G2Cdb::Gene report

Gene id
Gene symbol
Homo sapiens
eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha 2
G00000503 (Mus musculus)

Databases (8)

Curated Gene
OTTHUMG00000033076 (Vega human gene)
ENSG00000101210 (Ensembl human gene)
1917 (Entrez Gene)
894 (G2Cdb plasticity & disease)
EEF1A2 (GeneCards)
602959 (OMIM)
Marker Symbol
HGNC:3192 (HGNC)
Protein Sequence
Q05639 (UniProt)

Synonyms (2)

  • EEF1AL
  • HS1

Literature (31)

Pubmed - other

  • Generation of a zinc finger protein ZPR1 mutant that constitutively interacted with translation elongation factor 1alpha.

    Yanaka N, Kaseda Y, Tanaka A, Nogusa Y, Sumiyoshi N and Kato N

    Department of Molecular and Applied Bioscience, Graduate School of Biosphere Science, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Japan. yanaka@hiroshima-u.ac.jp

    Zinc finger protein ZPR1 (ZPR1) binds to eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1alpha (eEF1alpha) in response to growth stimuli, and is also involved in transcription and cell cycle regulation. In this study, we characterized the interaction of ZPR1 and eEF1alpha and generated a ZPR1 mutant that constitutively interacted with eEF1alpha. ZPR1-DeltaA (Delta193-246) bound to eEF1alpha independently of Zn(2+) in vivo. This study indicates that ZPR1-DeltaA (Delta193-246) is a useful tool to provide structural insights into ZPR1 and to investigate the biological significance of the interaction between ZPR1 and eEF1alpha.

    Bioscience, biotechnology, and biochemistry 2009;73;12;2809-11

  • eEF1A2 as a putative oncogene.

    Lee MH and Surh YJ

    National Research Laboratory of Molecular Carcinogenesis and Chemoprevention, College of Pharmacy and Cancer Research Institute, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea.

    The first evidence for the role of the protein elongation factor eEF1A2 in tumorigenesis was reported by Anand and colleagues who demonstrated that eEF1A2 is overexpressed in about 30% of ovarian tumors and some established ovarian cancer cells. This abnormal expression correlates with a poor prognosis. Since this discovery, there have been several reports suggesting eEF1A2 as a diagnostic marker in various cancers. This review highlights the oncogenic potential of eEF1A2.

    Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 2009;1171;87-93

  • Structural models of human eEF1A1 and eEF1A2 reveal two distinct surface clusters of sequence variation and potential differences in phosphorylation.

    Soares DC, Barlow PN, Newbery HJ, Porteous DJ and Abbott CM

    Medical Genetics Section, Molecular Medicine Centre, Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, Western General Hospital, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom. Dinesh.Soares@ed.ac.uk

    Background: Despite sharing 92% sequence identity, paralogous human translation elongation factor 1 alpha-1 (eEF1A1) and elongation factor 1 alpha-2 (eEF1A2) have different but overlapping functional profiles. This may reflect the differential requirements of the cell-types in which they are expressed and is consistent with complex roles for these proteins that extend beyond delivery of tRNA to the ribosome.

    To investigate the structural basis of these functional differences, we created and validated comparative three-dimensional (3-D) models of eEF1A1 and eEF1A2 on the basis of the crystal structure of homologous eEF1A from yeast. The spatial location of amino acid residues that vary between the two proteins was thereby pinpointed, and their surface electrostatic and lipophilic properties were compared. None of the variations amongst buried amino acid residues are judged likely to have a major structural effect on the protein fold, or to affect domain-domain interactions. Nearly all the variant surface-exposed amino acid residues lie on one face of the protein, in two proximal but distinct sub-clusters. The result of previously performed mutagenesis in yeast may be interpreted as confirming the importance of one of these clusters in actin-bundling and filament disorganization. Interestingly, some variant residues lie in close proximity to, and in a few cases show differences in interactions with, residues previously inferred to be directly involved in binding GTP/GDP, eEF1Balpha and aminoacyl-tRNA. Additional sequence-based predictions, in conjunction with the 3-D models, reveal likely differences in phosphorylation sites that could reconcile some of the functional differences between the two proteins.

    Conclusions: The revelation and putative functional assignment of two distinct sub-clusters on the surface of the protein models should enable rational site-directed mutagenesis, including homologous reverse-substitution experiments, to map surface binding patches onto these proteins. The predicted variant-specific phosphorylation sites also provide a basis for experimental verification by mutagenesis. The models provide a structural framework for interpretation of the resulting functional analysis.

    Funded by: Wellcome Trust

    PloS one 2009;4;7;e6315

  • Regulation and functional role of eEF1A2 in pancreatic carcinoma.

    Cao H, Zhu Q, Huang J, Li B, Zhang S, Yao W and Zhang Y

    Department of Gastroenterology, Rui Jin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, No. 197 Rui Jin Er Road, Shanghai 200025, China.

    Pancreatic cancer typically has an unfavourable prognosis due to late diagnosis and a lack of therapeutic options. Thus, it is important to better understand its pathological mechanism and to develop more effective treatments for the disease. Human chromosome 20q13 has long been suspected to harbour oncogenes involved in pancreatic cancer and other tumours. In this study, we found that eEF1A2, a gene located in 20q13, was significantly upregulated in pancreatic cancer. Little or no expression of eEF1A2 was detected in normal human pancreatic and chronic pancreatitis tissues, whereas increased eEF1A2 expression occurred in 83% of the pancreatic cancers we studied. Furthermore, using in vitro and in vivo model systems, we found that overexpression of eEF1A2 promoted cell growth, survival, and invasion in pancreatic cancer. Our data thus suggest that eEF1A2 might play an important role in pancreatic carcinogenesis, possibly by acting as a tumour oncogene.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2009;380;1;11-6

  • Eukaryotic elongation factor 1A2 cooperates with phosphatidylinositol-4 kinase III beta to stimulate production of filopodia through increased phosphatidylinositol-4,5 bisphosphate generation.

    Jeganathan S, Morrow A, Amiri A and Lee JM

    Department of Biochemistry, University of Ottawa, 451 Smyth Road, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

    Eukaryotic elongation factor 1 alpha 2 (eEF1A2) is a transforming gene product that is highly expressed in human tumors of the ovary, lung, and breast. eEF1A2 also stimulates actin remodeling, and the expression of this factor is sufficient to induce the formation of filopodia, long cellular processes composed of bundles of parallel actin filaments. Here, we find that eEF1A2 stimulates formation of filopodia by increasing the cellular abundance of cytosolic and plasma membrane-bound phosphatidylinositol-4,5 bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P(2)]. We have previously reported that the eEF1A2 protein binds and activates phosphatidylinositol-4 kinase III beta (PI4KIIIbeta), and we find that production of eEF1A2-dependent PI(4,5)P(2) and generation of filopodia require PI4KIIIbeta. Furthermore, PI4KIIIbeta is itself capable of activating both the production of PI(4,5)P(2) and the creation of filopodia. We propose a model for extrusion of filopodia in which eEF1A2 activates PI4KIIIbeta, and activated PI4KIIIbeta stimulates production of PI(4,5)P(2) and filopodia by increasing PI4P abundance. Our work suggests an important role for both eEF1A2 and PI4KIIIbeta in the control of PI(4,5)P(2) signaling and actin remodeling.

    Molecular and cellular biology 2008;28;14;4549-61

  • The expression levels of the translational factors eEF1A 1/2 correlate with cell growth but not apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines with different differentiation grade.

    Grassi G, Scaggiante B, Farra R, Dapas B, Agostini F, Baiz D, Rosso N and Tiribelli C

    Department of Clinical, Morphological and Technological Sciences, Division of Internal Medicine, University of Trieste, Via Giorgieri, 1, 34127 Trieste, Italy.

    Despite the involvement of the elongation factors eEF1A (eEF1A1 and eEF1A2) in the development of different cancers no information is available on their possible contribution to the biology of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We investigated the expression of both forms of eEF1A in HepG2 and JHH6 cell lines considered to be a good in vitro model of HCC at different stage of differentiation. Our data indicate that the mRNA amount of eEF1A1 is increased in both cell lines as compared to normal liver tissue, but eEF1A2 mRNA level is markedly increased only in JHH6. Moreover, the less differentiated cell line JHH6 displays higher EEF1A1 and EEF1A2 mRNAs levels and an higher nuclear-enriched/cytoplasm ratio of EEF1A protein compared to the better differentiated HepG2 cell line. Over-expression depends only partially on gene amplification. The more abundant mRNA levels and the higher nuclear-enriched/cytoplasm ratio of eEF1A in JHH6 neither correlate with apoptosis resistance nor with proliferation rate in sub-confluent cells. However, in confluent cells, a clear tendency to maintain JHH6 into the cell cycle was observed. In conclusion, we document the increased mRNA levels of EEF1A genes in HCC cell lines compared to normal liver. Additionally, we show the increased nuclear-enriched/cytoplasmic protein ratio of eEF1A and the marked raise of the expression of both eEF1A forms in JHH6 compared to HepG2, suggesting the possibility that eEF1A forms might become a relevant markers related to HCC tumor phenotype.

    Biochimie 2007;89;12;1544-52

  • Characterization of a putative ovarian oncogene, elongation factor 1alpha, isolated by panning a synthetic phage display single-chain variable fragment library with cultured human ovarian cancer cells.

    Sharma S, Tammela J, Wang X, Arnouk H, Driscoll D, Mhawech-Fauceglia P, Lele S, Kazim AL and Odunsi K

    Department of Gynecologic Oncology, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, New York 14263, USA.

    Purpose: In an effort to identify cell surface targets and single short-chain antibody (scFv) for ovarian cancer therapy, we used a phage display approach to isolate an antibody with high reactivity against ovarian cancer.

    A phage scFv library was subjected to panning against human SK-OV-3 ovarian cancer cells. A clone with high reactivity was selected and tested in immunoperoxidase staining on a panel of normal tissues and ovarian carcinoma. Using immunoprecipitation, a differentially expressed band was analyzed by mass spectrometry. The antigen subclass was characterized with reverse transcription-PCR on cDNA library of normal tissues, and 91 ovarian cancer specimens, and correlated with clinicohistopathologic characteristics.

    Results: Ninety-six individual scFv clones were screened in ELISA following panning. scFv F7 revealed high reactivity with ovarian cancer cell lines and showed intense staining of 15 fresh ovarian cancer specimens and no staining of a panel of normal tissues. A 40-kDa protein was identified to be translation elongation factor 1alpha1 (EEF1A1; P < 0.05). The expression of EEF1A2, a highly homologous and functionally similar oncogene, was found to be restricted only to the normal tissues of the heart, brain, and skeletal muscle. Aberrant EEF1A2 mRNA expression was found in 21 of 91 (23%) of ovarian cancer specimens and significantly correlated with increased likelihood of recurrence (P = 0.021).

    Conclusions: scFv F7 may represent an ovarian cancer-specific antibody against translation EEF1A family of translational factors. We propose that EEF1A2 may be a useful target for therapy of human ovarian cancer.

    Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research 2007;13;19;5889-96

  • Expression of eEF1A2 is associated with clear cell histology in ovarian carcinomas: overexpression of the gene is not dependent on modifications at the EEF1A2 locus.

    Tomlinson VA, Newbery HJ, Bergmann JH, Boyd J, Scott D, Wray NR, Sellar GC, Gabra H, Graham A, Williams AR and Abbott CM

    Medical Genetics, School of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Molecular Medicine Centre, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh EH4 2XU, UK.

    The tissue-specific translation elongation factor eEF1A2 is a potential oncogene that is overexpressed in human ovarian cancer. eEF1A2 is highly similar (98%) to the near-ubiquitously expressed eEF1A1 (formerly known as EF1-alpha) making analysis with commercial antibodies difficult. We wanted to establish the expression pattern of eEF1A2 in ovarian cancer of defined histological subtypes at both the RNA and protein level, and to establish the mechanism for the overexpression of eEF1A2 in tumours. We show that while overexpression of eEF1A2 is seen at both the RNA and protein level in up to 75% of clear cell carcinomas, it occurs at a lower frequency in other histological subtypes. The copy number at the EEF1A2 locus does not correlate with expression level of the gene, no functional mutations were found, and the gene is unmethylated in both normal and tumour DNA, showing that overexpression is not dependent on genetic or epigenetic modifications at the EEF1A2 locus. We suggest that the cause of overexpression of eEF1A2 may be the inappropriate expression of a trans-acting factor. The oncogenicity of eEF1A2 may be related either to its role in protein synthesis or to potential non-canonical functions.

    Funded by: Wellcome Trust

    British journal of cancer 2007;96;10;1613-20

  • eEF1A2 activates Akt and stimulates Akt-dependent actin remodeling, invasion and migration.

    Amiri A, Noei F, Jeganathan S, Kulkarni G, Pinke DE and Lee JM

    Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Immunology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

    eEF1A2 (eukaryotic protein elongation factor 1 alpha 2) is a protein translation factor that is likely a human oncogene by virtue of its capacity to transform mammalian cells and its high expression in tumors of the ovary, breast and lung. Here, we show that expression of eEF1A2 is sufficient to stimulate the formation of filopodia in BT549 human breast cancer cells and non-transformed Rat2 cells. Filopodia formation in eEF1A2-expressing cells is dependent on the activity of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K), and the ROCK and Akt kinases. Furthermore, eEF1A2 expression is sufficient to activate Akt in a PI3K-dependent fashion and inactivation of eEF1A2 by short interfering RNA reduces Akt activity. Using breast cancer cell line BT 549, we show that eEF1A2 expression stimulates cell migration and invasion in a largely PI3K- and Akt-dependent manner. These results suggest that eEF1A2 regulates oncogenesis through Akt and PI3K-dependent cytoskeletal remodeling.

    Oncogene 2007;26;21;3027-40

  • Binding of elongation factor eEF1A2 to phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase beta stimulates lipid kinase activity and phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate generation.

    Jeganathan S and Lee JM

    Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology, and Immunology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario K1H 8M5, Canada.

    Eukaryotic protein translation elongation factor 1 alpha 2 (eEF1A2) is an oncogene that transforms mammalian cell lines and increases their tumorigenicity in nude mice. Increased expression of eEF1A2 occurs during the development of breast, ovarian, and lung cancer. Here, we report that eEF1A2 directly binds to and activates phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase III beta (PI4KIIIbeta), an enzyme that converts phosphatidylinositol to phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate. Purified recombinant eEF1A2 increases PI4KIIIbeta lipid kinase activity in vitro, and expression of eEF1A2 in rat and human cells is sufficient to increase overall cellular phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase activity and intracellular phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate abundance. siRNA-mediated reduction in eEF1A2 expression concomitantly reduces phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase activity. This identifies a physical and functional relationship between eEF1A2 and PI4KIIIbeta.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2007;282;1;372-80

  • Large-scale mapping of human protein-protein interactions by mass spectrometry.

    Ewing RM, Chu P, Elisma F, Li H, Taylor P, Climie S, McBroom-Cerajewski L, Robinson MD, O'Connor L, Li M, Taylor R, Dharsee M, Ho Y, Heilbut A, Moore L, Zhang S, Ornatsky O, Bukhman YV, Ethier M, Sheng Y, Vasilescu J, Abu-Farha M, Lambert JP, Duewel HS, Stewart II, Kuehl B, Hogue K, Colwill K, Gladwish K, Muskat B, Kinach R, Adams SL, Moran MF, Morin GB, Topaloglou T and Figeys D

    Protana, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

    Mapping protein-protein interactions is an invaluable tool for understanding protein function. Here, we report the first large-scale study of protein-protein interactions in human cells using a mass spectrometry-based approach. The study maps protein interactions for 338 bait proteins that were selected based on known or suspected disease and functional associations. Large-scale immunoprecipitation of Flag-tagged versions of these proteins followed by LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis resulted in the identification of 24,540 potential protein interactions. False positives and redundant hits were filtered out using empirical criteria and a calculated interaction confidence score, producing a data set of 6463 interactions between 2235 distinct proteins. This data set was further cross-validated using previously published and predicted human protein interactions. In-depth mining of the data set shows that it represents a valuable source of novel protein-protein interactions with relevance to human diseases. In addition, via our preliminary analysis, we report many novel protein interactions and pathway associations.

    Molecular systems biology 2007;3;89

  • Identification of putative oncogenes in lung adenocarcinoma by a comprehensive functional genomic approach.

    Li R, Wang H, Bekele BN, Yin Z, Caraway NP, Katz RL, Stass SA and Jiang F

    Department of Pathology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA.

    Amplification and overexpression of putative oncogenes confer growth advantages for tumor development. We used a functional genomic approach that integrated simultaneous genomic and transcript microarray, proteomics, and tissue microarray analyses to directly identify putative oncogenes in lung adenocarcinoma. We first identified 183 genes with increases in both genomic copy number and transcript in six lung adenocarcinoma cell lines. Next, we used two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to identify 42 proteins that were overexpressed in the cancer cells relative to normal cells. Comparing the 183 genes with the 42 proteins, we identified four genes - PRDX1, EEF1A2, CALR, and KCIP-1 - in which elevated protein expression correlated with both increased DNA copy number and increased transcript levels (all r > 0.84, two-sided P < 0.05). These findings were validated by Southern, Northern, and Western blotting. Specific inhibition of EEF1A2 and KCIP-1 expression with siRNA in the four cell lines tested suppressed proliferation and induced apoptosis. Parallel fluorescence in situ hybridization and immunohistochemical analyses of EEF1A2 and KCIP-1 in tissue microarrays from patients with lung adenocarcinoma showed that gene amplification was associated with high protein expression for both genes and that protein overexpression was related to tumor grade, disease stage, Ki-67 expression, and a shorter survival of patients. The amplification of EEF1A2 and KCIP-1 and the presence of overexpressed protein in tumor samples strongly suggest that these genes could be oncogenes and hence potential targets for diagnosis and therapy in lung adenocarcinoma.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: CA113707-01, P50 CA70907

    Oncogene 2006;25;18;2628-35

  • Translation elongation factor eEF1A2 is a potential oncoprotein that is overexpressed in two-thirds of breast tumours.

    Tomlinson VA, Newbery HJ, Wray NR, Jackson J, Larionov A, Miller WR, Dixon JM and Abbott CM

    Molecular Medicine Centre, Western General Hospital, School of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH4 2XU, UK. V.A.L.Tomlinson@sms.ed.ac.uk

    Background: The tissue-specific translation elongation factor eEF1A2 was recently shown to be a potential oncogene that is overexpressed in ovarian cancer. Although there is no direct evidence for an involvement of eEF1A2 in breast cancer, the genomic region to which EEF1A2 maps, 20q13, is frequently amplified in breast tumours. We therefore sought to establish whether eEF1A2 expression might be upregulated in breast cancer.

    Methods: eEF1A2 is highly similar (98%) to the near-ubiquitously expressed eEF1A1 (formerly known as EF1-alpha) making analysis with commercial antibodies difficult. We have developed specific anti-eEF1A2 antibodies and used them in immunohistochemical analyses of tumour samples. We report the novel finding that although eEF1A2 is barely detectable in normal breast it is moderately to strongly expressed in two-thirds of breast tumours. This overexpression is strongly associated with estrogen receptor positivity.

    Conclusion: eEF1A2 should be considered as a putative oncogene in breast cancer that may be a useful diagnostic marker and therapeutic target for a high proportion of breast tumours. The oncogenicity of eEF1A2 may be related to its role in protein synthesis or to its potential non-canonical functions in cytoskeletal remodelling or apoptosis.

    Funded by: Wellcome Trust

    BMC cancer 2005;5;113

  • Plasmid vectors harboring cellular promoters can induce prolonged gene expression in hematopoietic and mesenchymal progenitor cells.

    Byun HM, Suh D, Jeong Y, Wee HS, Kim JM, Kim WK, Ko JJ, Kim JS, Lee YB and Oh YK

    Research Institute of Basic Medical Science, College of Medicine, Pochon CHA University, Pochon, Kyonggi-do 487-800, Republic of Korea.

    Although prolonged transgene expression in progenitor cells might be desirable for modified cell therapy, the viral promoter-based expression vector tends to promote transgene expression only for a limited period. Here, we examined the ability of cellular promoters from elongation factor-1alpha (EF-1alpha) and ubiquitin C to drive gene expression in hematopoietic TF-1 and mesenchymal progenitor cells. We compared the expression levels and duration of a model gene, interleukin-2, generated by the cellular promoters to those by the cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter. The EF-1alpha and ubiquitin C promoters drove prolonged gene expression in hematopoietic TF-1 and mesenchymal progenitor cells, whereas the CMV promoter did not. At day 7 after transfection in TF-1 cells, the mRNA expression levels of interleukin-2 driven by the EF-1alpha and ubiquitin C promoters were 118- and 56-fold higher, respectively, than those driven by the CMV promoter. Similarly, in mesenchymal progenitor cells, the expression levels of interleukin-2 driven by the EF-1alpha and ubiquitin C promoters were 98- and 20-fold higher, respectively, than that driven by the CMV promoter-encoding plasmid. Moreover, the ubiquitin C promoter directed higher levels of green fluorescence protein expression in mesenchymal progenitor cells than did the CMV promoter. These results indicate that the use of cellular promoters such as those for EF-1alpha and ubiquitin C might direct prolonged gene expression in hematopoietic and mesenchymal progenitor cells.

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 2005;332;2;518-23

  • Protein profiling of human pancreatic islets by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry.

    Ahmed M, Forsberg J and Bergsten P

    Department of Medical Cell Biology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden. meftun.khandker@drl.ox.ac.uk

    Completion of the human genome sequence has provided scientists with powerful resources with which to explore the molecular events associated with disease states such as diabetes. Understanding the relative levels of expression of gene products, especially of proteins, and their post-translational modifications will be critical. However, though the pancreatic islets play a key role in glucose homeostasis, global protein expression data in human are decidedly lacking. We here report the two-dimensional protein map and database of human pancreatic islets. A high level of reproducibility was obtained among the gels and a total of 744 protein spots were detected. We have successfully identified 130 spots corresponding to 66 different protein entries and generated a reference map of human islets. The functionally characterized proteins include enzymes, chaperones, cellular structural proteins, cellular defense proteins, signaling molecules, and transport proteins. A number of proteins identified in this study (e.g., annexin A2, elongation factor 1-alpha 2, histone H2B.a/g/k, heat shock protein 90 beta, heat shock 27 kDa protein, cyclophilin B, peroxiredoxin 4, cytokeratins 7, 18, and 19) have not been previously described in the database of mouse pancreatic islets. In addition, altered expression of several proteins, like GRP78, GRP94, PDI, calreticulin, annexin, cytokeratins, profilin, heat shock proteins, and ORP150 have been associated with the development of diabetes. The data presented in this study provides a first-draft reference map of the human islet proteome, that will pave the way for further proteome analysis of pancreatic islets in both healthy and diabetic individuals, generating insights into the pathophysiology of this condition.

    Journal of proteome research 2005;4;3;931-40

  • Nucleolar proteome dynamics.

    Andersen JS, Lam YW, Leung AK, Ong SE, Lyon CE, Lamond AI and Mann M

    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Campusvej 55, DK-5230 Odense M, Denmark.

    The nucleolus is a key organelle that coordinates the synthesis and assembly of ribosomal subunits and forms in the nucleus around the repeated ribosomal gene clusters. Because the production of ribosomes is a major metabolic activity, the function of the nucleolus is tightly linked to cell growth and proliferation, and recent data suggest that the nucleolus also plays an important role in cell-cycle regulation, senescence and stress responses. Here, using mass-spectrometry-based organellar proteomics and stable isotope labelling, we perform a quantitative analysis of the proteome of human nucleoli. In vivo fluorescent imaging techniques are directly compared to endogenous protein changes measured by proteomics. We characterize the flux of 489 endogenous nucleolar proteins in response to three different metabolic inhibitors that each affect nucleolar morphology. Proteins that are stably associated, such as RNA polymerase I subunits and small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle complexes, exit from or accumulate in the nucleolus with similar kinetics, whereas protein components of the large and small ribosomal subunits leave the nucleolus with markedly different kinetics. The data establish a quantitative proteomic approach for the temporal characterization of protein flux through cellular organelles and demonstrate that the nucleolar proteome changes significantly over time in response to changes in cellular growth conditions.

    Funded by: Wellcome Trust: 073980

    Nature 2005;433;7021;77-83

  • Immunoaffinity profiling of tyrosine phosphorylation in cancer cells.

    Rush J, Moritz A, Lee KA, Guo A, Goss VL, Spek EJ, Zhang H, Zha XM, Polakiewicz RD and Comb MJ

    Cell Signaling Technology Inc., 166B Cummings Center, Beverly, Massachusetts 01915, USA.

    Tyrosine kinases play a prominent role in human cancer, yet the oncogenic signaling pathways driving cell proliferation and survival have been difficult to identify, in part because of the complexity of the pathways and in part because of low cellular levels of tyrosine phosphorylation. In general, global phosphoproteomic approaches reveal small numbers of peptides containing phosphotyrosine. We have developed a strategy that emphasizes the phosphotyrosine component of the phosphoproteome and identifies large numbers of tyrosine phosphorylation sites. Peptides containing phosphotyrosine are isolated directly from protease-digested cellular protein extracts with a phosphotyrosine-specific antibody and are identified by tandem mass spectrometry. Applying this approach to several cell systems, including cancer cell lines, shows it can be used to identify activated protein kinases and their phosphorylated substrates without prior knowledge of the signaling networks that are activated, a first step in profiling normal and oncogenic signaling networks.

    Funded by: NCI NIH HHS: 1R43CA101106

    Nature biotechnology 2005;23;1;94-101

  • The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).

    Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Morrin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J and MGC Project Team

    The National Institutes of Health's Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC) project was designed to generate and sequence a publicly accessible cDNA resource containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) for every human and mouse gene. The project initially used a random strategy to select clones from a large number of cDNA libraries from diverse tissues. Candidate clones were chosen based on 5'-EST sequences, and then fully sequenced to high accuracy and analyzed by algorithms developed for this project. Currently, more than 11,000 human and 10,000 mouse genes are represented in MGC by at least one clone with a full ORF. The random selection approach is now reaching a saturation point, and a transition to protocols targeted at the missing transcripts is now required to complete the mouse and human collections. Comparison of the sequence of the MGC clones to reference genome sequences reveals that most cDNA clones are of very high sequence quality, although it is likely that some cDNAs may carry missense variants as a consequence of experimental artifact, such as PCR, cloning, or reverse transcriptase errors. Recently, a rat cDNA component was added to the project, and ongoing frog (Xenopus) and zebrafish (Danio) cDNA projects were expanded to take advantage of the high-throughput MGC pipeline.

    Funded by: PHS HHS: N01-C0-12400

    Genome research 2004;14;10B;2121-7

  • A physical and functional map of the human TNF-alpha/NF-kappa B signal transduction pathway.

    Bouwmeester T, Bauch A, Ruffner H, Angrand PO, Bergamini G, Croughton K, Cruciat C, Eberhard D, Gagneur J, Ghidelli S, Hopf C, Huhse B, Mangano R, Michon AM, Schirle M, Schlegl J, Schwab M, Stein MA, Bauer A, Casari G, Drewes G, Gavin AC, Jackson DB, Joberty G, Neubauer G, Rick J, Kuster B and Superti-Furga G

    Cellzome AG, Meyerhofstrasse 1, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany. tewis.bouwmeester@cellzome.com

    Signal transduction pathways are modular composites of functionally interdependent sets of proteins that act in a coordinated fashion to transform environmental information into a phenotypic response. The pro-inflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha triggers a signalling cascade, converging on the activation of the transcription factor NF-kappa B, which forms the basis for numerous physiological and pathological processes. Here we report the mapping of a protein interaction network around 32 known and candidate TNF-alpha/NF-kappa B pathway components by using an integrated approach comprising tandem affinity purification, liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, network analysis and directed functional perturbation studies using RNA interference. We identified 221 molecular associations and 80 previously unknown interactors, including 10 new functional modulators of the pathway. This systems approach provides significant insight into the logic of the TNF-alpha/NF-kappa B pathway and is generally applicable to other pathways relevant to human disease.

    Nature cell biology 2004;6;2;97-105

  • Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs.

    Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T, Otsuki T, Sugiyama T, Irie R, Wakamatsu A, Hayashi K, Sato H, Nagai K, Kimura K, Makita H, Sekine M, Obayashi M, Nishi T, Shibahara T, Tanaka T, Ishii S, Yamamoto J, Saito K, Kawai Y, Isono Y, Nakamura Y, Nagahari K, Murakami K, Yasuda T, Iwayanagi T, Wagatsuma M, Shiratori A, Sudo H, Hosoiri T, Kaku Y, Kodaira H, Kondo H, Sugawara M, Takahashi M, Kanda K, Yokoi T, Furuya T, Kikkawa E, Omura Y, Abe K, Kamihara K, Katsuta N, Sato K, Tanikawa M, Yamazaki M, Ninomiya K, Ishibashi T, Yamashita H, Murakawa K, Fujimori K, Tanai H, Kimata M, Watanabe M, Hiraoka S, Chiba Y, Ishida S, Ono Y, Takiguchi S, Watanabe S, Yosida M, Hotuta T, Kusano J, Kanehori K, Takahashi-Fujii A, Hara H, Tanase TO, Nomura Y, Togiya S, Komai F, Hara R, Takeuchi K, Arita M, Imose N, Musashino K, Yuuki H, Oshima A, Sasaki N, Aotsuka S, Yoshikawa Y, Matsunawa H, Ichihara T, Shiohata N, Sano S, Moriya S, Momiyama H, Satoh N, Takami S, Terashima Y, Suzuki O, Nakagawa S, Senoh A, Mizoguchi H, Goto Y, Shimizu F, Wakebe H, Hishigaki H, Watanabe T, Sugiyama A, Takemoto M, Kawakami B, Yamazaki M, Watanabe K, Kumagai A, Itakura S, Fukuzumi Y, Fujimori Y, Komiyama M, Tashiro H, Tanigami A, Fujiwara T, Ono T, Yamada K, Fujii Y, Ozaki K, Hirao M, Ohmori Y, Kawabata A, Hikiji T, Kobatake N, Inagaki H, Ikema Y, Okamoto S, Okitani R, Kawakami T, Noguchi S, Itoh T, Shigeta K, Senba T, Matsumura K, Nakajima Y, Mizuno T, Morinaga M, Sasaki M, Togashi T, Oyama M, Hata H, Watanabe M, Komatsu T, Mizushima-Sugano J, Satoh T, Shirai Y, Takahashi Y, Nakagawa K, Okumura K, Nagase T, Nomura N, Kikuchi H, Masuho Y, Yamashita R, Nakai K, Yada T, Nakamura Y, Ohara O, Isogai T and Sugano S

    Helix Research Institute, 1532-3 Yana, Kisarazu, Chiba 292-0812, Japan.

    As a base for human transcriptome and functional genomics, we created the "full-length long Japan" (FLJ) collection of sequenced human cDNAs. We determined the entire sequence of 21,243 selected clones and found that 14,490 cDNAs (10,897 clusters) were unique to the FLJ collection. About half of them (5,416) seemed to be protein-coding. Of those, 1,999 clusters had not been predicted by computational methods. The distribution of GC content of nonpredicted cDNAs had a peak at approximately 58% compared with a peak at approximately 42%for predicted cDNAs. Thus, there seems to be a slight bias against GC-rich transcripts in current gene prediction procedures. The rest of the cDNAs unique to the FLJ collection (5,481) contained no obvious open reading frames (ORFs) and thus are candidate noncoding RNAs. About one-fourth of them (1,378) showed a clear pattern of splicing. The distribution of GC content of noncoding cDNAs was narrow and had a peak at approximately 42%, relatively low compared with that of protein-coding cDNAs.

    Nature genetics 2004;36;1;40-5

  • The role of protein elongation factor eEF1A2 in ovarian cancer.

    Lee JM

    Hamilton Regional Cancer Centre, 699 Concession Street, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8V 5C2. jonathan.lee@hrcc.on.ca

    Frequent gains of chromosome 20q12-13 in ovarian tumors indicate that at least one important oncogene is found at that locus. One of the genes there is EEF1A2, which maps to 20q13.3 and encodes protein elongation factor eEF1A2. This review will focus on recent evidence indicating that EEF1A2 is an important ovarian oncogene and that the protein elongation network can activate tumorigenesis and inhibit apoptosis.

    Reproductive biology and endocrinology : RB&E 2003;1;69

  • Novel interaction between the M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor and elongation factor 1A2.

    McClatchy DB, Knudsen CR, Clark BF, Kahn RA, Hall RA and Levey AI

    Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases, Department of Neurology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA.

    The activation of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) family, consisting of five subtypes (M1-M5), produces a variety of physiological effects throughout the central nervous system. However, the role of each individual subtype remains poorly understood. To further elucidate signal transduction pathways for specific subtypes, we used the most divergent portion of the subtypes, the intracellular third (i3) loop, as bait to identify interacting proteins. Using a brain pull-down assay, we identify elongation factor 1A2 (eEF1A2) as a specific binding partner to the i3 loop of M4, and not to M1 or M2. In addition, we demonstrate a direct interaction between these proteins. In the rat striatum, the M4 mAChR colocalizes with eEF1A2 in the soma and neuropil. In PC12 cells, endogenous eEF1A2 co-immunoprecipitates with the endogenous M4 mAChR, but not with the endogenous M1 mAChR. In our in vitro model, M4 dramatically accelerates nucleotide exchange of eEF1A2, a GTP-binding protein. This indicates the M4 mAChR is a guanine exchange factor for eEF1A2. eEF1A2 is an essential GTP-binding protein for protein synthesis. Thus, our data suggest a novel role for M4 in the regulation of protein synthesis through its interaction with eEF1A2.

    Funded by: NINDS NIH HHS: NS30454, NS43094-01

    The Journal of biological chemistry 2002;277;32;29268-74

  • Protein elongation factor EEF1A2 is a putative oncogene in ovarian cancer.

    Anand N, Murthy S, Amann G, Wernick M, Porter LA, Cukier IH, Collins C, Gray JW, Diebold J, Demetrick DJ and Lee JM

    Hamilton Regional Cancer Centre, Room 450, 699 Concession Street, Hamilton, Ontario, L8V 5C2, Canada.

    We have found that EEF1A2, the gene encoding protein elongation factor EEF1A2 (also known as eEF-1 alpha 2), is amplified in 25% of primary ovarian tumors and is highly expressed in approximately 30% of ovarian tumors and established cell lines. We have also demonstrated that EEF1A2 has oncogenic properties: it enhances focus formation, allows anchorage-independent growth and decreases the doubling time of rodent fibroblasts. In addition, EEF1A2 expression made NIH3T3 fibroblasts tumorigenic and increased the growth rate of ES-2 ovarian carcinoma cells xenografted in nude mice. Thus, EEF1A2 and the process of protein elongation are likely to be critical in the development of ovarian cancer.

    Nature genetics 2002;31;3;301-5

  • The DNA sequence and comparative analysis of human chromosome 20.

    Deloukas P, Matthews LH, Ashurst J, Burton J, Gilbert JG, Jones M, Stavrides G, Almeida JP, Babbage AK, Bagguley CL, Bailey J, Barlow KF, Bates KN, Beard LM, Beare DM, Beasley OP, Bird CP, Blakey SE, Bridgeman AM, Brown AJ, Buck D, Burrill W, Butler AP, Carder C, Carter NP, Chapman JC, Clamp M, Clark G, Clark LN, Clark SY, Clee CM, Clegg S, Cobley VE, Collier RE, Connor R, Corby NR, Coulson A, Coville GJ, Deadman R, Dhami P, Dunn M, Ellington AG, Frankland JA, Fraser A, French L, Garner P, Grafham DV, Griffiths C, Griffiths MN, Gwilliam R, Hall RE, Hammond S, Harley JL, Heath PD, Ho S, Holden JL, Howden PJ, Huckle E, Hunt AR, Hunt SE, Jekosch K, Johnson CM, Johnson D, Kay MP, Kimberley AM, King A, Knights A, Laird GK, Lawlor S, Lehvaslaiho MH, Leversha M, Lloyd C, Lloyd DM, Lovell JD, Marsh VL, Martin SL, McConnachie LJ, McLay K, McMurray AA, Milne S, Mistry D, Moore MJ, Mullikin JC, Nickerson T, Oliver K, Parker A, Patel R, Pearce TA, Peck AI, Phillimore BJ, Prathalingam SR, Plumb RW, Ramsay H, Rice CM, Ross MT, Scott CE, Sehra HK, Shownkeen R, Sims S, Skuce CD, Smith ML, Soderlund C, Steward CA, Sulston JE, Swann M, Sycamore N, Taylor R, Tee L, Thomas DW, Thorpe A, Tracey A, Tromans AC, Vaudin M, Wall M, Wallis JM, Whitehead SL, Whittaker P, Willey DL, Williams L, Williams SA, Wilming L, Wray PW, Hubbard T, Durbin RM, Bentley DR, Beck S and Rogers J

    The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SA, UK. panos@sanger.ac.uk

    The finished sequence of human chromosome 20 comprises 59,187,298 base pairs (bp) and represents 99.4% of the euchromatic DNA. A single contig of 26 megabases (Mb) spans the entire short arm, and five contigs separated by gaps totalling 320 kb span the long arm of this metacentric chromosome. An additional 234,339 bp of sequence has been determined within the pericentromeric region of the long arm. We annotated 727 genes and 168 pseudogenes in the sequence. About 64% of these genes have a 5' and a 3' untranslated region and a complete open reading frame. Comparative analysis of the sequence of chromosome 20 to whole-genome shotgun-sequence data of two other vertebrates, the mouse Mus musculus and the puffer fish Tetraodon nigroviridis, provides an independent measure of the efficiency of gene annotation, and indicates that this analysis may account for more than 95% of all coding exons and almost all genes.

    Nature 2001;414;6866;865-71

  • The human elongation factor 1 A-2 gene (EEF1A2): complete sequence and characterization of gene structure and promoter activity.

    Bischoff C, Kahns S, Lund A, Jørgensen HF, Praestegaard M, Clark BF and Leffers H

    IMSB, University of Aarhus, Gustav Wieds vej 10 C, Arhus C, 8000, Denmark.

    The eukaryotic elongation factor 1 A (eEF1A, formerly EF1alpha) is a key factor in protein synthesis, where it promotes the transfer of aminoacylated tRNAs to the A site of the ribosome. Two differentially expressed isoforms of eEF1A, designated eEF1A-1 and eEF1A-2, are found in mammals. Here we report the isolation and sequencing of the gene (HGMW-approved symbol EEF1A2) coding for the human eEF1A-2 isoform. Furthermore, we characterize the gene structure and the activity of the promoter. Isolation of overlapping clones from human libraries revealed that the human eEF1A-2 gene spans approximately 10 kb and consists of eight exons. The intron-exon boundaries of human EEF1A2 and EEF1A1 are conserved, yet the gene of the eEF1A-2 isoform is larger than the eEF1A-1 gene because of enlarged introns. Primer extension analysis identified the predominant transcription start site 166 bp upstream of the AUG codon. The start site maps to an adenine located within a consensus initiator element. Sequencing of a 2-kb 5'-flanking promoter region revealed no TATA element. However, several putative cis-regulatory elements were discovered. The 5'-promoter activity was characterized by transient transfection experiments. Progressive deletions of the upstream promoter region defined a minimal promoter region, ranging from -16 to +92, that is sufficient to drive transcription.

    Genomics 2000;68;1;63-70

  • Assignment of human elongation factor 1alpha genes: EEF1A maps to chromosome 6q14 and EEF1A2 to 20q13.3.

    Lund A, Knudsen SM, Vissing H, Clark B and Tommerup N

    Department of Biostructural Chemistry, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.

    The human elongation factor 1alpha gene family consists of at least 2 actively transcribed genes, EEF1A and EEF1A2, and more than 18 homologous loci. EEF1A2 is expressed in a tissue-specific manner, whereas EEF1A is expressed ubiquitously, and both of them can function in translation. An EEF1A cDNA probe has previously been shown to cross-hybridize with several human chromosomes, but the location of the functional gene has not been established. We have mapped the functional EEF1A gene to 6q14 by combined fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and PCR analysis of a somatic cell hybrid panel and mapped EEF1A2 to 20q13.3 by FISH. In addition, the 11 strongest cross-hybridizing loci (EEF1AL2-EEF1AL13) were mapped by FISH to 12p12, 9q34, 7p15-p21, 19q13, 3q26-q27, 7q33-q35, 1p13-p22, 2q12-q14, 5p12-q11, 1q31-q32, and Xq21.

    Genomics 1996;36;2;359-61

  • Identification of a group of cellular cofactors that stimulate the binding of RNA polymerase II and TRP-185 to human immunodeficiency virus 1 TAR RNA.

    Wu-Baer F, Lane WS and Gaynor RB

    Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, 75235-8594, USA.

    A double-stranded RNA structure transcribed from the HIV-1 long terminal repeat known as TAR is critical for increasing gene expression in response to the transactivator protein Tat. Two cellular factors, RNA polymerase II and TRP-185, bind specifically to TAR RNA, but require the presence of cellular proteins known as cofactors which by themselves are unable to bind to TAR RNA. In an attempt to determine the mechanism by which these cofactors stimulate binding to TAR RNA, we purified these factors from HeLa nuclear extract and amino acid microsequence analysis performed. Three proteins were identified in the cofactor fraction including two previously described proteins, elongation factor 1alpha (EF-1alpha) and the polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (PTB), and a novel protein designated the stimulator of TAR RNA-binding proteins (SRB). SRB has a high degree of homology with a variety of cellular proteins known as chaperonins. Recombinant EF-1alpha, PTB, and SRB produced from vaccinia expression vectors stimulated the binding of RNA polymerase II and TRP-185 to TAR RNA in gel retardation analysis. These studies define a group of cellular factors that function in concert to stimulate the binding of TRP-185 and RNA polymerase II to HIV-1 TAR RNA.

    The Journal of biological chemistry 1996;271;8;4201-8

  • Cloning of human and mouse brain cDNAs coding for S1, the second member of the mammalian elongation factor-1 alpha gene family: analysis of a possible evolutionary pathway.

    Lee S, Ann DK and Wang E

    Bloomfield Centre for Research in Aging, Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research, Jewish General Hospital, Montréal, Québec, Canada.

    We previously reported the cloning of a rat S1 cDNA whose deduced amino acid sequence shares high similarity (92%) with that of mammalian elongation factor-1 alpha (EF-1 alpha), a protein involved in the binding of aminoacyl-tRNA to the ribosome during peptide synthesis. We report here the isolation of a full-length cDNA from a mouse brain library and a partial-length cDNA from a human hippocampus library which share extensive sequence similarity to rat S1 cDNA. We show that, as with mammalian EF-1 alpha S, the predicted primary amino acid sequences of rat, mouse, and human S1 are almost identical, except for one conservative substitution. These results indicate that mouse and man contain a second member of the EF-1 alpha gene family, the S1 gene. They also suggest that our result obtained in rat may be extrapolated to mouse and man.

    Funded by: NIDCR NIH HHS: K04-DE00292, K04-DE10742

    Biochemical and biophysical research communications 1994;203;3;1371-7

  • Tissue-dependent variation in the expression of elongation factor-1 alpha isoforms: isolation and characterisation of a cDNA encoding a novel variant of human elongation-factor 1 alpha.

    Knudsen SM, Frydenberg J, Clark BF and Leffers H

    Department of Biostructural Chemistry, Kemisk Institut, Aarhus, Denmark.

    A novel isoform of human elongation factor-1 alpha (EF-1 alpha 2) has been characterised. It shows a high similarity to other EF-1 alpha proteins, especially to a rat EF-1 alpha variant and it has all the characteristics of a functional EF-1 alpha protein. The pattern of expression of both EF-1 alpha 2 and EF-1 alpha was analysed in different human tissues. This showed that the two proteins were differentially expressed, EF-1 alpha 2 was expressed in brain, heart, skeletal muscle and in the transformed cell lines AMA and K14, but was undetectable in other tissues and in both primary and transformed human fibroblasts. EF-1 alpha was expressed in brain, placenta, lung, liver, kidney, pancreas and in all the cell lines that we have analysed but barely detectable in heart and skeletal muscle.

    European journal of biochemistry 1993;215;3;549-54

  • Immunoglobulin class specificity of non-agglutinating antibody produced in cattle following Brucella abortus 45/20 vaccination.

    Beh KJ

    The immunoglobulin class specificity of non-agglutinating antibody produced following vaccination with Br. abortus 45/20 vaccine was determined using the antiglobulin test. In previously unvaccinated cattle it was found that most of the non-agglutinating antibody was associated with the IgG1 immunoglobulin class. In cattle sensitised to Brucella antigens by prior vaccination with Brucella abortus strain 19 the majority of antibody was also associated with the IgG1 immunoglobulin class, but a significant amount of IgG2 antibody was also present. The results indicate that the significance of levels of IgG2 antibody would be difficult to determine in cattle repeatedly exposed to Brucella antigens.

    Australian veterinary journal 1975;51;10;481-3

Gene lists (5)

Gene List Source Species Name Description Gene count
L00000009 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSD Human orthologues of mouse PSD adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1080
L00000016 G2C Homo sapiens Human PSP Human orthologues of mouse PSP adapted from Collins et al (2006) 1121
L00000061 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-CONSENSUS Mouse cortex PSD consensus (ortho) 984
L00000069 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-HUMAN-PSD-FULL Human cortex biopsy PSD full list 1461
L00000071 G2C Homo sapiens BAYES-COLLINS-MOUSE-PSD-FULL Mouse cortex PSD full list (ortho) 1556
© G2C 2014. The Genes to Cognition Programme received funding from The Wellcome Trust and the EU FP7 Framework Programmes:
EUROSPIN (FP7-HEALTH-241498), SynSys (FP7-HEALTH-242167) and GENCODYS (FP7-HEALTH-241995).

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