G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 gamma
G00000507 (Mus musculus)

Databases (8)

Curated Gene
OTTHUMG00000136065 (Vega human gene)
ENSG00000186676 (Ensembl human gene)
1937 (Entrez Gene)
898 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
EEF1G (GeneCards)
130593 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:3213 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
P26641 (UniProt)

Synonyms (1)

  • EF1G

Literature (31)

Pubmed - other

  • Subtractive hybridisation screen identifies genes regulated by glucose deprivation in human neuroblastoma cells.

    Kobayashi K, Xin Y, Ymer SI, Werther GA and Russo VC

    Centre for Hormone Research, Murdoch Children's Research Institute, Department of Paediatrics, University of Melbourne, Royal Children's Hospital, 3052 Parkville, Australia.

    Glucose is the major source of energy for the brain and inadequate glucose supply causes damage of neuronal cells. In this study we employed the human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y, as an in vitro model for neuronal cells, to identify genes regulated by glucose deprivation. Using subtractive hybridisation screen, validated by Northern analysis, we identify for the first time specific targets of the glucopenic response. These genes are involved in key cellular process including gene transcription, protein synthesis, mitochondrial metabolism, neuronal development, neuroprotection and neuronal apoptosis. Our findings suggest that the fate of neuronal cells undergoing glucose starvation relies on complex gene interactions. Modulation of the expression of these genes in vivo will enable determination of the precise role of each gene and possibly identify key elements and potential therapeutic targets of the glucopenic response.

    Brain research 2007;1170;129-39

  • Purification and identification of G protein-coupled receptor protein complexes under native conditions.

    Daulat AM, Maurice P, Froment C, Guillaume JL, Broussard C, Monsarrat B, Delagrange P and Jockers R

    Department of Cell Biology, Institut Cochin, INSERM U567, CNRS UMR 8104, Université Paris Descartes, France.

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) constitute the largest family of membrane receptors and are of major therapeutic importance. The identification of GPCR-associated proteins is an important step toward a better understanding of these receptors. However, current methods are not satisfying as only isolated receptor domains (intracellular loops or carboxyl-terminal tails) can be used as "bait." We report here a method based on tandem affinity purification coupled to mass spectrometry that overcomes these limitations as the entire receptor is used to identify protein complexes formed in living mammalian cells. The human MT(1) and MT(2) melatonin receptors were chosen as model GPCRs. Both receptors were tagged with the tandem affinity purification tag at their carboxyl-terminal tails and expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 cells. Receptor solubilization and purification conditions were optimized. The method was validated by the co-purification of G(i) proteins, which are well known GPCR interaction partners but which are difficult to identify with current protein-protein interaction assays. Several new and functionally relevant MT(1)- and MT(2)-associated proteins were identified; some of them were common to both receptors, and others were specific for each subtype. Taken together, our protocol allowed for the first time the purification of GPCR-associated proteins under native conditions in quantities suitable for mass spectrometry analysis.

    Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 2007;6;5;835-44

  • Proteomics analysis of the interactome of N-myc downstream regulated gene 1 and its interactions with the androgen response program in prostate cancer cells.

    Tu LC, Yan X, Hood L and Lin B

    Institute for Systems Biology, Seattle, Washington 98103, USA.

    NDRG1 is known to play important roles in both androgen-induced cell differentiation and inhibition of prostate cancer metastasis. However, the proteins associated with NDRG1 function are not fully enumerated. Using coimmunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry analysis, we identified 58 proteins that interact with NDRG1 in prostate cancer cells. These proteins include nuclear proteins, adhesion molecules, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperons, proteasome subunits, and signaling proteins. Integration of our data with protein-protein interaction data from the Human Proteome Reference Database allowed us to build a comprehensive interactome map of NDRG1. This interactome map consists of several modules such as a nuclear module and a cell membrane module; these modules explain the reported versatile functions of NDRG1. We also determined that serine 330 and threonine 366 of NDRG1 were phosphorylated and demonstrated that the phosphorylation of NDRG1 was prominently mediated by protein kinase A (PKA). Further, we showed that NDRG1 directly binds to beta-catenin and E-cadherin. However, the phosphorylation of NDRG1 did not interrupt the binding of NDRG1 to E-cadherin and beta-catenin. Finally, we showed that the inhibition of NDRG1 expression by RNA interference decreased the ER inducible chaperon GRP94 expression, directly proving that NDRG1 is involved in the ER stress response. Intriguingly, we observed that many members of the NDRG1 interactome are androgen-regulated and that the NDRG1 interactome links to the androgen response network through common interactions with beta-catenin and heat shock protein 90. Therefore we overlaid the transcriptomic expression changes in the NDRG1 interactome in response to androgen treatment and built a dual dynamic picture of the NDRG1 interactome in response to androgen. This interactome map provides the first road map for understanding the functions of NDRG1 in cells and its roles in human diseases, such as prostate cancer, which can progress from androgen-dependent curable stages to androgen-independent incurable stages.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: 1U54CA119347, 5P01CA085859, 5P50CA097186; NIDA NIH HHS: 1U54DA021519; NIGMS NIH HHS: 1P50GM076547, P50 GM076547

    Molecular & cellular proteomics : MCP 2007;6;4;575-88

  • Global, in vivo, and site-specific phosphorylation dynamics in signaling networks.

    Olsen JV, Blagoev B, Gnad F, Macek B, Kumar C, Mortensen P and Mann M

    Center for Experimental BioInformatics, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5230 Odense, Denmark.

    Cell signaling mechanisms often transmit information via posttranslational protein modifications, most importantly reversible protein phosphorylation. Here we develop and apply a general mass spectrometric technology for identification and quantitation of phosphorylation sites as a function of stimulus, time, and subcellular location. We have detected 6,600 phosphorylation sites on 2,244 proteins and have determined their temporal dynamics after stimulating HeLa cells with epidermal growth factor (EGF) and recorded them in the Phosida database. Fourteen percent of phosphorylation sites are modulated at least 2-fold by EGF, and these were classified by their temporal profiles. Surprisingly, a majority of proteins contain multiple phosphorylation sites showing different kinetics, suggesting that they serve as platforms for integrating signals. In addition to protein kinase cascades, the targets of reversible phosphorylation include ubiquitin ligases, guanine nucleotide exchange factors, and at least 46 different transcriptional regulators. The dynamic phosphoproteome provides a missing link in a global, integrative view of cellular regulation.

    Cell 2006;127;3;635-48

  • Transcriptomic and proteomic analyses of rhabdomyosarcoma cells reveal differential cellular gene expression in response to enterovirus 71 infection.

    Leong WF and Chow VT

    Human Genome Laboratory, Department of Microbiology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Kent Ridge, Singapore 117597.

    Insights into the host antiviral strategies as well as viral disease manifestations can be achieved through the elucidation of host- and virus-mediated transcriptional responses. An oligo-based microarray was employed to analyse mRNAs from rhabdomyosarcoma cells infected with the MS/7423/87 strain of enterovirus 71 (EV71) at 20 h post infection. Using Acuity software and LOWESS normalization, 152 genes were found to be downregulated while 39 were upregulated by greater than twofold. Altered transcripts include those encoding components of cytoskeleton, protein translation and modification; cellular transport proteins; protein degradation mediators; cell death mediators; mitochondrial-related and metabolism proteins; cellular receptors and signal transducers. Changes in expression profiles of 15 representative genes were authenticated by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), which also compared the transcriptional responses of cells infected with EV71 strain 5865/Sin/000009 isolated from a fatal case during the Singapore outbreak in 2000. Western blot analyses of APOB, CLU, DCAMKL1 and ODC1 proteins correlated protein and transcript levels. Two-dimensional proteomic maps highlighted differences in expression of cellular proteins (CCT5, CFL1, ENO1, HSPB1, PSMA2 and STMN1) following EV71 infection. Expression of several apoptosis-associated genes was modified, coinciding with apoptosis attenuation observed in poliovirus infection. Interestingly, doublecortin and CaM kinase-like 1 (DCAMKL1) involved in brain development, was highly expressed during infection. Thus, microarray, real-time RT-PCR and proteomic analyses can elucidate the global view of the numerous and complex cellular responses that contribute towards EV71 pathogenesis.

    Cellular microbiology 2006;8;4;565-80

  • Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network.

    Rual JF, Venkatesan K, Hao T, Hirozane-Kishikawa T, Dricot A, Li N, Berriz GF, Gibbons FD, Dreze M, Ayivi-Guedehoussou N, Klitgord N, Simon C, Boxem M, Milstein S, Rosenberg J, Goldberg DS, Zhang LV, Wong SL, Franklin G, Li S, Albala JS, Lim J, Fraughton C, Llamosas E, Cevik S, Bex C, Lamesch P, Sikorski RS, Vandenhaute J, Zoghbi HY, Smolyar A, Bosak S, Sequerra R, Doucette-Stamm L, Cusick ME, Hill DE, Roth FP and Vidal M

    Center for Cancer Systems Biology and Department of Cancer Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, 44 Binney Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    Systematic mapping of protein-protein interactions, or 'interactome' mapping, was initiated in model organisms, starting with defined biological processes and then expanding to the scale of the proteome. Although far from complete, such maps have revealed global topological and dynamic features of interactome networks that relate to known biological properties, suggesting that a human interactome map will provide insight into development and disease mechanisms at a systems level. Here we describe an initial version of a proteome-scale map of human binary protein-protein interactions. Using a stringent, high-throughput yeast two-hybrid system, we tested pairwise interactions among the products of approximately 8,100 currently available Gateway-cloned open reading frames and detected approximately 2,800 interactions. This data set, called CCSB-HI1, has a verification rate of approximately 78% as revealed by an independent co-affinity purification assay, and correlates significantly with other biological attributes. The CCSB-HI1 data set increases by approximately 70% the set of available binary interactions within the tested space and reveals more than 300 new connections to over 100 disease-associated proteins. This work represents an important step towards a systematic and comprehensive human interactome project.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R33 CA132073; NHGRI NIH HHS: P50 HG004233, R01 HG001715, RC4 HG006066, U01 HG001715; NHLBI NIH HHS: U01 HL098166

    Nature 2005;437;7062;1173-8

  • A human protein-protein interaction network: a resource for annotating the proteome.

    Stelzl U, Worm U, Lalowski M, Haenig C, Brembeck FH, Goehler H, Stroedicke M, Zenkner M, Schoenherr A, Koeppen S, Timm J, Mintzlaff S, Abraham C, Bock N, Kietzmann S, Goedde A, Toksöz E, Droege A, Krobitsch S, Korn B, Birchmeier W, Lehrach H and Wanker EE

    Max Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine, 13092 Berlin-Buch, Germany.

    Protein-protein interaction maps provide a valuable framework for a better understanding of the functional organization of the proteome. To detect interacting pairs of human proteins systematically, a protein matrix of 4456 baits and 5632 preys was screened by automated yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) interaction mating. We identified 3186 mostly novel interactions among 1705 proteins, resulting in a large, highly connected network. Independent pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation assays validated the overall quality of the Y2H interactions. Using topological and GO criteria, a scoring system was developed to define 911 high-confidence interactions among 401 proteins. Furthermore, the network was searched for interactions linking uncharacterized gene products and human disease proteins to regulatory cellular pathways. Two novel Axin-1 interactions were validated experimentally, characterizing ANP32A and CRMP1 as modulators of Wnt signaling. Systematic human protein interaction screens can lead to a more comprehensive understanding of protein function and cellular processes.

    Cell 2005;122;6;957-68

  • Nucleolar proteome dynamics.

    Andersen JS, Lam YW, Leung AK, Ong SE, Lyon CE, Lamond AI and Mann M

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Campusvej 55, DK-5230 Odense M, Denmark.

    The nucleolus is a key organelle that coordinates the synthesis and assembly of ribosomal subunits and forms in the nucleus around the repeated ribosomal gene clusters. Because the production of ribosomes is a major metabolic activity, the function of the nucleolus is tightly linked to cell growth and proliferation, and recent data suggest that the nucleolus also plays an important role in cell-cycle regulation, senescence and stress responses. Here, using mass-spectrometry-based organellar proteomics and stable isotope labelling, we perform a quantitative analysis of the proteome of human nucleoli. In vivo fluorescent imaging techniques are directly compared to endogenous protein changes measured by proteomics. We characterize the flux of 489 endogenous nucleolar proteins in response to three different metabolic inhibitors that each affect nucleolar morphology. Proteins that are stably associated, such as RNA polymerase I subunits and small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle complexes, exit from or accumulate in the nucleolus with similar kinetics, whereas protein components of the large and small ribosomal subunits leave the nucleolus with markedly different kinetics. The data establish a quantitative proteomic approach for the temporal characterization of protein flux through cellular organelles and demonstrate that the nucleolar proteome changes significantly over time in response to changes in cellular growth conditions.

    Funded by: Wellcome Trust: 073980

    Nature 2005;433;7021;77-83

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • A protein interaction network links GIT1, an enhancer of huntingtin aggregation, to Huntington's disease.

    Goehler H, Lalowski M, Stelzl U, Waelter S, Stroedicke M, Worm U, Droege A, Lindenberg KS, Knoblich M, Haenig C, Herbst M, Suopanki J, Scherzinger E, Abraham C, Bauer B, Hasenbank R, Fritzsche A, Ludewig AH, Büssow K, Buessow K, Coleman SH, Gutekunst CA, Landwehrmeyer BG, Lehrach H and Wanker EE

    Max-Delbrueck-Center for Molecular Medicine, 13125 Berlin-Buch, Germany.

    Analysis of protein-protein interactions (PPIs) is a valuable approach for characterizing proteins of unknown function. Here, we have developed a strategy combining library and matrix yeast two-hybrid screens to generate a highly connected PPI network for Huntington's disease (HD). The network contains 186 PPIs among 35 bait and 51 prey proteins. It revealed 165 new potential interactions, 32 of which were confirmed by independent binding experiments. The network also permitted the functional annotation of 16 uncharacterized proteins and facilitated the discovery of GIT1, a G protein-coupled receptor kinase-interacting protein, which enhances huntingtin aggregation by recruitment of the protein into membranous vesicles. Coimmunoprecipitations and immunofluorescence studies revealed that GIT1 and huntingtin associate in mammalian cells under physiological conditions. Moreover, GIT1 localizes to neuronal inclusions, and is selectively cleaved in HD brains, indicating that its distribution and function is altered during disease pathogenesis.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: NS31862

    Molecular cell 2004;15;6;853-65

  • Proteomic, functional, and domain-based analysis of in vivo 14-3-3 binding proteins involved in cytoskeletal regulation and cellular organization.

    Jin J, Smith FD, Stark C, Wells CD, Fawcett JP, Kulkarni S, Metalnikov P, O'Donnell P, Taylor P, Taylor L, Zougman A, Woodgett JR, Langeberg LK, Scott JD and Pawson T

    Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, 600 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X5, Canada.

    Background: 14-3-3 proteins are abundant and conserved polypeptides that mediate the cellular effects of basophilic protein kinases through their ability to bind specific peptide motifs phosphorylated on serine or threonine.

    Results: We have used mass spectrometry to analyze proteins that associate with 14-3-3 isoforms in HEK293 cells. This identified 170 unique 14-3-3-associated proteins, which show only modest overlap with previous 14-3-3 binding partners isolated by affinity chromatography. To explore this large set of proteins, we developed a domain-based hierarchical clustering technique that distinguishes structurally and functionally related subsets of 14-3-3 target proteins. This analysis revealed a large group of 14-3-3 binding partners that regulate cytoskeletal architecture. Inhibition of 14-3-3 phosphoprotein recognition in vivo indicates the general importance of such interactions in cellular morphology and membrane dynamics. Using tandem proteomic and biochemical approaches, we identify a phospho-dependent 14-3-3 binding site on the A kinase anchoring protein (AKAP)-Lbc, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for the Rho GTPase. 14-3-3 binding to AKAP-Lbc, induced by PKA, suppresses Rho activation in vivo.

    Conclusion: 14-3-3 proteins can potentially engage around 0.6% of the human proteome. Domain-based clustering has identified specific subsets of 14-3-3 targets, including numerous proteins involved in the dynamic control of cell architecture. This notion has been validated by the broad inhibition of 14-3-3 phosphorylation-dependent binding in vivo and by the specific analysis of AKAP-Lbc, a RhoGEF that is controlled by its interaction with 14-3-3.

    Funded by: NIDDK NIH HHS: DK44239

    Current biology : CB 2004;14;16;1436-50

  • Functional proteomics mapping of a human signaling pathway.

    Colland F, Jacq X, Trouplin V, Mougin C, Groizeleau C, Hamburger A, Meil A, Wojcik J, Legrain P and Gauthier JM

    Hybrigenics SA, 75014 Paris, France. fcolland@hybrigenics.fr

    Access to the human genome facilitates extensive functional proteomics studies. Here, we present an integrated approach combining large-scale protein interaction mapping, exploration of the interaction network, and cellular functional assays performed on newly identified proteins involved in a human signaling pathway. As a proof of principle, we studied the Smad signaling system, which is regulated by members of the transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) superfamily. We used two-hybrid screening to map Smad signaling protein-protein interactions and to establish a network of 755 interactions, involving 591 proteins, 179 of which were poorly or not annotated. The exploration of such complex interaction databases is improved by the use of PIMRider, a dedicated navigation tool accessible through the Web. The biological meaning of this network is illustrated by the presence of 18 known Smad-associated proteins. Functional assays performed in mammalian cells including siRNA knock-down experiments identified eight novel proteins involved in Smad signaling, thus validating this integrated functional proteomics approach.

    Genome research 2004;14;7;1324-32

  • Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.

    Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, Otsuki T, Sugiyama T, Irie R, Wakamatsu A, Hayashi K, Sato H, Nagai K, Kimura K, Makita H, Sekine M, Obayashi M, Nishi T, Shibahara T, Tanaka T, Ishii S, Yamamoto J, Saito K, Kawai Y, Isono Y, Nakamura Y, Nagahari K, Murakami K, Yasuda T, Iwayanagi T, Wagatsuma M, Shiratori A, Sudo H, Hosoiri T, Kaku Y, Kodaira H, Kondo H, Sugawara M, Takahashi M, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Furuya T, Kikkawa E, Omura Y, Abe K, Kamihara K, Katsuta N, Sato K, Tanikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ninomiya K, Ishibashi T, Yamashita H, Murakawa K, Fujimori K, Tanai H, Kimata M, Watanabe M, Hiraoka S, Chiba Y, Ishida S, Ono Y, Takiguchi S, Watanabe S, Yosida M, Hotuta T, Kusano J, Kanehori K, Takahashi-Fujii A, Hara H, Tanase TO, Nomura Y, Togiya S, Komai F, Hara R, Takeuchi K, Arita M, Imose N, Musashino K, Yuuki H, Oshima A, Sasaki N, Aotsuka S, Yoshikawa Y, Matsunawa H, Ichihara T, Shiohata N, Sano S, Moriya S, Momiyama H, Satoh N, Takami S, Terashima Y, Suzuki O, Nakagawa S, Senoh A, Mizoguchi H, Goto Y, Shimizu F, Wakebe H, Hishigaki H, Watanabe T, Sugiyama A, Takemoto M, Kawakami B, Yamazaki M, Watanabe K, Kumagai A, Itakura S, Fukuzumi Y, Fujimori Y, Komiyama M, Tashiro H, Tanigami A, Fujiwara T, Ono T, Yamada K, Fujii Y, Ozaki K, Hirao M, Ohmori Y, Kawabata A, Hikiji T, Kobatake N, Inagaki H, Ikema Y, Okamoto S, Okitani R, Kawakami T, Noguchi S, Itoh T, Shigeta K, Senba T, Matsumura K, Nakajima Y, Mizuno T, Morinaga M, Sasaki M, Togashi T, Oyama M, Hata H, Watanabe M, Komatsu T, Mizushima-Sugano J, Satoh T, Shirai Y, Takahashi Y, Nakagawa K, Okumura K, Nagase T, Nomura N, Kikuchi H, Masuho Y, Yamashita R, Nakai K, Yada T, Nakamura Y, Ohara O, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Helix Research Institute, 1532-3 Yana, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0812, Japan.

    As a base for human transcriptome and functional genomics, we created the "full-length long Japan" (FLJ) collection of sequenced human cDNAs. We determined the entire sequence of 21,243 selected clones and found that 14,490 cDNAs (10,897 clusters) were unique to the FLJ collection. About half of them (5,416) seemed to be protein-coding. Of those, 1,999 clusters had not been predicted by computational methods. The distribution of GC content of nonpredicted cDNAs had a peak at approximately 58% compared with a peak at approximately 42%for predicted cDNAs. Thus, there seems to be a slight bias against GC-rich transcripts in current gene prediction procedures. The rest of the cDNAs unique to the FLJ collection (5,481) contained no obvious open reading frames (ORFs) and thus are candidate noncoding RNAs. About one-fourth of them (1,378) showed a clear pattern of splicing. The distribution of GC content of noncoding cDNAs was narrow and had a peak at approximately 42%, relatively low compared with that of protein-coding cDNAs.

    Nature genetics 2004;36;1;40-5

  • The molecular mechanics of eukaryotic translation.

    Kapp LD and Lorsch JR

    Department of Biophysics and Biophysical Chemistry, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 725 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, Maryland 21205-2185, USA. lkapp@jhmi.edu

    Great advances have been made in the past three decades in understanding the molecular mechanics underlying protein synthesis in bacteria, but our understanding of the corresponding events in eukaryotic organisms is only beginning to catch up. In this review we describe the current state of our knowledge and ignorance of the molecular mechanics underlying eukaryotic translation. We discuss the mechanisms conserved across the three kingdoms of life as well as the important divergences that have taken place in the pathway.

    Annual review of biochemistry 2004;73;657-704

  • Direct and biochemical interaction between dopamine D3 receptor and elongation factor-1Bbetagamma.

    Cho DI, Oak MH, Yang HJ, Choi HK, Janssen GM and Kim KM

    Department of Pharmacology and Research Institute of Drug Development, College of Pharmacy, Chonnam National University, Kwang-Ju 500-757, South Korea.

    Novel signaling components of dopamine D3 receptor (D3R) were searched using yeast two-hybrid system, and the gamma subunit of elongation Factor-1B (eEF1Bgamma) was found to interact with D3R. This interaction was observed specifically between eEF1Bgamma and D3R but not with D2R or D4R. Immunocytochemical studies showed that D3R and eEF1Bgamma form clusters on the plasma membrane and their co-localization was evident in these clusters. The beta subunit of eEF1B (eEF1Bbeta), which forms a tight complex with eEF1Bgamma, was phosphorylated on serine residues in response to the stimulation of D3R. Phosphorylation of eEF1Bbeta was insensitive to pertussis toxin or wortmannin, however, stimulation of cellular protein kinase C (PKC) directly phosphorylated eEF1Bbeta and depletion of PKC abolished D3R-mediated phosphorylation of eEF1Bbeta. These results suggest the involvement of PKC, but not Gi/o proteins or phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, in D3R-mediated phosphorylation of eEF1Bbeta. Stimulation of D3R did not activate PKC, but the activation of PKC resulted in the phosphorylation of D3R. These results show that PKC has a permissive role for the D3R-mediated phosphorylation of eEF1Bbeta, and suggest that PKC could modulate the mutual interaction between two protein by phosphorylating both D3R and eEF1Bbeta. Therefore, the cellular PKC level would be important for the D3R-mediated modulation of eEF1B, and for their cellular regulations such as protein synthesis or cellular proliferation.

    Life sciences 2003;73;23;2991-3004

  • Nuclear coactivator-62 kDa/Ski-interacting protein is a nuclear matrix-associated coactivator that may couple vitamin D receptor-mediated transcription and RNA splicing.

    Zhang C, Dowd DR, Staal A, Gu C, Lian JB, van Wijnen AJ, Stein GS and MacDonald PN

    Department of Pharmacology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106, USA.

    Nuclear coactivator-62 kDa/Ski-interacting protein (NCoA62/SKIP) is a putative vitamin D receptor (VDR) and nuclear receptor coactivator protein that is unrelated to other VDR coactivators such as those in the steroid receptor coactivator (SRC) family. The mechanism through which NCoA62/SKIP functions in VDR-activated transcription is unknown. In the present study, we identified a nuclear localization sequence in the COOH terminus of NCoA62/SKIP and showed that NCoA62/SKIP was targeted to nuclear matrix subdomains. Chromatin immunoprecipitation studies revealed that endogenous NCoA62/SKIP associated in a 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3-dependent manner with VDR target genes in ROS17/2.8 osteosarcoma cells. A cyclic pattern of promoter occupancy by VDR, SRC-1, and NCoA62/SKIP was observed, with NCoA62/SKIP entering these promoter complexes after SRC-1. These studies provide strong support for the proposed role of NCoA62/SKIP as a VDR transcriptional coactivator, and they indicate that key mechanistic differences probably exist between NCoA62/SKIP and SRC coactivators. To explore potential mechanisms, NCoA62/SKIP-interacting proteins were purified from HeLa cell nuclear extracts and identified by mass spectrometry. The identified proteins represent components of the spliceosome as well as other nuclear matrix-associated proteins. Here, we show that a dominant negative inhibitor of NCoA62/SKIP (dnNCoA62/SKIP) interfered with appropriate splicing of transcripts derived from 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3-induced expression of a growth hormone minigene cassette. Taken together, these data show that NCoA62/SKIP has properties that are consistent with those of nuclear receptor coactivators and with RNA spliceosome components, thus suggesting a potential role for NCoA62/SKIP in coupling VDR-mediated transcription to RNA splicing.

    Funded by: NIAMS NIH HHS: R01 AR049069; NIDDK NIH HHS: DK53980

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2003;278;37;35325-36

  • 1H, 15N and 13C resonance assignments of the highly conserved 19 kDa C-terminal domain from human elongation factor 1Bgamma.

    Vanwetswinkel S, Kriek J, Andersen GR, Dijk J and Siegal G

    Journal of biomolecular NMR 2003;26;2;189-90

  • Human chromosome 7: DNA sequence and biology.

    Scherer SW, Cheung J, MacDonald JR, Osborne LR, Nakabayashi K, Herbrick JA, Carson AR, Parker-Katiraee L, Skaug J, Khaja R, Zhang J, Hudek AK, Li M, Haddad M, Duggan GE, Fernandez BA, Kanematsu E, Gentles S, Christopoulos CC, Choufani S, Kwasnicka D, Zheng XH, Lai Z, Nusskern D, Zhang Q, Gu Z, Lu F, Zeesman S, Nowaczyk MJ, Teshima I, Chitayat D, Shuman C, Weksberg R, Zackai EH, Grebe TA, Cox SR, Kirkpatrick SJ, Rahman N, Friedman JM, Heng HH, Pelicci PG, Lo-Coco F, Belloni E, Shaffer LG, Pober B, Morton CC, Gusella JF, Bruns GA, Korf BR, Quade BJ, Ligon AH, Ferguson H, Higgins AW, Leach NT, Herrick SR, Lemyre E, Farra CG, Kim HG, Summers AM, Gripp KW, Roberts W, Szatmari P, Winsor EJ, Grzeschik KH, Teebi A, Minassian BA, Kere J, Armengol L, Pujana MA, Estivill X, Wilson MD, Koop BF, Tosi S, Moore GE, Boright AP, Zlotorynski E, Kerem B, Kroisel PM, Petek E, Oscier DG, Mould SJ, Döhner H, Döhner K, Rommens JM, Vincent JB, Venter JC, Li PW, Mural RJ, Adams MD and Tsui LC

    Department of Genetics and Genomic Biology, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, M5G 1X8. steve@genet.sickkids.on.ca

    DNA sequence and annotation of the entire human chromosome 7, encompassing nearly 158 million nucleotides of DNA and 1917 gene structures, are presented. To generate a higher order description, additional structural features such as imprinted genes, fragile sites, and segmental duplications were integrated at the level of the DNA sequence with medical genetic data, including 440 chromosome rearrangement breakpoints associated with disease. This approach enabled the discovery of candidate genes for developmental diseases including autism.

    Funded by: Canadian Institutes of Health Research: 38103; NIGMS NIH HHS: P01 GM061354

    Science (New York, N.Y.) 2003;300;5620;767-72

  • Exploring proteomes and analyzing protein processing by mass spectrometric identification of sorted N-terminal peptides.

    Gevaert K, Goethals M, Martens L, Van Damme J, Staes A, Thomas GR and Vandekerckhove J

    Department of Medical Protein Research, Flanders Interuniversity Institute for Biotechnology, Ghent University, A. Baertsoenkaai 3, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium. kris.gevaert@rug.ac.be

    Current non-gel techniques for analyzing proteomes rely heavily on mass spectrometric analysis of enzymatically digested protein mixtures. Prior to analysis, a highly complex peptide mixture is either separated on a multidimensional chromatographic system or it is first reduced in complexity by isolating sets of representative peptides. Recently, we developed a peptide isolation procedure based on diagonal electrophoresis and diagonal chromatography. We call it combined fractional diagonal chromatography (COFRADIC). In previous experiments, we used COFRADIC to identify more than 800 Escherichia coli proteins by tandem mass spectrometric (MS/MS) analysis of isolated methionine-containing peptides. Here, we describe a diagonal method to isolate N-terminal peptides. This reduces the complexity of the peptide sample, because each protein has one N terminus and is thus represented by only one peptide. In this new procedure, free amino groups in proteins are first blocked by acetylation and then digested with trypsin. After reverse-phase (RP) chromatographic fractionation of the generated peptide mixture, internal peptides are blocked using 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS); they display a strong hydrophobic shift and therefore segregate from the unaltered N-terminal peptides during a second identical separation step. N-terminal peptides can thereby be specifically collected for further liquid chromatography (LC)-MS/MS analysis. Omitting the acetylation step results in the isolation of non-lysine-containing N-terminal peptides from in vivo blocked proteins.

    Nature biotechnology 2003;21;5;566-9

  • Interaction network of human aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases and subunits of elongation factor 1 complex.

    Sang Lee J, Gyu Park S, Park H, Seol W, Lee S and Kim S

    National Creative Research Initiatives Center for ARS Network, College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, Shinlim-Dong, Kwanak-Ku, Seoul, 157-742, Korea.

    Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (ARSs) ligate amino acids to their cognate tRNAs. It has been suggested that mammalian ARSs are linked to the EF-1 complex for efficient channeling of aminoacyl tRNAs to ribosome. Here we systemically investigated possible interactions between human ARSs and the subunits of EF-1 (alpha, beta, gamma, and delta) using a yeast two-hybrid assay. Among the 80 tested pairs, leucyl- and histidyl-tRNA synthetases were found to make strong and specific interaction with the EF-1gamma and beta while glu-proly-, glutaminyl-, alanyl-, aspartyl-, lysyl-, phenylalanyl-, glycyl-, and tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetases showed moderate interactions with the different EF-1 subunits. The interactions of leucyl- and histidyl-tRNA synthetase with the EF-1 complex were confirmed by immunoprecipitation and in vitro pull-down experiments. Interestingly, the aminoacylation activities of these two enzymes, but not other ARSs, were stimulated by the cofactor of EF-1, GTP. These data suggest that a systematic interaction network may exist between mammalian ARSs and EF-1 subunits probably to enhance the efficiency of in vivo protein synthesis.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2002;291;1;158-64

  • FEZ1/LZTS1 gene at 8p22 suppresses cancer cell growth and regulates mitosis.

    Ishii H, Vecchione A, Murakumo Y, Baldassarre G, Numata S, Trapasso F, Alder H, Baffa R and Croce CM

    Kimmel Cancer Center, Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University, 233 South 10th Street, Philadelphia, PA 19107-5799, USA.

    The FEZ1/LZTS1 gene maps to chromosome 8p22, a region that is frequently deleted in human tumors. Alterations in FEZ1/LZTS1 expression have been observed in esophageal, breast, and prostate cancers. Here, we show that introduction of FEZ1/LZTS1 into Fez1/Lzts1-negative cancer cells results in suppression of tumorigenicity and reduced cell growth with accumulation of cells at late S-G(2)/M stage of the cell cycle. Fez1/Lzts1 protein is hyperphosphorylated by cAMP-dependent kinase during cell-cycle progression. We found that Fez1/Lzts1 is associated with microtubule components and interacts with p34(cdc2) at late S-G(2)/M stage in vivo. Present data show that FEZ1/LZTS1 inhibits cancer cell growth through regulation of mitosis, and that its alterations result in abnormal cell growth.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA39860, CA51083, CA56336, CA83698, R01 CA083698

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2001;98;18;10374-9

  • An elongation factor-associating domain is inserted into human cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase by alternative splicing.

    Kim JE, Kim KH, Lee SW, Seol W, Shiba K and Kim S

    National Creative Research Initiatives Center for ARS Network, Sung Kyun Kwan University, 300 Chunchun-Dong, Changan-Ku, Suwon-Si, Kyunggi-Do 440-746, Korea.

    The amino acid sequence of human cytoplasmic cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase (CRS) was examined by analyzing sequences of genomic and expressed sequence tag fragments. From theses analyses, a few interesting possibilities were suggested for the structure of human CRS. First, different isoforms of CRS may result from alternative splicing. Second, the largest one would comprise 831 amino acids. Third, a new exon was identified encoding an 83 amino acid domain that is homologous to parts of elongation factor-1 subunits as well as other proteins involved in protein synthesis. Northern blot analysis showed three different mRNAs for CRS (of approximately 3.0, 2.7 and 2.0 kb) from human testis while only the 2.7 kb mRNA was commonly detected in other tissues. Expression of the exon 2-containing transcript in testis was confirmed by RT-PCR and northern blotting. CRS containing the exon 2-encoded peptide retained catalytic activity comparable to that lacking this peptide. This peptide was responsible for the specific interaction of CRS with elongation factor-1gamma.

    Nucleic acids research 2000;28;15;2866-72

  • The solution structure of the guanine nucleotide exchange domain of human elongation factor 1beta reveals a striking resemblance to that of EF-Ts from Escherichia coli.

    Pérez JM, Siegal G, Kriek J, Hård K, Dijk J, Canters GW and Möller W

    Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Sylvius Laboratory, University ofLeiden, Wassenaarseweg 72 NL-2333, AL Leiden, The Netherlands.

    Background: In eukaryotic protein synthesis, the multi-subunit elongation factor 1 (EF-1) plays an important role in ensuring the fidelity and regulating the rate of translation. EF-1alpha, which transports the aminoacyl tRNA to the ribosome, is a member of the G-protein superfamily. EF-1beta regulates the activity of EF-1alpha by catalyzing the exchange of GDP for GTP and thereby regenerating the active form of EF-1alpha. The structure of the bacterial analog of EF-1alpha, EF-Tu has been solved in complex with its GDP exchange factor, EF-Ts. These structures indicate a mechanism for GDP-GTP exchange in prokaryotes. Although there is good sequence conservation between EF-1alpha and EF-Tu, there is essentially no sequence similarity between EF-1beta and EF-Ts. We wished to explore whether the prokaryotic exchange mechanism could shed any light on the mechanism of eukaryotic translation elongation.

    Results: Here, we report the structure of the guanine-nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) domain of human EF-1beta (hEF-1beta, residues 135-224); hEF-1beta[135-224], determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Sequence conservation analysis of the GEF domains of EF-1 subunits beta and delta from widely divergent organisms indicates that the most highly conserved residues are in two loop regions. Intriguingly, hEF-1beta[135-224] shares structural homology with the GEF domain of EF-Ts despite their different primary sequences.

    Conclusions: On the basis of both the structural homology between EF-Ts and hEF-1beta[135-224] and the sequence conservation analysis, we propose that the mechanism of guanine-nucleotide exchange in protein synthesis has been conserved in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. In particular, Tyr181 of hEF-1beta[135-224] appears to be analogous to Phe81 of Escherichia coli EF-Ts.

    Structure (London, England : 1993) 1999;7;2;217-26

  • A structural model for elongation factor 1 (EF-1) and phosphorylation by protein kinase CKII.

    Sheu GT and Traugh JA

    Department of Biochemistry and Genetics Graduate Group, University of California, Riverside 92521, USA.

    EF-1alpha binds aminoacyl-tRNA to the ribosome with the hydrolysis of GTP; the betagammadelta complex facilitates the exchange of GDP for GTP to initiate another round of elongation. To examine the subunit structure of EF-1 and phosphorylation by protein kinase CKII, recombinant beta, gamma, and delta subunits from rabbit were expressed in E. coli and the subunits were reconstituted into partial and complete complexes and analyzed by gel filtration. To determine the availability of the beta and delta subunits for phosphorylation by CKII, the subunits and the reconstituted complexes were examined as substrates for CKII. Formation of the nucleotide exchange complex increased the rate of phosphorylation of the beta subunit and reduced the Km, while addition of alpha to beta or the betagammacomplex inhibited phosphorylation by CKII. However, alpha had little effect on phosphorylation of delta. Thus, the beta and delta subunits in EF-1 were differentially phosphorylated by CKII, in that phosphorylation of beta was altered by association with other subunits, while the site on delta was always available for phosphorylation by CKII. From the availability of the subunits for phosphorylation by CKII and the composition of the reconstituted partial and complete complexes, a model for the subunit structure of EF-1 consisting of(alpha2betagamma2delta)2 is proposed and discussed.

    Molecular and cellular biochemistry 1999;191;1-2;181-6

  • Recombinant subunits of mammalian elongation factor 1 expressed in Escherichia coli. Subunit interactions, elongation activity, and phosphorylation by protein kinase CKII.

    Sheu GT and Traugh JA

    Department of Biochemistry and the Genetics Graduate Group, University of California, Riverside, California 92521-0129, USA.

    The first step in elongation requires two different activities; elongation factor (EF)-1alpha transfers aminoacyl-tRNA to the ribosome and is released upon hydrolysis of GTP, EF-1betagammadelta catalyzes exchange of GDP on EF-1alpha with GTP. To analyze the role of the individual subunits of EF-1 in elongation, the cDNAs for the beta, gamma, and delta subunits of EF-1 from rabbit were cloned, and proteins of 225, 437, and 280 amino acids, respectively, were expressed in Escherichia coli. The purified recombinant beta subunit migrates as a dimer and the gamma subunit as a trimer upon gel filtration, whereas the delta subunit forms a large aggregate. Complexes of betagamma, gammadelta and betagammadelta were formed by self-association and eluted with a molecular mass of approximately 160, 530, and 670 kDa, respectively; no interaction was observed between beta and delta. The activity of the recombinant subunits was determined with native EF-1alpha by measuring stimulation of the rate of elongation by poly(U)-directed polyphenylalanine synthesis. Recombinant beta and delta alone stimulated the rate of elongation by 10-fold, with a ratio of 5alpha:2beta or delta. The betagammadelta complex stimulated EF-1alpha activity up to 10-fold with a ratio of 20alpha to 1betagammadelta. Phosphorylation of the beta and delta subunits alone or in betagammadelta by protein kinase CKII had no effect on the rate of elongation.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1997;272;52;33290-7

  • Eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 gamma contains a glutathione transferase domain--study of a diverse, ancient protein superfamily using motif search and structural modeling.

    Koonin EV, Mushegian AR, Tatusov RL, Altschul SF, Bryant SH, Bork P and Valencia A

    National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20894.

    Using computer methods for multiple alignment, sequence motif search, and tertiary structure modeling, we show that eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 gamma (EF1 gamma) contains an N-terminal domain related to class theta glutathione S-transferases (GST). GST-like proteins related to class theta comprise a large group including, in addition to typical GSTs and EF1 gamma, stress-induced proteins from bacteria and plants, bacterial reductive dehalogenases and beta-etherases, and several uncharacterized proteins. These proteins share 2 conserved sequence motifs with GSTs of other classes (alpha, mu, and pi). Tertiary structure modeling showed that in spite of the relatively low sequence similarity, the GST-related domain of EF1 gamma is likely to form a fold very similar to that in the known structures of class alpha, mu, and pi GSTs. One of the conserved motifs is implicated in glutathione binding, whereas the other motif probably is involved in maintaining the proper conformation of the GST domain. We predict that the GST-like domain in EF1 gamma is enzymatically active and that to exhibit GST activity, EF1 gamma has to form homodimers. The GST activity may be involved in the regulation of the assembly of multisubunit complexes containing EF1 and aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases by shifting the balance between glutathione, disulfide glutathione, thiol groups of cysteines, and protein disulfide bonds. The GST domain is a widespread, conserved enzymatic module that may be covalently or noncovalently complexed with other proteins. Regulation of protein assembly and folding may be 1 of the functions of GST.

    Protein science : a publication of the Protein Society 1994;3;11;2045-54

  • Elongation factor-1 messenger-RNA levels in cultured cells are high compared to tissue and are not drastically affected further by oncogenic transformation.

    Sanders J, Maassen JA and Möller W

    Department of Medical Biochemistry, Sylvius Laboratory, State University of Leiden, The Netherlands.

    Copy-DNA clones covering the complete coding sequence of human Elongation Factor-1 gamma mRNA have been isolated and characterized. The expression of Elongation Factor-1 in a variety of cell lines and a number of tissues shows a large increase in Elongation Factor-1 mRNA going from tissue to cultured cells (20-fold). Messenger-RNA levels for Elongation Factor-1 alpha, -1 beta and -1 gamma increase in parallel suggesting coordinate regulation of the expression of these genes. Oncogenic transformation in vitro does not strongly affect Elongation Factor-1 mRNA levels.

    Nucleic acids research 1992;20;22;5907-10

  • Human cDNAs encoding elongation factor 1 gamma and the ribosomal protein L19.

    Kumabe T, Sohma Y and Yamamoto T

    Tohoku University Gene Research Center, Sendai, Japan.

    Nucleic acids research 1992;20;10;2598

  • Expression of elongation factor-1 gamma-related sequence in human pancreatic cancer.

    Lew Y, Jones DV, Mars WM, Evans D, Byrd D and Frazier ML

    Department of Medical Oncology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston 77030.

    A cDNA clone designated pPDC-1 was isolated from a cDNA library prepared against poly(A+)RNA isolated from the human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell line, Capan-2. The cDNA corresponds to a 1.7-kilobase mRNA that is expressed at higher levels in seven of nine pancreatic tumors than in their corresponding normal tissues. It is also expressed in normal human kidney, intestine, pancreas, stomach, placenta, lung, brain, spleen, and liver. A computer search of the Intelligenetics System of all available nucleotide sequences revealed a 60% homology between the nucleotide sequence of the pPDC-1 cDNA and that of elongation factor-1 gamma from Artemia. The deduced amino acid sequence shared 53% identity with the amino acid sequence for the Artemia elongation factor-1 gamma.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: R01-CA46687, R01-CA49667

    Pancreas 1992;7;2;144-52

  • Mammalian valyl-tRNA synthetase forms a complex with the first elongation factor.

    Motorin YuA, Wolfson AD, Orlovsky AF and Gladilin KL

    A.N. Bakh Institute of Biochemistry, Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Moscow.

    The high-molecular-mass form of valyl-tRNA synthetase is associated with the first elongation factor activity. It includes two polypeptides of about 50 kDa and two others of 40 and 30 kDa, identified as alpha, beta, gamma and delta subunits of eEF-1H. The complex of valyl-tRNA synthetase with eEF-1H is suggested to be a novel form of the first elongation factor.

    FEBS letters 1988;238;2;262-4

Gene lists (6)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000059 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-CONSENSUS Human cortex PSD consensus 748
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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