In these respects the exogenous human S14 message appeared to function normally in CHO cells. Interestingly, transcription of human RPS14 did not require the TATA sequence located 26 base pairs upstream of exon 1. Stably transformed clones were selected from cultures of emetine-resistant CHO cells (Emr-2) after transfection with pSV2Neo-human RPS14 constructs. Human RPS14 complemented the mutationally based drug resistance of the Chinese hamster cells, demonstrating that the cloned human ribosomal protein gene is functional in rodent cells. Analysis of transformed cells with different amounts of integrated RPS14 indicated that human S14 mRNA levels are not tightly regulated by CHO cells. In contrast, the steady-state S14 level fluctuated only slightly, if at all, in transformed clones whose S14 message contents differed by more than 30-fold. These data support the conclusion that expression of human RPS14 is regulated, at least partially, posttranscriptionally.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM-23013

    Molecular and cellular biology 1987;7;10;3767-74

  • Homologous ribosomal proteins in bacteria, yeast, and humans.

    Chen IT, Dixit A, Rhoads DD and Roufa DJ

    We describe sequences of two human ribosomal proteins, S14 and S17, and messenger RNAs that encode them. cDNAs were used as molecular hybridization probes to recognize complementary genes in rodent, Drosophila, and yeast chromosomal DNAs. Human ribosomal protein sequences are compared to analogous Chinese hamster, yeast, and bacterial genes. Our observations suggest that some ribosomal protein genes have been conserved stringently in the several phylogenetic lines examined. These genes apparently were established early in evolution and encode products that are fundamental to the translational apparatus. Other ribosomal protein genes examined, although similar enough to heterologous DNA sequences to indicate their structural relationships, appear to have diverged substantially during evolution, probably reflecting adaptations to different genetic environments.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA09418; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM23013

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 1986;83;18;6907-11

  • Primary structure of human ribosomal protein S14 and the gene that encodes it.

    Rhoads DD, Dixit A and Roufa DJ

    Chinese hamster ribosomal protein S14 cDNA was used to recognize homologous human cDNA and genomic clones. Human and Chinese hamster S14 protein sequences deduced from the cDNAs are identical. Two overlapping human genomic S14 DNA clones were isolated from a Charon 28 placental DNA library. A fragment of single-copy DNA derived from an intron region of one clone was mapped to the functional RPS14 locus on human chromosome 5q by using a panel of human X Chinese hamster hybrid cell DNAs. The human S14 gene consists of five exons and four introns spanning 5.9 kilobase pairs of DNA. Polyadenylated S14 transcripts purified from HeLa cell cytoplasma display heterogeneous 5' ends that map within noncoding RPS14 exon 1. This precludes assignment of a unique 5' boundary of RPS14 transcripts with respect to the cloned human genomic DNA. Apparently HeLa cells either initiate transcription at multiple sites within RPS14 exon 1, or capped 5' oligonucleotides are removed from most S14 mRNAs posttranscription. In contrast to the few murine ribosomal protein and several other mammalian housekeeping genes whose structures are known, human RPS14 contains a TATA sequence (TATACTT) upstream from exon 1. Three related short sequence motifs, also observed in murine and yeast ribosomal protein genes, occur in this region of the RPS14 gene. RPS14 introns 3 and 4 both contain Alu sequences. Interestingly, the Alu sequence in intron 3 is located slightly downstream from a chromosome 5 deletion breakpoint in one human X hamster hybrid clone analyzed.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA09418; NIGMS NIH HHS: GM23013

    Molecular and cellular biology 1986;6;8;2774-83

  • Selective linkage disruption in human-Chinese hamster cell hybrids: deletion mapping of the leuS, hexB, emtB, and chr genes on human chromosome 5.

    Dana S and Wasmuth JJ

    Chinese hamster-human interspecific hybrid cells, which contain human chromosome 5 and express four genes linked on that chromosome, were subjected to selective conditions requiring them to retain one of the four linked genes, leuS (encoding leucyl-tRNA synthetase), but lose another, either emtB (encoding ribosomal protein S14) or chr. Cytogenetic and biochemical analyses of spontaneous segregants isolated by using these unique selective pressures have enabled us to determine the order and regional location of the leuS, hexB, emtB, and chr genes on human chromosome 5. These segregants arise primarily by terminal deletions of various portions of the long arm of chromosome 5. Our results indicate that the order of at least three of these genes is the same on human chromosome 5 and Chinese hamster chromosome 2. Thus, there appears to be extensive homology between Chinese hamster chromosome 2 and human chromosome 5, which represents an extreme example of the conservation of gene organization between very divergent mammalian species. In addition, these hybrids and selective conditions provide a very simple and quantitative means to assess the potency of various agents suspected of inducing gross chromosomal damage.

    Funded by: NIGMS NIH HHS: GM 07134, GM 25339

    Molecular and cellular biology 1982;2;10;1220-8

Gene lists (7)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000049 G2C Homo sapiens TAP-PSD-95-CORE TAP-PSD-95 pull-down core list (ortho) 120
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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